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Chapter 17 Blood

Blood composition

Although it is mostly water (about 90%), plasma contains over 100 different
dissolved solutes, including nutrients, gases, hormones, wastes and products of cell
activity, proteins, and in- organic ions (electrolytes). Electrolytes (Na1, Cl2, etc.)
vastly outnumber the other solutes

The formed elements of blooderythrocytes RBC, leukocytes WBS, and platelets
have some unusual features.

Physical characteristics of Blood: Color scarlet to dark red

Functions of blood
1. Transportation of dissolved gases, nutrients, hormones (Endocrine)and metabolic
2. Regulation of the pH and ion composition
3. Restriction of fluid losses at injury sites
4. Defense against toxins and pathogens
5. Stabilization of Body Temperature

Blood plasma content
90% water
Proteins are mostly produced by the liver
albumin accounts for some 60% of plasma pro- tein. It acts as a carrier to shuttle
certain molecules through the circulation, is an important blood buffer, and is the
major blood protein contributing to the plasma osmotic pressure (the pres- sure
that helps to keep water in the bloodstream).

36% globulins alpha, beta -Produced by liver; most are transport proteins that bind
to lipids, metal ions, and fat-soluble vitamins
gamma -Antibodies released by plasma cells during immune response
4% fibrinogen- plasma proteins; produced by liver; forms fibrin threads of blood
Nutrientsglucose, carbohydrates, amino acids
ElectrolytesNa+, K+, Ca2+, Cl, HCO3
Respiratory gasesO2 and CO2
Erythrocytes(RBC): Biconcave discs, anucleate, essentially no organelles

o Proteins (Spectrin and Hemoglobin)
o Structure characteristics
o Hemoglobin structure, One O
molecule for every Fe group
hemoglobin can bind 4 O
1. Erythrocytes, or red blood cells, are small cells that are biconcave in shape. They lack
nuclei and most organelles, and contain mostly hemoglobin.
a. Hemoglobin is an oxygen-binding pigment that is responsible for the transport of
most of the oxygen in the blood.
b. Hemoglobin is made up of the protein globin bound to the red heme pigment.
2. Production of Erythrocytes
a. Hematopoiesis, or blood cell formation, occurs in the red bone marrow.
b. Erythropoiesis, the formation of erythrocytes, begins when a myeloid stem cell is
transformed to a proerythroblast, which develops into mature erythrocytes.
c. Erythrocyte production is controlled by the hormone erythropoietin.
d. Dietary requirements for erythrocyte formation include iron, vitamin B12, and folic
acid, as well as proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates.
e. Blood cells have a short life span due to the lack of nuclei and organelles;
destruction of dead or dying blood cells is accomplished by macrophages.
3. Erythrocyte Disorders
a. Anemias are characterized by a deficiency in RBCs.
b. Polycythemia is characterized by an abnormal excess of RBCs.
Sequential order of Erythropoiesis
Fate and Destruction of Erythrocytes
o Granulocytes and Agranulocytes; know structure, function (defensins,
histamines, antibodies...etc.) and relative abundance
1. Leukocytes, or white blood cells, are the only formed elements that are complete cells
and make up less than 1% of total blood volume.
2. Leukocytes are critical to our defense against disease.
3. Granulocytes are a main group of leukocytes characterized as large cells with lobed
nuclei and visibly staining granules; all are phagocytic.
a. Neutrophils are the most numerous type of leukocyte. They are chemically
attracted to sites of inflammation and are active phagocytes.
b. Eosinophils are relatively uncommon and attack parasitic worms.
c. Basophils are the least numerous leukocyte and release histamine to promote
4. Agranulocytes are a main group of lymphocytes that lack visibly staining granules.
a. T lymphocytes directly attack virus-infected and tumor cells; B-lymphocytes
produce antibody cells.
b. Monocytes become macrophages and activate T lymphocytes.
Three stages to Hemostasis A break in a blood vessel stimulates hemostasis, a fast,
localized response to reduce blood loss through clotting

o Vascular spasm are the immediate vasoconstriction response to blood vessel
injury platelet plug, When endothelium is damaged, platelets become sticky and
spiky, adhering to each other and the damaged vessel wall. Once attached, other
platelets are attracted to the site of injury, activating a positive feedback loop for
clot formation. Coagulation or blood clotting, is a multistep process in which
blood is transformed from a liquid to a gel
ABO Blood Group (table17.4) and Rh Blood Group
o Know blood types
o Blood Donors/ Recipients
Hemolytic Disease of a Newborn
Additional terms to know:
Hematocrit The percentage of total blood volume occupied by erythrocytes.
Albumin above
Globulin above
fibrinogen promotes blood clotting
Chapter 18: The Heart
Heart Location
Pericardium: Fibrous and Serous (Parietal Layer and Visceral Layer)
Three layers of the heart: Epicardium, Myocardium, Endocardium
Four Heart Chambers and Four Heart Valves
o Heart septums
o Papillary muscles and chordae tendineae
Figures 18.4 b, d, e.
Pathway of blood through the heart: Systemic and Pulmonary Circulation,
Coronary Circulation
Anatomy of Cardiac Muscle: Comparison between right and left ventricle
Cardiac Muscle Contraction, depolarization, plateau and repolarization
Sequence of Excitation, steps 1-5. SA node >>>> Purkinje fibers
o P wave, QRS complex, T wave
Heart Sounds: Systolic (Lub) and Diastolic (Dup)
Homeostatic Imbalance: Angina, Infarction, Tachycardia, Bradycardia, Heart