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BRIDGESTONE AMERICAS HOLDING, INC.

MARKETING PLAN

BRENNA O'REGAN, HEATHER MCDONALD, WESLEY


HATCHETT
DR. THOMAS LACHOWICZ
ESSENTIALS OF MARKETING, MKTG 340
SECTION 02, INDEX 3153
NOVEMBER 30, 2005
WHITT HALL

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
3
2. COMPANY DESCRIPTION .
5
3. STRATEGIC PLAN/ FOCUS
7
4.
10
5.
13
6.
18
7.
21
8.
22
9.
23
10.
11.
12.

SITUATION ANALYSIS .
MARKET- PRODUCT FOCUS .
MARKETING PROGRAM ..
R & D/ OPERATIONS PROGRAM ..
FINANCIAL PROJECTIONS
ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE
IMPLEMENTATION PLAN . 24
EVALUATION AND CONTROL .. 25
APPENDIX A: BIOGRAPHIES OF
KEY PERSONNEL ..

26
13. APPENDIX B: BRIDGESTONE INCOME
STATEMENT AND TIRE INDUSTRY
2

OVERVIEW AND SALES.....


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14. BIBLIOGRAPHY
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1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Bridgestone Americas Holding, Inc, hereinafter, will be referred to as
Bridgestone. Bridgestone is a well-established corporation in the business of selling
varied tire and rubber products to markets all over the world. In this marketing plan, we
are focusing on mostly the tire part of the business, which accounts for the majority of
Bridgestones sales revenues and the effect of customer service centers.
In this marketing plan, we have outlined specific financial, as well as nonfinancial goals and ways to help implement these goals and reach projected quotas. We
feel that because Bridgestone is such a large corporation, with a large amount of capital,
as well as being well- established in the tire industry, it has more freedom to take
marketing risks. These risks involve spreading out and adding more outlets all over the
world and taking advantage of opportunities of countries with rising economies.
Bridgestone also has the ability to be more environmentally safe and to give back to the

community, through recycling of tire products, such as in playgrounds and in underwater


reefs, as well as reusing rubber products for construction purposes. Bridgestone also has
the ability to help with environmental relief efforts, by contributing to help with world
relief.
As far as product development, Bridgestone is constantly increasing its product
line, by introducing new types of tires, and adding improvements to those that have been
in the market for a while. It is one of the leading tire producers in the world, but there is
still competition, and the way to get ahead is to offer consumers new products that are
more cost-efficient, safe, and durable, with good warranties and convenient and available
help provided by service centers when needed.
Bridgestone needs to expand its number of company-based stores that are located
within America. It also needs to establish new markets every year, both geographic ones
throughout the world, but also with new demographics, such as younger generations.
Bridgestone offers quality tires, while remaining at low, competitive prices and
that is what has attracted its customers for years. It has a wide consumer base as it is, and
revenue is in the millions, but there are always way to improve and make its products
available to more people worldwide.

2. COMPANY DESCRIPTION
Bridgestone is a leader in world tire technology. Its roots begin in 1900 when
Harvey S. Firestone established The Firestone Tire & Rubber Company in Ohio. A few
years later, in 1931, a man named Shojiro Ishibashi created Bridgestone Tire Company
Ltd. in Japan. In 1990, these two companies merged to form Bridgestone Americas. This
company is an international manufacturer and contains 38 production facilities scattered
all across the United States.
Tires are the largest part of Bridgestones business. Bridgestone develops,
manufactures, and markets tires designed for almost any type of vehicle. There are more
than 8,000 different varieties currently offered by Bridgestone. Along with tires, air
springs, building materials, synthetic and natural rubbers, and industrial fibers and
textiles are manufactured and sold across America and internationally.

Tires are sold through outlets all across America. There are currently more than
12,000 different outlets where tires are available and these include independent dealers,
discount retailers, warehouse clubs, and company-owned stores. Tires range from 13foot-tall giant radial tires for earthmoving equipment all the way down to kart tires as
small as 10 inches with passenger, light truck, truck, bus, construction, mining,
agricultural, and motorcycle tires in between.
Bridgestone prides itself in offering tires to the world that are the most
technologically advanced, as well as being safe and effective. It continually invests in
research, experimentation, and testing to better its products. Bridgestone wants its name
to be known in every household and across America and to boast a prestigious reputation
in high- quality. This marketing plan outlines how Bridgestone Americas will widen its
coverage, grow their market, and improve their reputation.

3. STRATEGIC PLAN/ FOCUS


This section of the Marketing Plan covers three aspects of corporate strategy that
influence the marketing plan: (1) the mission/ vision, (2) goals, and (3) core competence/
sustainable competitive advantage of Bridgestone.
Mission/ Vision
The mission and vision of Bridgestone can be best summed by the mottos of the
original founders. Ishibashi of Bridgestones philosophy on how to influence the
corporate world of tire technology as well as affecting the community in a positive way
was Serve Society with Superior Quality. Harvey of Firestones mission was to be the
Best Today- Still Better Tomorrow, which showed his motivation in trying to constantly
improve his products to offer the highest degree of excellence. The combined values of
these two innovators are representative of the current passion that Bridgestone Firestone

has today in trying to offer the highest quality products to the largest consumer base
possible, while providing excellent customer service as well as satisfaction.

The current
slogan of
Bridgestone is
Passion for
Excellence.

Goals
Bridgestone hopes to achieve the following goals within the next five years.

Non-financial Goals:
1. Focus on giving back to the community and staying involved in relief efforts.
2. Actively participate in recycling in order to protect the environment. For
example, initiating projects such as tire use in playgrounds and in artificial reefs.
3. Take advantage of opportunities in Latin America. There is renewed growth in
the sales and profits in this geographic area and Bridgestone needs to act on those.
4. Improving within every company-owned store the service offered, such as
having vehicles ready when promised and to have problems with vehicles that are
brought in fixed right the first time.

Financial Goals:
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1. To minimize loss claims on vehicles by customers by improving service and


products.
2. Increase sales by promoting the fighting tire.
3. Increase dividend payouts to attract stockholders. This will increase
Bridgestones capital in the long run.

Core Competency and Sustainable Competitive Advantage


Bridgestone seeks to provide high quality tires that are dependable to the
consumer, because safety is the number one priority to the company. Bridgestone wants
its customers to be able to rely on its products and focuses its efforts on continually
technologically improving its tires. These competencies can be translated into a
sustainable competitive advantage by Bridgestone broadening its market base to include
not only new geographic areas, but also new consumers within areas, such as appealing to
younger customers through new marketing programs. Bridgestone aims to work on
satisfying all the needs of its consumers.

4. SITUATION ANALYSIS
The situation analysis begins with a SWOT analysis. After this, the levels of
the tire industry, competitors, the company, and its consumers are described and
analyzed.
SWOT Analysis
Internal Factors
Management

Strengths
Continuing to hire new highly
skills management teams

Offerings

Rebates on tires, to make them


more attractive to buyers

Marketing

New marketing campaign


designed to attract a younger
buyer
Hiring large number of new
employees

Personnel
Finance

Money entering the


corporation, through sales due
to rebates on tires

Weaknesses
East Africa Firestone is
claiming to sever all ties with
Bridgestone
Rebates cut profits; tend to
attract bargain hunters, doesnt
gain customer loyalty
New campaign costs
significantly more money
Large number of employees
need to be trained well, and
know our services
Paid out $240 Million to Ford
to settle dispute about tires

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Manufacturing
R&D

External Factors
Consumer/ Social

Competitive

Technological
Economic
Legal/ Regulatory

Becoming more efficient in


manufacturing
Experimenting with new
rubber to make tires last
longer

New technological advances


can be expensive to implement
Longer lasting tires cuts into
profits

Opportunities
Partnership with General
Motors. Bridgestone tires will
be factory-equipped on certain
vehicles
Established brand, draws
customers in, and our quality
product keeps them coming
back
New technology in run flat
tires, could help our industry

Threats
Hard to please todays ever
changing market, customers
have more information readily
available to them
New low price tires, while not
quality, steal our market share

Highly competitive in foreign


markets
Pollution laws in foreign
markets make production
easier, and cheaper

Competitors with new


technologies that reduce their
total costs
Foreign markets raise costs of
doing business
Pollution in a River in East
Africa could have legal
repercussions

Industry Analysis
According to AutoBusiness, the tire industry has been constant for the past
century. There have been no new great contributions. Despite mergers, material
improvements, and design changes, which have made tires cheaper, long-lasting, and
effective, it is still a commodity product. The industry has potential for change through
factors such as the growth of global brands, new design of tires (such as the development
of run-flat tires by Michelin) which may affect the design of vehicles, new manufacturing
techniques which will alter the economics of the industry, and national and regional
legislation, which is in part because of the Firestone recall, which is changing product
specification and the whole life cost of the tire. The current total industry revenue is
$60,071 million dollars.
Competitors in the Tire Market
Bridgestones main competitors in the tire market include Continental, AG,
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Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, BFGoodrich Tires, Cooper Tire and Rubber, and
Bandag, Inc.
Company Analysis
Bridgestone Americas Holding Inc. has such an extensive background, with
strengths coming from both sides of the merger in 1990 between Japans Bridgestone
company and Americas Firestone company. The merger created a huge advantage for
Bridgestone in the international market. They were automatically global. Bridgestone
also has an advantage because they have been in the tire industry for a very long time.
Currently, Bridgestones revenue is $20,678 million dollars. Bridgestone is in control of
34% of the total tire industry. (Appendix B, Reuters.com)
Customer Analysis
May through September is the busiest time of year for Firestone because all the
children of customers are out of school. College kids are coming home and need work
done on their cars. Families are also going on vacation and need their cars to be
maintained when driving long distances. In August and September College students are
going back to school and need maintenance done before returning and parents have less
time because of younger kids being back in school. Therefore they need their car
maintenance up to date. The percentage of men versus women that purchase from
Firestone is becoming more even as time passes. Women are becoming increasingly more
prevalent in the business as the primary purchasers.

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5. MARKET- PRODUCT FOCUS


This section describes the five-year marketing and product objectives for
Bridgestone Tires and the target markets, points of difference, and positioning of its lines
of tires.
Marketing and Product Objectives
Bridgestone Firestones marketing intent is to broaden its market and make its
brand name known worldwide.

Current Markets. Current Markets will be grown by expanding product lines and
increasing the technology of tires, new tires will be designed. Also, Bridgestone will
improve customer loyalty. This will be done by creating customers that will buy from
Bridgestone for life, by improving the service of tire stores and promoting repeat
purchasers and advantages for Bridgestones consumers.

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New Markets. Bridgestone is currently undergoing a new campaign to attract the


younger generation markets. It is also gearing advertisements towards women.
Bridgestone also hopes to take advantage of opportunities in foreign countries where
the market is improving, such as in Latin America and Costa Rica, and to widen the
market base in these geographic areas.

Global Markets. Bridgestone caters to 20 countries all over the world. Bridgestone
should increase this number, as well as make sure it increases its number of outlets in
each country, to internally increase the specific markets of individual countries.

Tire Sales. Bridgestone hopes to improve tire sales by creating more company-owned
stores, to expand its market. The goal is to add 500 more outlets, which may be
company-owned or otherwise. One of Bridgestones major competitors is Goodyear,
which is publicly traded, which produced $3 billion in revenue for 2004. Bridgestone
hopes to be more competitive with this industry competitor and increase sales within
the next five years to reach this mark.

New products. Through technological advances, Bridgestone will design new tires
that will be more effective, safe, and cost-efficient, not only for its consumers, but in
the production of these tires. New product screening has been taking place, and there
are continually new products that are brought into Bridgestones line and introduced
into the market. Within the five year plan, Bridgestones goal is to create at least 10
new products, and to have successfully introduced these products to the market, as
well as improving the production and efficiency of products and services that are
already available.

Target Markets

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The target markets for Bridgestone tires are as varied as their products are. The
different categories of tires are performance, specialty, winter, touring, passenger, and
light/ medium truck. Performance tires are marketed to customers who have highperformance vehicles and prefer higher end tires. Specialty tires are marketed to law
enforcement and high-speed emergency use. Winter tires, which are good for adverse
winter conditions, are geared, specifically in America, towards northern states and in
mountainous regions. Touring tires are for comfort and smooth rides, are geared toward
owners of luxury vehicles, and are more expensively priced. Passenger tires are for allweather conditions, come with a reliable warranty and are the most popular tire bought.
These tires have the widest market, and are geared to the everyday consumer. Light/
medium truck tires are designed for durability and are offered to truck owners. Other
tires include heavy-duty machinery tires which can be sold wholesale to separate
businesses, especially construction and mining companies. Smaller kart wheels are sold
to race car owners and are advertised through races and sometimes through sponsorship.
Points of Difference
The points of difference, which which makes Bridgestone unique in relation to its
competitors, fall into these categories:

Tires for Law Enforcement Vehicles: Tires are very good traction and handling
capabilities, and have passed the Los Angeles County Sheriffs Department and
California Highway Patrol high-speed wear tests.

Passenger tires: Tires are available for Soccer Moms as well as people who
travel often. They have good handling in both wet and dry conditions and boast a
very smooth ride for children and comfortable ones for those on long journeys.

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The Brand: Bridgestone Firestone is a very well-known name. It has been in the
industry for a long time, 1900 for Firestone, 1931 for Bridgestone, and 1990 since
the merger, which not only gives this company plenty of experience, but they
have a serious global advantage because the merger between Bridgestone and
Firestone united the hemispheres.

Tire Service: Service stores pride themselves in setting their service centers apart
from competitors because of the steps taken in cleanliness, and the amenities
offered to its customers. Waiting rooms are comfortable and clean, providing airconditioning and a nice atmosphere to relax and wait for the car service to be
completed. Entertainment is provided such as newspapers, magazines, television,
as well as nice decorations that are pleasing and attractive to the eye.
Refreshments are also offered such as coffee and water.

Positioning
Bridgestone makes buying tires easy and convenient. Information is offered as to
what is the best type of tire for specific cars and what is most cost-efficient for the
customer. Service centers are convenient and are open seven days a week. Warranties
also provide the customer with a guarantee that they, and their tires, will be taken care of
in case of a problem. Bridgestone reassures customers that buying tires for their vehicles
is painless, easy, fast, and that Bridgestone is making a commitment when a consumer
purchases a tire.
Personal Selling
A large part of involvement with each firestone store is personal selling. Tires are
an expensive item and customers want to be able to rely on someone who knows what

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they are talking about and can sell them a safe and high quality product at a reasonable
price. The managers are given a certain quota of how many tires need to be sold in a
month, as well as for the whole year, and they are expected to meet those quotas. The
managers must establish a relationship with between their regular customers and come up
with strategies to boost their tire sales for any given month. With tire sales, a manager has
to think about the basics. The manager needs to have a well-rounded knowledge of the
tires that are sold in their store in order to determine the customers needs. A manager
needs to probe the customer by asking questions about the vehicle that the tires will be
used for. Managers need to ask questions such as Who drives the car? How long do they
plan on keeping the car? And how is the car used? For example, if it is the child of the
customer who will be driving the car then they would probably want a higher quality tire
rather than the cheaper one to ensure the childs safety. However, if the customer just
drives it to and from work they might not need as expensive of a tire. If a customer drives
a luxury car such as a Lincoln, he or she is probably going to be looking for a smoother
ride and the manager would need to select a tire based on that necessity.
Another part of personal selling is advising the customer of the needs of their
vehicle to continue to run smoothly (such as oil changes) as well as any preventative
maintenance (brake fluid flushes, transmission fluid flushes, etc). This is in order to
extend the life of the car.
Robert Williford, a Bridgestone store manager in Yorktown, Virginia, stated that it
is important to, Never pre- judge a customer based on their appearance. A manager
should always approach each customer the same, and never assume that a customer is not
willing to spend the money needed to maintain their car. (Williford, Robert, 2005).

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6. MARKETING PROGRAM
Competition
Product
Price

Introduction
Several
Multiple
Penetration

Growth
Must
Many Types/Styles
Gain Market Share

Maturity
Many
Full Product Line
Defend profit

Decline
Reduced
Best Producing
Make Profit, but

Promotion

Inform People

Stress Points of

Commercials with

keep low prices


Small Promotion

Place (distribution)

Limited

Difference
Carry product more

Reminders
Carry Product still

Sale of Old product

places

more places

to make room for


new

Product Strategy:
Bridgestone has a very wide and varied product line. There are many different
categories, as well as many different sizes and options within each category. The tires
that are best producing of profits are kept in the product line, and those that are not are
faded out of production. Bridgestone introduces many types of tires to test out how well
they are received by the public. If they are a popular, then more capital is invested in
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improving the quality and trying to make it better. Currently, there are more than 8,000
different tire types.
Price Strategy:
On the whole, Bridgestone prices at the same level or below that of competitors,
but the price of specialty tires or high-performance varies depending on the type and
design. An example of pricing against competitors is a tire for the 1996 Jeep Cherokee
Country
4 X 4 SUV. BFGoodrich sells its Radial Long Trail tire for $81.00 and Goodyear sells its
Fortera HL tire for $101.00. Bridgestone sells its tire, the Destination LE for $71.00. All
three tires are of the same size, have similar tread patterns, and fairly close wear
warranties. Bridgestone is trying to attract customers by pricing below its competitors.
The overall objective in pricing is to make a profit, while providing a quality tire. Certain
constraints Bridgestone encounters are the demand for quality tires at a price, the cost of
introducing a new tire, the cost of manufacturing a high mileage tire, and the cost of
technology. Although Bridgestone is well-established in the industry, the market is still
highly competitive throughout. It must remain on its feet with regards to technology, so
as not to fall behind and be taken over by other major industry leaders.
Promotion Strategy:
The key promotion strategies used by Bridgestone are ads for their sales in the
local newspaper (placed in the sports section every week), banners out at the front of the
store, stack all covers (cover stack of tires with questions like when was the last time
you had your oil changed?, or tire sales that the store is currently offering), Advo cards
(mailer cards to zip codes that purchase the most or ones that are closest to the store), and

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Bridgestone credit cards (make you a preferred customer which gives special discounts
with statement or coupons). Another promotion is that if a customer has not been in the
store in the past six months they will receive a coupon to get the customer to come back
in the store. The most advertised discount is on oil changes. It is the most needed service
on cars. When coupons are mailed out the most common one is for an oil change. One
example of a discount Robert Williford is giving for his Yorktown, Virginia store is
placing coupons for buy 3 get 1 free for tires in a letter from the Hampton Irrigation
Services. He is personal friends with the owner of the company and they made a deal to
put these coupons in the letters because it benefits Robert Williford by giving him
businesses and it benefits the owner of HIS by making it seem as if he is giving his
customers a gift for the holidays.
Place Strategy:
Bridgestone Tires are available through outlets all over America. Consumers can
buy them through company-owned stores, independent dealers, discount retailers,
warehouse clubs. There are currently over 12,000 outlets nationwide.

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7. R & D/ OPERATIONS PROGRAM


Bridgestone is constantly experimenting with new products. Currently it is
working with tire rubber to make it last longer. Bridgestones goal is to create at least 10
new products within five years. It has copyrighted many products that are used not just by
its own company but by many within the industry. Included in these is a form of pitch
noise reduction. Tread block elements are arranged to produce noise-canceling sound
waves when the tire is in motion. Another element of its research and development is
what is known as the Ultimate Network of Intelligent Tire Technology or UNI-T.
This is a combination of technologies that work together to create the most advanced tires
available.

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8. FINANCIAL PROJECTIONS
Past Sales Revenue
Bridgestone. has steadily increased its sales revenue every year for the past five
years. Sales continue to rise at a steady, constant rate.

Revenue
Year (millions)
2000: $17,171.4
2001: $18,257.3
2002: $19,232.2
2003: $19,712.7
2004: $20,677.5

SOURCE: REUTERSSEE APPENDIX B


Five-Year Projections

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Financial Element
(in millions)
Total Revenue
Gross Profit
Total Operating Expense
Net Income

Actual:
2004
20,194
7,382
18,542
956.4

Year 1:
2006
21,756
8,020
20,104
1,550

Year 2:
2007
22,612
8,339
20,885
1,847

Year 3:
2008
23,468
8,658
21,666
2,144

Year 4:
2009
24,324
8,977
22,447
2,441

Year 5:
2010
25,180
9,296
23,228
2,738

Year 2005 is almost to a close, but information is not released until December 31,
2005 for the annual amount. We have estimated the financial as follows (in millions):
total revenue: $20, 900; gross profit: $7,701; total operating expense: $19,323; and net
income: $1,253. The projections were based off past financial elements as well as the
approximated 2005 financial elements.

9. ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE
Organization Structure provides a skeleton as to the outline of a company. The
President
Board of Directors is above the Presidentand
andCEO
CEO. Bridgestone organization structure is
shown below from the President and CEO down to the Sales Regions and
Representatives:

Vice
President
Information
Systems

Vice
President
Research &
Development
Department

Vice
President
Manufacturing
Department

Manager
Sales

Vice
President
Marketing
Department

Manager
Marketing
Research

Sales
Regions and
Representatives

Vice
President
Accounting
and Finance
Department

Manager
Product
Planning

Vice
President
Human
Resources
Department

Manager
Advertising
and
Promoting

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10. IMPLEMENTATION PLAN


To reach the specific financials goals set up in the projections for the next five
years, Bridgestone needs to keep at its rate of expansion. For every year, at least two new
markets needed to be added to the current market base. These may be geographic
markets such as developments in certain areas or they may be demographic markets, with
newly added consumers from markets such as different generations, to bridge the gaps.
Bridgestone should make use of its newly formed alliance with GM Motors and gain
revenues through that source as well. It needs to also plan on having a 15-20% increase
in tire sales per year and can do this through the expansion of markets, as well as by
increasing its customer loyalty and rate of customer return.
Bridgestone needs to also take advantage of the economies of developing
countries. If Bridgestone is pro-active about setting up centers and outlets in countries
whose economies are on the rise, then they will be the first to establish itself within that
country. These are countries such as Latin America and Costa Rica. Their need for
commodity products is on the rise because their communities and markets are on the rise.
The demand for tires will eventually increase in these countries and Bridgestone should

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be there to provide the tires to the consumers. Bridgestone should also work on
expanding outlets and adding company-owned stores in Europe and Asia.

11. EVALUATION AND CONTROL


A goal has been set to have two new markets added to the current market base. In
order to make sure this happens marketing teams will need to stay focused and if it is not
met then for the next year it will have to be more than two to make up for the previous
year. In order to continue setting up in progressing countries Bridgestone may need to
outsource some of the labor. Contractors will probably need to be hired for some of the
work. A big focus needs to be made on the alliance with General Motors to make sure
that all resources are being used there. To be sure that the 15-20% tire sale increase per
year occurs, they will need to push this every month with the managers reminding them
of this goal. If it is not reached in a particular year they will need to compensate with
extra sales for the following year or two to catch up.

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12. APPENDIX A: BIOGRAPHIES OF


KEY PERSONNEL
Harvey S. Firestone was born December 20, 1868 in Columbiana, Ohio. He
worked for the Columbus Buggy Company until he founded Firestone Tire and Rubber
Company in 1900 at the age of 31. He started out his company with a mere 12 employees
and today Firestone employs people all over the world. Harveys plan for his company
was to be the best today- still better tomorrow. Firestone was close friends with Henry
Ford, and for years after their companies did business closely together.
Shojiro Ishibashi was born in the Japanese city of Kurume, as the son of a tailor.
At the age of 17 he succeeded his father as a tailor. He then proceeded to make great
changes with the company. Instead of a tailor company, he changed it to a sock
manufacturer. He also abolished the apprentice system, changing it to a wage system. In
1931, he created Bridgestone Tire Company Ltd. He made the company name by
reversing the English translation of his own name, "Ishibashi," which literally means
"stone bridge" in Japanese. In 1990 Bridestone bought out Firestone and merged the two
companies together.

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13. APPENDIX B: BRIDGESTONE INCOME STATEMENT AND


TIRE INDUSTRY OVERVIEW AND SALES

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14. BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Company Profile. (2005). Retrieved from Bridgestone Americas Holding, Inc. Web
Site:
www.bridgestone.com
2. 2. Consumer News. (2005). Retrieved from Bridgestone Firestone North American
Tire, LLC Web Site:
http://www.bridgestone.com/news/index_bs.asp
3. Detailed Quote. (2005). Retrieved from Bloomberg.com Research Web Site:
http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/quote?ticker=BRDCY:US
4. Income Statement for Bridgestone Corp. (2005). Retrieved from Bridgestone CorpIncome Statement on Reuters.com Web Site:
http://www.investor.reuters.com/IS.aspx?ticker=BRDCY.PK&target
5. Kerin, Hartley, Berkowitz, Rudelius. (2006) Marketing. (8th ed., pp. 47, 56- 69). New
York: McGraw-Hill/ Irwin.
6. Tires Industry. (2005). Retrieved from Tires Overview from Reuters.com Web Site:
http://www.investor.reuters.com/IndustryCenter.aspx?industry=TIRESS&target

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7. Trends in the Global Tire Industry. Retrieved from Autobusiness OnlineAutomotive Reports, Publications, and Studies Web Site:
http://www.autobusiness.co.uk/publications/tire/index.shtml
8. Williford, Robert. Personal interview. 13 Oct. 2005.

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