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LAB 1: Transmission and Distribution Systems

NURUL SHAFINA BT RAZALI


EA11053(SECTION: 03)
DATE: 22 APRIL (SEM 2 2013/14)
Nurul_fynna92@yahoo.com









ABSTRACT Electric-power transmission is the
bulk transfer of electrical energy, from
generating power plants to electrical substations
located near demand centers. This is distinct from
the local wiring between high-voltage substations
and customers, which is typically referred to as
electric power distribution. Transmission lines,
when interconnected with each other, become
transmission networks. The combined
transmission and distribution network is known
as the "power grid" in the United States, or just
"the grid". In the United Kingdom, the network is
known as the "National Grid"

INTRODUCTION

Distribution is a part of the electrical utility system
between the bulk power source and the consumers
service switches and normally operated below 100
kV.

Sub transmission system deliver energy from bulk
power sources to the distribution substations. The
voltage is about between 34.5 and 138 kV. The
distribution substation reduces the sub
transmission voltage to a lower primary system
voltage for local distribution (using power
transformer)

There are three basic types of distribution system
designs that is Radial, Loop, or Network.
We can use combinations of these three systems,
and this is frequently done.

Electric utilities aim to provide service to
customers at a specific voltage level, for example,
220V or 240V. However, due to Kirchhoff's Laws,
the voltage magnitude and thus the service voltage
to customers will in fact vary along the length of a
conductor such as a distribution feeder.

Jn order to maintain voltage within tolerance under
changing load conditions, various types of devices
are traditionally employed

a load tap changer (LTC) at the substation
transformer, which changes the turns ratio in
response to load current and thereby adjusts the
voltage supplied at the sending end of the feeder;

voltage regulators, which are essentially
transformers with tap changers to adjust the
voltage along the feeder, so as to compensate for
the voltage drop over distance; and

capacitors, which reduce the voltage drop along
the feeder by reducing current flow to loads
consuming reactive power.

Radial Distribution Systems

The Radial distribution system is the cheapest to
build, and is widely used in sparsely populated
areas. A radial system has only one power source
for a group of customers. A power failure, short-
circuit, or a downed power line would interrupt
power in the entire line which must be fixed before
power can be restored.

Electricity suppliers normally use radial
distribution in rural areas where the load is
randomly distributed, separated by areas with little
or no habitation, and back up supplies are normally
not available. The length of feeder is typically
limited to 500 m or less. In the radial distribution
system, feeders supplying the consumers are all fed
from a central point (the substation) as shown in
Figure 1. There is no looping of the feeders.
FIGURE 1
Ring Distribution Systems
A loop system, as the name implies, loops
through the service area and returns to the original
point. The loop is usually tied into an alternate
power source. By placing switches in strategic
locations, the utility can supply power to the
customer from either direction.
If one source of power fails, switches are thrown
(automatically or manually), and power can be fed
to customers from the other source.
The loop system provides better continuity of
service than the radial system, with only short
interruptions for switching. In the event of power
failures due to faults on the line, the utility has
only to find the fault and switch around it to restore
service. The fault itself can then be repaired with a
minimum of customer interruptions.
The loop system is more expensive than the radial
because more switches and conductors are
required, but the resultant improved system
reliability is often worth the price.
This is commonly used in urban areas with high
housing density. In such a system, LV cables from
neighbouring distribution substations are either
looped together or are terminated very close to one
another where an interconnection of cables can be
made. This system is normally used when a high
degree of reliability of load supply is required and
back up substations is made available. Figure 2
shows a schematic diagram for a ring distribution
network.


FIGURE 2
Voltage Regulation
Voltage regulation is a measure of change in the
voltage magnitude between the sending and
receiving end of a component, such as a
transmission or distribution line. Voltage
regulation describes the ability of a system to
provide near constant voltage over a wide range of
load conditions.
A voltage phasor diagram can be drawn for the
equivalent circuit as shown in Figure 3, by
considering the current, I, to be equal to the sum of
two currents, Ip and Iq, that are at right angles to
each other. Ip is in phase with Vr and Iq lags Vr by
900.


Figure 3: Generator Feeding a Large Power
System
The resulting phasor diagram for a lagging p.f.
load is shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4: Resulting Phasor Diagram for a lagging
p.f load

From this diagram,
2 2 2
q p r s
V V V V
(1.1)
If is small,

r s
V V =
q p p
XI RI V (1.2)
And, therefore,
r
q p
p
V
QI PI
V

(1.3)
If the load is capacitive or leading p.f. load, the
plus sign becomes a minus sign. Similarly, it is
seen that:

r
q p q
V
QR PX
RI XI V



(1.4)
Thus, if X/R > 1, the flow of reactive power, Q,
determines the voltage drop and the flow of power,
P, determines the transmission angle and these
statements are substantially independent of each
other.

The objectives for this Lab 1 are to investigate
the effect of loading and feeder length on the
voltage regulation in a radial distribution network
feeding a resistive load, to investigate the effect
that the inductive and capacitive loads have upon
the voltage regulation of a radial feeder and to
investigate the voltage regulation for a simple ring
distribution network when it supplies resistive,
inductive and capacitive loads. Also, to make a
comparison between the results obtained with the
corresponding results for the radial network.


I. PROCEDURE

Experiment 1: Single-Phase Radial Network
Feeding a Resistive Load

Procedure A: One Section of the Feeder

1) One phase of the supply line and the neutral
line is connected to one phase of resistive load
as shown in Appendix A. Ensure that the
secondary of the CT is short-circuited.
2) CB1 and CB2 have been closed to connect the
circuit.
3) The Neutral Switch has been closed to
connect the circuit to the ground
4) The supply is switched on and the load is set to
25%. This should give the load current roughly
1.25A. The readings for load (receive) voltage
V
r
, supply voltage V
s
and load current, I have
been taken.
5) Step (3) is repeated for 50%, 75% and 100%
and recorded it in Table 1.




Procedure B: Two Section of the Feeder
1) Procedure A is repeated, but with two sections
of the line 1 connected in series and the two
sections of the Neutral line are connected in
series as shown in Appendix B. The results
are recorded in Table 2.

Experiment 2: Single-Phase Radial Network
Feeding I nductive and Capacitive Loads
Procedure A: Inductive Load
1) On the three-phase circuit of the trainer, two
sections of the red phase and the neutral lines
are connected to one phase of the inductive
load as shown in Appendix C. Ensure that the
secondary of the CT is short-circuited.
2) CB1 and CB2 are closed to connect the
circuit.
3) The Neutral Switch has been closed to connect
the circuit to the ground
4) The supply is switched on and the load is set
to 25%. The readings for load (receive)
voltage V
r
, supply voltage V
s
and load current,
I have been taken.
5) Step (3) is repeated, for 50%, 75% and 100%
and recorded it in Table 3.
Procedure B: Capacitive Load

1) A blank table is created as in Table 3 and
replaced the inductive load by a capacitive
load, repeat Procedure A.

Experiment 3: Ring Distribution Network
Supplying Resistive, Inductive and Capacitive
Loads
Procedure A: Resistive Load

1) A resistive load is connected to the midpoint
(TP4) of the red phase sections that are fed
from the two points (TP2) and (TP3) as shown
in Appendix D.
2) Temporarily disconnected the load, the supply
is switched on and no load receive voltage
(V
nL
) reading has been taken. CB1 and CB2 are
closed to connect the circuit.
3) The load is reconnected and the load is set to
25%. The readings for load (receive) voltage
V
r
, supply voltage V
s
and load current, I have
been taken.
4) Step (3) is repeated, for 50%, 75% and 100%
and recorded it in Table 4. The central meter is
used to measure V
r
.



Procedure B: Inductive Load

1) A blank table is created as in Table 4.
2) The resistive load is replaced with an inductive
load and Procedure A is repeated.



Procedure C: Capacitive Load

1) A blank table is created as in Table 4.
2) The inductive load is replaced with a capacitive
load and steps (3) and (4) in Procedure A are
repeated.

II. RESULTS

Experiment 1: Single-Phase Radial Network
Feeding a Resistive Load
Table 1: One Section of the Feeder.

Load

I
25% 132.10 V 131.26 V 1441.5 mA
50% 131.76 V 130.03 V 2.81 A
75% 131.05 V 128.23 V 4.29 A
100% 130.52 V 127.09 V 5.58 A


Table 2: Two Sections of the Feeder in
Series.

Load

I
25% 132.17 V 130.89 V 1429.0 mA
50% 131.43 V 128.67 V 2.754 A
75% 130.85 V 125.90 V 4.213 A
100% 130.30 V 123.79 V 5.423 A

R
Generator
1 2
X
2 1
Resistive
Load
Experiment 2: Single-Phase Radial Network
Feeding I nductive and Capacitive Loads
Table 3A: Inductive Load.

Load

I
25% 132.44 V 127.11 V 1202.5 mA
50% 132.35 V 120.96 V 2.396 A
75% 132.17 V 114.93 V 3.581 A
100% 130.01 V 111.00 V 4.418 A


Table 3B: Capacitive Load.

Load

I
25% 133.88 V 140.48 V 1525.5 mA
50% 133.30 V 149.28 V 3.285 A
75% 133.47 V 145.69 V 5.232 A
100% 133.67 V 150.64 V 7.385 A

Experiment 3: Ring Distribution Network
Supplying Resistive, Inductive and Capacitive
Loads

Table 4A: Ring Network with Resistive Load.

= 132.05 V
Load

I
%
Regulation
25%
132.36
V
130.68
V
143.5
mA
0.26
50%
131.93
V
130.48
V
2783.8
mA
0.41
75%
131.13
V
128.65
V
4270.0
mA
1.84
100%
130.65
V
127.31
V
5.557A 2.91



Table 4B: Ring Network with Inductive Load.

= 132.41 V
Load

I
%
Regulation
25%
132.77
V
129.96
V
1234.6
mA
1.89
50%
132.51
V
126.38
V
2519.4
mA
4.77
75%
132.28
V
123.09
V
3839.8
mA
7.57
100%
132.09
V
120.67
V
4.828
A
9.73


Table 4C: Ring Network with Capacitive Load.

=133.10 V
Load

I
%
Regulation
25%
133.21
V
136.92
V
1492.8
mA
2.79
50%
133.34
V
141.10
V
3080.4
mA
5.67
75%
133.71
V
145.43
V
4.781
A
8.48
100%
133.89
V
149.55
V
6.594
A
10.99

III. DISCUSSIONS
Experiment 1: Single-Phase Radial Network
Feeding a Resistive Load
Procedure A: One Section of the Feeder
Circuit diagram obtained from the connection in
Appendix A;











The percentage regulation using the Equation 1.5
for each load setting;

% Regulation = 100

r
r s
V
V V
(1.5)
For load: 25%




For load: 50%




For load: 75%




For load: 100%



The percentage regulation against load current;


Graph 1.1


As we can see from the Graph 1.1, the
percentage regulation is increases due to the load
current increases. Regarding to Ohms Law, V=IR
it states that current flowing is directly
proportional to the voltage and inversely
proportional to the resistance. Therefore, if the
voltage is increased, the current will increase if the
resistance of the circuit does not change. Same
goes to the increasing resistance of the circuit will
lower the current flow if the voltage is not
changed. This formula shows that there is
relationship between this three variable.


Procedure B: Two Section of the Feeder

The circuit diagram obtained from the connection
in Appendix B;














The percentage regulation using the Equation 1.5
for each load setting;

For load: 25%




For load: 50%






For load: 75%






For load: 100%
0
2
4
6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e

r
e
g
u
l
a
t
i
o
n

(
%
)


Load current (A)
Percentage Regulation against load current for one
section of the feeder
X2
1 2
R
Generator
1 2
X
2 1
R2
2 1
Inductive
Load




The percentage regulation against load current;



Graph 1.2


Comparison of the regulation- load current
curves obtained when one section and two
sections of the feeder are used to supply the load;



Graph 1.3

In the Graph 1.3, the line curve percentage
regulation for two sections of the feeder is higher
than line curve percentage regulation for one
section of the feeder. Based on the Ohms Law. the
voltage will be higher as the impedance is increase
and that will lead to the higher percentage
regulation. In this experiment, the impedances for
two feeders, are higher rather than one feeder,

Based on the results, current is one of the
factors that determine the voltage regulation . As
the percentage of load current is negative, the
percentage regulation will be increase. Length of
the feeder also one of the factors that will affect the
voltage regulation. The percentage regulation will
be increase if we increase the length of the feeder.

So, we can see the effect of loading and
feeder length on the voltage regulation in a radial
distribution network feeding a resistive load.
Experiment 2: Single-Phase Radial Network
Feeding I nductive and Capacitive Loads
Procedure A: Inductive Load

The circuit diagram obtained from the connection
in Appendix C;












The percentage regulation using the Equation 1.6
for each load setting.

% Regulation = 100

r
r s
V
V V
(1.6)
For load: 25%




For load: 50%




For load: 75%

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e

r
e
g
u
l
a
t
i
o
n

(
%
)


Load current(A)
Percentage Regulation against load current for two
section of the feeder
0
2
4
6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 P
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e

r
e
g
u
l
a
t
i
o
n

(
%
)


Load current(A)
Percentage regulation against load current for one and
two section of the feeder.
one section of
the feeder
two sections of
the feeder





For load: 100%








Graph 2.1

Comparison of the regulation- load current
curves obtained for inductive load and resistive
load;



Graph 2.2

As we can see in Graph 2.2, inductive load
having higher percentage regulation than resistive
load. It is show that inductive load has more
voltage loss when compared to resistive load.

Procedure B: Capacitive Load
The percentage regulation using the Equation 1.6
for each load setting.

For load: 25%



For load: 50%




For load: 75%




For load: 100%






0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
0 1 2 3 4 5
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e

r
e
g
u
l
a
t
i
o
n

(
%
)

Load currents(A)
Percentage regulation against load current for inductive
load
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e

r
e
g
u
l
a
t
i
o
n

(
%
)

Load current (A)
Percentage regulation against load current for inductive
load and resistive load
inductive load
resistive load
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
0 2 4 6 8
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e

r
e
g
u
l
a
t
i
o
n

(
%
)

Load current (A)
Percentage regulation against load current for capacitive
load
X2
1
2
R
Generator
1
2
X
2
1
R2
2
1
Resistive
Load

Graph 2.3
Comparison of the regulation- load current
curves obtained for capacitive load and inductive
load;



Graph 2.4

Based on calculation, capacitive load actually
having negative percentage regulation. So,
theoretically, the percentage regulation for
capacitive load is less than inductive load.

For the inductor, assume the current through is
it same as resistor, and the voltage across the
inductor is



which transforms to the phasor,



but

, and

, thus
showing that the voltage has a magnitude of


and a phase of The voltage and current
are out of phase. Specifically, the current lags
the voltage by .

For the capacitor, assume the voltage across it
is

while the current through


the capacitor is



And by referring to steps as we took for the
inductor, we obtain




showing that the current and voltage are out of
phase. To be specific, the current leads the voltage
by . And this explain why capacitive loads
results in less voltage regulation than inductive
loads.

Experiment 3: Ring Distribution Network
Supplying Resistive, Inductive and Capacitive
Loads

Procedure A: Resistive Load
The circuit diagram obtained from the connection
in Appendix D (for resistive load);








The percentage regulation for each load using the
expression;
% Regulation = 100

r
r nL
V
V V
(1.7)
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
0 2 4 6 8
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e

r
e
g
u
l
a
t
i
o
n

(
%
)

Load current (A)
Percentage regulation against load current for capacitive
load and inductive load
inductive
capacitive
load
Inductive
Load
Generator
2
1
1
2
X2
1
2
R R2
2
1
X
For load: 25%




For load: 50%




For load: 75%




For load: 100%







Comparison results for the voltage regulation
with the corresponding results obtained from the
radial feeder in Experiment 1;



Graph 3.1


As can be seen in Graph 3.1, radial feeder
curve is slightly different than ring feeder. The
percentage regulation are almost the same for the
second , third and fourth point of the radial and
ring network.
Procedure B: Inductive Load
The circuit diagram obtained from the connection
in Appendix D (for inductive load);










The percentage regulation for each load using the
expression 1.6;
For load: 25%





For load: 50%







For load: 75%






For load: 100%




Comparison results for the voltage regulation
with the corresponding results obtained from the
radial feeder in Experiment 2;
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e

r
e
g
u
l
a
t
i
o
n

(
%
)

load current (A)
Percentage regulation against load current for radial
network resistive load and radial network resistive load
radial
network
resistive load
ring network
resistive load
Capacitive
Load
Generator
2
1
1
2
X2
1
2
R R2
2
1
X



Graph 3.2

Referring to Graph 3.2, radial feeder curve
regulation-load current is rising higher than ring
feeder for each point.

Procedure C: Capacitive Load
The circuit diagram obtained from the connection
in Appendix D (for capacitive load);






The percentage regulation for each load using the
expression 1.6;

For load: 25%



For load: 50%




For load: 75%






For load: 100%






Comparison results for the voltage regulation
with the corresponding results obtained from the
radial feeder in Experiment 2;



Graph 3.3


The effect of load power factor upon voltage
regulation for each of resistive, inductive and
capacitive loads;


0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
0 2 4 6
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e

r
e
g
u
l
a
t
i
o
n

(
%
)

Load current (A)
Percentage regulation against load current for inductive
load in radial and ring feeder
radial
network
inductive
load
ring network
inductive
load
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
0 2 4 6 8
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e

r
e
g
u
l
a
t
i
o
n

(
%
)

Load current (A)
Percentage regulation against load current for capacitive
load in radial and ring feeder
radial
network
capacitive
load
ring network
capacitive
load

Graph 3.4


In this experiment, we can calculate the
"power factor", which is defined as the cosine of
this angle based on the phase difference between
the voltage and current signals. In an electric
power system, a load with a low power factor
draws more current than a load with a high power
factor for the same amount of useful power
transferred. The higher currents increase the
energy lost in the distribution system, and require
larger wires and other equipment. Because of the
costs of larger equipment and wasted energy,
electrical utilities will usually charge a higher cost
to industrial or commercial customers where there
is a low power factor.

Linear loads with low power factor (such as
induction motors) can be corrected with a passive
network of capacitors or inductors. Non-linear
loads, such as rectifiers, distort the current drawn
from the system. In such cases, active or passive
power factor correction may be used to counteract
the distortion and raise the power factor. The
devices for correction of the power factor may be
at a central substation, spread out over a
distribution system, or built into power-consuming
equipment.
In a purely resistive AC circuit, voltage and
current waveforms are in step (or in phase),
changing polarity at the same instant in each cycle.
All the power entering the load is consumed (or
dissipated). Where reactive loads are present, such
as with capacitors or inductors, energy storage in
the loads results in a time difference between the
current and voltage waveforms.

If a load had a capacitive value, inductors
(also known as reactors in this context) are
connected to correct the power factor. In the
electricity industry, inductors are said to consume
reactive power and capacitors are said to supply it,
even though the energy is just moving back and
forth on each AC cycle.


When the load is inductive, the inductance
tends to oppose the flow of current, storing energy
then releasing it later in the cycle. The current
waveform lags behind the voltage waveform.
When the load is capacitive, the opposite occurs,
and the current waveform leads the voltage
waveform.

So, lagging and leading is another way of
saying the net reactance is either inductive or
capacitive.


IV. CONCLUSION

As a conclusion, we can say since the voltage
drop for the ring network is lower than radial
network, it means that the ring distribution network
is better than radial network. All the objectives for
this experiment are achieved as we assuredly
managed to investigate the effect of loading and
feeder length on the voltage regulation in a radial
distribution network feeding a resistive load, the
effect that the inductive and capacitive loads have
upon the voltage regulation of a radial feeder, and
the voltage regulation for a simple ring distribution
network when it supplies resistive, inductive and
capacitive loads. Other than that, we also make
comparison between ring and radial networks.


V. REFERENCES

1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Power_fact
or
2. http://www.allaboutcircuits.com/vol_2/ch
pt_11/3.html

3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_pow
er_transmission

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
0 2 4 6 8
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e

r
e
g
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
s

(
%
)

Load current (A)
Percentage regulation against load current for resistive,
inductive and capacitive load
resistive load
inductive load
capacitive
load
4. http://epb.apogee.net/foe/home.asp

5. http://yourelectrichome.blogspot.com