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So and Such

She's so beautiful.
She's such a beautiful woman.
I met so many people last night.
I ate so much food that I feel sick.
We use
SO
with adjectives (e.g. tired, dangerous ....
We use
SUCH
with adjective ! noun (e.g.bad weather, big tree.
We use
SO
with "many ! countable noun" (e.g. many trees.
We use
SO
with "much ! uncountable noun" (e.g. much time.
Now try these sentences - type in the word 'so' or 'such'.
I've studied much grammar that I'm e#hausted.
$y sister is good at %nglish & she should be a teacher.
I've been waiting for a long time.
I watched a lot of '( last night.
I watched much '( last night.
I'm hungry, I could eat a horse.
I have many ideas, I don't know where to begin.
)sk 'om for help & he gave me good advice last time I asked him.
Even if, as if, even though, as though
If and though, and if and even if are different.
I'll help you if you want. if * possibly
I'll help you though you don't want me to. though * a fact, I know this
I'll marry him if he is rich. +ut not if he is poor,
I'll marry him even if he is poor. I'll marry him in any situation
As if and as though, and though and even though are the same.
-e looked as though he wanted to cry.
-e looked as if he wanted to cry.
as if * as though . We use them
to say "like.similar".
I like dogs even though they are smelly.
I like dogs though they are smelly
Even though is a bit stronger
than though.
Choose the best word (if, though, as or even) to complete these sentences.
/. I'd never get married, even 0eorge 1looney asked me.
2. -e spoke to me if I was a servant.
3. I didn't apologise, even I felt really guilty.
4. I believed him, though he'd lied to me before.
5. I would never take the job even they offered me ten times my current
salary.
6. -e went out, though it was still raining.
7. -e'll help you though he's angry with you.
8. -e's so unfriendly & it's though he doesn't like me.
9. %ven it was e#pensive, he bought the car.
Adverb + Adjective Collocations
Why don't we say "absolutely good" or "very fantastic": Well, adjectives like "good"
are known as weak or gradable adjectives, while adjectives like "fantastic" and
"perfect" are known as strong and ungradable adjectives. "(ery" is used with weak
adjectives, and "absolutely" is used with strong . ungradable adjectives.
I'm very tired.
I'm absolutely e#hausted.
Adverb Adjective
very, e#tremely,
incredibly, terribly,
awfully, fairly, a bit
(! ;uite, really
+ weak (gradable) adjectives
good
surprised
angry
absolutely, completely,
totally, utterly
(! ;uite, really
+ strong / ungradable adjectives
fantastic
ama<ed
furious
eally can be used with most adjectives & it doesn't matter what type they are.
'hat's a really interesting.fascinating book.
!uite can also be used with both, but its meaning changes.
'hat book's "uite interesting. ( * a bit
'hat book's "uite fascinating. ( * absolutely
+e careful. If you make an adverb from a strong adjective (e.g. incredibly,
a#a$ingly, it is used with weak adjectives. =or e#ample>
'his is awfully difficult.
-e's a#a$ingly good at cooking.
1hoose the best word to complete the following sentences.
off. 'o use this page, change to a ?avascript friendly browser, or turn it on,
/. I'm @@@@@ sleepy. I'm going to bed.
incredibly absolutely totally utterly
2. It was @@@@@ impossible to decide what to do.
e#tremely absolutely incredibly rather
3. I bought some @@@@ cheap shoes at the weekend.
e#tremely absolutely utterly totally
4. Sam's got a very @@@@ nose.
enormous huge large massive
5. I was @@@@@@ disappointed by the food in the new restaurant.
utterly terribly completely totally
6. 'he painting he bought was absolutely @@@@@@.
e#pensive priceless valuable pricey
7. Aour children are @@@@ noisy, I wish they'd be ;uiet,
utterly totally completely incredibly
8. 'he meal Sarah cooked for us was absolutely @@@@@.
delicious tasty nice good
9. =rank's girlfriend was wearing @@@@ short skirt.
an utterly an awfully a ;uite a totally
/B. Con't ask Simon to help & he's @@@@@ useless.
completely very e#tremely awfully
//. I was a bit @@@@ when I went to be after watching the horror film.
terrified petrified scared horrified
/2. It's e#tremely @@@@ that we try to solve this problem ;uickly.
crucial essential vital important
%radable/&ngradable Adjectives
'om is very cold.
Sarah is absolutely free$ing.
Cold is a "weak" or "gradable" adjective. It could be 5D, /BD, or more or less than
this. We use it with words like>
slightly cold, a bit cold, very cold, e#tremely cold
'ree$ing is a "strong" or "ungradable" adjective & it is very, very cold, It can't be a bit
free<ing, so we use it with words which mean "the most".
absolutely free<ing, completely free<ing, utterly free<ing
If you aren't sure whether an adjective is strong or weak, you can use "really" & it
works with all adjectives.
really
very absolutely
hot boiling
funny hilarious
surprising ama<ing
hungry starving
tired e#hausted
Similar to very> slightly, a bit, a little, e#tremely, terribly, incredibly.
Similar to absolutely> completely, utterly, totally.
(trong/)eak adjectives* Advanced +oints
,errible means very bad. +ut terribly just means very & for e#ample, "it was terribly
interesting". We often use it with a negative sentence> "It wasn-t terribly good."
(meaning "it wasn't very good"
!uite means different things with strong and weak adjectives.
It was ;uite funny. (;uite ! weak adj * slightly.
It was ;uite hilarious. (;uite ! strong adj * absolutely.
Very frightening terrifying
Very big gigantic
Very good marvellous
Very exciting thrilling
Very surprising astonishing
Very amusing hilarious
Very embarrassing mortifying
Very bad awful
Very confused baffled
Very hungry starving
Very tired exhausted
Very dirty filthy
Very clean spotless
Very old ancient
Very wet soaed
Very angry furious
1hoose the best word to complete each of the following sentences. 'here are
four choices (similar to =1% Ese of %nglish part /.
/. It's cold today. Aou should wear a warm coat.
2. I thought the film was absolutely .
3. I felt completely after I watched "'he Fing".
4. $y brother's absolutely . -e wants to be a surgeon.
5. I was tired after running the marathon.
6. I find documentaries about animals fascinating.
7. I'm scared of my neighbour's new dog. It's enormous,
8. I was very when she told me she was pregnant.
9. I was absolutely when my boss told me to work over the
weekend.
/B. %nglish food is absolutely . It's the best in the world.
//.It's cold today. Aou should wear a warm coat.
/2.I thought the film was absolutely .
/3.I felt completely after I watched "'he Fing".
/4.$y brother's absolutely . -e wants to be a surgeon.
/5.I was tired after running the marathon.
/6.I find documentaries about animals fascinating.
/7.I'm scared of my neighbour's new dog. It's enormous,
/8.I was very when she told me she was pregnant.
/9.I was absolutely when my boss told me to work over the
weekend.
2B.%nglish food is absolutely . It's the best in the world.
e.orted (.eech and e.orting /erbs
Aou will need to know the rules for reporting speech (statements and ;uestions as
well as the patterns following reporting verbs (e.g. "apologise for doing something".
If you need more information about these rules, look at my lessons for re.orted
s.eech, and re.orting verbs.
"I want to be a doctor," said 'om.
'om told #e (that he wanted to be a doctor.
'om said (that he wanted to be a doctor.
"Will you help me," she asked.
She asked (me if I would help her.
She wondered if I would help her.
Gote the difference between "say" and "tell". We say something, but we tell so#eone
something.
Similar to 'say' Similar to 'tell'
mention, e#plain, point out, agree, promise, threaten,
pretend, claim, recommend, suggest, admit, deny, boast,
complain, insist, propose, reply
promise, advise,
warn, remind
Subject (erb to do 'his pattern is common with verbs
which mean "I'll do it,"
-ere, the person who is speaking does
the action.
I offered
agreed
refused
promised
threatened
pretended
to #ake a cup of
tea.
claimed
Subject (erb Hbject to do
'his pattern is common with
verbs which mean "Aou do it,".
-ere, the person who is
listening does the action.
Gote that "warn" is usually used
with a negative. ("I warned him
not to go."
I
told
ordered
asked
begged
advised
reminded
persuaded
encouraged
warned
invited
hi#
to #ake me a
cup of tea.
Subject (erb doing
) lot of students make mistakes with
"suggest" and "recommend" so make sure
you learn these.
I
admitted
denied
suggested
recommended
eating all
the cake
=inally, there are a lot of reporting verbs which use prepositions. )gain, you have to
remember all these patterns.
I blamed hi# for doing it. I confessed to doing it.
I accused hi# of doing it. I apologised for doing it.
I congratulated hi# on doing
it.
I insisted on doing it.
Iractice> Fewrite each of these sentences so they have the same meaning as the
first. Ese between 2 and 5 words, and do not change the word in brackets.
"1an you open the window:" asked Sarah.
Sarah open the window. (I)
"If you remind me, I'll help," said Sam.
Sam said that he him. (re#inded)
"I'm sorry I broke your computer," said =rank.
=rank my computer. (for)
"Con't forget to do your homework tonight," said the teacher.
'he teacher homework. (us)
"It was )ndy who stole the money," said $ary.
$ary the money. (of)
'his grammar might also appear in part / of Ese of %nglish (multiple choice clo<e.
I @@@ him for everything.
accused apologised blamed confessed
I congratulated him @@@ winning the competition.
on of in for
I @@@ him that we should go on holiday.
suggested told e#plained invited
I @@@ that I would never do it again.
told promised refused wondered
I @@@ that I would help him if he needed it.
offered persuaded refused agreed
e.orting /erbs
1omplete the sentences so each pair has the same meaning. Ese the same
verb in both sentences, where possible.
Sorry & this e#ercise uses ?avascript. Aour browser either doesn't support
?avascript or you have it turned off. 'o use this page, change to a ?avascript
friendly browser, or turn it on,
/. She told me that she wouldn't give me any money.
She refused me any money.
2. -e told me that he had stolen the car.
-e confessed the car.
3. -e threatened that he would kill me.
-e threatened me.
4. She pretended that she was a doctor, and I believed her.
She pretended a doctor, and I believed her.
5. She said that I should study chemistry at university.
She encouraged chemistry at university.
6. -e said it was my fault that the computer was broken.
-e blamed the computer.
7. -e told me not to forget to bring my swimming costume.
-e reminded my swimming costume.
8. -e asked me again and again if I would go out with him.
-e begged out with him.
9. -e agreed that he would do the washing up.
-e agreed the washing up.
/B. I asked him if he wanted to come to my party.
I invited to my party.
//. I told them I was sorry burning the dinner.
I apologised to them the dinner.
/2. -e said it would be nice if we went skiing.
-e suggested skiing.
/3. -e told me that I had to tidy my bedroom.
-e ordered my bedroom.
/4. -e asked me if I could open the window.
-e asked the window.
/5. She said I shouldn't get angry.
She advised me angry.
0odal /erbs
'here are 5 patterns you need to remember which follow modal verbs>
$odal ! verb
-e should go. a single action (usually future or a state (now
$odal ! be ! verb&ing
-e should be going. an action in progress (usually now
$odal ! have ! past participle (e.g. done, gone, been
-e should have gone. a finished action (usually past
$odal ! be ! past participle (e.g. done, gone, been
-e should be told. passive (someone else does it to him
$odal ! have ! been ! past participle (e.g. done, gone, been
-e should have been told. past passive (someone did it to him
Hbviously, the e#act meaning depends on the modal verb used. =or e#ample, "-e
should have gone" means "he didn't go, and this was a mistake", while "-e must have
gone" means "I am sure that he went."
+ractice 1
In the =1% e#am, you might get ;uestions for this in part 2 (open clo<e. 1hoose the
best word to complete these sentences.
/. Go one knows how he died, but one theory is that it have been a tragic
accident.
2. 'he potato crops may have destroyed by insects.
3. Scientists have many theories about what might causing global
warming.
4. When <oologists measured the spiders, they realised that they must
been at least /6cm in length.
5. I should have homework more often when I was at school.
6. It is not true that the 0reat Wall of 1hina can seen from the moon.
+ractice 2
Aou might also get this tested in the Jey 'ransformations. Fewrite these sentences
using 2&5 words. +e very careful that you keep the time the same,,,
I'm sure he didn't understand what I was saying to him.
-e what I was saying to him. (#isunderstood)
It's possible that he missed his train.
-e his train. (#ight)
It was very wrong of you to borrow my car without asking.
Aou my car without asking. (have)
$aybe 'om is looking for a new place to live.
'om for a new place to live. (could)
Why aren't you at home revising for your e#am:
Aou for your e#am at home now. (be)
-e looks really disappointed. Hbviously he e#pected to win the race.
-e looks really disappointed. -e to win the race.
Conditionals
Aou will definitely need to know the rules for making conditionals, as well as similar
structures with 'wish' and 'would rather'. Kook at the following e#amples of key
transformations. =ollow the green links if you want more information about the
structures and some e#tra practice.
I crashed the car because I was talking on my mobile.
If I hadn't been talking on my mobile, I wouldn't have crashed the car.
(third conditionals for the .ast)
-e is always late because he forgets to set his alarm clock.
-e wouldn't be late if he remembered to set his alarm clock.
(second conditionals for the .resent)
I regret not studying for the e#am.
I wish I had studied for the e#am.
I would like to be rich and famous.
I wish I was rich and famous.
(wish / if only for .ast and .resent)
I think it's better to be rich than famous.
I'd sooner be rich than famous.
I'd rather be rich than famous.
(would rather/sooner/.refer)
We should go now.
It's (high time we went.
Gow rewrite each of these sentences so they have the same meaning as the first. Ese
between 2 and 5 words, and do not change the word in brackets.
-e doesn't understand because he never listens.
understand. (if)
-e was sick because he ate too much.
-e if he hadn't eaten so much. (been)
She got lost because she didn't have a map.
She wouldn't have got lost a map. (if)
I regret studying politics at university.
I politics at university. (studied)
I wish I had listened more at school.
I more at school. (regret)
I don't want to be a nurse, I want to be a doctor.
I doctor than a nurse. (sooner)
We should have dinner now.
It dinner. (high)
)ord 'or#ation* /erbs
'here are four main prefi#es.suffi#es used when making verbs, which you should
revise for the =1% e#am.
Kook at the information in the table for / minute and try to remember the words.
'hen click below to hide the information and try to answer the ;uestions at the
bottom.
en3 3ify 3ise 3en
enlarge
enable
entrust
enrage
ensure
endanger
beautify
clarify
specify
identify
terrify
purify
televise
advise
organise
specialise
prioritise
criminalise
apologise
widen
lengthen
deepen
shorten
tighten
brighten
darken
weaken
strengthen
Write the correct form of the word in brackets to complete these sentences. +e very
careful & these are verbs. So, for e#ample, if the word is C%%I, the verb could be
dee.en, dee.ens, dee.ening or dee.ened.
/. I find it difficult to my work. (IFIHFI'A
2. I'm studying medicine. I want to in genetics. (SI%1I)K
3. 'his photograph is too small. 1an you it for me: (K)F0%
4. I didn't understand what you just said. 1ould you it: (1K%)F
5. $y electronic dictionary me to listen to the pronunciation of new
words. ()+K%
6. -e loves insects. -e can over 5B different types of beetle.
(IC%G'I'A
7. 'here are a lot of accidents on this road & the council should it.
(WIC'-
8. 'he time we spent apart only my love for him. (S'FHG0
9. Aou didn't what flavour you wanted, so I got you chocolate.
(SI%1I=I1
/B.-is speech was too long. -e should have it. (S-HF'
//.-e always thinks he's right. -e never for his mistakes. ()IHKH0A
/2.I think the government should alcohol. (1FI$IG)K
/3.'hank you for the flowers you sent last month. 'hey really up my
room. (+FI0-'
/4.'he burglar that no one was in the house before he broke in. (SEF%
/5.'he film "'he Fing" me. I couldn't sleep for days. ('%FFHF
/6.'he government's plans for the hospitals will thousands of lives.
(C)G0%F
)ord 'or#ation* 4ouns with 3ion
Hne of the most common ways to change a verb to a noun is with &ion (e.g. act to
action and &ation (e.g. observe to observation. Sometimes we also change the verb
stem as well when we make the noun like this (e.g. e#plain to e#planation. 'he
table below shows common nouns in which the spelling of the stem also changes.
Kook at the information in the table for /&2 minutes and try to remember the words.
'hen click below to hide the information and try to answer the ;uestions at the
bottom.
4oun /erb Adjective
application apply applicable
permission permit permissable
solution solve unsolved
description describe descriptive
intention intend unintended
competition compete competitive
decision decide decisive
e#planation e#plain une#plained
production produce productive
repetition repeat repetitive
consumption comsume consumable
;ualification ;ualify ;ualified
Write the correct form of the word in brackets to complete these sentences. Some of
the answers are irregular (from the table above, but there are other regular nouns
included here. Con't forget to use an &s if necessary.
/. Ilease send a photograph with your 1( and form. ()IIKA
2. Aou need to make a today. (C%1IC%
3. -er of the grammar was very unclear. (%LIK)IG
4. We had a long about our problems. (CIS1ESS
5. Students must have their parent's to come on the trip. (I%F$I'
6. -e is still in hospital, recovering from his . (HI%F)'%
7. I entered a bowling . (1H$I%'%
8. $y children never show for anything I do, ()IIF%1I)'%
9. I can't come up with a to this problem. (SHK(%
/B.'he of junk food has increased over the last 2B years. (1HGSE$%
//.Aou need a lot of for this job. (ME)KI=A
/2.When I lived abroad, I found the from my family very difficult.
(S%I)F)'%
/3.'he of the new flats is nearly finished. (1HGS'FE1'
/4.We don't want a of the violence at last year's football match.
(F%I%)'
/5.'he police are conducting an into the murder. (IG(%S'I0)'%
/6.I gave the police a of the thief. (C%S1FI+%
/7.It wasn't my to offend you. (IG'%GC
/8.We are making for the wedding. (IF%I)F%
/9.I've just had a very interesting with your sister. (1HG(%FS%
2B.Aou can try our product for free, with no to buy it. (H+KI0%
$any verbs can form nouns with the suffi# &ment. )nd many adjectives can form their
nouns with the suffi# &ness.
Kook at the e#amples in the table for /&2 minutes and try to remember the words.
'hen click below to hide the information and try to answer the ;uestions at the
bottom.
/erb 4oun
achieve achievement
amuse amusement
argue argument
develop development
encourage encouragement
e#cite e#citement
improve improvement
involve involvement
judge judgement
measure measurement
Adjective 4oun
aware awareness
dark darkness
forgetful forgetfulness
happy happiness
homeless homelessness
la<y la<iness
lonely loneliness
rude rudeness
tidy tidiness
weak weakness
Write the correct form of the word in brackets to complete these sentences. 'here
are lots more e#amples here than in the list above, so remember that often verbs use
'ment' to make nouns, and often adjectives use 'ness'. )nd remember that sometimes
the nouns will be plural,
/. "Kadies and gentlemen, I would like to make an . ()GGHEG1%
2. is a problem everywhere, not just in big cities. (-H$%K%SS
3. -is made me very angry. (FEC%
4. What does your doctor recommend for the 'flu: ('F%)'
5. We had a big about whose turn it was to wash up. ()F0E%
6. I woke up at 2am. 'he house was in complete . (C)FJ
7. We need some special if we want to go mountain climbing.
(%MEII
8. If you drink too much alcohol, it will impair your . (?EC0%
9. 'he interviewer asked me about my strengths and . (W%)J
/B.$y friends gave me a lot of when I was worried about my driving
test. (%G1HEF)0%
//.'o my , I was offered N/B,BBB for my old car, ()$)O%
/2.'he company has made lots of to their internet services.
(I$IFH(%
/3.I used to find his funny, but now it really annoys me. (=HF0%'=EK
/4.Winning the race was an ama<ing for my daughter. ()1-I%(%
/5.'his book is very unrealistic, but that didn't spoil my of it. (%G?HA
/6.We are still making for the wedding ne#t month. ()FF)G0%
/7.Crivers should stop to rest during long car journeys, because can
cause accidents. ('IF%C
/8.Ieople can e#perience at many times during their lives, and for
many reasons. (KHG%KA
)ord 'or#ation* Adjectives with 3ful/3less
$ost adjectives which end in &ful make the negative with &less. +ut, not all. Gote also
that we can make adverbs from these adjectives with &fully or &lessly. =or e#ample,
carefully and carelessly. 'his is a list of key words which might appear in the =1%
e#am.
Sorry & these e#ercises use ?avascript. Aour browser either doesn't support ?avascript
or you have it turned off. 'o use this page, change to a ?avascript friendly browser,
or turn it on,
Kook at the information in the table for /&2 minutes and try to remember the words.
'hen click below to hide the information and try to answer the ;uestions at the
bottom.
'he words in this table all use &ful and &less to make the adjectives.
4oun /erb Adjective
care care careful.careless
harm harm harmful.harmless
help help (unhelpful.helpless
hope hope hopeful.hopeless
pain pain painful.painless
power power powerful.powerless
use use useful.useless
thought think thoughtful.thoughtless
taste taste tasteful.tasteless
'he adjectives in this table take &ful or &less, but not both.
4oun /erb Adjective
count count countless.countable
end end endless
home & homeless
peace & peaceful
play play playful
price price priceless
success succeed (unsuccessful
truth & (untruthful.(untrue
worth worth worthless
Write the correct adjective or adverb for each of these ;uestions. Aou will need to
use 3ful/3less or 3fully/3lessly. Some answers will also need un3.
/. What a lovely present, 'hat was very of you. ('-IGJ
2. -e drives really & one day he's going to have an accident. (1)F%
3. -e's told me times about how good he is at football. (1HEG'
4. +ecause of his bad interview, he was in his job application.
(SE11%%C
5. "I didn't eat your chocolate," she said , hiding the empty wrapper.
('FE%
6. It's . %ngland will never win the World 1up football again. (-HI%
7. $y best friend is a rich, lawyer. (IHW%F
8. Aou must remember to recharge your phone. Without its batteries, it's
. (ES%
9. 1igarettes are to your health. (-)F$
/B.'he sales assistant was really and rude. (-%KI
//.) newborn baby is completely . (-%KI
/2."Con't worry & this injection will be completely . (I)IG
/3.'hieves broke into the museum and stole a painting by (an 0ogh.
(IFI1%
/4.She's really rich, but her clothes are always very and elegant.
(')S'%
/5.I bought some shares in the company 5 years ago, but unfortunately now they
are . (WHF'-
/6.-is speech went on . I thought he'd never stop talking. (%GC
)ord 'or#ation* 4egatives
=or the =1% e#am, there's nearly always at least one negative in the word formation
paper. 'here are lots of prefi#es and suffi#es we can use to make negatives.
/. Gegative prefi#es can be used with nouns, verbs, adjective and adverbs. =or
e#ample disapproval, disapprove, disapproving, disapprovingly.
2. Esually i# ! . (impatient but not always (unpleasant.
3. Hften il ! l (illegal but not always (unlikely.
4. Hften ir ! r (irregular but not always (unresponsive.
5. Esually 3ful changes to 3less (harmful.less but not always (endless.
6. If you can't remember, choose un & it's the most common negative prefi#.
Sorry & these e#ercises use ?avascript. Aour browser either doesn't support ?avascript
or you have it turned off. 'o use this page, change to a ?avascript friendly browser,
or turn it on,
Kook at the information in the table for / minute and try to remember the words.
'hen click below to hide the information and try to answer the ;uestions at the
bottom.
un3 in dis3 i#3
une#pected
unaware
unbelievable
unknown
unable
inaccurate
inappropriate
inefficient
incapable
ineffective
disapprove
dislike disagree
disbelief
dishonest
improbable
impossible
impolite
imperfect
impatient
il3 ir3 #is3 3less
illegal
illiterate
illogical
illegible
irregular
irresponsible
irrational
irregular
misbehave
misunderstand
misspell misuse
careless
harmless
helpless
endless
Write the correct G%0)'I(% form of the word in brackets to complete these
sentences. +e very careful> some words have different negative forms (e.g.
unbelievable.disbelief, unlikely.dislike, unable.disabled.
/. 'he politician was accused of being (-HG%S'
2. -is story was so I thought he was cra<y. (+%KI%(%
3. She looked at him in when he told her the shocking news. (+%KI%(%
4. $any people are of the dangers of mobile phones. ()W)F%
5. -e's invited me to his party. It would be to say no. (IHKI'%
6. 'oo many children nowadays are growing up . (KI'%F)'%
7. 'hat's not what I said, Aou've me. (EGC%FS')GC
8. $y dog is completely . I promise he won't bite. (-)F$
9. 'he medicine was & he didn't recover. (%==%1'
/B.-is answers were very so he failed the $aths e#am. ()11EF)'%
//.It's that people will ever live on the moon. (KIJ%KA
/2.-e waited for the train. (I)'I%G'
/3.It's to smoke in public places nowadays. (K%0)K
/4.I would never teach children. 'hey always . (+%-)(%
/5.'he shirt he's wearing is completely for a job interview.
()IIFHIFI)'%
/6.-is speech was . I thought he'd never stop talking. (%GC
)ord 'or#ation* 4ouns with 3ence and 3ance
'wo common noun endings are &ance and &ence. Esually, their adjectives are made
with &ant and &ent. -ere are some common e#amples which might help you in the
=1% e#am.
Kook at the information in the table for /&2 minutes and try to remember the words.
'hen click below to hide the information and try to answer the ;uestions at the
bottom.
4oun (3ence) Adjective /erb
evidence evident &
e#istence e#isting to e#ist
(independence (independent to depend
difference different to differ
intelligence intelligent &
(disobedience (disobedient to (disobey
e#cellence e#cellent to e#cel
silence silent to silence
violence violent to violate
innocence innocent &
occurrence & to occur
(impatience (impatient &
4oun (3ance) Adjective /erb
attendance
attendant (person
& to attend
assistance
assistant (person
& to assist
(disappearance apparent to (disappear
distance distant &
(unimportance (unimportant &
acceptance accepting accept
reassurance reassured to reassure
(irrelevance (irrelevant &
(insignificance (insignificant to signify
Gote> I have only given the more common words here. 'here are other forms (for
e#ample, it is possible to use "to evidence something" as a verb but these are less
common.
Write the correct form of the word in brackets to complete these sentences. 'he
answer could be a noun or an adjective. Con't forget to use an &s or a negative prefi#
if necessary.
!. Enfortunately, accidents are a common along this road. (H11EF
". It's difficult to believe in the of aliens. (%LIS'
#. 'he police are looking for of the attack. (%(IC%G'
$. She thinks everyone hates her and needs from her friends all the
time. (F%)SSEF%
%. Scientist believe that the mysterious of millions of bees is due to
disease. ()II%)F
&. What's the best punishment for a teenager: (H+%A
'. What he said was true, but it was completely . (F%K%()G1%
(. /BBP is necessary to pass this course. ()''%GC
). I'm the only person who believes in his . %ven the police think he's
guilty. (IGGH1%G'
!*. 'here are three shop over there & you should ask one of them for
help. ()SSIS'
!!. Some people think that if you enjoy your job, the salary is , but I
love money, (I$IHF')G1%
!". I'm e#cited because I've just got a letter of from 1ambridge
Eniversity, ()11%I'
!#. 1ats are e#tremely animals. 'hey don't really need people.
(C%I%GC
!$. Aou need a lot of if you want to work with children. (I)'I%G'
)ord 'or#ation* Irregular 4ouns
'here are lots of standard noun suffi#es (e.g &ment, &tion or verb suffi#es (see my
verb word for#ation .ages. +ut many nouns and verbs have irregular suffi#es which
you'll need to know for the =1% e#am.
Kook at the information in the table for /&2 minutes and try to remember the words.
'hen click below to hide the information and try to answer the ;uestions at the
bottom.
4oun /erb Adjective Adverb
(disbelief (disbelieve (unbelievable (unbelievably
a choice choose chosen &
a defense defend defensive defensively
a death die dead.deadly deadly
a gift give & &
a loss lose lost &
a marriage marry (unmarried &
practice practise practising &
pretense pretend & &
proof (disprove (unproven &
safety save (unsafe safely
a sight see unseen &
a speech speak (unspoken &
a success succeed (unsuccessful (unsuccessfully
a thought think thoughtful.less thoughtfully.lessly
Write the correct form of the word in brackets to complete these sentences.
/. 'he flowers are poisonous & don't eat them, (CI%
2. Aou have no & you must do it. (1-HHS%
3. 'heir was a very happy one. ($)FFA
4. Aou need to do some more of this grammar. (IF)1'IS%
5. We don't have any that he committed the crime. (IFH(%
6. She's really about her new haircut.(C%=%GC
7. 'he company made a on their new product. (KHS%
8. I stared at him in . (+%KI%(%
9. Aour parents really care about your . (S)(%
/B.'he politician's really made me think about the issues. (SI%)J
//.We tried to keep up the that everything was HJ. (IF%'%GC
/2.I need to get a for my parents' wedding anniverary. (0I(%
/3.I'm really sorry. Aou were in your job application. (SE11%%C
/4.-e lost his in the accident (S%%
/5.-e's really selfish and . ('-IGJ
)ord 'or#ation* height, width 555
'he word formation part of the =1% use of %nglish e#am often tests adjectives such
as 'short', 'wide', 'dark' and their nouns and verbs. -ere is a list of some of the more
common adjectives and their forms.
Kook at the information in the table for /&2 minutes and try to remember the words.
'hen click below to hide the information and try to answer the ;uestions at the
bottom.
Adjective 4oun /erb
deep depth deepen
high height heighten
& weight weigh
wide width widen
long length lengthen
short
shortage (* not enough
shortness (* not tall
shorten
large enlargement enlarge
low & lower
tight tightness tighten
loose looseness loosen
strong strength strengthen
weak weakness weaken
dark
darkness
dark
darken
bright brightness brighten
Write the correct form of the word in brackets to complete these sentences.
!. Gormally I prefer tall men, but my husband's isn't a problem.
(S-HF'
". 'he news report covered the economic crisis in . (C%%I
#. ) healthy diet will your life e#pectancy. (KHG0
$. If they this road, there would be fewer accidents. (WIC%
%. I think I'll this photograph. (K)F0%
&. 'he airport has security at passport control. ('I0-'
'. I do yoga to my back. (S'FHG0
(. 'here is a water nearly every summer in the south of %ngland.
(S-HF'
). 'he moment I left work I my tie and started to rela#. (KHHS%
!*. When I myself, I found out I'd lost /Bkg, (W%I0-'
!!. 'he of my computer screen gives me a headache. (+FI0-'
!". I'm afraid of so I couldn't live on the /Bth floor. (-I0-
!#. 'he lights went out and the room was plunged into . (C)FJ
!$. I'm afraid of the so I sleep with the lights on. (C)FJ%G
!%. 'he government are going to the legal drinking age to /8. (KHW
!&. -is long illness has him. (W%)J
+hrasal /erbs with -&.-
It's hard to predict what phrasal verbs you might see in the =1% e#am, but here are
some you should try to learn.
Kook at the phrasal verbs and their definitions for / minute and try to remember as
many as possible. 'hen click to hide the information and try to answer the ;uestions.
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or you have it turned off. 'o use this page, change to a ?avascript friendly browser,
or turn it on,
Gote> sb means so#ebody and sth means so#ething.
+hrasal /erb 0eaning
Con't worry, I'll back you u. help.support sb
'he bully beat u. the other children. hit.kick sb repeatedly
'errorists tried blow u. the station. e#plode
Why did he break u. with me: end a relationship
Aou mustn't bring u. his divorce. mention sth
-is divorce might co#e u.. a topic is mentioned
We always end u. eating fast food. finally do this thing
I usually get u. early. leave my bed
I tried to give u. eating chocolate. stop a habit
1hildren grow u. ;uickly nowadays. become older.an adult
I can't kee. u.. do sth fast enough
If you don't understand, look it u.. look for a piece of info
Aou should take u. a new sport. start doing a hobby
Con't turn u. late on a first date. arrive
Ilease don't throw u. on the sofa. be sick
'CE +art 1* 0ulti.le Choice Clo$e
1hoose the best word to complete the following sentences.
/. I @@@@@@@ up football when I was /2 years old, and I loved it.
came took brought turned
2. I @@@@@@@ up football after I broke my leg, because I didn't enjoy it.
gave took kept turned
3. I couldn't @@@@@@ up with the work my teacher gave me & it was too difficult.
back end bring keep
$. "'ell your boss you want more money. I'll @@@@@ you up.
bring back look put
5. She's sensitive about her weight, so only talk about it if she @@@@@ it up.
makes gets brings comes
'CE .art 2* 6.en Clo$e
'he missing word could be the verb (e.g. bring.brought.bringing, the pronoun (e.g.
it or the particle (e.g. up.
/. I woke up at 6 am, but I didn't up until I heard the phone ring.
2. If you don't know the answer, you could it up on the Internet.
3. I love films with e#plosions and things being up.
4. Cid 'om tell you about his new job: Go, it never up.
5. I'm not coming to work today. I've thrown three times this morning.
6. Aou don't need an appointment & just up when you like.
7. -e's depressed because he's up with his girlfriend.
8. I promise I'll back up if you need my help.
9. Simon was attacked on the way home last night. 'he robbers beat up
badly.
/B. It's bad manners to up the topic of religion at the dinner table.
//. 'he party started well, but I up fighting with my best friend.
/2. -e ran so fast. I tried to up but it was impossible.
/3. I up in a small town in Scotland.
/4. +iting your fingernails is disgusting. Aou should really give up.
/5. I'd never up skiing. It looks really dangerous to me.
+hrasal /erbs with -7own-
It's hard to predict what phrasal verbs you might see in the =1% e#am, but here are
some you should try to learn (I'm assuming you already know 'sit down', 'lie down' and
'write down' which just have their literal meaning.
Kook at the phrasal verbs and their definitions for /&2 minutes and try to remember
as many as possible. 'hen click to hide the information and try to answer the
;uestions.
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or you have it turned off. 'o use this page, change to a ?avascript friendly browser,
or turn it on,
Gote> sb means so#ebody and sth means so#ething.
+hrasal /erb 0eaning
I said 'no', but then I backed down. change your original position
I turned down his offer.
refuse an offer (say 'no thank
you'
'he vet .ut down my dog.
kill an animal which is
suffering
$y car broke down on the motorway. stop working (machine
'he noise died down. become ;uieter
-e really let #e down. disappoint sb
I'll settle down when I'm 3B.
start living a sensible, adult
life
-e should slow down. do sth more slowly
'he prime minister had to stand down
after the scandal.
resign from a position of
power
Ilease cal# down. become less e#cited.angry
'CE +art 1* 0ulti.le Choice Clo$e
1hoose the best word to complete the following sentences.
/. I haven't got any clean clothes because my washing machine has @@@@@@ down.
turned taken settled broken
2. -e promised he'd drive me to the airport, but he @@@@@@ me down.
let took turned backed
3. I can't understand you & you're too fast, Ilease @@@@@@ down and speak clearly.
settle take slow let
4. )t first, mum wouldn't let me go to the party, but she @@@@@@ down when I
promised to get home before //pm.
backed turned slowed let
5. I don't ever want to get married and @@@@@@ down. I'm having too much fun,
make settle turn let
'CE .art 2* 6.en Clo$e
+e careful & the missing word could be any part of the verb (e.g.
bring.brought.bringing.
/. Aou mustn't rely on her & she always people down.
2. I'll buy a house and down in a few years.
3. We had to down our cat when she got sick.
4. -e waited for the applause to down before he started speaking.
5. If $anchester Enited keep losing, their manager should down.
6. She was so upset it took 2B minutes for her to down and e#plain the
problem.
7. I'm late because the train down and I had to get another one.
8. I know he said 'no' before, but if you e#plain why you want to borrow the car,
I'm sure he'll down.
9. She offered me the job, but I it down.
/B. Would you mind down: Aou're walking much too fast for me.
,hree )ord +hrasal /erbs
It's hard to predict what phrasal verbs you might see in the =1% e#am, but here are
some you should try to learn.
Kook at the phrasal verbs and their definitions for / minute and try to remember as
many as possible. 'hen click to hide the information and try to answer the ;uestions.
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or you have it turned off. 'o use this page, change to a ?avascript friendly browser,
or turn it on,
Gote> sb means so#ebody and sth means so#ething.
+hrasal /erb 0eaning
I really look u. to him admire sb
-e looks down on everybody. think you are better than sb
We have to .ut u. with the cold
weather.
tolerate (you can't do anything about
it
She ca#e u. with a really good
plan.
think of an idea
-e co#es across as a bit rude. appear to be
'he thief got away with the
robbery.
not get caught
I always look forward to seeing
him.
be e#cited about a future event
I co#e down with a cold every
winter.
get sick
I'll never grow out of liking sweets. stop liking
Aou need to cut down on
chocolate.
do sth less
Slow down. I can't kee. u. with
you.
do sth fast enough
-e won't own u. to his mistakes. admit sth
I don't get on with him. have a good relationship with sb
I often fall out with my sister. argue and stop being friends
Aou should #ake u. with your e#&
boyfriend.
start being friends again after an
argument
I think he's going to break u. with
me.
end a romantic relationship
Aou should stand u. for yourself. defend yourself (verbally
Hh dear. We've run out of bread. used all of something
'CE +art 1* 0ulti.le Choice Clo$e
1hoose the best word to complete the following sentences.
/. -e thinks he's so fantastic. 'hat's why he @@@@@@@ down on me.
gets puts looks falls
2. I just can't put @@@@@@@ with his rude behaviour any more.
up down on out
3. I'm looking forward @@@@@@@ on holiday ne#t month.
to go on going to going of going
4. Susan and Steve had a fight last week and they @@@@@@@ up with each other.
got kept came broke
5. 'he grammar is so difficult, I can't @@@@@ with the other students.
get on fall out keep up come up
'CE .art 2* 6.en Clo$e
'he missing word could be the verb (e.g. bring.brought.bringing, or the particle
(e.g. up.
/. We need to up with a solution to our problem.
2. Cave got away cheating in the e#am.
3. I feel terrible. I must be down with something.
4. I should really cut down coffee. I can never sleep at night.
5. I thought "Inception" was a really complicated film. I couldn't up with
the plot.
6. I grew of playing with dolls when I was /B.
7. I don't really get with my boss & he's really aggressive..
8. Con't let your boss speak to you like that. Aou should up for yourself.
9. I'm calling the police. I just can't put with my neighbour's loud music
any more,
/B. 1hildren often up to celebrities like football players.
//. William went travelling round the world, but he had to come home when he
out of money.
/2. Susan and Steve had a fight last week, but they've up with each other
now.
/3. I out with my sister when she borrowed my clothes without asking.
/4. -e across as a bit stupid, but he's actually very intelligent.
/5. Go one up to breaking the window, but we all thought it was $aria.
8inking E9.ressions with +re.ositions
'hese e#pressions are ;uite common in the Ese of %nglish e#am, and they will also
help you with the writing part of the e#am.
Fead these e#amples, then try the e#ercises below to practise using the e#pressions.
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or you have it turned off. 'o use this page, change to a ?avascript friendly browser,
or turn it on,
E9.ression 0eaning
I studied =rench instead of 0erman.
I studied =rench rather than 0erman.
and not . in place of
I love all meat a.art fro# ham.
I love all meat e9ce.t for ham.
not including
Ooos have wild animals such as lions.
Ooos have wild animals, for instance lions.
for e#ample
'he school was closed due to the snow.
'he school was closed because of the snow.
as a result of
She wears make&up so as to look older.
She wears make&up in order to look older.
reason
'CE +art 1* 0ulti.le Choice Clo$e
1hoose the best word to complete the following sentences.
/. -e claims his success is @@@@@@ to all the hours of practice he has done.
so as in order due rather
2. (egans avoid all meat products, @@@@@@@@ they do not wear leather.
for instance due to apart from rather than
3. )ll of %urope drives on the right, e#cept @@@@@@@@ 0reat +ritain and Ireland.
of than from for
4. $any people nowadays prefer to watch C(Cs at home, rather @@@@@@ go to the
cinema.
than to of from
'CE .art 2* 6.en Clo$e
1hoose one word to complete the following sentences.
/. $ost insects are solitary, but some, as bees and ants are social.
2. It's important that we also try to reuse things, rather simply recycling
everything.
3. Iolar bears are losing their sea ice habitat, to global warming.
4. Some people don't eat pork, of their religious beliefs.
5. In some schools, there is no encouragement to practise sports, apart
football.
6. 'he government are trying to encourage use of bikes, of driving cars.
7. Coctors advise keeping wounds covered so to prevent infection.
8. $ost people nowadays have at least two email addresses> a private one,
instance 'hotmail' or 'gmail', and a work address.
9. Curing pregnancy, some foods should be avoided order to prevent harm
to the unborn child.
/B. Go dogs are permitted in the hotel, for guide dogs.
8inking E9.ressions with As 555 As
')s ! adjective ! as' does appear in the =1% e#am in normal co#.aratives. -owever,
there are also some e#pressions using 'as ... as' which have another meaning. Kook at
these e#amples, then try the e#ercises below to practise using the e#pressions.
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or you have it turned off. 'o use this page, change to a ?avascript friendly browser,
or turn it on,
E9.ression 0eaning
I studied ?apanese as well as Spanish. also, in addition
I fell asleep as soon as I closed my eyes. when (immediately
I'll lend you N/BB as long as you pay me back. but only if
-e's still a teacher as far as I know. to this e#tent
As #any as 3 million people speak =rench.
(also with #uch, few and little
up to, and including
Gote that #uch and little are used with uncountable nouns (such as 'food' or
'money', while #any and few are used with countable plural nouns (such as 'apples'
or 'people'.
'CE +art 1* 0ulti.le Choice Clo$e
1hoose the best word to complete the following sentences.
/. We went home as @@@@@ as it started raining.
well long far soon
2. I'm vegetarian. I'll eat that as @@@@ as it doesn't contain meat.
well long far soon
3. I predict the ES will win over 3B gold medals, while the EJ will only win as
@@@@ as 5.
well far few little
4. )s @@@@ as I remember, the first time I met 'om was at college.
much well far soon
'CE .art 2* 6.en Clo$e
1hoose one word to complete the following sentences.
)s as /5 million people in the EJ catch a cold each year. )s as
doctors are concerned, the best treatment for a cold is to keep warm and drink
plenty of fluids. )s as this, you should rest and make sure you keep
eating properly. Some people claim that if you take vitamin 1 as as you
start feeling ill, it will reduce your symptoms.
It is safe to e#ercise if you have a cold as as you are sensible and listen
to your body. -owever, be careful when driving, as studies have shown that
colds and flu can reduce driver concentration and reactions by as as
//P.
(Gote> I'm not a doctor, Ilease don't take this as medical advice,
#ake, do, have and take
'here are some general rules for this, but mainly you need to remember lots of fi#ed
e#pressions.
Kook at the information in the table for a couple of minutes and try to remember the
words. 'hen click below to hide the information and try to answer the ;uestions at
the bottom.
#ake do have take
a mistake
a profit.loss
money.millions
a fortune
friends
war
a noise
a mess
fun of someone
a phone call
progress
a difference
the ironing
the housework
your homework
business
well.badly
sth wrong.right
your best
damage.harm
sb a favour
a look
dinner
a headache
a party
a picnic
a barbecue
an appointment
fun
trouble
sth in common
a photo
advantage of sb
care of sb
place
sth into account
your time
time
no notice of sth
part in sth
the opportunity
0ake is also used with most nouns for ways of s.eaking/.lanning. =or e#ample, you
make a complaint, a promise, an offer, a threat, a speech, an apology, a point, a
confession, an accusation, a suggestion, an arrangement, a decision, a plan, an
appointment.
+ut, have is used with most nouns which involve a two3way discussion. =or e#ample,
you have a conversation, a chat, a discussion, an argument, a fight, a row, a
meeting, an interview.
We also often use have ! a ! verb (where the verb and the noun are the same. =or
e#ample, have a look, a rest, a sleep, a drink, a walk, a go.
0ake, do, have, take
'here's lots of fi#ed e#pressions with make, do, have and take which you should
learn. If you haven't studied these already, look at this page for some e#amples and
an e#ercise to test your memory> collocations with #ake, do, have and take.
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you have it turned off. 'o use this page, change to a ?avascript friendly browser, or
turn it on,
+ractice 1
In the =1% e#am, you might get ;uestions for this in part 2 (open clo<e. 1hoose the
best word to complete these sentences. Femember, you need to choose the correct
form (for e#ample make, makes, made, making.
/. I'm a party at the weekend. Would you like to come:
2. She's always promises, but then she always breaks them,
3. 'he wedding will place in a local registry office.
4. I wish I was more progress with my %nglish.
5. I never part in team sports at school.
6. It's mean to fun of people.
7. What are you holding: 1an I a look:
8. I think I've this e#ercise completely wrong.
9. Would you mind me a favour and driving me to the doctor's:
/B. 'he murderer a complete confession to the police last night.
//. We were just a chat when his jealous girlfriend started shouting at me.
/2. Ilease don't get angry, I don't want to an argument about this.
+ractice 2
Aou might also get this tested in the Jey 'ransformations. Fewrite these sentences
using 2&5 words. +e very careful that you keep the tenses the same,,,
/. I found it difficult to understand his accent. (trouble)
I his accent.
2. -e complained to the manager about the terrible food. (#ade)
-e to the manager about the terrible food.
3. Ilease look after my little sister for me. (of)
Ilease my little sister for me.
4. 'here's no hurry & please don't rush. (ti#e)
'here's no hurry & please .
5. Aou should ignore him. (notice)
Aou should him.
6. $y house was seriously damaged in the earth;uake. (lot)
'he earth;uake to my house.
7. She's earning a lot of money in her new job. (fortune)
She in her new job.
8. I tried really hard to e#plain the problem to her. (best)
I the problem to her.
9. Aou're too loud. Ilease be ;uiet. (noise)
Aou . Ilease be ;uiet.
/B. I'm researching the life of Mueen (ictoria for my master's degree. (research)
I the life of Mueen (ictoria for my master's degree.
//. $y sister and I are completely different. (co##on)
I my sister.
/2. I've been on a diet for 6 weeks, but I'm still the same weight. (difference)
$y diet has my weight.