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nfectious

disease
Agent Routes of
transmission
Climate influences on
transmission
Statistical
test
References
Adenovirus RNA
Virus
Air-borne Correlation between
adenovirus infections
and precipitation in
Brazil
Yes 39
Measles RNA
Virus
Air-borne Infection cases increased
with negative NAO values
in England and Wales
Yes 26
Meningitis (viral) RNA
Virus
Air-borne Outbreak of viral
meningitis after El Nio
event in Djibouti
No 40
Q fever Bacterium Air-borne Wet soil is associated with
decreased risk of Q fever
infection in Netherlands
Yes cited in. 41
Tuberculosis Bacterium Air-borne Seasonal trend in
epidemics in Spain, with
higher incidence during
summer and autumn
Yes 42
Enterovirus RNA
Virus
Water-borne Increased presence of
enteroviruses with heavy
rainfall events associated
with El Nio in an estuary
in Florida
Yes 43
Gastroenteritis -
viral
RNA
Virus
Water-borne High temperature and low
humidity increase the
incidence of rotavirus
diarrhoea in Dhaka
Yes 44
Typhoid fever Bacterium Water-borne Increased temperature
and precipitation is
associated with incidence
increase in Nepal
Yes Unp. report
nfectious
disease
Agent Routes of
transmission
Climate influences on
transmission
Statistical
test
References
Nephropathia
epidemica
(hantavirus
infection)
RNA
Virus
Air-borne Increase incidence with
increased rainfall
associated with strong El
Nio in U.S.A.
Yes 34
Rodent-borne High summer and autumn
temperatures, 2 years and
1 year respectively before
NE occurrence, relate to
high NE incidence in
Belgium
Yes 35
Tularaemia Bacterium Vector-borne 2C increase in monthly
average summer
temperatures associated
with increases in outbreak
durations in Sweden
Yes 25
Low NAO index were
associated with high
numbers of human cases
of tularemia 2 year later in
Sweden
Yes 52
Hepatitis A RNA
Virus
Food-borne Virus survival increases at
reduced temperatures and
sunlight (ultraviolet) in
U.S.A.
No 45
Increase incidence
warmer and drier
conditions associated with
El Nio event in Australia
Yes 46
Shigellosis Bacterium Food-borne No association between
incidence and strong NAO
Yes 30
nfectious
disease
Agent Routes of
transmission
Climate influences on
transmission
Statistical
test
References
in Czech Republic
Campylobacter Bacterium Food-borne European and northern
American countries with
milder winters have peaks
of infection earlier in the
year. The peak of
infection is associated
with high temperatures 3
months previously
Yes 47
Trichinosis Nematode Food-borne Warmer temperatures and
longer summers increase
the number of
amplification cycles for
parasites and lead to
longer summer hunting
seasons in Artic regions
No 48




Disease- Causative agent- Transmission



Anthrax- Bacillus anthracis- Infected animals

Botulism- Clostridium botulinum- Food and contamination of wound

Bacillary dysentery- Shigella dysenteriae- Contaminated, food, water

Cholera- Vibrio cholerae- Contaminated food and water

Chlamydia- Chlamydia trachomatis- Sexual contact

Diphtheria- Corynebacterium diphtheriae- Direct physical contact

Gonorrhea- Neisseria gonorrhoeae- Sexual contact

Legionnaires disease- Legionella pneumophila- Air, water

Meningococcal meningitis- Neisseria meningitides- Saliva and contact with infected person

Pneumococcal pneumonia- Streptococcus pneumoniae- Contact with infectedpeople

Syphilis- Treponema pallidam- Sexual contact

Typhoid fever- Salmonella typhi- Food , milk, contaminated water

Tetanus- Clostridium tetani- Injured surface

Tuberculosis- Mycobacterium tuberculosis- Air

Whooping cough- Bordetella pertussis- Contact with infected people


Human disease cause by Virus


Viruses are obligate intracellular parasite. They are noncellular body. It consisting either DNA or RNA
molecule enclosed in a coat of protein. They can reproduce in the living host cells. When virus enters
in the host cell and it create infection in host and cause different disease. Virus enters in host by many
different ways like blood, saliva, etc. here are some most commonly observed viral diseases:



Disease- Causative agent- Transmission



AIDS- Human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) - Sexual contact

Hepatitis- Hepatitis A,B, C, D, E- Contaminated blood and blood product

Influenza- Influenza virus- Droplet infection

Rabies- Rabies virus- Bit from an infected animal

Measles- Measles virus- Respiration and aerosol transmission



Human diseases caused by protozoan


Protozoa are unicellular eukaryotic organisms. They are free-living or parasitic organism. Several
protozoan species infect human and inhabit the body as parasite or commensalisms. Some species
cause human disease. These diseases are observed in warmer climate. They require intermediate host
like mosquitoes etc.



Disease- Causative agent- Transmission



Amoebiasis- Entamoeba histolytica- Food, water

African sleeping sickness- Trypanosoma brucei- Tsetse fly

American sleeping sickness- T. cruzi- Triatomid bug

Balantidiasis- Balantidium coli- Water, food

Giardiasis- Giardia lambila- Contact, water

Malaria- Plasmodium spp.- Mosquito

Leishmaniasis- Leishmania donovani- Sandfly

Trichomoniasis- Trichomonas vaginalis- Sexual contact


Human diseases caused by flatworms and roundworms


Flatworm and roundworm are invertebrate animals. Flatworm is from phyla platyhelminthes.
Roundworm is from phyla aschelminthes. They are parasite and live inside the host. Some common
diseases are given below:



Disease- Causative agent- Organ affected- Transmission


Beef tapeworm disease- Taenis saginata- Intestine-Beef consumption

Blood fluke disease- Schistossoma mansoni- Liver, lungs- Water contact

Eye worm disease- Loa loa- Eye connective tissue- Deerflies, horseflies

Dwarf tapeworm disease- Hymenolepsis nana- Intestine- Food, contact

Filariasis- Wuchereria bancrofti- Lymph- vessels ,Mosquito

Hookworm disease- Ancylostoma duodenale- Intestine, lymph-Contactwith vegetation

intestinal fluke disease- Fasciolopsis buski- Intestine -Consumption of water

Pork tapeworm disease- Taenia solium- Intestine- Pork consumption

Pinworm disease- Enterobius vermicularis- Intestine- Contact, food

Roundworm disease- Ascaris lumbricoides- Intestine, lungs -Water, Food

Trichionosis- Trichinella spiralis- Muscles, Intestine, eye -Pork consumption

Whipworm disease- Trichuris trichiura- Intestine- Water, food









Disease :Roundworm Disease
Causative Agent : Ascaris Lumbricoides
Organs Affected : Intestine, Lungs
Characteristic Sign : Emaciation, Pneumonia
Transmission : Food,Water,Contact
Animal Host : NA
Disease :Trichionosis
Causative Agent : Trichinella Spiralis
Organs Affected : Intestine,Muscles,Eye
Characteristic Sign : Diarrhea,Muscle Pain, Loss of Eye movement
Transmission : Pork Consumption
Animal Host : Pig
Disease :Hookworm Disease
Causative Agent : Ancylostoma Duodenale,Necator americanus
Organs Affected : Intestine, Lungs, Lymph
Characteristic Sign : Anemia, Abdominal Pain
Transmission : Contact with vegetation
Animal Host : NA
Disease :Filariasis
Causative Agent :Wuchereria Bancrofti
Organs Affected :Lymph,Vessels
Characteristic Sign :Edema, Elephantiasis
Transmission : Mosquito
Animal Host : Mosquito
Disease :Eyeworm Disease
Causative Agent : Loa Loa
Organs Affected : Eye Connectivity Tissues
Characteristic Sign : Conjunctivitis
Transmission : Deerflies,Horseflies
Animal Host : Insects
Disease :Guinea Worm Disease
Causative Agent : Dracunculus Medinensis
Organs Affected : Skin
Characteristic Sign : Skin Ulcer
Transmission : Food, Water
Animal Host : Copped Fish
List of Human Diseases Caused by Multicellular Parasites ( Flatworms)
Disease :Beef Tapeworm Disease
Causative Agent : Taenis Saginata
Organs Affected : Intestine
Characteristic Sign : Diarrhea
Transmission : Beef Consumption
Animal Host : Cattle
Disease :Pork Tapeworm Disease
Causative Agent : Taenia Solium
Organs Affected : Intestine
Characteristic Sign : Diarrhea
Transmission : Pork Consumption
Animal Host : Pig
Disease :Dwarf Tapeworm Disease
Causative Agent : Hymenolepsis Nana
Organs Affected : Intestine
Characteristic Sign : Diarrhea
Transmission : Food, Contact
Animal Host : NA
Disease :Dog Tapeworm Disease
Causative Agent : Echinococcus Granulosus
Organs Affected : Liver
Characteristic Sign : Liver Damage
Transmission : Contact
Animal Host : Dog and other Canines
Disease :Fish Tapeworm Disease
Causative Agent : Diphyllobothrium Latum
Organs Affected : Intestine
Characteristic Sign : Diarrhea, Anemia
Transmission : Fish Consumption
Animal Host : Copepod Fish
Disease :Intestinal Fluke Disease
Causative Agent : Fasciolopsis Buski
Organs Affected : Intestine
Characteristic Sign : Diarrhea
Transmission : Consumption of water Plants
Animal Host : Snail
Disease :Chinese Liver Fluke Disease
Causative Agent : Clonorchis Sinensis
Organs Affected : Gall Bladder
Characteristic Sign : Cirrhosis
Transmission : Fish Consumption
Animal Host : Snail, Fish
Disease :Blood Fluke Disease
Causative Agent : Schistossoma mansoni, S.Japonicum,S.Haematobium
Organs Affected : Liver, Lungs
Characteristic Sign : Rash
Transmission : Water Contact
Animal Host : Snai
1. rabies
caused by rabies virus, transmitted by bite of a rabid animal (mostly dog) symptoms begin with fever,
malaise, head ache, irritability and progress to hydrophobia and then coma and death. prevented and
treated by rabies vaccine- 3 doses

2. cholera
caused by vibrio cholrae bacteria, transmitted by infected water, symptoms include copious vomitting and
uncontrollable diarrhoea, treatment by Oral Rehydration Solution and antibiotic- Tetracycline

3. tuberculosis
caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis bacteria, transmitted by air borne route, symptoms- cough for
more than 2 weeks, chest pain, headache, fever, weight loss, coughing of blood (hemoptysis), treatment
by antibiotics- Streptomycin, Rifampicin, Isoniazid, Ethambutol and Pyrizinamide

4. syphilis
caused by Treponema Pallidum bactera, transmitted by sexual route and mother to fetus transmission,
symptoms- chancre in the genital region, lymphadenopathy, mucosal rashes etc. treated by Penicillin