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8 Profile shift coefficient

A profile shift or addendum mofification can be made to have an influence on tooth shape
and tooth thickness. According AGMA 908 the factor is called addendum modification
coefficient according AGMA 913 and newer ISO standards profile shift coefficient is used.
12.8.1 Gears with standard addenda
For gears with standard addenda, the profile shift coefficients or addendum modification
coefficients are zero, i.e.:

The standard outside diameters may be calculated from the following equations using the
gear ratio mG = NGNP

Standard pitch radii:

Standard addenda:

Standard outside diameters:

Standard inside diameter (internal gears):

NOTE: The inside diameter of an internal gear is frequently made larger than that given by
the above equation to avoid interference between the tips of the pinion and gear teeth.
12.8.2 Gears with addendum modification
Gear teeth may have modified addenda in order to avoid undercut, to balance the bending
stresses in the pinion and gear, or to vary the relative amounts of approach and recess action.
For external gears with increased addendum, there is a corresponding reduction in dedendum;
i.e., the teeth are moved outward from the center of the gear. This profile shift, as it is called
in newer standards, is expressed in terms of a profile shift coefficient or an addendum
modification coefficient x where x is the proportionate distance (in terms of unity normal
diametral pitch) by which the datum line of the generating rack (e.g., hob) and the generating
pitch circle of the gear are separated.
The profile shift x is positive when the addendum is increased (the tooth thickness is also
increased) by shifting the generating rack outward of the material of the generated gear.
Existing conventions vary for internal gears; for AGMA2001 we define x2 as positive when
the reference generating rack is shifted out of the material of the gear resulting in an
increased tooth thickness of the gear teeth.
The sum of the addendum modification coefficients is given by:

Gear pairs with modified addenda may operate on the same standard center distance as
unmodified gears if the addendum modification coefficients are chosen as follows:

Then x = 0 and the gear pair may operate on standard centers.
Alternatively, x may be a positive number with the gear pair operating at a center distance
larger than standard, or x may be a negative number with the gear pair operating at a center
diatance smaller than standard.
The sizing button at the side of this field allows the program to calculate coefficients
suitable for a range of operating criteria:
General purpose The profile shift factor is calculated according to a formula by
Robert Errichello:

Balanced specific sliding The specific sliding at the beginning and the end of the
contact has the same values on the root of the gears.
Balanced sliding speed at tip The sliding velocity at the beginning and the end of the
contact has the same values.
Best strength against bending Choose x for the best bending strength
Best strength against scoring Choose x for the best scoring resistance
Minimum x1 without undercut or pointed tip Choose x1 so that no undercut occurs
at the pinion and the minimal topland of the gear is still large enough.
Maximum x1 without undercut or pointed tip Choose x1 so that the minimal topland
of the pinion is large enough and no undercut occurs for the gear.