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UNDERSTANDING THE NEMA MOTOR-GENERATOR STANDARDS OF

SECTION MG-1-1993, REVISION 3, THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS


CoDYrlaht Material IEEE
Austin H. Bonnett PapeYNo. PCIC-97-24
Fellow IEEE
U.S. Electrical Motors, Division of
Emerson Electric
St. Louis, Missouri
ABSTRACT
The National Electrical Manufacturers Association
(NEMA) Motor-Generator Standards (MG-1) have gone
through numerous revisions and additions. Key
information pertaining to motor performance,
construction and operating conditions are provided for
end users consideration when specifying electric
motors. There still is some confusion regarding how to
specify electric motors and how to interpret nameplate
data on existing motors. This paper will provide the user
with a condensed version of MG-1 to serve as a quick
reference guide. Space will not allow any detailed
analysis of the standard. Future papers could be
developed on individual sections.
INTRODUCTION
It is an impossible task to summarize all of the sections
of MG-1 in this paper; therefore the authors have chosen
the sections which contain information that is most often
referred to in the application of integral horsepower (Hp)
motors. Each section will also reference the applicable
section in MG-1. In addition to the referenced standards,
there are sections that contain suggested standards for
future designs and authorized engineering information.
In the development of these standards consideration
was given to other standards and recommended
practices developed by other societies and
organizations. This summary only considers three
phase integral Hp squirrel cage induction motors through
449 frame. When sections and parts are referred in this
paper they are identical to the MG-1 system of
numbering.
NAMEPLATE MARKINGS (NEMA 10.40)
The following information shall be given on the
nameplate:
a. Manufacturers type and frame designation
b. Hp output
c. Time rating
d. Maximum ambient temperature for which
motor is designed
e. Insulation system designation
f. RPM at rated load
g. Frequency
h. Number of phases
iI Rated-load amperes
j. Line voltage
k.
I.
m.
n.
0.
P-
NOTE:
George C. Soukup,
Member IEEE
US. Electrical Motors, Division of
Emerson Electric
St . Louis, Missouri
Locked-rotor amperes or code letter for
locked-rotor kVA per Hp for motors 112 Hp or
larger
Design letter
NEMA nominal efficiency
Service factor load if other than 1 .O
Service factor amps when service factor
exceeds 1.1 5
For motors rated above 1 Hp equipped with
over-temperature devices or systems, the
words OVER TEMP PROT- followed by a
type number
Section 10.39.5 and .6 provide additional
information for dual voltage and frequency motors.
NOTE: IEEE 841 - A.3 requires that a corrosion
resistance plate that conforms to ASTM B117-90 be
used. The fasteners are usually stainless steel.
MOTOR TERMINAL MARKINGS (NEMA 2.60)
The motor terminal markings are usually shown on the
motor nameplate or a separate connection plate.
Section 2.60 contains a variety of connections including
single speed, multiple speed, part-winding start, wye-
start, delta run, etc. Many of these connections can be
configured either wye or delta, single or dual voltage.
The phase rotation can be set on all of the options at the
factory, or can be set at the installation by reversing any
two phases once the direction of rotation is determined
by bump starting. Tables 1 & 2 show some of the most
frequently used connections for wye and delta.
TERMINAL MARKINGS AND CONNECTIONS FOR
6 LEADS
SINGLE VOLTAGE EXTERNAL
L1 L2 L3 Join
1 2 3 4 & 5 & 6
SINGLE VOLTAGE EXTERNAL
DE LTA-CO N N ECTl ON
NEMA SINGLE-SPEED, THREE-PHASE MOTORS -
Y-CONNECTED
I:
3 2 5\*
L1 L2 L3 6/ T
3 - / \4
1, 6 2, 4 3, 5
Table 1
5 2
ISBN: 0-7803-4217-8
- 225 -
97-CH36128-6/97/0000-0225 $10.00 8 1997 IEEE
TERMINAL MARKINGS AND CONNECTIONS FOR
9 LEADS
DUAL VOLTAGE
Y-CO N N ECTED
Vol t age L1 L2 L3 Joi n
Low 1,7 2, 8 3, 9 4 & 5 & 6
High 1 2 3 4 & 7 , s & 8,6 & 9
DUAL VOLTAGE
Vol t age L1 L2 L3 Joi n
NEMA SINGLE-SPEED, THREE-PHASE MOTORS -
DELTA- CON N ECTE D
Low I , 6 , 7 2,4, a
3,5,9 -
High 1 2 3 4 & 7 , 5 & a, 6 & 9
Table 2
The motor starter sizes are governed by the voltage, Hp
and enclosure. Tables 3 & 4 show the most common
starter sizes and types of enclosures.
NEMA Size Starters
Type
NEMA Type 1
(Indoor General Purpose)
NEMA Type 2
(Indoor DriDDrOOf)
NEMA
Size
-
00
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
9
a
Descri pt i on
To prevent accidental contact of
personnel with the enclosed
equipment and protection
against falling dirt.
To exclude falling moisture and
dirt.
Maximum HP Pol
NEMA Type 3
(Outdoor, Rainproof, Sleet
& Ice Resistant)
NEMA Type 4
(Indoor/Outdoor, Watertight/
Dusttight)
NEMA Type 7
Class I, GP, A,B,C, or D
(Indoor Hazardous)
NEMA Type 9
Class II. GP. E.F or G
Ful l Voltage
Starting
2OOV 230V 460V
575v
1-1/2 1-1/2 2
3 3 6
7-112 7-1/2 10
10 15 25
25 30 50
40 50 100
75 100 200
150 200 400
- 300 600
- 450 900
- 600 1500
To protect against windblown
dust and water.
To protect against splashing,
falling or hose directed water.
(Not for submersion).
For locations where combustible
gases or vapors are present.
For locations where combustible
dusts are Dresent.
Table 3
Auto Transf.
Starting
!OOV 230V 460V
575v
- - -
_ _ _
-1/2 7-1/2 10
10 15 25
20 30 50
40 50 100
75 100 200
150 200 400
- 300 600
- 450 900
- 800 1600
Ihase Motors
Part Winding
Starting
!OOV 230V 460V
575v
- - -
- - _
10 10 15
20 25 40
40 50 75
75 75 150
150 150 350
- 300
600
- 450 900
- 700 1400
- 1300 2600
Wye-Delta
Starting
200V 230V 460V
575v
- - -
- _ -
10 10 15
20 25 40
40 50 75
60 75 150
150 150 300
300 350 700
500 500 1000
750 800 1500
1500 1500 3000
(Indoor Hazardous)
NEMA Type 12 I Protection against flying dust,
(lndoorlndustrial Use. lint and light splashing or
(Indoor Operator Stations
and Pilot Devices)
12, this enclosure protects
against spraying water, oil or
NOTE: Table 4 is not a NEMA MG-1 standard but
may be helpful to the reader.
Table 4
FRAME DIMENSIONS (NEMA MG-1, PART 11)
General purpose horizontal motors built in accordance
with NEMA Standards of the same vintage will usually be
interchangeable from a mounting standpoint. The center
distance shaft to the base (D dimension) is determined
by dividing the first two digits of the frame number by
four. Table 5 provides the basic exterior motor
dimensions. NEMA Standards also provide mounting
dimensions for special purpose motors such as verticals
and close-coupled pumps. Figure 1 shows a F-1
mounting position. For other options see NEMA Figure
4-6.
Figure 1
- 226 -
Frame Dimensions
(NEMA MG-1, Part 11.31 and Part 4)
Syn.
RPM
HP Frame
143T
145T
182T
184T
213T
215T
254T
256T
284T
284TS
286T
286TS
324T
324TS
326T
326TS
364T
364TS
365T
365TS
404T
404TS
405T
405TS
~
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3600 1800 1200 900
ODP TEFC ODP TEFC DDP TEFC DDP TEFC
444T
444TS
445T
445TS
447T
447TS
449T
449TS
-
H
11/32
11/32
13/32
13/32
13/32
13/32
17/32
17/32
17/32
17/32
17/32
17/32
21/32
21/32
21/32
21/32
21/32
21/32
21/32
i 3/16
21/32
13/16
1311 6
13/16
1311 6
13/16
13/16
13/16
13/16
13/16
13/16
13/16
D 1 E 1 2 F
3-112 2-314 4
U BA
718 2-114
718 2-114
1-118 2-314
1-1 I8 2-314
1-318 3-112
1-318 3-112
1-518 4-114
1-518 4-114
1-718 4-314
1-518 4-314
1-718 4-314
1-518 4-314
2-118 5-114
1-718 5-114
2-118 5-114
1-718 5-114
2-318 5-718
1-718 5-718
2-318 5-718
2-718 6-518
1-718 5-718
2-118 6-518
2-718 6-518
2-118 6-518
3-318 7-1 12
2-318 7-112
3-318 7-112
2-318 7-112
3-318 7-112
2-318 7-112
3-318 7-112
2-318 7-112
1112
2
3
5
~ .~
143T 143T 145T 145T 182T 182T 184T 184T
145T 145T 145T 145T 184T 184T 213T 213T
145T 182T 182T 182T 213T 213T 215T 215T
182T 184T 184T 184T 215T 215T 254T 254T
3-112
4-112
4-112
5-114
5-114
6-114
6-114
7
7
7
7
8
8
8
8
2-112
3-118
3-1 I8
3-314
3-314
4-318
3
4-318
3
-
-
-
2-314 5
3-314 4-112
3-314 5-112
4-114 5-112
4-114 7
5 8-114
5 10
5-112 9-112
5-112 9-112
5-112 11
5-112 11
6-114 10-112
6-114 10-112
6-114 12
6-114 12
5
3-112
5
3-112
7112 184T 213T 213T 213T
10 213T 215T 215T 215T
15 215T 254T 254T 254T
254T 254T 256T 256T
256T 256T 284T 284T
284T 284T 286T 286T
Table 5
20
25
FRAME ASSIGNMENTS
The Hp and synchronous speeds for three phase
medium size AC motors are shown in Table 6 (NEMA
Table 10-4) with the assigned frame size for HP/speeds
larger than those shown, NEMA MG-13 provides frame
assignments.
(NEMA MG-1, PART 10 AND MG-13)
254T 256T 256T 256T 286T 286T 324T 324T
256T 284TS 284T 284T 324T 324T 326T 326T
9
9
10
10
10
10
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
I I
1 1 - - I 143T 143T I 145T 145T I 182T 182T
7 12-114
7 12-114
8 12-114
8 12-114
8 13-314
8 13-314
9 14-112
9 14-112
9 16-112
9 16-112
9 20
9 20
9 25
9 25
5-510
3-112
7
4
7
4
5-114
8-114
8-114
4-112
4-112
4-112
8-114
4-112
518 518 4-114
112 112 2
314 314 5-518
112 112 2-314
314 314 5-518
112 112 2-314
718 718 6-718
718 718 6-718
718 718 6-718
518 518 3
518 518 3
518 510 3
718 718 6-718
518 518 3
\ CURRENT
30 284TS 286TS 286T 286T
40 286TS 324TS 324T 324T
50 324TS 326TS 326T 326T
60 326TS 364TS 364TS 364TS
75 364TS 365TS 365TS 365TS
100 365TS 405TS 404TS 405TS
125 404TS 444TS 405TS 444TS
150 405TS 445TS 444TS 445TS
200 444TSS - 445TS -
Table 6
Motor Current
Typically motor currents of interest are the no-load
current, actual-load current, rated full-load current and
service factor current. The actual-load current may
range from no-load to service factor. If the service factor
is 1 .O then it will also equal the full-load current, which is
shown on the nameplate at rated Hp. The locked rotor
currents (sometimes referred to as inrush or starting
current) are shown in Table 10 and the full load values at
various rated voltages are shown in Table 7. No value is
normally given for the other conditions, but they can be
bench marked once installed.
Figure 2 shows the typical relationship between these
currents.
LOCKED ROTOR CURRENT
(RMS) WIO D.C. OFF SET
6- 8xI
E
a
SERVICE
P 1.2XI FACTOR CURRENT
\ FULLLOAD
\ CURRENT
s a I
% SPEED
Typi cal Val ues of Cur r ent f or a Gener al Pur pose Design 6 Mot or
NOTE: There are no NEMA standards for these load
points.
Figure 2
- 227 -
General Purpose Design B Motor Full Load Current
(National Electrical Code 1996 (NEC) Table 430 - 150)
Approx.
Amps/Hp
20 - 62.1 59.4 54 27 -
22
25 - 78.2 74.8 68 34 -
27
- 2.75 2.4 1.2 .96 .24 .I 4
IO-20%
Down
Slightly
ro up 5%
Up 10%
Upl o%
Up 21%
Jp Slightly
Table 7
Occasional Excess Current (NEMA 12.48)
Motors having outputs not exceeding 500 Hp (according
to this part) and rated voltages not exceeding 1 kV shall
be capable of withstanding a current equal to 1.5 times
the full load rated current for not less than two minutes
when the motor is initially at normal operating
temperature.
Repeated overloads resulting in prolonged operation at
winding temperatures above the maximum values given
by NEMA 12.43 will result in reduced insulation life or
possible damage.
3-10% Slightly
UP Down
510% Slightly
Down 10% Down 5%
Down Down
10-15% Slightly
Down 19% Down
Slightly
Down Down
Slightly Slightly
Voltage Ratings
(NEMA 10.30)
The standard voltage ratings at 60 hertz three phase are
230/460/575/2300/4000 and 4600. Other options are
shown in NEMA 10.30, 31.
Variations from Rated Voltage and Frequency
(NEMA 12.44)
Motors shall operate successfully under running
conditions at rated load with a variation in the voltage or
the frequency up to the following:
a. Plus or minus 10 percent of rated voltage, with
rated frequency.
b. Plus or minus 5 percent of rated frequency, with
rated voltage.
c. A combined variation in voltage and frequency of
10 percent (sum of absolute values) of the rated
values, provided the frequency variation does
not exceed plus or minus 5 percent of rated
frequency.
Performance within these voltage and frequency
variations will not necessarily be in accordance with the
standards established for operation at rated voltage and
frequency. . .
The Electrical Apparatus Service Association (EASA)
offers the following Table (8) to illustrate the effects of
these variations for a typical motor.
General Effect of Voltage and
Frequency Variations on Induction Motor
Characteristics
Characteristics
Starting Torque
Maximum Torque
Percent Slip
Efficiency ,
Full Load
314 Load
112 Load
Power Factor
Full Load
314Load
112 Load
Full-Load Current
Startina Current
Full-Load
Temoerature Rise
Maximum
Overload Capacity
Magnetic Noise
Vol t age Freqi
Down Down UD
f 2% 1 0-3% I sli,gtty
0- Down Little
5-1 5%
5-1 5% 2-7%
Down UD
Down UP
Slightly
Slightly
Slightly
Slightly
UD
"CY
95%
up 11%
ur, 11%
Down
5-1 0%
Down
Slightly
Down
Slightly
Down
Slightly
Down
Slightly
Down
Slightly
Down
Slightly
UP
Slightly
UD 5%
UP
Slightly
UP
Slightly
UP
Slightly
Table 8
Effect of Voltage Variation on Induction Motor
Characteristics (NEMA 14.35)
The effects of unbalanced voltages on polyphase
induction motors is equivalent to the introduction of a
"negative sequence voltage" having a rotation opposite
to that occurring with balanced voltages. This negative
sequence voltage produces in the air gap a flux rotating
against the rotation of the rotor, tending to produce high
- 228 -
currents. A small negative-sequence voltage may
produce in the windings currents considerably in excess
of those present under balanced voltage conditions. The
voltage unbalance in percent may be defined as follows:
With voltages of 460, 467, and 450, the average is 459,
the maximum deviation from average is 9, and the
percent unbalance =
100 -
9
459
x - - 1.96 percent
The locked-rotor torque and breakdown torque are
decreased when the voltage is unbalanced. If the
voltage unbalance is severe, the required accelerating
torques might not be adequate for the application. The
full-load speed is reduced slightly when the motor
operates at unbalanced voltages. The locked-rotor
current will be unbalanced to the same degree that the
voltages are unbalanced, but the locked-rotor kVA will
increase only slightly. The motor efficiency may also be
significantly reduced. The currents at normal operating
speed with unbalanced voltages will be greatly
unbalanced in the order of approximately 6 to 10 times
the voltage unbalance. The performance of the machine
will be effected as shown in Figure 3 and the change in
loss distribution will result in higher rotor temperatures.
The motor noise and vibrations may also be increased.
Medium Motor Derating Factor
Due to Unbalanced Voltage
NEMA 14.35 provides the recommended derating factor
shown in Figure 3 to apply to the motor load when the
unbalance exceeds 1 %.
a
2 0.85
i=
U
ee
Y
0.8
0.75
0.7
0 1 2 3 4 5
PERCENT VOLTAGE UNBALANCE
Figure 3 (NEMA Figure 14-1)
However, as stated in NEMA 12.45, for successful
operation, it is recommended that the unbalance does
not exceed 1 percent.
Motor Load
(NEMA 14.36.1)
NEMA offers the following guidelines for the application
of motors with a service factor. Motors having a service
factor in accordance with NEMA 12.47 are suitable for
continuous operation at rated load under the usual
service conditions given in NEMA 14.02. When the
voltage and frequency are maintained at the value
specified on the nameplate, the motor may be
overloaded up to the Hp obtained by multiplying the
rated Hp by the service factor shown on the nameplate.
When the motor is operated at any service factor greater
than 1, it will have a reduced life expectancy compared
to operating at its rated nameplate Hp. Lubrication life
and bearing life can also be reduced by the service
factor load.
50 Hertz Operation
(NEMA 14.30)
In general, 60-hertz induction motors are not designed to
operate at their 60-hertz ratings on 50-hertz power
supplies, however, they are capable of being operated
satisfactorily on 50-hertz power supplies if their voltage
and Hp ratings are appropriately reduced to maintain a
constant volts/hertz ratio. When such 60-hertz motors
are operated on 50-hertz circuits, the applied voltage at
50 hertz, and the Hp load should be reduced to 5/6 of the
60-hertz Hp rating of the motor to compensate for the
reduction and ventilation.
NEMA Code Letters
(NEMA 10.37)
Each NEMA Code letter is a function of motor locked
rotor current and is used to size switchgear and relay
protection. For three phase motors the kVNHP can be
calculated as follows:
Locked kVA per HP =
Locked rotor amps x line voltage
The code letters and locked rotor amps are shown in
Tables 9 and 10.
When the nameplate of an alternating current motor is
marked to show the locked-rotor kVA per Hp, it shall be
marked with the caption Code followed by a letter
selected from the table in NEMA 10.37.2.
1.73
1000 x HP
- 229 -
The letter designations for locked-rotor kVA per Hp are
measured at full voltage and rated frequency are as
follows:
Letter
Designation
D
E
kVA per
HP. *
4.0 - 4.49
4.5 - 4.99
F I 5.0 - 5.59
3600
rpm
-
1800 1200 900
rpm rpm rpm
- - -
314
1 -
1-112
2
M I 10.0 - 11.19
- 140 50 13.4
275 175 135 60 11.9
175 250 170 135 80 10.6
170 235 165 130 100 9.9
- -
G
H
J
CL x HP x 1000
LRnmp =
43 x v
5.6 - 6.29
6.3 - 7.09
7.1 - 7.99
CL =Code letter kVNHP from Table 9.
3
5
7-112
10
The highest kVA/Hp is to be used unless the actual
current is known.
Table 10 also provides a quick reference of torques,
currents and kVA/HP for Design B motors. There are no
limits specified for Design A motors, however; the torque
values are the same as Design B motors.
1
160 215 160 130 128 8.6
150 185 155 130 184 7.3
254 6.7 140 175 150 125
135 165 150 125 324 6.5
Service Conditions
(NEMA 14.02 and 14.03)
K
Usual Conditions:
This section defines the usual ambient range from -1 5C
to 40C with an altitude not to exceed 33,000 feet. The
motor is to be installed on a rigid mounting surface with
no significant ventilation restrictions. Motors will be
designed to these conditions unless specified as unusual
severe conditions.
8.0 - 8.99
Locked Rotor Torque, Current & kVA/HP for
Polyphase, Squirrel-Cage Motor Design B
L
Rated
H.P.
112
9.0 - 9.99
N
*Locked Rotor
Current (Amps)
60 Cyl.
-460V
11.2 - 12.49
40
P
*Locked
kVA/HP
60 Cycle
12.5 - 13.99
100
125
105 125 125 125 2900 5.8
100 110 125 120 3630 5.8
150 I 100 I 110
200 I 100 I 100
120 120 I 4340 5.8
120 120 I 5800 5.8
* Current
NOTE: The values in the previous tables are rms
symmetrical values, i.e. average of the three phases.
There will be an one-half cycle instantaneous peak
value which may range from 1.8 to 2.8 times the
above values as a function of the motor design and
switching angle. This is based upon an ambient
temperature of 25C. For other designations, see
NEMA Part 12.
Table 10
Unusual Conditions:
May include exposure to severe ambient or
environmental conditions, extreme mechanical loading
on the motor, unusual power supply conditions,
overspeed requirements, operations that subject the
motor to severe dynamic loading, etc.
- 230 -
MOTOR STARTING CONDITIONS
(NEMA12.44.2)
Medium motors shall start and accelerate to running
speed a load which has a torque characteristic and an
inertia value not exceeding that listed in NEMA 12.54
and in Table 11 with the voltage and frequency variations
specified in NEMA 12.44.1.
The limiting values of voltage and frequency under which
a motor will successfully start and accelerate to running
speed depend on the margin between the speed-torque
curve of the motor at rated voltage and frequency and
the speed-torque curve of the load under starting
conditions. Since the torque developed by the motor at
any speed is approximately proportional to the square of
the voltage and inversely proportional to the square of
the frequency, it is generally desirable to determine what
voltage and frequency variations will actually occur at
each installation, taking into account any voltage drop
resulting from the starting current drawn by the motor.
This information and the torque requirements of the
driven machine define the motor-speed-torque curve, at
rated voltage and frequency, which is adequate for the
application.
HP
1
2
1-112
Motor Inertia Limits (Loadwk2) Ib. - ft.2
NEMA Table (12 - 5)
3600 1800 1200 900 720 600 514
- 5.8 15 31 53 82 118
2.4 11 30 60 102 158 228
1.8 8.6 23 45 77 120 174
5
10
7-112
3 I 3.5 I 17 I 44 I 87 I 149 I 231 I 335
5.7 27 71 142 242 375 544
11 51 137 273 467 723 1048
8.3 39 104 208 356 551 798
~
25
30
40
I I
15 I 16 1 75 I 200
I 400 I 685 I 1061 I 1538
20 I 21 I 99 1 262 I 525 I 898 I 1393 I 2018
26 122 324 647, 1108 1719 2491
31 144 384 769 1316 2042 2959
40 189 503 1007 1725 2677 3881
Table 11
Stall Time
(NEMA 12.49)
Motors having outputs not exceeding 500 Hp and rated
voltage not exceeding 1kV shall be capable of
withstanding locked-rotor current for not less than 12
seconds when the motor is initially at normal operating
temperatures.
Motors specially designed for inertia loads greater than
those in NEMA Table 12-5 shall be marked on the
nameplate with the permissible stall time in seconds (see
NEMA 10.40).
Number of Starts
(NEMA 12.54)
Motors having Hp ratings given in NEMA Table 10-4 and
performance characteristics in accordance with this Part
12 shall be capable of accelerating without injurious
heating load Wk2 referred to the motor shaft equal to or
less than the values listed in NEMA Table 12-5 under the
following conditions.
a.
b.
C.
Applied voltage and frequency in accordance
with NEMA 12.44.
During the accelerating period, the connected
load torque is equal to or less than a torque
which varies as the square of the speed and is
equal to 100 percent of rated-load torque at
rated speed.
Two starts in succession (coasting to rest
between starts) with the motor initially at the
ambient temperature or one start with the motor
initially at a temperature not exceeding its rated
load operating temperature.
If the starting conditions are other than those stated in
NEMA 12.51.1, which relates to rated voltage and
frequency, the motor manufacturer should be consulted.
NEMA 12.54.3 When additional starts are required, it is
recommended that none be made until all conditions
affecting operation have been thoroughly investigated
and the apparatus examined for evidence of excessive
heating. The number of starts should be kept to a
minimum since the life of the motor is affected by this
severe stress.
-231 -
Motor Design Letter
(NEMA MG-1, Part 12)
The motor nameplate provides the user with a design
letter that characterizes the speed torque curve and
associated starting current.
Figures 4 and 5 show these curves for typical (NEMA
does not provide curves) Designs A, B, C, D & E motors.
For a complete listing of current and torque values, refer
to MG1-12. In Table 10, these values are given for
Designs A & B motors.
300
g 250
a
0
E 200
0
U
5 150
-1 -1
z 100
s
50
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
% SYNCHRONOUS SPEED
Figure 4
300
250
3
0
E
0
4
e 200
3 150
100
50
0
-1 -1
s
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
%SYNCHRONOUS SPEEO
Figure 5
Pull-up Torque
(NEMA 12.40)
The pull-irp torque of an alternating current motor is the
minimum torque developed by the motor during the
period of acceleration from rest to the speed at which
breakdown torque occurs. For motors which do not have
a definite breakdown torque, the pull-up torque is the
minimum torque developed up to rated speed. For
values of pull up and breakdown torque in % refer to
NEMA, Part 12. As a general rule, all of these torque
values are a function of the line voltage squared. Hence,
if there is a significant voltage dip during starting, then
accelerating torque is affected by at least the square of
the voltage.
Motor Winding Temperature Rise
(NEMA 12.43)
The allowable temperature rise is determined by the
class of insulation, the ambient temperature, the service
factor and the operating altitude.
The values in Table 12 are given at rated voltage and
frequency. When Class F or H insulation systems are
used, special consideration should be given to bearing
temperatures and lubricants. The cumulative effect of
the temperatures is shown in Figure 6.
Winding Temperature
INSULATION CLASS LIMIT
ALLOWABLE AVG. RISE
AF ALTITUDE FACTOR
SERVICE FACTOR
A AMBIENT
RISE =IC - ( A + SF +A F)
Figure 6
Breakdown Torque
(NEMA 12.39)
The breakdown torque of a motor is the maximum torque
which it will develop with rated voltage applied at rated
frequency, without an abrupt, drop in speed. It is the
point at which the motor will no longer carry the load.
- 232 -
Temperature Rise Vs. Insulation Class for Medium
Sized Motors (NEMA 12.43)
20
25
Class of Insulation System
Time Rating (shall be continuous
or any short-time rating given
in 10.36)
Temperature Rise (based on
a maximum ambient temperature
of 40(C) Degrees C
90.2 88.5 91.0 89.5 91.0 89.5
91.0 89.5 91.7 90.2 91.7 90.2
Windings, by resistance
method
1. Motors with 1 .O service
factor other than those
given in items a.3 and a.4
2. All motors with 1.15 or
higher service factor
3. Totally-enclosed
nonventilated motors with
1 .O service factor
4. Motors with encapsulated
windings and with 1 .O
service factor, all enclosures
The temperatures attained by
cores, squirrel-cage windings,
and miscellaneous parts shall
not injure the insulation or the
machine in any respect.
3
7.5
5
A
60
70
65
65
I
85.5 82.5 87.5 85.5 87.0 85.5
88.5 86.5 89.5 87.5 89.5 87.5
87.5 85.5 87.5 85.5 87.5 85.5
B F H
10
15
20
25
30
40
80 105 125
1
89.5 87.5 89.5 87.5 89.5 87.5
90.2 88.5 91.0 89.5 90.2 88.5
90.2 88.5 91.0 89.5 90.2 88.5
91.0 89.5 92.4 91.0 91.7 90.2
91.0 89.5 92.4 91.0 91.7 90.2
91.7 90.2 93.0 91.7 93.0 91.7
90 115 -
85 110 130
85 110 -
Table 12
Energy Efficient Motors
(NEMA 12.58)
NEMA has established both nominal and minimum levels
of efficiency for general purpose energy efficient motors
when operating at full load. These values shown in
Tables 13 & 14 are valid only at rated load, voltage,
frequency and altitude and will vary somewhat as these
values vary from their nominals. The Energy Policy Act
(EPAC) of 1992 states that these levels will become
mandatory after October 24, 1997 for general purpose
ODP & TEFC 2,4 & 6 pole, Designs A & B motors
through 200 Hp.
Full Load Motor Efficiencies (%)
Open Drip Proof Motors
I 2 Pol e I 4 Pol e 1 6 Pol e
Table 13 (NEMA 12-10)
Enclosed Motors
Table 14 (NEMA 12-10)
- 233 -
Mechanical Vibration
(NEMA, Part 7)
This standard applies to all NEMA motors (both
horizontal and vertical), but is typically limited to 3600
rpm operating speed. These limits were established for
motors when mounted on elastic pads (or suspended on
a spring). For a rigid mount refer to NEMA 7.06.2. The
bearing housing vibration is the peak value of the
unfiltered vibration velocity in inches per second.
Vi brat i on
Li mi t (i n/sec)
0.15
0.08
0.04
0.02
0.01
1v
I
Machi ne Type-General
Exampl es
Standard industrial motors
Motors for commercial/residential use
Machine tool motors
Mediumlarge motors with special requirements
Grinding wheel motors
Small motors with special requirements
Precision spindle and grinder motors
Precision motors with special requirements
Figure 7
Speed,
rpm
3600
1800
1200
900
720
600
Standard Machines
(NEMA 7.08.1)
Unfiltered vibration shall not exceed the velocity levels
as shown in the top curve of Figure 8.
Rot at i onal Vel oci t y, i n/s peak
60 0.15 (3.8)
30 0.15 (3.8)
20 0.15 (3.8)
15 0.12 (3.0)
12 0.09 (2.3)
10 0.08 (2.0)
Frequency, Hz (mml s)
Y
z n
e
z
t
0 W
-
*
0
3
2
K
>
m
1 10 100 1000 10000
FREQUENCY, HZ
Figure 8
The limits at rotational frequency are as shown in Table 15.
Special Machines
(NEMA 7.08.2)
For machines requiring vibration levels lower than those
given in Figure 8 at limit 0.15 (standard machines), the
vibration levels shall not exceed the limits shown by the
various curves of Figure 8. Machines to which these
lower levels apply (e.g., 0.08, 0.04, 0.02 or 0.01) shall be
by agreement between manufacturer and purchaser.
NOTE - It is not practical to achieve all vibration
limits in Figure 8 for all machine types in all sizes.
Limits of Relative Shaft Vibration
(NEMA 7.09)
The shaft vibration limits are measured by non-
contacting proximity probes. These probes are sensitive
to mechanical and magnetic anomalies of the shaf t or on
the surface of the shaft to which it responds. This is
commonly referred to as electrical and mechanical
probe-trace runout. The combined electrical and
mechanical runout of the shaft shall not exceed 0.0005
inch peak-to-peak 6.4 pm (peak-to-peak) or 25 percent
of the vibration displacement limit, whichever is greater.
Caution must be exercised to use probes capable of the
required sensi t ivi ty.
- 234 -
Standard Machines
(NEMA 7.09.1)
When specified, the limits for the relative shaft vibration
of rigidly mounted, standard machines with sleeve
bearings, inclusive of electrical and mechanical runout,
shall not exceed the limits in Table 15.
3600
4 800
Special Machines
(NEMA 7.09.2)
Special machines requiring lower relative shaft vibration
levels than shown in Table 15 shall not exceed the limits
in Table 16 which are inclusive of electrical and
mechanical runout.
Limits for the Unfiltered Maximum Relative Shaft
Displacement (Sp-p) for Standard Machines
0.0028 inches (70 Vm)
0.0035 inches (90 Vm)
Speed,
rPm
Speed,
r pm
Maxi mum Rel at i ve
Shaf t Di spl acement
(Peak-t o-Peak)
Maxi mum Rel at i ve
Shaf t Di spl acement
3600
Table 15 (NEMA Table 7-2)
0.0020 inches (50 pm)
51200 0.0030 inches (76 urn)
~
Table 16 (NEMA Table 7-3)
Routine Tests for Polyphase Medium Induction Motors
(NEMA 12.55)
The method of testing polyphase induction motors shall
be in accordance with IEEE Std. 112.
Typical tests which may be made on motors completely
assembled in the factory and furnished with shaft and
complete set of bearings are as follows.
Measurement of winding resistance.
No-load readings of current and speed at normal
voltage and frequency. On 50 hertz motors, these
readings may be taken at 60 hertz.
Current input at rated frequency with rotor at
stand-still for squirrel-cage motors. This may be
taken single-phase or polyphase at rated or
reduced voltage. (When this test is made single-
phase, the polyphase values of a duplicate
machine should be given in any report.) On 50
hertz motors, these readings may be taken at 60
hertz.
Efficiency
(NEMA 12.58)
Efficiency test values to demonstrate compliance with
the EPAC standards should be done in accordance with
IEEE 112, Method B. Tables 13 and 14 provide the
nominal and minimum acceptable requirements by
EPAC 92.
High Potential Test
The high potential tests consist of the application of a
voltage higher than the rated voltage for a specified time
for the purpose of determining the adequacy against
breakdown of insulating materials and spacings under
normal conditions. IEEE 112 outlines this procedure.
The motor being tested shall be completely assembled
(see NEMA 3.01.10). The test voltage shall be applied
when, and only when, the machine is in good condition
and the insulation resistance is not impaired due to dirt
or moisture. (See IEEE Std 43)
The specified high-potential test voltage shall be applied
continuously for 1 minute. Machines for which the
specified test voltage is 2500 volts or less shall be
permitted to be tested for 1 second at a voltage which is
1.2 times the specified 1 minute test voltage as an
alternative to the 1 minute test, if desired.
To avoid excessive stressing of the insulation, repeated
application of the high-potential test voltage is not
recommended. Additional factory tests should have the
voltage reduced to 85% or less of the factory original
test, and the on site test should be limited to 75%.
The testing of accessories and components is outlined in
NEMA 3.01.8.
CAUTION: After the test is completed, care must be
taken to discharge the winding to avoid electrical
shock.
v, = (2 x v,, + 1000) x -75
Machine with Sealed Windings - Conformance Tests
(NEMA 20.49)
An alternating-current squirrel-cage machine with sealed
windings shall be capable of passing the following tests.
Test for Stator Which Can Be Submerged
After the stator winding is completed, join all leads
together leaving enough length to avoid creepage to
terminals and perform the following tests in the
sequence indicated.
a. The sealed stator shall be tested while all
insulated parts are submerged in a tank of water
containing a wetting agent. The wetting agent
shall be non-ionic and shall be added in a
proportion sufficient to reduce the surface tension
of water to a value of 31 dyn/cm (3.1 pN/m) or
less at 25C.
- 235 -
Using 500 volts direct current, take a 10-minute
insulation resistance measurement. The
insulation resistance value shall not be less than
the minimum recommended in IEEE Std 43.
(Insulation resistance in megohms 2 machine
rated kilovolts plus 1 .)
Subject the winding to a 60-hertz high potential
test of 1 .I5 times the rated line-to-line rms voltage
for 1 minute. Water must be at ground potential
during this test.
Using 500 volts direct current, take a 1 minute
insulation resistance measurement. The
insulation, resistance value shall be not less than
the minimum recommended in IEEE Std 43.
(Insulation resistance in megohms 2 machine
rated kilovolts plus 1).
, Remove winding from water, rinse if necessary,
dry, and apply other tests as may be required.
Sound Measurement (NEMA 12.53.3)
HP
200 and
smaller
250-500,
incl.
Machine sound should be measured in accordance with
IEEE Std 85.
Sound tests should be taken with the induction machine
operating as a motor at no load so that the sound can be
isolated from other sound sources. The no-load sound
power levels generally do not exceed the values shown
in NEMA 12.53.3.
It should be recognized that decibel readings are not
exact and are subject to many external influences. For
further information see NEMA Standards Publication No.
MG 3.
Overspeed, Percent
Synchronous of Synchronous
Speed, Rpm Speed
1801 and over 25
1201 to 1800 25
1200 and below 50
1801 and over 20
1800 and below 25
Constant Speed Motors Used on Sinusoidal Bus
with Harmonic Content (NEMA, Part 30)
With an ever increasing amount of harmonic content
seen on the motor sinusoidal bus, because of the
common use of variable voltage and variable frequency
controls, it has become necessary to establish a
standard which addresses these conditions. NEMA
Parts 30 & 31 establishes a derating factor and defines
the voltage wave form for two withstand levels.
Proposed Derating for Harmonic Content of Standard
Motors Operating on Sinewave Power with Harmonic
Content (NEMA 30.01.2)
Harmonic currents are introduced when the line voltages
applied to a polyphase induction motor include voltage
components at frequencies other than nominal
(fundamental) frequency of the supply. Consequently,
the temperature rise of the motor operating at a
particular load and per unit voltage harmonic factor will
be greater than that for the motor operating under the
same conditions with only voltage at the fundamental
frequency applied.
- 236
When a motor is operated at its rated conditions and the
voltage applied to the motor consists of components at
frequencies other than the nominal frequency, the rated
Hp of the motor should be multiplied by the factor shown
in Figure 9 to reduce the possibility of damage to the
motor. This curve is developed under the assumption
that only harmonics equal to odd multiples (except those
divisible by three) of the fundamental frequency are
present. It is assumed that any voltage unbalance or
any even harmonics, or both, present in the voltage are
negligible. This derating curve is not intended to apply
when the motor is operated at other than its rated
frequency nor when operated from a variable voltage or
a variable frequency power supply, or both.
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.1:
HARMONIC VOLTAGE FACTOR (HVF)
Figure 9 (NEMA 30-1)
Overspeed for Squirrel Cage Induction Motors
(NEMA 12.52.1 & 31.40.3.5)
For motors that have application to NEMA Part 30, Table
17 provides the overspeed limitation not to exceed two
minutes. For higher speeds consult the manufacturer.
Table 17
-
INVERTER FED MOTORS
Voltage Stress for Standard Motors
(NEMA 30.02.2.9)
When operated under usual service conditions, the
following limit values at the motor terminals should be
observed.
- Motors with base rating voltage 5 600 volts:
Rise time 2 2 pec
- Motors with base rating >600 volts:
Rise time 2 .1 pec
Vpeak 5 1 kV
Vpeak S 2.5 PU
Where Vpeak is single amplitude and one pu is peak of
the line-to-ground rated base voltage
(lpu = 42 V,,/43).
See Figure 10 for a typical voltage response at the motor
terminals for an illustration of Vpeak and rise time.
Typical Voltage Response at Motor Terminals
;i 100% -
d 90% -
3 >
Vpeak
f i
STEADY-STATE
- -
I
I dV AV
I dt - A I
I
10%
1 AI k
RISE TIME TIME
Figure 10 (NEMA 30-5)
Maximum Voltage Stress for Definite Purpose
Inverter-Fed Motors (Part 31)
Inverters used to supply adjustable frequency power to
induction motors do not produce sinusoidal output
voltage waveforms. In addition to lower order
harmonics, these waveforms also have superimposed
on them steep-fronted, single-amplitude voltage spikes.
Turn-to-turn, phase-to-phase, and ground insulation of
stator windings are subjected to the resulting dielectric
stresses. Suitable precautions should be taken in the
design of drive systems to minimize the magnitude of
these spikes.
When operated under usual service conditions stator
winding insulation systems for definite purpose inverter
fed motors shall be designed to operate within the
following limits at the motor terminals.
Motors with base rating voltages I600 volts:
Vpeak I 1600 Volts
Rise time 2 0.1 ps
Motors with base rating voltage >600 volts:
Vpeak 5 2.5 pu
Rise time 2 1 1s
Where Vpeak is single amplitude and 1 pu is the peak of
the line-to-ground voltage at the maximum operating
speed point.
CONCLUSIONS
The NEMA Standards associated with integral AC
induction motors are several hundred pages in all. This
paper is an attempt to summarize only those sections
most often referred to when specifying and applying
motors to general purpose applications. Appendix I
provides the reader with a summary of categories and
references the appropriate NEMA sections to the paper.
There still may be times when it will be necessary to refer
to the original NEMA MG-1 document. This standard
can be purchased from the following address: NEMA,
1300 North 17th Street, Suite 1847, Rosslyn, VA 22209.
The authors wish to thank NEMA for their assistance in
preparing this paper and their unceasing effort to assure
that this standard is a living document. By the end of
1997, NEMA plans to issue a more comprehensive form
of a condensed version of MG-1.
- 237 -
APPENDIX I
Paper Out l i ne
Page Number I Descr i pt i on I NEMA Sect i on
4
4
Nameplate Markings NEMA MG-1 10.40
Terminal Markings NEMA MG-I 2.60
NEMA Size Starters
NEMA Electrical Enclosure
..
Full Load Current NEC Table 430-1 50
12.44, 14.35
Voltage NEMA MG-I
3 I Frame Dimensions I NEMA MG-I 11
3 I Frame Assianments I NEMA MG-1 10
5
6
7
8
9
Impact of Voltage/
Freq. Variation
Code Letter NEMA MG-1 10.37
Starting NEMA MG-I
12.44, 54
NEMA MG-1 12 Design Letter and Torque
Windi na TemDerat u re NEMA MG-1 12.43
Dr i ve Mul t i pl i er
Flat Belt
APPENDIX I1
Bearings
NOTE: That in NEMA MG-1 bearing sizes or types
have not been standardized because each
manufacturer has developed their own unique
bearing support system which may vary. However,
NEMA 14.07.2 offers the following information.
14.07.2: Minimum Pitch Diameter for Drives Other than
V- Belt.
To obtain the minimum pitch diameters for flat-belt,
timing-belt, chain, and gear drives, the multiplier given in
the following table should be applied to the narrow V-belt
sheave pitch diameters in 14.41.
1.33
Chain Sprocket
Spur Gear
Helical Gear
Timing Belt** I 0.9
0.7
0.75
0.85
9
10
11
*The above multiplier is intended for use with conventional single-ply flat
belts. When other than single-ply fiat belts are used, the use of a larger
multiplier is recommended.
*It is often necessary to install timing belts with a snug fit. However,
tension should be no more than that necessary to avoid belt slap or tooth
jumping.
Motor Efficiency NEMA 12-10
Vi bration NEMA MG-I 7
Testing NEMA MG-I
12.55. 20.49
REFERENCES
13
14
[I ] NEMA Standards Publicaiion No. MGI-1993 Motors
and Generators, Revision No. 3 1996
[2] NEMA Standards Publication No. 250-1 985,
Enclosures for Electrical Equipment (1 000 Volts
Maxi mum)
[3] NEMA Standards Publication No. MG2, Safetv
Standards for Construction and Guide for Selection,
Installation, and Use of Electric Motors and Generators
[4] NEMA Standards Publication No. MG10, Energv
Manaaement Guide for Selection and Use of Fixed
Freauencv AC Sauirrel-Caae PolvDhase Induction
Motors
[5] NEMA Standards Publication No. 13-1984, Frame
Assianments for Alternating Current Integral Hp
Induction Motors
[6] NEMA Standards Publication No. 3, Sound Level
Prediction for Installed Rotatina Electrical Machines
Harmonics NEMA MG-1 30
Inverter Applications NEMA MG-1 30, 31
The following referenced Standards were adapted, in
whole or part by NEMA and are applicable to MGI.
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
(IEEE)
445 Hoes Lane
Piscataway, NJ 08855-1331
IEEE Std 85-1 973 Test Procedure for Airborne
Rotating Electric Machinery
Standard Test Procedure for
Evaluation of Systems of
Insulating Materials for
Random- Wound AC Electric
Machinery
(RI 980) E Sound Measurements on
IEEE Std 112-1991
- 238 -