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An Introduction

IndianOil Corporation Limited is an Indian state-owned oil and gas company
headquartered at Mumbai, India. It is Indias largest commercial enterprise, ranking 86th on
the Fortune Global 500 list in 2012. It is also the 18th largest petroleum company in the
world and the No. 1 petroleum trading company among the national oil companies in the
Asia-Pacific region. IndianOil and its subsidiaries account for a 47% share in the petroleum
products market, 34.8% share in refining capacity and 67% downstream sector pipelines
capacity in India. The IndianOilGroup of Companies owns and operates 10 of India's 19
refineries with a combined refining capacity of 65.7 million metric tons per year.

Indian Oils product range covers petrol, diesel, LPG, auto LPG, aviation turbine fuel,
lubricants naphtha, bitumen, paraffin, kerosene etc. Xtra Premium petrol, Xtra Mile diesel,
Servo lubricants, Indane LPG, Autogas LPG, Indian Oil Aviation are some of its
prominent brands.

An Overview

An oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is
processed and refined into more useful petroleum products, such as gasoline, diesel fuel,
asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, and liquefied petroleum gas. Oil refineries are typically
large sprawling industrial complexes with extensive piping running throughout, carrying
streams of fluids between large chemical processing units. In many ways, oil refineries use
much of the technology of, and can be thought of as types of chemical plants. The crude oil
feedstock has typically been processed by an oil production plant. There is usually an oil
depot (tank farm) at or near an oil refinery for storage of bulk liquid products. An oil refinery
is considered an essential part of the downstream side of the petroleum industry.

General Operation
Raw or unprocessed crude oil is not generally useful. Although "light, sweet" (low viscosity,
low sulphur) crude oil has been used directly as a burner fuel for steam vessel propulsion, the
lighter elements form explosive vapors in the fuel tanks and are therefore hazardous,
especially in warships. Instead, the hundreds of different hydrocarbon molecules in crude oil
are separated in a refinery into components which can be used as fuels, lubricants, and as
feedstock in petrochemical processes that manufacture such products as plastics, detergents,

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solvents, elastomers and fibres such as nylon and polyesters. Petroleum fossil fuels are
burned in internal combustion engines to provide power for ships, automobiles, aircraft
engines, lawn mowers, chainsaws, and other machines. Different boiling points allow the
hydrocarbons to be separated by distillation. Since the lighter liquid products are in great
demand for use in internal combustion engines, a modern refinery will convert heavy
hydrocarbons and lighter gaseous elements into these higher value products.Once separated
and purified of any contaminants and impurities, the fuel or lubricant can be sold without
further processing. Smaller molecules such as isobutane and propylene or butylene can be
recombined to meet specific octane requirements by processes such as alkylation, or less
commonly, dimerization. Octane grade of gasoline can also be improved by catalytic
reforming, which involves removing hydrogen from hydrocarbons producing compounds
with higher octane ratings such asaromatics. Intermediate products such as gas oils can even
be reprocessed to break a heavy, long-chained oil into a lighter short-chained one, by various
forms of cracking such as fluid catalytic cracking, thermal cracking, and hydrocracking. The
final step in gasoline production is the blending of fuels with different octane ratings, vapour
pressures, and other properties to meet product specifications. Oil refineries are large scale
plants, processing about a hundred thousand to several hundred thousand barrels of crude oil
a day. Because of the high capacity, many of the units operate continuously, as opposed to
processing in batches, at steady state or nearly steady state for months to years. The high
capacity also makes process optimization and advanced process control very desirable.

Flow diagram of a typical refinery
The following image is a schematic flow diagram of a typical oil refinery that depicts the
various unit processes and the flow of intermediate product streams that occurs between the
inlet crude oil feedstock and the final end products. The diagram depicts only one of the
literally hundreds of different oil refinery configurations. The diagram also does not include
any of the usual refinery facilities providing utilities such as steam, cooling water, and
electric power as well as storage tanks for crude oil feedstock and for intermediate products
and end products.

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Guwahati Refinery, the first public sector refinery of the country, built with Romanian
collaboration, was inaugurated by Late Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of
India, on 1st January 1962. The Refinery symbolizes the Nations march towards
indigenisation of the refining technology. With a capacity of 1.0 million metric tonnes per
annum, Guwahati Refinery processes crude oil received from the Upper Assam Oil Fields
and caters to the requirements of the petroleum products of the North Eastern Region.The
production of LPG started in 1971 and the effluent treatment plant was started in 1976. This
was very essential since it plays the vital role of cleaning and removing waste oil plus toxic
elements from the industry and reduces the pollution in the area. Naphtha splitting facilities
started from 1984 while the crude distillation unit was revamped in 1986.The de-mineralized
water requirement had to be fulfilled by fixing a DM plant in 1993.The LPG recovery from
the DCU started by 1994 and new digital distributed control system was set up in 1996. The
need of unleaded petrol required the unit of ISOSIV which was set in 2002. In same year, two
more units Hydrogen Generation and Hydrogen Treatment were commissioned for the
production of low sulphur high speed diesel engine and quality superior kerosene oil. The
INDMAX plant was set in 2003 for maximizing the productions of LPG from heavy ends and
production of auto fuel. The final products of Guwahati Refinery are motor spirits, ATF
(aviation turbine fuel), kerosene, LPG, diesel, petroleum coke, elemental sulphur and
bitumen. The refinery has achieved various international certifications alike ISO 14001 and
has an integrated management system for quality management including the ISO 9001:2000
and OHSAS 18001. It has a level 8 rating in international safety rating system.
The utilities in Guwahati Refinery are:-
Thermal Power Station,
De-mineralized water plant,
Water treatment plant,
Cooling water treatment plant,
Fire and safety,
Nitrogen plant,
Hydrogen generation and hydrogen treatment units,
Compressed air systems.

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The refinery has been trying to upgrade as well improve its quality from time to time. It has
the distinction of being producing green needle coke in India which has a very high import
value. The refinery has excelled in every field including environmental concern and new
innovations. The refinery has adopted the concept of Total Productive Maintenance
(TPM), a Japanese concept which refers to a maintenance process developed for improving
by making process more reliable and less wasteful.
Date :05/06/2013
Day : Wednesday
Activities :On that particular day we have come across with this department, where the
personals of that department taught us the following things.
Q1.What is fire safety?
Ans. We were taught about Safety, Health and Environment (S, H&E) efficiency as of prime
importance in todays industrial ventures and also the value of life and property which
necessitates precautionary measures that have to be taken care of by the employees in the
refinery. They also talked about the responsibility of ensuring the safety of the entire refinery
and keeping it accident free. They also taught us about how an industrial fire occurs which
basically comprises of 3 elements; that are Fuel, Oxygen and Heat, so that we can avoid
atleast one elment to avoid fire.
Q2. What are the different symbols used in IOCL for fire safety?

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Ans. There we have come across a new term i.e. the fire triangle or combustion triangle
whichis a simple model for understanding the ingredients necessary for most fires. The
triangle illustrates a fire requires three elements: heat, fuel, and an oxidizing agent (usually
oxygen). The fire is prevented or extinguished by removing any one of them. A fire naturally
occurs when the elements are combined in the right mixture.

Another symbol which is also used to represent the basic elements of fire is the fire
tetrahedron whichis an addition to the fire triangle. It adds the requirement for the presence of
the chemical reaction which is the process of fire. The fire engineer also told us abuout that
combustion is the chemical reaction that feeds a fire more heat and allows it to continue.
When the fire involves burning metals like lithium, magnesium, titanium it becomes even
more important to consider the energy release. The metals react faster with water than with
oxygen and thereby more energy is released. Putting water on such a fire results in the fire
getting hotter or even explodes because the metals react with water which in an exothermic

Q3. What are the Common causes of fire in a Refinery?
Ans. The common causes of fire and preventive measures, that we are listing below and it is
the responsibility of the employees as well as the trainees of the refinery to strictly abide by
the safety rules and to prevent fire accidents.
These are as follows :

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Systems that are overloaded, resulting in hot wiring or connections, or failed
Combustible storage areas with insufficient protection.
Combustibles near equipment that generates heat, flame, or sparks.
Smoking (Cigarettes, cigars, pipes, etc.).
Equipment that generates heat and utilizes combustible materials.
Flammable liquids.
Fireplace chimneys not properly or regularly cleaned.
Cooking appliances - stoves, ovens.

Q4. What are the different types of fire fightingequipments and fire extinguishing agents?
Ans. They have mentioned about 4 types of basic firefighting equipment. Hence their
knowledge is of prime importance. These are:
Soda-acid fire extinguisher.
Foam type fire extinguisher.
Dry chemical type fire extinguisher : This is an all purpose fire extinguisher.
Carbon-dioxide fire extinguisher.

Different Extinguishing Agents:
They told us about the following extinguishing agents, which are suitable for different types
of fire and their extinguishing action, are as listed below:-
Water: Water which is the most effective, cheapest and readily available for fighting
the fire and it has the highest heat of vaporization. Water is used in the refinery fire as
cooling agent and also for the production of foam required for fighting the oil fire. To
achieve this objective, sufficient quantity of water is made available in the refinery
Mechanical Foam: Mechanical Foam is one of the suitable fire-fighting agents to
tackle the refinery fire. Foam is protein based compound and insoluble in the
hydrocarbon products. Foam is nothing but air filled bubbles, so it floats on the
surface of the oil and forms a blanket covering the surface of the burning liquid.
Dry Chemical Powder: Dry Chemical Powder which is a universal fire fighting
agent to tackle all classes of fire. The basic ingredients of the powder are sodium
bicarbonate with metallic stearate and additive.

Q5. What are the different types of fire safety regulations that shall be abided by eyeryone
while working in IOCL?
Ans. To protect the refinery against fire hazards they mentioned the following safety
regulations as set:
Fire or naked light, matches, petrol or other lighter or any apparatus which is capable
of causing ignition is not permitted to be taken within the battery area by any person.
No fire shall be lit and no matches ignited in any part of the battery area unless a valid
fire permit has been obtained.
Smoking is strictly prohibited in all parts of the battery area except in the smoking
booths/locations approved for this purpose.

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All the vehicles transporting petroleum products from the refinery must be fitted only
with those types of spark arrestors which are duly approved by the Chief Controller of

Q6. What are the different types of PPE used in IOCL?
Ans.They also instructed us to wear the Personal Protection Equipment (PPE) at work places
which is a must for safety. The PPE's generally used at work places are: 1) Helmet,2) Shoes
3) Gas-masks, 4)Gloves.
Introduction :The mechanical workshop section of the industry is one of the most vital
part which is liable for proper working and maintenance of the machines used in the sector.
The responsibility of the workshop lies not only in checking the parts for defects but also for
repairing and sending it to the respective departments within a stipulated time so as to ensure
that the departmental work do not suffer from any setback or any job is not delayed. After the
workshop prepares a certain job, it is checked by the inspection department before
dispatching the same for use.
Major sections of the workshop are:
Machine Section
Welding Section
Compressor Section
Pump Section
Valve Section
Heat Exchanger
Day : Thursday
Activities:We have come across with the Machine and Welding section of the workshop
on that day.The workshop consists of a number of machineries and devices:
Lathe machine,
Boring machine -> 1) Vertical. 2) Horizontal,
Nut splitting and flange splitting machine,
Grinding machine,
Shaping machine,
Vertical milling machine,
Pump and motor for alignment training,
Pressing machine,
Pressure testing bench .

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Welding Section:
This section is associated with the fabrication of different components and with the cutting of
different types of pipes. Here the personals of the section taught us the different welding
process they used. They also showed us different types of electrodes, different types of
welding equipment they used during welding. They also demonstrate us the flame cutting of
steel pipes with Oxy-Acetylene torch.
Day : Friday
Activities:On that day we have visited the Compressor and Pumpsection of the workshop.

Compressor Section:In this section we learn the following things.
Q1. What are the different types of compressor used in the refinery?
Ans.In the refinery both the Roto-dynamic (Centrifugal) and Positive
Displacement(Reciprocating) type of compressor is used to increase the pressure of a
compressible fluid.
Centrifugal Compressor: Centrifugal compressor use a vanned rotating disk or impeller in a
shaped housing to force the gas to the rim of the impeller, increasing the velocity of the gas.
A diffuser section converts the velocity head to pressure head. In this type of compressor the
flow through the compressor is turned perpendicular to the axis of rotation. It can use a
variety of blade orientation including forward and backward curved.
Reciprocating Compressor:Reciprocating Compressors use pistons driven by crankshaft.
They can be single or multi-staged and can be driven by electric motors and ic engines. This
type of compressor is capable of providing high pressure along with variable loading. They
are favoured for many gas process applications.
Q2. What are the structural parts of Centrifugal and Reciprocating compressor?
Ans. The main structural part of a Centrifugal compressor are : 1. Impellers, 2. Vanes, 3.
Volutes, 4. Suction Eyes, 5. Discharge lines, 6. Diffuser Plates, 7. Seals, 8. Shaft, 9. Casing.

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The main parts of a Reciprocating Compressor are : 1. Piston, 2. Connecting Rod, 3.
Crankshaft, 4. Piston Rings, 5. Suction Line, 6. Discharge Line, 7. Spring -Loaded Suction, 8.
Discharge Valves.

Q3. On which factors Performance of a compressor depends ?
Ans. They mentioned about different factors on which performance of a compressor depends:
1. Discharge flow, 2. Discharge pressure, 3. Discharge temperature, 4. Suction pressure, 5.
Suction temperature, 6. Main bearing temperature, 7. Packing temperature, 8. Lube oil
pressure, 9. Lube oil temperature, 10. Rod drop, 11.Frame vibration.
Compressor Valve:
There is a separate part in the compressor section for repairing the compressor valve. The
personals of the section told us what are the different parts of a valve, how it works etc.

Q4. What are the common cause of failure of a compressor valve?
Ans. Thecommon causes of failure of a compressor valve are: 1. High Impact Velocity On
The Guard, 2. High Impact Velocity On The Seat, 3. Wear, 4. Corrosion, 5. Application
Pump section:
Here we learnedabout the following things:

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Q5. What are the different types of compressor used in the refinery?
Ans. In the IOCL refinery Guwahati, both Positive displacement and Roto-dynamic pumps
are used.
Displacement type: The positive displacement type of pumps operate by forcing a fixed
volume of fluid from the inlet suction side of the pump to discharge side of the pump by
trapping a required amount of fluid in a fixed volume and subsequently forcing the trapped
volume to the discharge point of the pump. The positive displacement pumps are generally
larger and tend to be operated at hydraulic systems at pressure of about 5000 psi. This also
provides a fixed displacement per revolution within the mechanical limitations. The positive
displacement type of pumps are also called as constant flow types of pumps as the pumps
can deliver at the same flow rate at constant rpm irrespective of the discharge pressure. But
these pumps must not be operated at a closed valve on discharge side of pump because it does
not have any shut off head like a centrifugal pump.
Roto-dynamic pumps: In this type of pumps, the energy is continuously added to the fluid to
increase the fluid velocities within the device. The kinetic energy of the fluid is being
continuously increased by increasing the flow velocity and the increased kinetic energy is
then used to impart pressure energy to the fluid. The value of the potential energy of the fluid
is increased by decreasing the value of the velocity as it tends to leave the pump by the
discharge pipe. The change of energy from kinetic to pressure helps in producing the
pumping effect.

Q6. What are the main structural parts of a pump?
Ans. The main parts of a pump are: 1. Pump suction, 2. Impeller/piston (depending on type),
3. Pump discharge,4. Casing, 5.Shaft, 6.Mechanical seal, 7.Gland plate 8.Pump bearings

Q7. What are the different types of impeller used in a centrifugal pump?

Ans.There are basically three types of impeller used in a centrifugal pump. They are:
Open Impeller: The vanes are cast free on both sides.
Semi-Open Impeller: The vanes are free on one side andenclosed on the other.
Enclosed Impeller: The vanes are located between the twodiscs, all in a single casting.
Fig: Reciprocating pump
Fig: Centrifugal pump

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Q8. What are the basic considerations of pump selection?

Ans.The following points are considered during the selection of a new pump:
Best output, long trouble free life and low maintenance,
Temperature, density, viscosity, chemical effect, wear and tear of working fluid on
parts of pump,
Total head, capacity, NPSH (Net Positive Suction Head), suction connection, method
of operating and location,
Availability of spare parts,
Interchangeable spares.

Q9. What is a Mechanical Seal?

Ans.A mechanical seal is a device which helps join systems or mechanisms together by
preventing leakage (e.g. in a plumbing system) containing pressure or excluding
contamination .sometimes a seal is also referred to as packing. They were developed to
overcome the disadvantages of compression packing or gland packing. Use of mechanical
seals reduces leakage level to minimum (~95-100%).All mechanical seals are constructed of
three basic sets of parts:
A set of primary seal faces: one rotary and one stationary, a seal ring and insert,
A set of secondary seals known as shaft packing and insert mountings such as O-
rings, Wedges and V- rings,
Mechanical seal hardware including glands rings, collar compression rings and

Q10. How a Mechanical Seal works?

Ans.The personals of the pump section demonstrate us how a Mechanical Seal works. It
works as described in the following-

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Fig. Cutaway view of a mechanical seal drawn on CAD software

The primary seal is achieved by two very flat, lapped faces which create a difficult leakage
path perpendicular to the shaft. Rubbing contact between these two flat mating surfaces
minimizes leakage. As in all seals, one face is held stationary in housing and the other face is
fixed to, and rotates with, the shaft. One of the faces is usually a non-galling material such as
carbongraphite. The other is usually a relatively hard material like silicon-carbide.
Dissimilar materials are usually used for the stationary insert and the rotating seal ring face in
order to prevent adhesion of the faces. The softer usually has the smaller mating surface and
is commonly called the wear nose. There are four main sealing points within an end face
mechanical seal. The primary seal is at the seal face, Point A. The leakage path at Point B is
blocked by an O-ring, a V-ring or a wedge. Leakage paths at Points C and D are blocked by
gasket or O-rings.The faces in atypical mechanical seal are lubricated with a boundary layer
of gas or liquid between the faces. In designing seals for the desired leakage, seal life and
energy consumption; the designer must consider how the faces are to be lubricated and select
from a numbers of modes of seal face lubrication.

Q11. What are the different types of bearings used?
Ans.Bearings are used in rotating parts of machineries. The bearings are used to attain free
frictionless movement at the ends so that the losses in the machines are reduced. The bearing
contacts the rotating parts with stationary part of the machine.They showed us the following
different types of bearings:-
Roller: in this type, the outer as well inner parts are separate which has the cage
holding the roller and the outer ring moving independently. This can take more load
than ball bearings under normal conditions. Roller bearing can be of different types
depending on shape of the rollers which are being used.
Ball: The rotating parts move smoothly over some steel balls fitted onto the cage of
the bearing. They are of different types depending on type of load it can bear
Deep groove,
Angular contact,
Journal: The inner surface of a journal bearing are covered with a white layer metal
covers which being soft gives a fine finishing causing much lesser frictional loss
problem. The journal bearing is of two types: These are: 1. Slip, 2. Split.

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Day : Saturday
Activities: On that day we have visited the Valve and Heat Exchanger section of the
workshopwhere the personals of that department taught us the following things:
Heat Exchanger section:
In this section we learn the following things:
Q12. What is the application of a heat exchanger in an oil refinery?
Ans.Inan Oil Refinery,the various application of a heat exchangerare:
Intercoolers and preheaters,
Condensers and boilers,
Oil coolers.
Q13. What are the different types of heat exchangers?
Ans. They have mentioned about the following different types of heat exchangers:
Shell and tube heat exchanger,
Plate heat exchanger,
Adiabatic wheel heat exchanger,
Plate fin heat exchanger,
Pillow plate heat exchanger,
Fluid heat exchangers,
Waste heat recovery units,
Dynamic scraped surface heat exchanger,
Phase-change heat exchangers,
Direct contact heat exchangers,
HVAC air coils,
Spiral heat exchangers.
Q14. Which type of heat exchanger is most commonly used in a refinery?
Ans. A shell and tube heat exchanger is the most common type of heat exchanger used in an
oil refinery. It is suited for high-pressure application. It consists of a shell (a large pressure
vessel) with a bundle of tubes inside it. One fluid runs through the tubes and another fluid
flows over the tubes (through the shell) to transfer heat between the two fluids.

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Fig: A shell and tube heat exchanger
Valve Section:
In this section we learn the following things-
Q15. What is a mechanical valve?
Ans. They gave us a brief description about mechanical valve. A mechanical valve is a
device that regulates, directs or controls the flow of a fluid by opening, closing, or partially
obstructing various passageways. Valves are technically pipe fittings, but are usually
discussed as a separate category. Valves are used in a variety of contexts, including
industrial, commercial, residential, and transport. The refinery uses valves in almost each
section for the above mentioned purpose. Valves can be operated manually as in by hand,
lever or pedal else it can be operated as automatically by the change in pressure, volume etc.
which moves a diaphragm or piston ultimately actuating action inside the valve.
Q16. What are the different components of a valve?
Ans. Theytold us about the following components of a valve:

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Bonnet: A bonnet acts as a cover on the valve body. It is commonly semi-
permanently screwed into the valve body or bolted onto it. During manufacture of the
valve, the internal parts are put into the body and then the bonnet is attached to hold
everything together inside. Many ball valves do not have bonnets since the valve body
is put together in a different style, such as being screwed together at the middle of the
valve body.
Ports: They are passages that allow fluid to pass through the valve. Ports are
obstructed by the valve member or disc to control flow. Valves most commonly have
2 ports, but may have as many as 20. The valve is almost always connected at its ports
to pipes or other components. Connection methods include threading, compression
fittings, glue, cement, flanges, or welding.
Handle or actuator: A handle is used to manually control a valve from outside the
valve body. Automatically controlled valves often do not have handles, but some may
have a handle for manually overriding an automatic control, such as a stop-check
valve. An actuatoris a mechanism or device to automatically or remotely control a
valve from outside the body. Some valves have neither handle nor actuator because
they automatically control themselves from inside; for example, check valves and
relief valves might have neither.
Disc: A disc or valve member is a movable obstruction inside the stationary body that
adjustably restricts flow through the valve. Although traditionally disc-shaped, discs
come in various shapes. Depending on the type of valve, a disc can move linearly
inside a valve, or rotate on the stem. A ball is a round valve member with one or more
paths between ports passing through it. By rotating the ball, flow can be directed
between different ports. Ball valves use spherical rotors with a cylindrical hole drilled
as a fluid passage.
Seat: The seatis the interior surface of the body which contacts the disc to form a
leak-tight seal. In discs that move linearly or swing on a hinge the disc comes into
contact with the seat only when the valve is shut. In disks that rotate, the seat is
always in contact with the disk, but the area of contact changes as the disc is turned.
The seat always remains stationary relative to the body.
Stem: The stemtransmits motion from the handle or controlling device to the disc.
The stem typically passes through the bonnet when present. In some cases, the stem
and the disc can be combined in one piece, or the stem and the handle are combined in
one piece.The motion transmitted by the stem may be a linear force, a rotational
torque, or some combination. Packing is often used between the stem and the bonnet
to maintain a seal. Some valves have no external control and do not need a stem as in
most check valves. Valves whose disc is between the seat and the stem and where the
stem moves in a direction into the valve to shut it are normally-seated or front seated.
Valves whose seat is between the disc and the stem and where the stem moves in a
direction out of the valve to shut it are reverse-seated or back seated. These terms
don't apply to valves with no stem or valves using rotors.
Gaskets: The seals or packing used to prevent the escape of a gas or fluids from
Spring: Many valves have a spring for spring-loading, to normally shift the disc into
some position by default but allow control to reposition the disc. Relief valves
commonly use a spring to keep the valve shut, but allow excessive pressure to force
the valve open against the spring-loading. Coil springs are normally used. Typical
spring materials include zinc plated steel, stainless steel etc.
Trim: The internal elements of a valve are collectively referred to as a valve's trim.

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Q17. What are the different types of valve used?
Ans. They have mentioned about the following different types of valves:
1. Gate valve: These valves are ones which open by lifting a round or rectangular
gate/wedge out of the path of the fluid. The distinct feature of a gate valve is the
sealing surfaces between the gate and seats are planar, so gate valves are often used
when a straight-line flow of fluid and minimum restriction is desired. The gate faces
can form a wedge shape or they can be parallel. On opening the gate valve, the flow
path is enlarged in a highly nonlinear manner with respect to percentage of opening.
This means that flow rate does not change evenly with stem travel. Also, a partially
open gate disk tends to vibrate from the fluid flow. Most of the flow change occurs
near shutoff with a relatively high fluid velocity causing disk and seat wear and
eventual leakage if used to regulate flow. Typical gate valves are designed to be fully
opened or closed.

Fig. Gate Valve
2. Butterfly valve:This is a valve which can be used for isolating or regulating flow.
The closing mechanism takes the form of a disk. Butterfly valves are generally
favoured because they are lower in cost to other valve designs as well as being lighter
in weight, meaning less support is required. The disc is positioned in the centre of the
pipe, passing through the disc is a rod connected to an actuator on the outside of the
valve. Rotating the actuator turns the disc either parallel or perpendicular to the flow.
Unlike a ball valve, the disc is always present within the flow; therefore a pressure
drop is always induced in the flow, regardless of valve position. When the valve is
closed, the disc is turned so that it completely blocks off the passageway. When the
valve is fully open, the disc is rotated a quarter turn so that it allows an almost
unrestricted passage of the fluid. The valve may also be opened incrementally to
throttle flow.

Fig.Butterfly valve
3. Globe valve: A globe valveis a type of valve used for regulating flow in a pipeline,
consisting of a movable disk-type element and a stationary ring seat in a generally
spherical body.This has an opening that forms a seat onto which a movable plug can

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be screwed in to close (or shut) the valve. The plug is also called a disc. In globe
valves, the plug is connected to a stem which is operated by screw action in manual
valves. Automated globe valves have a smooth stem rather than threaded and are
opened and closed by an actuator assembly. Globe valves are used for applications
requiring throttling and frequent operation.

Fig.Globe Valve
4. Ball valve: A ball valve is a valve with a spherical disc, the part of the valve which
controls the flow through it. The sphere has a hole, or port, through the middle so that
when the port is in line with both ends of the valve, flow will occur. When the valve is
closed, the hole is perpendicular to the ends of the valve, and flow is blocked. They
do not offer the fine control that may be necessary in throttling applications but are
sometimes used for this purpose. Ball valves are used extensively in industrial
applications because they are very versatile, supporting pressures up to 1000 bars and
temperatures up to 200C. Sizes typically range from 0.5 cm to 30 cm. They are easy
to repair and operate.

Fig.Ball Valve
5. Non return valve: A check valve or a non-return valve is a mechanical device, a
valve, which normally allows fluid to flow through it in only one direction. The check
valves are two-port valves with the two openings in the body, one for fluid to enter
and the other for fluid to leave. The cracking pressure which is the minimum
upstream pressure at which the valve will operate has to be checked so that a check
valve is specified for a specific cracking pressure.

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Fig.Non-Return Valve
6. Pressure safety valve: A safety valve is a valve mechanism for the automatic release
of a substance from a boiler, pressure vessel, or other system when the pressure or
temperature exceeds preset limits. The pressure safety valve finds uses in the
petroleum refining, petrochemical, chemical manufacturing, natural gas processing,
power generation.

Fig. Pressure Safety Valve
PSV can be of many types:
Relief Valve: automatic system that is actuated by static pressure in a liquid-
filled vessel. It specifically opens proportionally with increasing pressure.
Safety Valve: automatic system that relieves the static pressure on a gas. It
usually opens completely, accompanied by a popping sound.
Pilot-Operated Safety Relief Valve: automatic system that relieves by
remote command from a pilot on which the static pressure (from equipment to
protect) is connected.
Low pressure safety valve: automatic system that relieves static pressure on a
gas. Used when difference between vessel pressure and the ambient
atmospheric pressure is small.
Vacuum pressure safety valve: automatic system that relieves static pressure
on a gas. Used when the pressure difference between the vessel pressure and
the ambient pressure is small, negative and near the atmospheric pressure.

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Date : 09/06/2013
Day : Sunday
Activity :No activity.


Thermal power stationis a power plant in which the prime mover is steam driven. Water is
heated, turns into steam and spins a steam turbine which drives an electrical generator. After
it passes through the turbine, the steam is condensed in a condenser and recycled to where it
was heated; this is known as a Rankine cycle. The greatest variation in the design of thermal
power stations is due to the different fuel sources. Some prefer to use the term energy
centrebecause such facilities convert forms of heat energy into electricity. Some thermal
power plants also deliver heat energy for industrial purposes, for district heating, or for
desalination of water as well as delivering electrical power. A large part of human CO2
emissions comes from fossil fuelled thermal power plants; efforts to reduce these outputs are
various and widespread.

Fig. ARankine cycle with a two-stage steam turbine and a single feed water heater.

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Salient features:
Fuel used to generate steam is Low Sulphur Heavy Stock(LSHS).
Pressure of the boiler is 37 kg/cm
Various capacities of the boilers are 20 metric tonnes per hour ,40 metric tonnes per
hour, maximum capacity being 60 metric tonnes per hour.
Super-heated steam which is generated is at a temperature of 400- 500C.

Day : Monday
Activities :On that particular day we met MrDubey who is the incharge of TPS. He gave
us a brief description about the Thermal Power Station unit of Guwahati Refinery.
The Thermal Power Station meets Guwahati Refinery's needs with three steam Turbo-
Generators operating in complete online mode. Assam State Electricity Board (ASEB) grid
connection is also available for nonessential loads and standby supply in TPS.

The TPS has five boilers, two Romanian made (BLR3 and BLR4) of 20 tones/hr capacity
each, one IJT made (BLR5) with 40 tones/hr and two Thermax made boilers (BLR6 and
BLR7) of 50 tones/hr capacity each. Steam generated from these boilers is also used as
process steam apart from power generation.

Powering all units of the refinery and providing steam of DM water are main needs of a
process industry. TPS is the heart of the refinery and main contributor to successful operation
of the refinery. The TPS consists of following units:
De-Mineralization plant(D/M plant),
Steam turbines,
Cooling towers.

A. De-Mineralization plant:The DM plant deals with the de mineralization of water
to make it fit for use in the refinery by removing all mineral and waste components as a
way of purification through the ion exchange process.

Q1.Why do we need D/M water?
Ans. 1.To increase heat thermal capacity,
2. To reduce scaling ,corrosion , carry-over, foaming,
3. To reduce the hardness of water.

Q2.What are the different parts of D/M plant?

Ans: 1.Pressure filter :i. Dual Medium Filter(DMF),ii.Activated Carbon Filter(ACF).
2. Strong Acid Cation(SAC).

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3. De-Gasser(DG).
4. Strong Base Cation(SBC).
5.Mixed Bed(MB)

SWF: Water Tank,
DMF: Dual Media Filter,
SAC: Strong Acid Cation,
SDG: Degas Water Pump,
SBA: Strong Base Anion,
MB: Mixed Bed,
SDM: Status for DM water transfer.

Q3.Explain the process involve in D/M plant?

Ans. The impure water is first filtered in the dual media filter to remove the solid impurities
like mud etc. Impurities present are then transferred to the SEF tank where it gets drained out.
The filtered water is then transferred to the Strong Acid Cation chamber where it is reacted
with an acid cation (H+) to remove the minerals like sodium etc. and to form hydrogen and
carbon dioxide (reversible H2CO3). This compound is pumped to a Strong Base Anion
chamber for form water and impurity compound. The product is further fed into the Mixed
Bed which contains both anion and cation beds for more final purification. The de-
mineralized water is then fed into a boiler and o other parts of the refinery where it might be
needed. The DM plant uses 3 units working together. The main reactions involved are:
R-H + NaCl R-Na + HCl
R-OH + HCl RCl + H
Note: R is the resin
Q4. List out the different mechanical component used in D/M plant with specification?
Ans.The mechanical components used are:
Water pressure filters,
Filter backwash pump (950 rpm),
Degas water pump (2900 rpm ),
Raw water pump ( 2900 rpm),

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Regeneration pump (2900 rpm),
Mixed bed blower (1370 rpm),
Service morphine dosing pump,
DM transfer pump ( 2935 rpm),
Effluent transfer pump (2900 rpm),
Acid unloading pump (2880 rpm).

Day :Tuesday
Activities :On that particular day we learn about deaeator and boilers .
Deaerators is a device that is widely used for removal of air and other dissolved gas from the
feed water to steam generating boilers.
Q5.What are the effect of dissolve gases in boiler feed water on steam system?
Ans. The presence of dissolved oxygen in feed water causes rapid localized corrosion in
boiler tubes. Carbon dioxide will dissolve in water, resulting in low pH levels and the
production of corrosive carbonic acid. Low pH levels in feed water causes severe acid attack
throughout the boiler system.
Q6.What is DE aeration?
Ans. The removal of dissolved gases from boiler feed water is an essential process in a steam
system. The dissolved gases and low pH levels in the feed water can be controlled or
removed by the addition of chemicals, it is more economical and thermally efficient to
remove these gases mechanically. This mechanical process is known as DE aeration and will
increase the life of a steam system dramatically.
Q7.What are the laws and principle used in deaeration process?
Ans. Henrys law is basically used in deaeration process. According to this law gas solubility
in a solution decreases as the gas partial pressure above the solution decreases. The second
scientific principle that governs DE aeration is the relationship between gas solubility and
temperature. Easily explained, gas solubility in a solution decreases as the temperature of the
solution rises and approaches saturation temperature.
Q8.Explain the process of deaeration?
Ans. The feed water is sprayed in thin films into a steam atmosphere allowing it to become
quickly heated to saturation. Spraying feed water in thin films increases the surface area of
the liquid in contact with the steam, which, in turn, provides more rapid oxygen removal and
lower gas concentrations. This process reduces the solubility of all dissolved gases and
removes it from the feed water. The liberated gases are then vented from the deaerator.

24 | P a g e

C. BOILERS:We also learned about boilers which is one of importent component of
Thermal Power Station.The boiler is a type of furnace in which the fluid circulates in
tubes heated externally by the fire. Fuel is burned inside the furnace, creating hot gas
which heats water in the steam-generating tubes. In smaller boilers, additional
generating tubes are separate in the furnace, while larger utility boilers rely on the
water-filled tubes that make up the walls of the furnace to generate steam.

The heated water then rises into the steam drum. Here, saturated steam is drawn off
the top of the drum. In some services, the steam will reenter the furnace through a
super- heater to become superheated. Superheated steam is defined as steam that is
heated abovethe boiling point at a given pressure. Superheated steam is a dry gas and
therefore used to drive turbines, since water droplets can severely damage turbine

Cool water at the bottom of the steam drum returns to the feed-water drum via large-
bore 'down-comer tubes', where it pre-heats the feed-water supply. To increase
economy of the boiler, exhaust gases are also used to pre-heat the air blown into the
furnace and warm the feed-water supply. This type generally gives high steam
production rates, but less storage capacity than the above. Water tube boilers can be
designed to exploit any heat source and are generally preferred in high pressure
applications since the high pressure water/steam is contained within small diameter
pipes which can withstand the pressure with a thinner wall.

The IOCL refinery Noonmatihas 5 boilers. The boilers are 3, 4,5,6,7. Boilers 6 and 7
have a capacity of 50 tonnes. The boiler 5 has a capacity of 40 tonnes and uses single
stage economizer but uses pre heated air. Boiler and 4 have a capacity of 20 tonnes.
The steam produced is nearly 450oC and pressure of 37 kg/cm2. The air inlet is by
forced draught fans. The chimney is 25 meters high and is maintained at nearly
150oC. The boiler unit has also additional equipment and devices as follows:
Steam drum,
Super heater coils,
Air Pre-Heater(APH),

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Safety valves,
Fly ash collectors,
Flue gas stack,
Phosphate dosing pump,
LP dosing pump,
Morpholine dosing pump,
Boiler feed water pump,
F.D. and I.D. suction fan,
C.E.P for STG-4,
A.O.P for STG-3.

Economizers: Economizers are mechanical devices that are used to reduce some energy
consumption else perform useful operation as pre heating fluids. These are an essential part
of any boiler. They are heat exchange devices that heat fluids, usually water, up to but not
normally beyond the boiling point of that fluid, they do so by making use of the enthalpy in
fluid streams that are hot, but not hot enough to be used in a boiler, thereby recovering more
useful enthalpy and improving the boiler's efficiency. It saves energy by using the exhaust
gases from the boiler to preheat the cold water used.

Date: 12/06/2013
Day :Wednesday
Activities:We learned about STEAM TURBINE on that day.

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A steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam,
and converts it into rotary motion. To maximize turbine efficiency the steam is expanded,
doing work, in a number of stages. These stages are characterized by how the energy is
extracted from them and are known as either impulse or reaction turbines. Most steam
turbines use a mixture of the reaction and impulse designs: each stage behaves as either one
or the other, but the overall turbine uses both. Typically, higher pressure sections are impulse
type and lower pressure stages are reaction type.
Impulse turbines :An impulse turbine has fixed nozzles that orient the steam flow into high
speed jets. These jets contain significant kinetic energy, which the rotor blades, shaped like
buckets, convert into shaft rotation as the steam jet changes direction. A pressure drop occurs
across only the stationary blades, with a net increase in steam velocity across the stage. As
the steam flows through the nozzle its pressure falls from inlet pressure to the exit pressure
(atmospheric pressure, or more usually, the condenser vacuum). Due to this higher ratio of
expansion of steam in the nozzle the steam leaves the nozzle with a very high velocity. The
steam leaving the moving blades has a large portion of the maximum velocity of the steam
when leaving the nozzle.
Reaction turbines :In the reaction turbine, the rotor blades themselves are arranged to form
convergent nozzles. This type of turbine makes use of the reaction force produced as the
steam accelerates through the nozzles formed by the rotor. Steam is directed onto the rotor by
the fixed vanes of the stator. It leaves the stator as a jet that fills the entire circumference of
the rotor. The steam then changes direction and increases its speed relative to the speed of the
blades. A pressure drop occurs across both the stator and the rotor, with steam accelerating
through the stator and decelerating through the rotor, with no net change in steam velocity
across the stage but with a decrease in both pressure and temperature, reflecting the work
performed in the driving of the rotor.
Q9.What is the difference between Impulse and Reaction turbine?
Ans. Difference between Impulse and Reaction Turbine:
1) In impulse turbine, there are nozzle and moving blades are in series while there are
fixed blades and moving blades are present in Reaction turbine (No nozzle is present
in reaction turbine).
2) In impulse turbine pressure falls in nozzle while in reaction turbine in fixed blade
boiler pressure falls.
3) In impulse turbine velocity (or kinetic energy) of steam increases in nozzle while this
work is to be done by fixed blades in the reaction turbine.
4) Compounding is to be done for impulse turbines to increase their efficiency while no
compounding is necessary in reaction turbine.
5) In impulse turbine pressure drop per stage is more than reaction turbine.
6) The number of stages is required less in impulse turbine while required more in
reaction turbine.
7) Not much power can be developed in impulse turbine than reaction turbine.
8) Efficiency of impulse turbine is lower than reaction turbine.
9) Impulse turbine requires less space than reaction turbine.

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10) Blade manufacturing of impulse turbine is not difficult as in reaction turbine it is
Operation and maintenance:
When warming up a steam turbine for use, the main steam stop valves (after the boiler) have
a bypass line to allow superheated steam to slowly bypass the valve and proceed to heat up
the lines in the system along with the steam turbine. Also, a turning gear is engaged when
there is no steam to the turbine to slowly rotate the turbine to ensure even heating to prevent
uneven expansion. After first rotating the turbine by the turning gear, allowing time for the
rotor to assume a straight plane (no bowing), then the turning gear is disengaged and steam is
admitted to the turbine, first to the astern blades then to the ahead blades slowly rotating the
turbine at 10 to 15 RPM to slowly warm the turbine.
Problems with turbines are now rare and maintenance requirements are relatively small. Any
imbalance of the rotor can lead to vibration, which in extreme cases can lead to a blade letting
go and punching straight through the casing. It is, however, essential that the turbine be
turned with dry steam - that is, superheated steam with a minimal liquid water content. If
water gets into the steam and is blasted onto the blades (moisture carryover), rapid
impingement and erosion of the blades can occur leading to imbalance and catastrophic
failure. Also, water entering the blades will result in the destruction of the thrust bearing for
the turbine shaft. To prevent this, along with controls and baffles in the boilers to ensure high
quality steam, condensate drains are installed in the steam piping leading to the turbine.
The IOCL refinery Noonmatihas three turbines: 3,4,5. Set of each turbine has different power
capacities. The turbine 3 and 4 runs at 9000 rpm and on coupling runs the generator at 3000
rpm. It produces 8 MW power. The turbine 5 run at 6500 rpm and on coupling rotates the
generator at 1500 rpm. It develops nearly about 12 MW power. The ratio between the rpm of
generator and turbine varies as the ratio for all 3 pairs so as to maintain the same frequency.

Day : Thursday

Activities:On that particular we were taught about Condenser and we learned the
following thing:

A condenseris a device or unit used to condense a substance from its gaseous to its liquid
state, typically by cooling it. In so doing, the latent heat is given up by the substance, and will
transfer to the condenser coolant. Condensers are typically heat exchangers which have
various designs and come in many sizes ranging from rather small(hand-held) to very large
industrial-scale units used in plant processes.The primary purpose of a surface condenser is to
condense the exhaust steam from a steam turbine to obtain maximum efficiency and also to
convert the turbine exhaust steam into pure water (referred to as steam condensate) so that it
may be reused in the steam generator or boiler as boiler feed water.The shell is the
condenser's outermost body and contains the heat exchanger tubes.The shell is fabricated
from carbon steel plates and is stiffened as needed to provide rigidity for the shell.When
required by the selected design, intermediate plates are installed to serve as baffle plates that

28 | P a g e

provide the desired flow path of the condensing steam.The plates also provide support that
help prevent sagging of long tube lengths.

At the bottom of the shell, where the condensate collects, an outlet is installed and is moved
into a hot-well. Condensate is pumped from the outlet or the hot-well for reuse as boiler feed-

Q10. What are the different types of condenser?
Ans.The steam power plants using condenser are of two types:-
1. Open cycle condensing system: The cooling water used in condenser is not re-
circulated again and again but discharged to the downstream side of the river.
2. Closed cycle condensing system: The cooling water is re-circulated again and
again by passing through the cooling tower.In this refinery this type of condensing
system is used.

Q11.What are the different component of steam condensing plant?
Ans. The different components of steam condensing plants are listed below:
1. Condenser,
2. Supply of cooling water,
3. Condenser cooling water pump,
4. Condensate Extraction Pump,
5. Hot-well,
6. Boiler feed Pump,
7. Air extraction pump,
8. Cooling Tower,
9. Make up water pump.

Q12.What are the advantages of condenser?
Ans. The advantages obtained by incorporating a condenser in steam power plant are
listed below:

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1. The condensate steam from the condenser is used as feed water for boiler. Using the
condensate as feed for boiler reduces the cost for power generation as the condensate
is supplied at a higher temperature to the boiler and it reduces the capacity of the feed
water cleaning system.
2. The efficiency of the plant increases by increasing the vacuum in the condenser.

The specific steam consumption of the plant also decreases as the enthalpy drop or work
developed per kg of steam increases with the decrease in back pressure by using condenser.
The use of condenser in steam power plant reduces the overall cost of generation by
increasing the thermal generation of the plant. The efficient condenser plant must be capable
of producing and maintaining a high vacuum with the quantity of cooling water available and
should be designed to operate for prolonged periods without trouble.
Q13.What are the desirable feature of good condensing plant?
Ans.The desirable feature of good condensing plant is:
1. Minimum quantity of circulating water,
2. Minimum cooling surface area per kW capacity,
3. Minimum auxiliary power,
4. Maximum steam condensed per m of surface area.

Day :Friday
Activities: On that particular day we went to learn about Cooling Towers.
Cooling towersare heat removal devices used to transfer process waste heat to the
atmosphere. Cooling towers may either use the evaporation of water to remove process heat
and cool the working fluid to near the wet-bulb air temperature or in the case of closed circuit
dry cooling towersrely solely on air to cool the working fluid to near the dry-bulb air
temperature. Common applications include cooling the circulating water used in oil
refineries, chemical plants, power stations and building cooling. The towers vary in size from
small roof-top units to very large hyperboloid structures (as in Image 1) that can be up to 200
metres tall and 100 metres in diameter, or rectangular structures (as in Image 2) that can be
over 40 metres tall and 80 metres long. Smaller towers are normally factory-built, while
larger ones are constructed on site. They are often associated with nuclear power plants in
popular culture, although cooling towers are constructed on many types of buildings.
Industrial cooling towers can be used to remove heat from various sources such as machinery
or heated process material. The primary use of large, industrial cooling towers is to remove
the heat absorbed in the circulating cooling water systems used in power plants, petroleum
refineries, petrochemical plants, natural gas processing plants, food processing plants, semi-
conductor plants, and for other industrial facilities such as in condensers of distillation
columns, for cooling liquid in crystallization, etc.

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Two types of cooling towers are:-
1. Cross-flow type

2. Counter-flow type


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Activities:Since, it the first day of our visit to CDU, and also Saturday is a half day in
IOCL, so the personnels just take us to this unit and shown the various machines and
Date : 16/06/2013
Day : Sunday
Activity :No activity.
Date : 17/06/2013
Day : Monday
Activity :The engineers and the technicians gave us a brief introduction about what CDU
Q1.What is CDU?
Ans.They told us that the crude oil distillation unit (CDU) is the first processing unit in
virtually all petroleum refineries. The CDU distills the incoming crude oil into various
fractions of different boiling ranges, each of which are then processed further in the other
refinery processing units. The CDU is often referred to as the atmospheric distillation unit
because it operates at slightly above atmospheric pressure.
They also told us about that crude oil is classified by the location of its origin which refers to
it as `sweet, which means it contains relatively little sulphur, or as `sour, which means it
contains substantial amounts of sulphur and requires more refining in order to meet current
product specifications. The number of carbon atoms determines the oil's relative `weight or
The plant capacity of any other unit depends on the capacity of main fractional column of
CDU. It receives the raw crude oil from its supplier (Oil India Ltd. In case of Guwahati
refinery) and it does the required pre-treatments of raw crude like Desalting, Preheating etc.
The different outputs from the CDU unit of Guwahati Refinery are LPG, Light gasoline(LG),
Heavy Gasoline(HG), Kero-l, Kero-ll, Gas oil & Reduced Crude oil(RCO feed to DCU).
Q2. What are the composition of crude oil?
Ans. The engineers told us thatpetroleum or crude oil is combustible oily liquid reddish
brown or sometimes black colour produced from oil wells. It is a complex mixture of various
hydrocarbons and their derivatives containing sulphur, nitrogen, oxygen, metals etc. They
told that crude oil contains around (82-87) % Carbon, (11-15) % Hydrogen and Oxygen,
Nitrogen and other metals (like Ni, V, etc.) constitute the remaining. It is practically
impossible to determine exactly the composition of a particular grade of petroleum, so
petroleum is analyzed usually to ascertain their group composition.

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Main Constituents of Petroleum hydrocarbons:-
1. Paraffinic Hydrocarbons (Alkanes),
2. Naphthenic Hydrocarbons (Cyclo-Alkanes),
3. Benzene Hydrocarbons (Arenes),
4. Unsaturated Hydrocarbons(Olefins),
5. Oxygen containing compounds: These includesi. Naphthenic Acids, ii. Phenols and
iii. Tarasphaltene compounds.
6. Sulphur compounds,
7. Nitrogen compounds,
8. Mineral substances.

Date : 18/06/2013
Day :Tuesday
Activity :The engineers and the technicians told us about what are processes carried in this
Q3. Why is the need for desalting?
Ans. The purpose of desalting is to separate the impurities from the crude oil which are
basically mixture of water and dissolved salts (e.g. Sodium, Calcium, Magnesium, Pottasium
and Iron salts). This mixture of salt and water is known as brine. This brine is associated with
crude oil both as a fine suspension of droplets and also as a more permanent emulsion. They
told us that the impurities in crude oil can be classified as:
i. Oleophilic,
ii. Oleophobic.

These impurities if not separated from crude oil will lead to:
1. Equipment corrosion in the atmospheric distillation unit caused by HCl, which is
liberated due to hydrolysis or dissociation of chloride salts.
2. Increased consumption of ammonia to neutralize HCl.
3. Erosion of crude oil pumps, pipelines and valves by suspended matter through
4. Plugging of equipment and fouling of heat transfer surfaces.
5. Product degradation like high ash content in fuel oil.
6. Trace metals in distillates, which act as catalyst poisons.

Activity:We have gone to the departmenton Wednesday and as it is the first day, so they
started from the basics which includes following.

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Q1. What is coker unit?
Ans.they have mention that to us that it is an oil refinery processing unit that converts the
residual oil from the vacuum distillation column or the atmospheric distillation column into
low molecular weight hydrocarbon gases, naphtha, light and heavy gas oils, and petroleum
coke. The process thermally cracks the long chain hydrocarbon molecules in the residual oil
feed into shorter chain molecules. As the unit is big and it have many important equipment,
so they shown the unit from a meter away. They have also mention it as a secondary
processing unit which is designed and installed to process the low value heavy stock to
upgrade it to more valuable lighter and middle distillates with petroleum coke as one of the
products. The feed that they processed in the unit is Reduced Crude oil (RCU) obtained from
the bottom of the main fractionating column of the Crude Distillation Unit (CDU) and the
process is Thermal Cracking. DCU can process feed with high 40 metal, asphaltene and resin
content and in DCU, metals, sulphur, nitrogen normally end up in coke.
Activity:On the second day One of the engineer named R.K.singhania have taken us all to
the main site of DCU and shown us pipe lines through which LPG, gasoline, kerosene ,gas oil
flows. Also he says about another important thing that is
Q2. What is theory of coking?
Ans. He mentioned that during processing of crude oil in the Crude Distillation Unit,
hydrocarbon fractions of different boiling ranges, they separated out. These fractions are
LPG, gasoline, kerosene,gas oil and reduced crude obtained from the fractionating column of
distillation unit. He also mention that the heavier hydrocarbon fraction, obtained as reduced
crude oil (also called long residue) at the bottom of the fractionating column is of less value.
He also tells us that the coking process involves two types of reactions:-
1. Primary reaction.
2. Secondary reaction.

PRIMARY REACTION :In these reactions the heavier hydrocarbon molecules decompose
into smaller ones. This reaction is known as cracking.

SECONDARY REACTION:In these reactions the smaller reactive molecules combine with
one another to produce heavy tarry metals. This reaction is called polymerization.
Polymerization of heavier reactive molecules takes place in reaction chambers forming coke
in an alternate production time of 24 hours. The coke chamber provides residence time of 24
hours for the cracking and polymerization reaction to take place. For this lengthening of the
time of liquid phase cracking and polymerization, the whole process of cracking is known as
delayed coking.

The two types of chemical reactions that take place during thermal cracking operation may be
represented by the chemical reaction as shown below:-

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+ CH

n-butane methane propene

+ CH

n-butane ethane ethylene

At high temperature the first of these appears to precede the extent of about 55%and second
to 45%. Dehydrogenation reaction as given below appears to represent less than 5% of the
total. The tendency to dehydrogenate, leaving an olefin with the same number of carbon
atoms as the original paraffin hydrocarbon, rapidly diminishes as the series is ascended. Thus
the production of large amount of hydrogen by cracking gas and stocks should not be




+ C


They also taught us about the processes that are undergone by the department and the process
consists of the following main steps:-
Pumping and pre-heating of RCO feed.
Introduction of RCO feed to the main fractionations (003-CL-02) control of bottom
Introduction of fractionations (003-CL-02) bottoms into heater and cracking.
Cracking to coke and distillates.
Removal of RFO.
Withdrawal of side-cuts.
Cooling of SR.
Coke chamber operations.

Date: 21/06/2013
Day: Friday
Activity: On this day we have been asked to visit the HYDROGEN GENERATION UNIT
where the engineers and the technicians told us about the functions of this particular

35 | P a g e

They told us that The hydrogen unit consists of desulfurization, pre-reforming and process
gas cooling. To increase the hydrogen content of the process gas shift conversion of
temperature is done in cycles. Purification is done with a Pressure Swing Adsorption
technique to remove H
S gas from nitrogen generator units. The feedstock to the hydrogen
unit is LRU off gas and Straight Run Naphtha (SRN) feed.These feeds can be converted to
hydrogen at high thermal efficiency and low capital cost. They told us that LRU off gas is not
used much because of its high diene content.
Q1.Why we need HGU in refinery ?
In today's industrial era,the problems of environmental pollution ,global warming are
increasing day by day.
Industries like oil refineries discharge a lot of harmful products to environment. So
they have to be treated before discharge.
The sulphur,nitrogen content present in the refinery product are very dangerous. They
are the main causes of acid rain and smog.
The flue gases(CO
,CO,etc)cause green-house effect which in turn creates problem of
global warming.

Q2. How this hydrogen generation unit works?
Ans.The hydrogen generation is based on steam reforming technology of KTI using a mixture
of LN (SRN) and off gas from the LRU as primary feed. For achieving the required feed
flexibility a process reforming step is applied upstream using Kaverners technology. For the
purification of low hydrogen after the shift conversion, pressure swing absorption (PSA)
process is applied to high purity hydrogen product.
The following are the processes by which generation of hydrogen is done:
1. Feed conditioning:The light naphtha is received in a surge drum from its pumped
and LRU off gas and is collected in a knock-out put and then compressed. Both feeds
are mixed after addition of recycled hydrogen; it is vaporized in a steam heat
exchanger. The hydrogen in the operation taken as recycles from the PSA unit.

2. Feed hydrogenation/hydro desulfurization:LRU off gases content significant
amount of olefins in addition to H2S .The light naphtha contains marcaptans as well
as trace amount of heavy metals such as Arsenic, Lead, Vanadium, Copper, which are
catalyst poisons. The olefins are saturated by hydrogen temperature is high enough for
complete conversion of marcaptans to H2S and for the efficient removal of H2S in the
ZnO beds.

Reactions taking place in the steps are:

R=R + H
RH-RH...................... (1) [Olefin saturation]

Hydrogenation of organic sulphur and chlorine compounds to for H
S and HCl:

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R-H +H
S................... (2)

2RCl +H
R-H +HCl.................... (3)

3. Pre-reforming and reforming:The hydrocarbon feed in presence of steam reacts
over nickel bed catalyst which form an equilibrium mixture of methane, carbon
dioxide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The reactions taking place in this step are as

+ nH2OnCO + (0.5m+n)H
CO + H

For hydrocarbons with a higher carbon number the outlet of the pre-reformer will not almost
be completed to the CO side thus resulting in almost complete conversion of C
conversion of methane with steam to CO is strongly favoured by temperature, low pressure
and high steam ratios. Reactions (5) will reach equilibrium at the reformer outlet and reaction
(6) is referred as shift reaction.

Three different streams to carbon ratios can be used to determine the amount of steam that
has to be added: Steam to feed weight ratio: (A) the ratio at the pre-reformer inlet of the wet
flow of stem to the weight flow of total hydrocarbon feed. (B) Steam to carbon ratio: Ratio at
the reformer inlet of the moles of steam to the moles of carbon. The moles of carbon are
counted as atoms.

Q3) What are types of catalyst used in hydrogen formation?

Ans. Basically 2 types of catalyst are used. They are:
1. Pre-reformer catalyst (CRG) :The most common poisons for CRG catalyst are
sulphur, chlorine, silica and occasionally naphtha feeds and heavy metal such as lead.
The normal symptoms of poisoning are a slack in the bed temperature profile as the
fraction of the bed in the inlet becomes deactivated.
2. Reformer catalyst :The most common poisons for steam reforming catalyst are
sulphur, chlorine, arsenic etc.

Activity:We have gone to the department on Saturday. They have shown us the site of
HDT and they said that.
The purpose of hydro treating plant is to meet Bharath stage III specification of diesel and to
produce kerosene of high smoke pint and the plant receives its hydrogen requirements from
the HGU.

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They also mention about different fuels, input, product and mechanical devices that are dealt
by HDT and they are as follows:
Crude oil,
Motor spirit,
Straight run naphtha (SRN),Aviation turbine fuel (ATF),
Superior kerosene (SKO),
High speed diesel (HSD),
Light diesel oil (LDO),
Low sulphur heavy stock (LSHS).

Input feed:Diesel in the form of SRK II, SRGO, CK-I, CGO.

Superior kerosene,
Aviation Turbine Fuel.

Mechanical devices:
Knock out drums,
Sulfide metering drums,
Feed exchanger,
Heat exchanger,
Suction drum,
Gas cooler,
Sand filter,
Forced Draught fan,

Date : 23/06/2013
Day : Sunday
Activity :No activity.

Date : 24/06/2013

Day : Monday

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Activity:We have went to a research and development unit known as INDMAX where
recycling of residue is done to get the required fuels.

Function: Residue up gradation to LPG, Light Olefins and High Octane Gasoline.

The personnels has mentioned that Indianoil R&D Centre has developed a patented
technology INDMAX known as Indane Maximization, to produce Liquefied Petroleum Gas
(LPG) from heavy petroleum fractions to the extent of 40 to 65 wt% of feed. The LPG is
highly olefinic (70 wt. % of LPG) rendering the INDMAX process as the best suitable
technology for producing propylene and butylene from heavy petroleum fractions including
residue. Due to very high olefin quantity, the INDMAX LPG has significant petroleum value.
After recycling the residue, the end products that are obtained are:
Total clarified oil,
Clarified oil,
High pressure steam,
Dry gas

Fig. Flow Diagram for Fluidized Catalytic Cracking

Date : 25/06/2013

Day : Tuesday.

Activity: No activity.

Department :ISOM UNIT

Date : 26/06/2013

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Day : Wednesday

Activity :Since, it is the first day of our visit to ISOM unit of IOCL, the engineers and
technicians took us with them to show us the different equipments and machineries of that

The mechanical parts used in ISOM are:
Feed exchanger,
Heat exchanger,
Caustic recycler heater,

Date : 27/06/2013

Day : Thursday

Activity :On the second day, they explained the functioning of this unit.

They have told that in the refinery it is a part of the MSQU unit (Motor Spirit Quality Up
gradation) units. The MSQU consists of NSU, NHDT and ISOM. Here the quality of the
motor spirit processed in the distillation plants is improved to meet the given standard by the
authorized organization. It is a unit where the octane number of petrol is increased and where
normal paraffins are separated from a mixed stream of normal paraffins and non-normal
hydrocarbons. Normal paraffins are used as reaction solvents due to their inherent stability.
The feed is of naphtha which is input to reactor, after moving through the reactor it passes to
the NHDT (Naphtha Hydro Treating Unit). Inside the NHDT unit, the feed moves into a
furnace from which it leads to the NHDT reactor. The reactor passes the output to the stripper
column after which it enters the feed dryer section. A part of the feed has the nitrogen dried
by a suitable reaction. The moving feed then goes to the series of reactors.The reactors give
out the products to the stabilizer unit. After passing from the stabilizer, it moves into the
deisohexanizer plant from which a part of impure final output is fed into the NHDT part. The
purest form of output is produced as motor spirit products.


Date: 28/06/2013

Day: Friday

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Activity :We have gone to this unit and the personnels have told what is the function of this
unit. It is the unit of the refinery where the storage and movement of the products are
controlled. All the crude products from respective units come to this unit where it is stored in
tanks until it is supplied. In Guwahati Refinery almost all the products are supplied through
pipelines except few such as LPG & ATF which are transported by either roadways or
railways.Generally after the crude is refined the products are stored in tanks which are well
maintained and inspected at regular intervals so that no contamination or failure takes place.
The tanks where LPG is stored are called Mound Bullet.

Date : 29/06/2013

Day : Saturday

Activity:No activity.

Date : 30/09/2013

Day : Sunday

Activity :No activity.

Department :PLANNING

Date : 01/07/2013

Day : Monday

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Activity :We have submitted the report to the planning department.

Date : 02/10/2013

Day : Tuesday

Activity :No activity.

Date :03/10/2013

Day : Wednesday

Activity :We have collected our training certificates.

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The main objective of an industrial training program is to expose students to engineering
experience and knowledge which is required in industry and to apply the knowledge taught in
the lecture rooms in real industrial situations. So, during the course of this training, I got an
opportunity to relate the experience gained from the training with the knowledge gained from
the lecture rooms and to get a feel of the work environment of such a prestigious
In a changing industrial world with changing perspectives, the gap between theoretical
knowledge and analysis and practical skill and application has widened. This gap can only be
bridged by greater interaction between the industry and educational institutions imparting
technical know-how. This short vocational training was no doubt a big leap for a technical
student like me.
By being a part of the Industrial Summer Training Program at Guwahati Refinery, I got to
acquire the best possible experience and knowledge of the different units of the refinery, the
working procedure, the safety measures as well as an engineers responsibilities and ethics
while working in an organization.
Finally, it can be concluded that such kind of vocational training is very important for every
technical student. And, it has been truly a learning experience for me and for my future
endeavors, this kind of experience would be of immense help.