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Steel Pipe-

A Guide for Design


and Installation
AWWA MANUAL M11
Third Edition
~o:k?!~@*\
American Water Works Association
Contents
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Chapter 1
1.1
I .2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
1.10
1.11
History, Uses, and Physical Characteriodcs of SteeI Pipe. ....... 1
History, 1
Uses, 2
Physicai Characteristics, 3
Ductility and Yield S - , 3
Stress and Strain, 4
Smain in Dcsign, 7
Analysis Based on Strain, 8
Ductility in Design, 10
mects of Coid Worlnng on S - and Dudt y, 10
Brite Fracrure Considemtiom in Stnicturiir Dtsign, 12
Good Practice, 15
Chapter 2 Manufacture and Testing .................................... 16
2.1 Manufacture, 16
2.2 Testing, 19
Chapter 3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
Chapter 4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
Hydraulics of Pipelines ...................................... 21
Formulas, 21
Caicuiations, 26
Economical Diameter of Fipe, 32
Distribution Sysams, 33
Air En-ment md Release, 33
Good Practioe, 33
Determination of Pipe Waii Thicluiess ......................... 36
I n t e d Pressure, 36
Working Tension Strm in Steel, 37
Tolerante, 38
Corrosion Aiiowance, 39
Externa1 Pressure-Uniform and Radial, 40
Minimum Wall Thicknecs, 40
Chapter 5 Water Hamrner and Pressure Surge. .......................... 51
5.1 Basic Relationships, 5 1
5.2 Checklist for Pumphg Mains, 54 . .
5.3 General Smdies for Water Hammer Control, 54 '
t . - -
5.4 Al l omce for Water Hammer, 55 . - .
5.5 Pressure Rise Calculations, 55
Chapter 6
6.1
6.2
ExternalLoad ............................................... 57
. . c . . -
- 4 . &.. . ;?y' :: .;.
Load Determination, 57 " - - . -
. .
Deflsction Determimtion, W
-. 1 ,
6.3 Buckling, 61
-. ,.
6.4 Extreme Externa1 Loading Conditions, 62 = - . > . . . . - F . ,
6.5 Computer Programs, 63
A
Chapter 7 Supports for Pipe.. . . . . . . .
7. I Saddle Supports, 66
7.2 Pipe Deflection as ka m, 70
7.3 Methods of Cdculation, 70
7.4 Gradient of Supportsd Pipelines to Prevent Pocketing, 7 1
7.5 Ring-Girder ConstrucUon, 7 1
7.6 Ring-Girder Construction for Low-Pressure Pipe, 77
7.7 Installation of Ring-Girder Spans, 78
Chapter 8
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
Chapter 9
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.7
9.8
9.9
9.10
9.11
9.12
9.13
9.14
9.15
9.16
PIpeJoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Bell-and-Spigot Joint with Rubber Gasket, 86
Welded Joints, 87
Sleeve CoupLings, 88
Fimges, 89
Grooved-and- Shouldered Couplings, 89
Expmsion and Contraction-General, !M
Ground Fnction and Line Temion, 91
Good Practice, 92
Fittings and Appurtenances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Designation of Fittings, 93
Bolt Hole Position, 95
Design of Wye Branches, 95
Testing of Fittings, 95
Unbalanced Thrust Forces, 95
Frictional Resistance Between Soil and Pipe, 96
Anchor Rings, 96
Nozzle Outlets, 96
Connection to Other Pipe Material, 96
Fhged Connections, 97
Valve Connections, 97
Blowoff Connections, 97
Manholes, 97
Insulating Joints, 98
Air-Release Valves and Air-and-Vacuum Valves, 98
Good Practice, 99
Chapter 10 Principies of Corrosion and Corrosion Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
10.1 GeneralTheory, 101
10.2 Intemal Corrosion of Steel Pipe, 11 1 - ,
, .
10.3 Atmospheric Corrosion, 11 1
10.4 Methods of Corrosion Control, 1 1 1
10.5 Cathodic Protection, 11 1
1 Protective Coatings and Linings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Requircments of Good Pipeline Coatings and Liaings, 115
Selection of the h p e r Coating md Lining, 1 15
1 1.3 Reaommended Cuatings and Linings, 1 17
1 1.4 h t i n g Application, 1 18
11.5 GmdPractice, 119
Chapter 12 Transportadon, Installation, and Testing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
12.1 Transportation and Handling of Coated Steel Pipe, 121
. -
. >
- -- 12.2 Trenching, 122
12.3 Installation of Pipe, 123
12.4 Anchors and Thrust Blocks, 127
12.5 Field Coeiting of Joints, 128
12.6 Pipe-Zone Bedding and Backfdl, 128
12.7 Hydrostatic Field Test, 129
Chapter 13 Supplementary Design Data and Detaib . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
13.1 Layout of Pipelines, 131
13.2 Calculation of Angie of Fabricated Pipe Bend, 132
13.3 Reiforcement of Fittings, 134
13.4 Collar Plate, 136
13.5 Wrapper-Plate Design, 138
13.6 Crotch-Plate (Wye-Branch) Design, 140
13.7 Nomograph Use in Wye-Branch Design, 141
13.8 Thmsr Restraint, 147
13.9 Anchor Rings, 151
13.10 Joint Harnesses, 151
13.1 1 S pecial and Valve Connections and Other Appurtenances, 15 1
13.12 Freezing in Pipeiines, 162
13.13 Design of Circurnferential Fillet Welds, 168
13.14 Submarine Pipelines, 170
Index, 173
This manuai was first authorized in 1943. In 1949, committee 8310D appointed one of its
members, Russel E. Barnard, to act as editor in chief in charge of coiiecting and compiling
the available data on steel pipe. The first draft of the report was completed by January 1957;
the draft was reviewed by the committee and other authoritiec on sreel pipe. The first edition
of this manual was issued in 1964 with the title Steel Pipe-Desi@ und Installation.
The 1985 edition of this rgmual was approved in June 1984. The principal changes
from the 1964 edition rehted to externa1 loads on pipe, reinforcement of finings, and joint
harnesses. Some of the rigorous descriptions, formulas, and calculations included in the
1964 edition were diminated where adequate references to such descriptions, formulas, and
. -
calculations were available. Some chapters of rhe 1964 edition were combined in the 1985
,.. edition, thereby reducing the number of chapters from 19 to 13. Also, a comprehensive
< ---
index wrts added to rhe 1985 edition, and the manual's title was changed to Steel Pip-A
Guide for Desi@ and Installation.
. . . . . -
This revision of the manual was approved in Jwie 1988. In addition to corrections to the
, : . - .
... . - , . -
text and editing for chrity throughout, major revisions include redefinition of B' in Eq &7;
. -
.- -.
. - - -
. -
>&Tk - -
. - redefinition of h, and Wc in Eq 6-8; revision of Sec. 13.9, including revision of Figure 13- 16
.-.
.+.- 3 - - - - <=-: and addition of new tables for ring dimensions and ailowable bearing loads; and revision of
.+.?=S,::;- . .-
$g=..: --i-.--, : Sec. 13.10, including revision of Figure 13- 17 and addition of new tables for harness
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,
dimensions and allowable tie bol1 Ioadings.
This manual provides a review of experience and design theory regarding steel pipe
used for conveying water, with appropriate references cited. Application of the principies
and procedures discussed in this manual must be based on responsible judgment.
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This revision of Manual M1 1 was made by the following members of the Steel Water Pipe
Manufacturers Technical Advisor y Committee (S WPMTAC):
. :.- :,
.rc-
1
Roben E. Gilmor, Task Group Chairman
- > - . Frank Corteilessa -.: Gary V. Heatherington
D.J. Cowling C.R. McCormick
-- -
Demis Dechant Gary D. Redrnond
. R. Dewey Dickson Edwin N. Seward
A.D. Harder George J. Tupac
This revision was idso approvtd by the Standards Committee on Steel Pipe and the
Standards Council. The Standards Committee on Steel Pipe had the following personnel at
the time of approval:
George J. Tupac, CIrwrman
John H. Bambei Jr., Vice Chaiman
Dennis Dechant, Seoetary
Consumer Members
J.H. Bambei Jr., Denver Water Department, Denver, Colo.
G.E. 31wk Jr., GHR Engineering AswSates, Inc., Lakeview, Mass.
R.S. Bryant, Department of Water and Bower, Los b e l e s , Calif.
D. J. Cowling, US Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, Colo.
J.L. Doane, Portland Bureau of Water Works, Portland, Ore.
C.M. Frenz, M o m County Water Authority, Rochater, N.Y.
Wesley Kremkau, Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission, Hyattsville, Md.
Kemeth Olson, Tacoma City Water, Tacoma, Wash.
E.C. Scheader, Bureau of Water Supply, New York, N.Y.
G.M. Snyder, Metropolitan Water District of Southem CaIifornia, Los Angeles,
f.
General Inrerest M&s
C.J. Arch, Consulting Engmeer, Covina, Calif.
W.R. 3-11, Metcaif & Eddy, Inc., Arlington Heights, 111.
R. Dewey Di c h n , J.M. Montgomery Consulting Engineers, Pasadem, Caiif.
B.R. Eims*, Standards Engineer Liaison, AWWA, Denver, Colo.
L. J. Farr, CH2M fIiU, Inc., Redding, CalZ.
R.E. Gilmor, Consulting Engineer, Denver, Colo. . -. ... .
G.K. Hickox, Engineering Consultant, Houston, Texas
R.Y. Konyalian, Boyle Engineering Corporation, Newport Beach, Calif.
-1 -
G.M. Kroilik*, Naval Construction Bartalion Center, Port Hueneme, Mf .
G.D. Plant, Consulting Engineer, Napa, Mif. . . . . .
L.T. Schaper, Black & Veatch, Kansas City, Mo.
G. J. Tu- G. J. Tupac & As e t e s , Pittsburgh, Pa.
W.W. Webster, Leedshill-Herkenhoff, Inc., Albuquerque, N.M.
:.K.G. Wiikes, Consulting Engineer, Escondido, Calif.
--.R.E. Yomg, Robert E. Young Engineers, Sacramento, Calif.
. _ .
Producer Members
T.R. Brown, Rockwell Internationai, Pittsbwgh, Pa.
Frank CorteUessa, Kaiser Steel Corporation, Fontana, Mf .
Dennis Dechant, c/o Thompson Pipe aud Steel Company, Denver, Colo.
_ A.D. Harder, Ameron Pipe Division, Portland, Ore.
-George Harris, Taipecoat Company, Evanston, iil.
C.R. McCormick, CRM Enterpises, Vacaviile, Calif.
J.R. Pegues, American Cast Iron Pipe Company, Birmhgham, Ala.
E.N. Seward, United Concrete Pipe Curporation, Baldwin Park, Calif.
H.R. Stoner, Koppers Company, Newark, N. J.
J.A. Wise, Canus Industria, Ltd., Vancouver, B.C.
.. . L . ; :
AWWA MANUAL
un
1
History, Uses, and
5;
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g :- e i - , . T . . . &. .A-.-.Y. cT Physical . .
C haracteristics . .
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el pipe has been used for water lines in the United States sin- the early 1850s.' The pipe
was fmr manufactured by r o h g steel sheets or plata into shape and riveting the seams.
of pipe, continued with improvements
thicknesses couid be readily varied to fir the different pressure
y low tensile strength of the early steels, and the low efFiciency of
. - cold-riveted seams and riveted or drive stovepipe joints, engineers initially set a safe design
S at 10 000 psi. Over the years, as riveted-pipe fabrication methods improved and
r strength steeh were developed, design s ms e s progressed generally on a 4-m-1
safety factor of tensile strength, increasing from 10 000 to 12 500, m 13 750, and Finally to
psi, adjusted as necessary to account for the eficiency of the riveted seam. The pipe
-= was furnished in diameters ranging from 4 in. through 144 in. md in thickness from 16
f single-, double-, triple-, md even
rying in eficiency from 45 percent to 90 percent depending on
d in 1905, had nearly supplanted riveted pipe by 1930.
involved planing 30-ft long plates to a width approximately equal to half the
cumference, upsetting the longitudinal edges, md rolling the plates imo 30-ft
"' long half-circle troughs. H-shaped bars of special aonfguration were applied to the mating
edges of two 30-ft troughs aud clamped into position to form a full-circle pipe section.
Following the general procedure of the times, a 55 000-psi tensile-strength steel was
, used. With a 440- 1 safery factor, this resulted in a 13 750-psi design stress. Lock-Bar pipe
tages over riveted pi p: it had only one or two straight seams and no round
-s. The straight seams were considered 100-percent efficient as compmed to the
4'S;percent m 70-percent eficiency ge ne dy applied to rivered -s. Manufxtwd in
s h s from 20 in. through 74 in., from plate mqhg in thickness from 3/i6 h. to $2 in.,
Lo&-Bar played an increasingly gram role in the markct riritil the advent of automtic
electric welding in the mid 1920s.
By the early 1930s, both riveting and --Bar methods grdudly pmsed out of the
picture, and welding dominated $he field. Pipe produaed using automtic de&c Eusion
welding offered thc advaniages of fewer pieces, fewer operakm, fmter production, smalIer
seam protrusion, and 100-permnt oPelded+mm eflkiencp. Fa- of fusion-welded
pipe foliowed somewhat the sime initial pduction sequemes as for M- B a r . Thmugh
the 193th and into h e 19&, 30-ft fletes were used. By the 19509, some rms had obtained
48-ft dh, mda ii=w f o ~ ~ f t ~ ~ in p - ,
h h g the developing d.ecstde of welding ip tk i9%, a new approach was mken to
des@ stresses. Prior to that time, it had been c&on p d c e to work with a safety factor
-
&
of Pta- 1 b& on the tensiie s t m q i d ~ As w d d pipe came into p r a d o h , the concept
-
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of ~ ~ ~ - 5 0 w t of the field kmme gemdi p accepted.
-
--
Spirsiily forrrred oind wclded ppewas devebped In thc early 19309 and was ~ s e d
:- . .
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extensivelg in diameters from 4 h. through 36 in. Welding was by ihe e l &~ fusion
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methd. After Worid Wm 11, Ger~ian mcbines were impomd, andsubsequentiy domestic
ones were developed t ht could s p a y hrrn and w d h u g h dbekrs of 144 in.
E:- -5; 1 3 m&
5-, 5,-
<< .-c.
Steel water pipe me- the requirements of appmpriate AWWA smdards has been found
satisfactory for mmy appkatims, same of which are as follows:
Aqutduca Treatment-pht piping (Figure 1-1)
Supply &S Self-supgodng spam
T d s i mma i n s P m lmins
Distributiw d m @cuhhg-water k s
flZ$#-v -, - P L ~ t d a . Uderwater crossiagg, incakes, md outfds
k ..:,cz~-~- M &m OII s ~ ~ & & e notarbb ~td pi pe be ~ b e b p ~ b ~ i ~ h e d . ~ d =la m
.- - . &.,-=- -
, - . .
. -
- .
numerous others have appbed in t k J md R WWA and 0th~ periodicals, as well eis in
-
many textbooks and engh&ng hrrndbooks.
-.
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T h installation of pipe In This plant was made &er k w e d the speeM1y designed fittings and
- WW@P~Cte-
.- FI-1-1 Sted mpe in Filtratlon Phnt Mer y
HISTORY, USES, PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS 3
The properties of steel rhat make it so useful are its great strength, its ability to yield or
deflect under a 1 4 w u e stiii offwing fuli resismce to it, its ability to bend without
breaking, and its resistan= to sho&. The water utiZity eagineer s h d d understand these
properties, how they are measured, what they wiii do, and to what extent they can be relied
-
on.
-
1.4 DUCTILITY AND YIELD STaENGTH
.-
Solid mmhis can be differentiated imo two dasses: d u d e and brittle. In engineering
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. r
practice, these IWO classes must be mted differentlg b u s e they behave differently under
5 -
load. A ductik material exhibits a ~~ pht i c deformatiun or fiow at a faairly definite
5
-
6
The top photwraph shows a section of pipe after it collapsed as a result of Ihe
falure of automatic vacuum-relief val-. The r e s t w section, rounded out by
water forced through under pressure, is sbown at the botiom.
Figure 1-3 Sections of 94-111. Bwquet Canyon Ppeline
F
4 STBBL PIPE
stress level (yield point or yield strength} and S hows a considerable total elongation, stretch,
or plastic defomt i on before final breakage. With a brittle material, the plastic defomtion
is not weli defined, and the ulrimate elongation before breakage is s d . Mild steel, such as
-- is used in steel water pipe, is typical of the duaile materials. (The behavior of brittle
?materials will not be examined in this manual.)
It is because of steel's ductility, its ability to yield or flex but not break, that the
Bouquet h y o n pipeline shown in Figures 1-2 and 1-3 still operates satisfactorily in 1983
after 50 years of service. It is ductility that allows comparatively thin-wded steel pipe, even
;.
-
though decreased in vertical diameter 2-5 percent by earth pressures, to perform
- satisfactorily when buried in deep trenches or under high fills, provided the true required
"- -
- -
strength has been incorporated in the design. It is also because of ductility that steel pipe
with theoretically high localized stresses at flanges, saddes, supports, md joint-harness lug
connections has performed satisfactorily for many years.
Designas who determine s m s using formulas based on Hooke's iaw find that the
calculated results do not reflect the inregnty exhibited by the structures iiiusmted here.
reason for the discrepancy is that the conventionai formulas apply only up to a certoiin
s level and not beyond. Many eminently safe stnictures and parw of structuces oontain
calculated stresses above this level. A fuli undersmding of tbe performance of sudi
ures requires that the designer examine empirically the actual behavior of steel as it is
ded from zero to the breaking point.
& - The physical properties of steel (yield strength ami ultimste tensile strength) used as
- the basis for design and purchase specif~cations are determined from tension tests made ona
"standard specimen pulied in a tensile-testing machine. T h e strength of ductile materials, in
terms of design, is defined by the yield strmgth as measured by the lower yield point, where
one exists, or by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) offset yield stress,
where a yield point d- not exist. For steel usually used in water pipe, the yield s t r q g h is
fixed by s pecification as the stress due to a load causing a 0.5-percent extension of the puge
length. The point is shown in Figure 1-4. The yield srrength of steel is considered to be the
same for eithex tension or compression laads.
Ductility of steel is measured as an elongation, or stretch, under a tension load in a
-
testing machine. Elongation is a measurement of change in length under the load and is
, -
%. .expressed as a percenuge of the original gauge length of the test specimen. . . <
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- 1.5 STRESSANDSTMN
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In engineering, stress is a f w e obtained by dividing a l d by an area. Strain is a length
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.ichange. The relation between stress and strain, as shown on a stress-strain diagram, is of
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.basic importance to the designer.
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Astress-strain diagram for any given material is a graph showing the strain (stretch per
: :. - .. ,. . i,. unit of length) that occurs when the =terid is under a given load or stress. Por example,
St. consider a bar of sted being puiled in a testing machine with suitable instrumentation for
, %
- . measuring the load and indicating rhe dimensional changes. While the bar is under load, it
- ,- . -,~stretches. The change in length under load per unit of length is calltd strain or unit strain; it
- ,is usually expressed as percentage elongation or, in stress analysis, microinches (~in,) per
. . . -( inch, where 1 pin. = 0.000 00 1 in. The vdues of strain are plotted along the horizontal axis of
- - - - .
the stress-strain diagram. For purposes of plotting, the load is converted into units of stress
...,,..-$e;<[ <U-
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(pounds per square inch) by dividing the load in pounds by the original cross-sectional area
of the bar in square inches. T h e values of stress are plotted along the vertical axis of rhe
- , .- , . diagram. The resulr is a conventional stress-strain diagram.
. . .,, .
. -
- c - , Because the stress plotted on the conventional stress-strain diagram is obtahed by
:' , dividing the load by the original cross-sectional area of the bar, the stress appears to r a h a
, - - ,
. :. ,
.i :< peak and then diminsh as the load increases. However, if the stress is calculated by dividing
MAGNlFlCATlON
T O W MAGNiFiCATtO
ELASTIC RANGE
REGION OF
PROWRT1ONAL
LOA0
ECTlONAL AEA
,
=
INCREASE IN LENGTH
ORiGINAL LENGTH
hape of the test piece of steel, which
the test, is shawn by the bar9 drawn
HISTORY, USES, PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS 5
o
O 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.8
TRUE STRAIN, PERCENT
Unlike canventonal stress-strain curves, both true stress
and true strain have been calculated for the curves shown.
Figure 1-5 True Stress-Straln for Steel rdn Cuwe for Steel
m
the l d by the actual cross-sectional ama of the bar as it decreascs in cross section under .
found that the true stress never decreases. Figure 1-5 is a stress-strain
on which both true stress and true sirain have been plotted. Becsuse conventi d
sms-srrain di- are used commercially, only conventi d diagrams are used for the
remainder of this discussion.
Figure 1 4 shows various parts of a pure-tension stress-strain curve for steel such as
that wed in water utiiity pipe. The change in shpe of the test piecc d d n g the test is shown
by the bars drawn uader the curve. As the bar strettdies, the cross d o n decreases in area
maximum tensile smgth, at which point local reduction of ama (neckiag in) toikes
Many types of steel used in construction have stress-strain diagrams of the general
:,,. form shown in Figure 1-4, whereas many other types used struchidy and for machine
pam have much higher yield and ultimate strengths, with rcduced ductiiity. Still other
. , . useful eqheer i ng steels are quite brittie. In general, the low-d-ty steels must be used at
rehtively low strains, even though they may have high stcength.
The ssaending line in the left-hand portion of the gmph in Figure 1-4 is stmight or
nearly straight and has an easily recognized slope witb respea to the vertial axis. The break
of the curve is rather sudden. For this type of curve, the point whtre the frrst
deviation from a straight h e occurs marks the proportional limit of the steel. The yield-
strength is at some higher stress level. Nearly al1 engineering formulas involving stress&
a lmding such that working srsesses, as calculated, will be below &e: 7
2
STEEL PI W
Stresses md strains that f d below the proportional limit-that is, those that fa11 on the
straight portion of the ascending line-are said to be in the elastic range. Steel s t ni cms
loaded to create stresses or suains within the elastic range r e m precisely to their original
length when the load is removed. Exceptions may occur with certain kinds and conditions of
loading not usually encountered in water utility installations. Within this range, stress
increases in direct proportion to strain.
The mdul us ofelasticity, as commonly defined, is ihe slope of the ascending srraight
portion of the stress-strain diagram. The modulus of elasticity of steel is about 30 000 000
psi, which means that for each incremenr of load that creates a strain or stretch of 1 pin. per
inch of length, a sness of U) psi is imposed on &e st eel cross section (30 000 000 x 0.000 001 =
30).
Immediately above the proprtional liihit, between it and the 0.5-percent extension-
under-load yield strength of the material (Figure 1-4) lies a portion of the suess-strain
diagram that may be termed the elastic-plastic range of the material. Typical stress-strain
curves with this portion magnified are shown in Figure 1-6 for two grades of carbon steel
used for water pipe. Electric-resistance strain gauges provide a means of studying the
elastic-phtic segment of the curve. TRese and associated instruments dlow minute ..
examination of the shape of the curve in a manner not possible before their development.
The elastic-plastic range is becoming increasingly important to the designer.
Investigation of this range was necessary, for example, to determine and explain the
-7 . .
successful functioning of thin steel flanges on thin steel pipc4 Designs that load steel to
-
' 2
within the elastic-pktic range are safe only for certain types of apparanis, structures, or
.e-
a.-
- m parts of structures, For example, designing within this range is safe for the hinge points or
yield hinges in steel ring flanges on steel pipe, for hinge points in structures where local
yielding or relaxation of stress must occur, and for bending in the w d of pipe under earth
load in trenches or under high Fills. It is not safe m rely on performance within this range to
-
handle principal tension stress in the walls of pipe or pressure vessels or to rely on such
- - - .
..
O 0,001 0.003 0.005 0.007
STRAIN, INJIN.
The curves show the elastic-plastic range for two grades
of carbon steel.
Figure 1-6 Stress-Strain Curves for Cahon
Steel
t
D
UI
r
t3
t 1 Ii
1 1 1
I I
/ --I I
,PLASTIC- ]ELASTIC, +
STRAIN ' STRAlN 5000 r l ~ . / ~ ~ +
Shown are the elastic and plastic portians of a
stress-strain curve for a steel stressed to a given level.
Figure 1-7 PIastic and Hastic Strains
HISTORY, USES, PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS 7
ACTUAL
STRESS
- - - t
. CO
- : , . - B
. .
(r
+
- . p . + , *
. -
. .
. ..
. . : i- A-
Whon the total measured strain is known, the actual stress can
be de'ermined by use of the s?essSJswajfi curve.
. >. * ? .,
figure 1-9 ~eterminat& of Actual Stress
. - -
.?.
+-
performance in other situations where the accompanying deformation is unmntroiled or
m o t be tolerated.
-
, si,: --:-
e -
, : , - -
Figure 1-7 shows the elastic and plastic portions of a stress-edn curve for a steel
stressed to a given levef. Figure 1-8 shows graphically how a completdy ficritious stress is
- I determined by a formula based on Hooke's law, if the totai strain is mdtiplied by the
modulus of elasticity. The actual stress is determiued using ody the elastic strain with the
mdul us of elasacity, but there is at present no way to separare theoretically the elastic and
plastic strains in a structure. The ody dternative is to take the total measured strain as
:z . indicated by strain gauges and then determine the actud stress from the stress-strain curve,
as shown in Figure 1-9.
,
1.6 S W N 1N DESIGN
Analysis of a strucnire becames more complete when considered in terms of strain as weli as
stress. For example, it has long k n known that apparent stresses calcuhted using classic
formulas based on the theory of elasticity aregreatly in error at hinge-point stress levels. The
magnitude of this error near the yidd-strength stress is demonstrated in the next paragraph,
where the classically calculated result is compared with the measured performatlce.
By definition, the yield-strength load of a steel specimen is that load which causes
a 0.5-percent extension of the gauge length. As was indicated in an earlier paragraph, in
the elastic range a stress of 30 psi is imposed on the cross-sectiod sea for each microinch-
per-inch increase in length under load. Because an extension of 0.5 percent corresponds w
8 STEBL PIPEvzec '
5000 pin./in., the calculated yield-strength stress is 5000 x 30 = 150 000 psi. The measuwd
yield-strength stress, however, is on the order of 30 000-35 000 psi, or about one fourrh of
the calculated stress.
-.- - , -
Simikrly varied results between strain and stress analyses occur when the performance
of steel at its yield strength is compared to the performance of its ultimate strength. There is
a great difference in strain between the yield strength of low- or medium-carbon steel at
0.5-percent extension under load and the specified ultimate strength at 30-percent
elongation, a difference which has a decided bearing on design safety. The specified yield
strength corresponds to a strain of 5000 pin./in. To pass the specification requirement of
30-percent elongation, the strain at ultimate strength must be not l a s than 0.3 in./in., or
: =. .
300 000 pin./in. The ratio of strain at ultimate strength to strain at yield strength, therefore,
. .
is 300 000:5000, or 60: 1. On a stress basis, from &e stress-strain diagram, the ratio of
2 ultimate strength to yield strength is 50 m 3 0 000, or only 1.67: 1.
Actucilly, mild steels such as those used in waterworks pipe show nearly linear
stress-strain diagrams up to the yield level, after which strains of 10 to 20 times the
, elastic-yieid strain occur with no increase in actual load. Tests on bolt behavior under
tension substantiate this ef f e~t , ~ and the ability of bolts to hold securely md safely when
they are drawn into the region of the yield, especially under vibration conditions, is easily
I 'explained by the strain concept but not by the stress concept. The bolts act sornewhat like
extre-me17 stiff springs at the yield-strength level.
-- . ,
ALYSIS BASED O N STRAlN
In some structures and in many welded assemblies, there are conditions that permit initial
adjustment of strain to working load but limit the action automaticaily, eirher because of the
nature of the loading or because of the mechanics of the assembly. Examples are,
mspectively, pipe under earth load and steel flanges on steel pipe. In these instances,
bending stresces may be in the region of yield, but deformation is limited.
In bending, there are three distinguishable phases through which a member passes
when being loaded from zero to fdure. In the first phase, ail fibers undergo strain less than
the proportional limit in a uniaxial suess field. In this phase, a structure will act in a
completely e bt i c fashion, to which the classic laws of stress and suain are appiicable.
In the second phase, some of the fibers undergo strain greater than the proportional or
elastic limit of the material in a uniaxial stress field, but a more predominant portion of the
fibers undergo strain less than the proportional limit, so that the structure still acts in an
3
essentially elastic manner. The classic formulas for stress do not apply, but the strains can be
. . . , - r' .
2
1
adequately defined in this phase.
c: -:
-.
4
In the third phase, the fiber strains are predominantly greater than the elastic limit of
-j
' .. .
the material in a uniaxial stress field. Under these conditions, the structure as a whole no
4
longer acts in an eiastic manner. The theory and formulas applicable in this phase are being
developed but have not yet reached a stage where they can be generally used.
.
An experimental determination of smin charaaeristics in bending and tension was
made on medium-carbon steel similar to that required by AWWA C200, Standard for Steel
-
', Water Pipe 6 Inches and ~ a r ~ e r ? Results are shown in Figure 1-10. Note that the
proportional-limit strains in bending are 1.52 times those in tension for the same material.
-
Moreover, the specimen in bending showed fully elastic behavior at a strain of 1750 pin./in.,
- . - = :
which corresponds to a calculated stress of 52 500 psi (1750 x 30= 52 500) when the modulus
-
of eiasticity is used. The specimens were taken from material having an actual yield of 39 000
.,- -22, '
psi. Therefore, this steel could be loaded in bending to produce strains up to 1750 pin./in.
. -; -
- -
and stiU possess fuii elastic behavior.
'J -
- . > Steel ring flanges made of piate and fillet welded to pipe with a comparatively thin wall
- . -+- have been used successfdly for many years in water service, and this experience f o m a
HISTORY, USES. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS 9
O 0.001 0.002 , - 0.003 - . 0.004
STRALN, IN./LN. -. . .
_, - -
L=! .-
~ p a ~ i ~ ~ a l nmlt (P.L.) strains in bending are 1.52 times t hse in tension for the- material. -
ffgme 1-10 Experlmentai Detenninatian of Strain Characterlstfcs
. L . . ' _
, > .
- -
+ , , Ti. .. .
. '
t-
ble 1-1 Mmu r n Strain in Rpe Wall Developed In PractIce
- - . -
h: M, R.E. k i g n of S e 1 Rhg F k g a for Water Works Serk+A Progress Report. Jow. A WWA, 42 10:93 1
Ig. 1950). .., . -
- .
. i . .;. . m -
a- -
1.. ? _. .
r- .- 9
--
&:=
good background agoiinst which to make calculations. The fianges ranged from 4 in. through
1- -
96 in. in diameter. Calculations were made to determine the strain that would occur in the
..j-
pipe wall adjmnt to the h g e s . Table 1-1 shows the results.
Mote from the table that, in practice, the limiting suain was always below the
s..-q.: T.-;
commody recognized yield-strength strain of 5000 pin./in. but did approach it quite
4.
. .
dosely in at h s t oae instan=. Al1 of these flanga are suff~ciently satisfactory, however, to
2; -. . warrant their continued use by designers.
The idea of desi- a structure on the basis of ultimate i d capacity from test data
-
rather than entirely on diowable stress is simply a return to m empirical point of view, a
w p
. point of view that early engiaeers were obliged m accept in the absence of knowledge of the
.
mathemstics and statin necesssry to calculate srresses. The recent development of
r 3
mathemaucal processes for stress analysis has, in some instances, overemphasized the
b;
. !.
impomnce of stress and underemphasized the importante of the o v e d strength of a
4z j.gr. strumre.
1.8 DUCTlLdTY IN DESIGN
-.
<,.- .
. .
.. . .
. -
The plastic, or ductile, behavior of steel in welded assemblies may be especially important.
- -.
. .
Allowing the stress st c e h points in a steel strucnire m go beyond the elastic range is
successful current design practioe. For many years, in buildings and in bridges,
. .
specifications have allowed the designer to use average or nominal smsses due to bending,
' < ,
-i . . .
shear, and bearing, resuiting h local yklding amund pins and rivets and at other points.
-...
-
---
- -
This local yield, which rtdistributes both load and srress, is caused by stress aoncentrations
e..
?. - that are neglected in the simpk des@ formuhs. b t i c action is and has been depended on
.to ensure the safety of steel strucrures. Experience has shown that these average or nominal
imaximum stresses form a satisfactory basis for dese. Dwing the manufamring pms s ,
el pipe has been forced beyond its yieid strength many tima, and the same
thing may happen again in installation. Similar yielding can be permined after instaliarion
by design, provided the resulting deformarion has no adverse effect on the fmcrion of the
stfucture.
Basing des@ solely on approximations for real s m s daes not always yield safe mults.
The cohpse of some smcmm has been trriced toa migger action of neglectsd p o i n ~ of high
stress concentrations in materials which, for one r-n or another, are not ductile at these
points. Even ductile materials may fail in a brittie fwhi011 if subjected w overl d in three
p h s at the same time. Careful amt i on to such conditions wili resdt in safer design and
d eliminate grossly over-designed struchires that are wmtdul of both material and
Plastic deformation, esptcially at key points, sometimes is the real measure of
strengtb. For txample, a crack, once started, may be propagad by dmost
S, because at the bottom of the crack the material m o t yield a Finite mount in
ro distante. E v a in a d d material &e crack wili continue unt the splittbg
'
red elsewhere. Plasticity underlies current design specifications to m extent not
u s d y realized md offers promise of greater economy in construdon in the f ut ~r e ?~
:.,-s. . ...:*<* - .. - .-
EFFECTS OF COLD WORKJNG ON STRENGTH
AND DUCTtUN
5- :?y -7
g:..: -
In the fabricatim of pipe, the steel phtes or sheets are oftea formed at room temperatura
--.: -
-. .
-- .
'qinto the desired shape.* Such cold-forming opemtions obviously =use inelastic ddor-
mtim, since the steei re* its formed s h p . To ilfustratt thc general. tfftcts of such
deformation w md ducriiity, tht elemental behavior of a d n - s t t e f msim
specimen subjected to pleistic defomtion oind subsequent reloadhgs wili be considered.
The behavior of cold-formed plates may bt much more complex.
As iiiusiraed in Figure 1-1 1, if a steel spchen of plate materiai is unlaaded after bmng
stressed into either the phti c or strain-hardenhg mge, the u n l d h g curve wiU foUow a
pth pardel to the elastic porticm of the stras-strai n curve, and a residual strain or
permment set will re& after the load is removed.
If the specimen is promptiy reloaded, it wiii follow the unloading curvt m tbe
stress-stmh curve of the virgin (uostrahad) material. Ifthe amount of phticdeformation
is less thm that required for tht oastt of strain hardening, the yield strength of the
+ - - , -
, phticaiiy deformad steel wiii be approximwiy the same as h t of the virgin marmid.
. - = ,
' . - + . ' Howtver, if the amomt of plastic defomtion is sufficient to cause S& hardenhg, the
., - . - -
- ... . .
yield strength of the steel will bt increased. In either case, the tensa strength wi U remain
. .
-. -: , ::
. .
. . -
L .
'
tht same but the ductifity mu r e d from the point of rel di ng will Ix d d . As
. :.
, -
'-- =*+-:-- .;. - - -
. - .
. . -
.. , .
. - -
. . -:-. -
. - <- , ;
; . - . -
- S
- e < . .
' *Thia & wm obeained frmn r c f m 9 with minm editing. , -
HISTORY, USES, PHY SICAL CHARACTERISTICS 1 1
STEEL PIPE
indiated in Figure 1 - 1 1, the decrease in ductility is approximately equal to the momt of
inelastic prestrain.
A stetl spcimen that has betn straintd into the 86-hardcning mge, unlmded, and
ailowed to agc for several dap at m m temperahut (or for a much shorter time at a
moderately elevated tcmptraturc) wili tend to follow the path hdicated in Figure 1-12
during reloading.'O This phehomenm, known as st dn aging, has the effect of increasing
yield and tensile strength while dtmasing ductility.ll
T h e effects of aold work on the strengch and dudiity of the stniaurai steels can be
eliminated Iargcly by t hcmd s ms relief, or ariiaealing. Such tteatment is not oilways
possible; fomaattiy, it is not o f b necessary.
1.10 BRilTLE FRACTURE CONSIDERATIONS IN
STRUCTURAL DESIGN
General, Considerations
z . 1- .
..,
As temperanite decreases, an increase is gcncraiiy nokd in the yield stress, tensile strength,
. .
. -
modulw of elasticity, and fatigue smngrh of tk plate seels.* In conrrast, tbt ductility of
. .
,A ,- ' C
. ..
i, - .
these steels, as measurcd by rcduction ia area or by elonption under load, dtmasts with
-.
decreasing temperanms. Furthmnore, there is a temperarure behw which a smi ctural
steei subjected m tensile stresses may fmcture by cleavage, with little or no piastic
deformoltion, rather thain by shear, which is u s d y preceded by a considerable amount of
plastic defomtion or yieiding.7
Fracture-that occurs'by cleavage at a nominal tensile stress below the yield stress is
aommonly referred m as brittie fmctwe. Generaly, a brittle fracture can mxr when there is
- -
a suffcicntly adverse combimtim of mi l e stress, tempemttm strriin mte, arid geometricai
dkoatinuity (such as a notch) present. Other design md fabriatim factors may also have
an important innuenct. Because of the interrehtion of these effccts, the exxt combination
of stress, temptratuce, notch, and other conditions that will cause brittie fracture in a given
: strumre canaot bt xleadily calculated. Consequently, designing against brittle fracture
ofm consists mainty of avoiding conditions that temi to cause brittlc fracture mi selecting a
steel appropriatc for tbt application. A discussion of thae facton is given in the following
pamgmphs. Referaces 12,13,14, aad 15 -ver the sub@ in much more detd.
Fracture mechada offers a more direct approach for predidon of crack propagation.
For rhis analysis it is assunmed tbat an internai imptrfectim i ddi zcd as a crack is present in
the structure. By linearelastic stress d y s i s and hboratory tests on pmxackcd specimens,
the applied stress that wiU cause rapid crack propagation is relatd to thc size of the
imperfectim. The application of fracture mechanics has become incrcasingly useful in
dweloping a fracture-control p h and establishing, on a rationai basis, the interreiated
requirements of mareriai selection, design stress level, fabrication, and inspection
requirements?
Conditions Causing Bnttie Fracture
L
. 1
: -
. :.;,
. +
Piastic deformation can occur ody in tbe presence of shear srrtsses. Shear stresses are
always present in a uniaxial or a biaxid s t a u of stress. However, in a triaxid seate of stress,
the maximum shear stress approaches zero as the prinupd stressm approoich a common
value. As a result, under equal triaxial tensile stresses, failurc occurs by cicavage mther thm
*Tbis gccrion was obtaiacd fmm rrfffenee 9 with minar editing.
tShear and chvagt are usad in the mcmliwgki sense (maarisaopically) to denote dificrtnt f m
mechanisms. RefmriEt 12, as wcii as most elcmenmry twxbmh on a u r g y , d i i t b c mechpnisms.
HISTORY, USES, PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS 13
by shear . Consequently, trhxial tensile stresses tend to cause brittle fracture and should be
avoided. As discussed in the foliowing material, a triaxial state of stress can result from a
uniaxial loading when notches or geometrical discontinuities are present.
If a transversely notched bar is subjscted to a longitudinal tensile force, the stress
concentration effea of the notch causes high longitudinal tensile stresses at the apex of the
notch and lower longinidinal stresses in adjacent material. The lateral contraction in the
width and thickness direction of the highly stressed material at the apex of the notch is
restrained by the smaller lateral contraction of the lower stressed material. Thus, in addition
to the longitudind tensile snesses, tensile stresses are created in the width and thickness
directions, so that a triaxial state of stress is present near the apex of the notch.
The effect of a geometrid discontinuity in a strumre is generaliy similar to, dthough
not necessarily as severe as, the effect of the notch in t ht bar. ExampIes of geometrical
discontinuities sometimes found include poor design details (sudi as abrupt changes in
cross section, attachment welds on components in tension, and square-cornered cutouts)
and fabrication flaws (such as weld crack, undercuts, arc strikes, and scars from chipping
hammers).
Increased strain mtes tend to increase the possibility of brittle behavior. Thus,
structures that are loaded at fast rata are more susceptible to brittle fracture. However, a
rapid strain rate or impact load is not a required condition for a brittle fracture.
Cold work, and the strain aging that noml l y follows, generally increases the
Wrelihood of bnttle fractures. This behavior is usuaiiy attributed to the previously
mentioned reduction in ductiiity. The effect of ooId work that occurs in cold-forming
operations can be minimized by selecting a generous forming radius, thus limiting rtie
amount of strain. The amount of strain that can be tolerated depends on both the steel and
the application. A more severe but quite localized rype of cold work is that which ocam at
the edges of punched holes or at sheared edges. This effect can be essentidy eliminated for
holes by drilling instead of p u n c h g or by reaming after punching; for sheared edges, it can
be elimhated by machining or grinding. Severe hammer blows may also produce enough
cold work to locally reduce the toughness of the steel.
When tensile residual stresses are present, such as those resulting from welding, they
add to my applied tensile stress, resulting in the actual tensile stress in the member being
greater than the applied stress. Consequently, the likelihcad of brittie fracture in a structure
that contains high residual stresses may be rninimized by a postweld heat treatment. The
decision to use a postweld heat treatment should be d e with assurance that the
anticipated benefits are needed and will be reahzed, and that possible harmful effects can be
tolerated. Many modern steels for weldd construction are designed to be used in the less
costly as-welded condition when possible. The soundness and mechanical pmperties of
welded joints in some steels may be adversely affected by a postweld heat treatment.
Welding may also contribute to the problem of brittle fracture by introducing notches
and flaws into a structure and by causing an unfavorable change in microstrumire of the
base metal, Such detrimental effects can be minimized by properly designing welds, a i n g
care in selecting their location, and using gwd welding practice. The proper electrde must
be selected so that the weld metal w U be as resistant to brinle fracture as the base metal.
Charpy V-Notch lmpact Test
Some steels will sustain more adverse temperature, notch, and loading oonditions without
fracture thm will other steels. Numerous tesrs have been developed to evaluate and assign a
numerical vdue indicating the relative susceptibility of steels to brittle fracture. Each of
these tests can establish with certainty only the relative susceptibility to brittle fracture
mder the particular conditions in the test; however, some tests provide a meaningfd guide
to &e relative performance of steels in structures subjected to severe temperature md stress
14 STEEL PIPE
conditions. The most commonly used of these rating tests, the Charpy V-notch impact test,
.... , . .A:
is described in this section, and the interpretation of its results is discussed briefly.
Referentes 12 and 13 give detailed discussions of many other rating tests.
- . . ...
. . T h e Charpy V-notch impact test spediically evdiluates notch toughness-the resistance
-. .
to fracture in the presence of a notcb-and is widely used as a guide to the performance of
,
- steels in structures susceptible to brittle fracture. In this test, a small recranguhr bar, with a
. . . , .
.-
, - *
V-shaped notch of specified size at its midlength, is supported at its ends as a beam and
'
, ..,
. >.
. - ! ' .
fractured by a blow from a swiuging pendulum. The energy required to fracture the
. ., -
- -. = specimen (which can be caiculated from the height to which the pendulum raises after
breaking the specimen) or the appearance of the fracture surface is determined for a mg e of
- .
- . - -.. :.-
, :;.
. .
- - -
temperatures. The appeararice of the fracture surface is usually expressed as the percentage
- .
-: - . r e, - +- - ..- * - ::
. . >+ ,!: -
. , ,
of the surface that appears to have fractured by shear as indicated by a fibrous appearance. A
. . S - -. .;tL-.c:
shiny or crystalline appearance is ascociated with a cleavage fracture.
(such as those shown in Figure 1-13) of energy or
ion of temperatwe. For the structural steels, the
ure decrease from relatively high values to rektively low
sing temperature. The temperature near the lower end of the
temperahire curve, at which a selected value of energy is absorbed (often 15 ftmlb ), is
temperature. The temperature at which the percentage of
.
shear fracture decreases to 50 percent is often d e d the fracture-appearance transition
ition temperamre. Both transiuon temperatures provide a
resistance of various steels; the lower the transition
the bemr &e resismce to brittie fracture. The ductility transition temperature
transition temperature depend on many parameters (such as wmposition,
rmomechanical processing) and, therefore, can vary significantiy for a
ss of steels used for spec3c applications can be determined
"
service performance. Fracture-mechanics methods, when used in
:
study of material properties, design, fabrication, inspection,
.
erection, and service conditions, have proven useful. In general, where a given stel has been
used successfdy for an extensive period in a given application, brinle fracture is not likely
to be experienced in similar applications unless unusual temperature, notch, or stress
conditions are present. Nevertheless, it is always desirable to avoid or minimize the
previously cited adverse conditions that increase the susceptibility to brittle fracture.
. .
. . .
, - .
_ BO
-
NOTE Cunies are for mrbon steel
- .. 50 - and are tiken from r ef er en~ 13.
100
-
m
+
.. . .
5 8o
-;. - ?2 7 . >
P- E ' - 3' ; e- -7.
< m -
A. Energy Trmsl t h Cuwe
E m-
5. Fracture Trandiion CUN
20
- #- 40-
W I
10 - m -
/-
o
I I -. I t 1 - o 1 1 1 l l l l l
+U 4 0 -20 O 20 40 80 100 120 140 +O 4 0 -20 O 20 40 80 80 100 120 140
TEMPERATURE. 'F -.. : TEMPERATURE, 'F
... :.
Source: Btockenbrough. R.L. & Johnsion, B.G. USS Steel Design Manual. ADUSS 27-340044. US Steel Corp., Pittsburgh, Fa. (Jan. 1981).
Figure 1-1 3 Transition Curves O btnined from Charpy V-Notch lmpact Tests
. .
HISTORY, USES, PHY SICAL CdARACTERISTICS 15
-
- -7.
.
-. ...
. . .'.-..
, -5
2. - 7.
,
. . . :
.- i.ii GOO~FRACTICE
The ordinary water pipeline requirts li* stress calcularion. The commonly used internal
pressures for stetl water pipe are given in Tables 4-1 and 4-2 in Chapter 4. Suggested design
stresses to resist other loadings are given as guides in various chapters on the different design
When designing the details of supports, wye branches, and other specials, es pecidiy for
large pipe, the engjneer wiii do weU to consider the data in Chapter 13.
The concept of designing on the basis of strain as well as stress will shed light on the
behavior of steel and other mterials in many cases wkre consideration of stress done offers
no reasonabk exphti on. The adon and undesirabk efftcts of stress raisers or stress
concentrations-such as notches, threads, hps, and suddw chaages in cross section-will
be better understd. The steps to be taken in counteracting advcrse tffects become clearer.
References
1. ELLIOT, G.A. The Use of Steel Pipe in
Water Worb. Jow. A WWA, 9:11:839
(Nov. 1922).
2. CATES, W.H. History of Steel Water Pipe,
Its Fabrication and Dcsign Develop-
ment, (Apr. 1971).
4. B mA R D , R.E. Design of Stacl Ring
Flangcs for Water Works Service-A
ProgmriRepwt.Jm. AWWA,42:10:931
&m Steel Co., B e Wr n , Pa. (1946,
9. BROCKENBROUGH, R.L. & JOHNSTON,
B.G. USS Steel De& M a d . ADUSS
27-3400-04. US Steel Corp., Pinsburgh,
Pa. (Jan. 198 1).
10. DI^, G.E. JR. Mechanicol MetalIingy.
McGraw-m1 h k Cumpany, New York
(1%1).
11. CHAJES, A.; B R ~ c , S.J.; & W I ~ ,
G. EffeCKs of cm- Smi ni t l g on Smictural
Shwt Steels. Jour. of the Stnictural Div.,
Pm., ASCE, 89, No. ST2 (Apr. 1963).
12. PARKER, B.R. Brittle Behapnot of Engi-
neering S~ t ur e s . John Wiley ami Sons,
Ntw York (1957).
13. Control of Steel Construction to Avoid
Bri* Failure. WcIding Regtaxch Coun-
ciI, New York (1957).
14. LIGHTNER, M.W. & VANDERBECK, R. W.
Factors Involved in Brittle Fracture.
Regional TecIinicai Mectiags, Americsin
Iron and Steei Insritute, Washington,
D.C. (1956).
15. WLPE, S.T. & B~RSOM, J.M. Fracture
and Fanngare Control in Structures-Appli-
catims of Fracture Mechanics. Praiucc-
Hd, Inc., Engl ewd Cliffs, N. J. (1977).
i
AWWA MANUAL 1
Manufacture and
Testing
i r' : -
;+--
. . *: -
." I.%_ '
welding md ele& fusiw welding me the most common methods used
steel b m , plates, sheets, md strips into tubuloir products.
Electric resktmce welding (ERW) is done without filler materioil. The fht strip, with
edges previously trimmed to provide a &m, even S& for welding, is formed
progressively into a tubular shape as it mveh through a series of mils. Thc forming k done
, .
cold. Welding is then e f f d by the appliation of herit and pressure. The weldjng heat for
-:>. .. the h r b h ed- is generaed by resktance to &e flow of an e&c cunrnt, which can be
inuriduccd through eIectrodts or by induction. Pressure roUs force tht hcated edges
togaher to effect the weld. The sq- d o n of tht pxtssure roUs forming the weld
cause some of the hot weld mcmi to be exmded from tbe joint m forma bead of wtld flash
botb. bi de and outside rhe pipe. The flash is wirmally trimmed within tolerame limits
while it is su hot from welding, using mechanical cutting tools contoured to the shape of
the pipe (Figures 2-1 tbrough 2-5).
Electnc fusion weldMg (EFW) differs from ERW in that filler mterial is used and
mechanid p-ssure is unnecessary to effect tae weld. Pipe pradud with this process can
hriw straight or s pi d Mms. Straight-seam pipe is made from plate with e d p planed
prirallel to each other and squrire with the ends. Curving the phte edges with crimping rolls
is the first step of the forming prooess. This is foIlowed by presses that form the phte First
into a U&@ trough d then into a full O-sboiped tube. The O-shped tube is then fed
into a longitudid seam-weiding machint. Spiral-seam pipt is madt from coiied strip or
platc by a continuous proas (Figure 26). An automatic macbinc m U s the coa, prepares
the edges for wel- amis p i d y fonns the suip into a tubular shape. As thc tubt h v e s the
forming elenrtnt, the &es are j o W by fusion welding in the same submergcd-arc proatss
as is generally u& in straight-sam pipe ( Fi i r e 2-7). The welded rube is cut to tbt d e s i d
length by an auuimatic cutoff device.
MANUFAnURING AND TESTING 17
WELDED
TUBE
PRESSURE-63 1
ROLL
STR l P
, FROM
COlL
WELDING ELECTRODES FINAL FORMING ROLL FIRST FORMING ROLL
Source: See Figure 2-1
The current ente= the tube via slidlng contacts and flows along Vee
edges to and from the weld point.
Figure 2-3 Electric Resistance Welding Using High-
Frequency Welding Current
INDUCTION
COlL I
POINT SEAM
h 1 A
3
WELD WELDED
Source: See Figure 2-7
Eddy current flows around the back of the tube and along the edges
to and from the weld point.
Figure 2-4 flectric Resistance Welding by
Inciuction Using High-Frequency Welding Current
18 STEEL PIPE
1.
Edge Planing-Submerged are
weld plpe begins as a flat
rectangular steel plate from the
plate mlii. Yhe flrst step i n
tmnsforrning it to p i p is planing
the edges paraiiei to each ofher
and square with ths ends.
2.
Edge Crirnping Rolls-Here the
edgesrif *e pkt e are curved to
Tacl l i tat flnat t ~r r ni ng of the ppe,
F&UM die wear. and produce
gresrer unllormity at the seam
edgea when the plate is pressed
to acyiindtical shape. The total
s ume of tha plate, both sides
edge to edge, is atso inspected
ultrasonlcaiiy.
] CLEAN I NO TORCH
OuiDE R o L Z
4,
Gkrge--The U-
*pea'p-eenters thls
;._ p - t k
:cj;:'pmkkcular diea open.
" 5Tlk-w die, under
;':&&~uIFc pressure, IS
- ;.- -%&yd -- &M on the U,
:: ::-&Htwrrring it to a
g?iWCal shape.
5.
Outside Wekiing-The O-formd plate is now fed into a
longltudkiai seam wl di ng machine i n which me abuttlnp
edges arepropedy igned. firmly p r e s d together. and
welded by the submergetd arc process. Two electrodes are
used, and the wJd i s completed to within 3 in. of tha pipe
ends.
3.
U-ing Press-A sernicircular
ram descends on the piate.
forcing it down between
rocker dies to form a U. The
plate 1sslightly over-bent to
allow for spring-back.
WlRE ELECTRODE
FLUX /
TV CAMERA

1
6.
End Wdding-Here a si n. steel plate is
i mched to each end of the pipe at the
searn,-permlttlng me iast tew inches of
the OD seam t o be welded.
1 7 4
DLES
GLOSE0
WATER UNDER PRESSURE
7. 8.
lnside Welding-Here the welding Expsnding and Testing-TRe pipe is either mechanically or hydrostatically expanded
head and a srnali TV camera are depending on t h i mil1 location. In elther case. accurate aiza and straightrtsss and improved
mounted on a Iong cant i l mr transverse yleid strength are obtained by expandon.
boom. As the pipe is drawn oWr
the welding boom, a iV s z m at Mechanical Expander-The pipe is rnechanically Hydrostatic Expander-00th ends
the oprator' s control W expanded in24-in. through 27-ln. lncrernents of the pipe are sealed by mandrels.
enabies him to keep fhe welding until haH Of the length is completed. The pipe Thesemicircular dios, slightly levger
exaaly on the searn. Fi ni shi w up rolis to a second expander die where the than the pipe 00, are ciosed, and the
on the tab, the last few inches of remaining half of the length is expanded. The pipe ii hydraulically expanded
the seam are welded. The srnall plpe length then proceeds to a hydroatatic unit against the dies. The dles are opend
plates are then remowd, and the where a specified interna1 pressure is applied to and a specified interna1 preasure
cornpleted weld is inspected test tbe weld for sweats or leaks. applled to t a t the wetd for sweats or
inside and out. leaks.
Sourm: Carbon Steel Pi p, Strudural Tubing, Line Pipe and Oil Country Tubular Goods. Steei Products Manual. American /ron end Steel
lns titute. Washington, D. C. (Apr. 1982).
Figure 2-5 Sequence of Operations in a Typical Double Submerged Arc Weld h e s s
MANWFACTURING AND TESTiNG 19
Figure 2-6 Sdiematk Diagrm d Process for Making Spiral-S- Plpe
G-hmai l r Iiiaaram fnr Maliina Phtn Clirra
- . ..- .
.= .-
- .
. .
-- .,
. -
limitations of individual pipe manufacturers. This p m s is esmaiiy suikd for Spe in
thod9 . . . ,
-
.
. .
-Tests of Chemicai Properties
The various services to which steel pipe is put require a variety of demical compositions to
: produce the necessary characteristia. The chemical compsitions established in the
term appiied no the chemical analysis
is is the d y s i s reported to the pwdmer.
-
d&e steel from the U.
- ,
-. . . . . - - .
' Pipe sizes mmufactud using the fusion wciding process are G t e d only by si%
,.&$-wA sted pipe standards are suited to the usud needs d water utility applications.
&-er, there are other steel materials tbat may be t q d y suitable, and these can be
results are determined by testing for such elemeats as h i e been specif&d, using a
~mi pl e obtained from the first or middle p m of the heat or blow during the
20 STEEL PIPE
It is common practie in most steel melting operations to obtain more than one
la&-test ingot sample from each heat or bIow; often three or more are taken, representing
the fmt, middle, and last prtions of the heat or blow. Drillings taken from the first or
middle sample are used in determining the ladle analysis because experience has shown that
these locations most closely represent the chemical analysis of the entire heat or blow. The
additionai samples are used for a survey of uniformity and for control purposes.
Check analysis. Check andysis, as used in the steel industry, means analysis of the
metal after it has been rolled or forged into semifmished or fmished forms. Such an analysis
is made either to verify the average composition of the heat, to verify the composition of a lot
as represented by the ladie analysis, or to determine variations in the composition of a heat or
lot. Check analysis is not used, as the term might impIy, m confirm the accuracy of a
previous result. Check analysis of known heats is justified only where a high degree of
uniformity of composition is essentid-for example, on material that is to be heat treated.
Such analysis should rarely be necessary for water pipe, except to identify or confirm the
assumed adys i s of plates or pipe that have lost identity. The results of analyses
representing different locations in the same piece, or taken from different pieces of a lot, may
differ from each other and from the M e anaiysis owing to segregation. These permissible
variations from the specified ranges or limits have been established in the applicable
specification or by common practice. me variations are a natural phenomenon that must be
recognized by inspectors. The methods of anaiysis commonly used are in accordance with
the latest edition of ASTM ~ 7 5 1 > those approved by the National Bureau of Standards, or
others of equivalent accuracy.
Tests of phydcal properties. The methods of testing the physi d properties of
steel pipe are established in ASTM ~ 3 7 0 2 The physical properties required are containd r
in AWWA C200, Standard for Steel Water Pipe 6 Inches and ~arger? or are as otherwise - i
specified by the purchaser.
. Hydrostatic test of straight pipe. Straight lengths of pressure pipe md tubing are
customarily subjected to an interna1 hydrostatic pressure test. This operation is conduaed
" as a part of the regular mil1 inspection procedure to help detect defects. It is not intended to
bear a direct reiationship to bursthg pressures, working pressures, or design data, although 1
test pressures sometimes influence design pressures. AWWA C200 contains a formula for
. . determining hydrostatic test.
It is customary to make hydratatic tests at the pressure required by the standard
-
during the course of manufacture of the pipe. The requirements for hydrostatic testing in
;
the presence of the purchaser's inspector involve additional handling, unless tfie inspector is
present during the course of manufacture. The producer, on request, customarily furnishes
a certificate confirming such testing.
Tests of dimensional properties. The diameter, length, wall thickness, straight-
-
ness, and out-of-roundness of pipe are checked as part of the normal manufacturing
procedure. Such dimensions are subject to the tolerantes prescribed in the appropriate
standards or sptcifications. . .-
Referentes
1. Methods, Fractices, and Definitions for 3. Steel Warer Pipe 6 lnches md Larger.
Chemicd Andysis of Steel Products. 2 - , AWWA Standard C200-80. AWWA,
ASTM Smndard A751-77. ASTM, Phil- Denver, Colo. (1980).
adelphia, Pa. (1977).
2. Methods and Definitions for Mechanical
- . -
Testing of Sted Prcdum. ASTM Stand-
-
, .
- . ,
.. .. . . ard A370-77. ASTM, PhiIadelphia, Pa. : .
, (1977).
' L.:
. 3%
. - -
AWWA MANUAL
- -Hydraulics of Pipelines
E
> : - : ,. .: - .: . .-,~,&E-A .+ :
This chapter is p r i d y cace& wirh the flow of water in transmission conduits; it is not
intended to cover flows through the complicated networks of distribution systems. &cause
this manual is a pi de to p d c e rather thm P textbook, historid md theoretid
development of the many hydraulic flow formulas has been omitted, as has discussion of
universal or ratiod formuias.
The discussions d data in this chapter are therefore restricted to the three formulas
bebeved to be most commonly used in water flow d d t i o n s in the westem hemisphere.
Definitions of the hydraulic md other symbols used in the following formulas are given at
the end of the chapter.
The Hazen-Wllliarns Formula
Probably the most popular formuia in cumnt use among waterworks engineers is the
Hazen-Williams formula. This formula, fmt pubtished in 1904, is:
V = 1.318 c # ~ ~
- The head l a s hf may be caiculated from:
4.72Ql.852 L
hf = ~ 1 . 8 5 ~ ~ 4 - 8 7
Tests hsve shown that the vdue of the Hazen-Wiiliams roughness coeficient C is
dependen1 not oniy on the surface roughness of the pipe interior but also on the diameter of
22 STEEL PIPE
the pipe. Flow measurements show that for pipe with smooth interior linings in good
condition, the average vaiw of C may be appmximated by the formula:
C = 140 + 0.17d
(3-3)
However, in consideration of long-term lining deterioration, dime buildup, etc,, a Iower
design value is recommended, as follows:
A graphical solution of the Hazen-Wilhns formula for C= 150 is presented in Figure
3-1 for pipe sizes 6 in. through 144 in. The multiplying factors in Table 3-1 provide a
convenient means of changing the flow capacities shown in Figure 3-1 to the flows for other
vaiues of C.
The Scobey Formula
The Scobey formula for steel pipe, used perhaps more commonly in irrigation work than in
the waterworks industry, is:
or for determining head 105s:
The recommended K, vdue for new bare steef pipt or pipe with iiaings confocming to
current AWWA smdmds is 0.36. A graphid solution to the Scobey formula for K,= 0.36 is
shown in Figure 3-2. Mdtiplyiag factors for odier frictim d i c i e n w are given in Tabk
3-2.
The Manning Formula
<.-. - -
The nilanning formula is:
For design, an n vdue of 0.01 1 is mmmended for steel pipe with iinings conforming
to current AWWA standard$. A graphid solution to the Manning fomuia for n = 0.01 1 is
shown in Figure 3-3. Multiplyhg facu)rs for other values of n are @ven in Tabk 3-3.
.- .
HYDRAULICS OF PIPELINES 23
0.1 0.2 0.4 0.0 1 2 4 6 10 20 40 60 100 200 4 0 0 6 0 0 1000 2000 4000800010000
1
, . , , , i HYDRAULIC GRAOIENT PER 1000 FT, FT
Flgure 3-2 Solution of Scobey Fiow Formula for K, = 0.36
(See data ln Table 3-2 for other K, values.)
Table 3-2 Muitipiying Factors for Friction C&dent
Vnlue- Base Ks= 0.36+
K, vaiw 0.32 0.34 0.36 0.38 0.40
-tive discharge 1.125 1,059 1.000 0.946 0.900
*Data for use with Figure 3-2.
Figure 3-2 Solution of Scobey Flow Formula for K, = 0.36
(See data In Table 3-2 for other K, vrilues.)
T&le 3-2 Multiplying Factors b r Frictlon Coealdent
Vaiue- Bace KS = 0.36*
K, value 0.32 0.34 0.36 0,W
Rektive discharge 1.125 1.059 1.000 0.946
*Data for use with Figure 3-2.
n vaiue 0.009 0.010 0.011 0.012 0.013
Relative discharge 1.222 1.100 1.000 0.917 0.846
*Data for use with Figure 3-3.
26 STEHL PIPE
Computations for Fiow Through Pipe . - . . .
. - .
- .
The quantity of water that will pass through any given pipe depends on the head (pressure)
producing the flow, the diameter and length of the pipe, the condition of the pipe interior
(smooth or rough), the number and abruptness of bends or elbows, and the presence of tees,
brmches, valves, and orher accessories in the line.
-
The total head, or pressure, affecting flow may be divided into four parts: velocity head
- loss, entrance head loss, loss of head through friction, and minor losses due to elbows,
fittings, and valves.
Velocl ty H ead Loss ( v '/zg)
Velocity head loss is defmed as the height through which a body must faH in a vacuum to
acquire the velocity at which the water flows in the pipe. This loss is u s d y considered to be
unrecoverable at the outlet. Numerical values are given in Table 3-4.
. .
i . . .
Entrance Head Los , . , L. . . . . . .
Entrance head loss is the head required to overcome the resismce at the ennance io the
pipe; it is usually less than the veiwity head. When the conditions are not specified, it is
ordinarily considered equal to one-half the velacity head, on the assumption of a sharp-edge
entrance. Safe values for the ordinary entrance head loss may be obtained from Table 3-4 by
5 taking half the velocity head corresponding to the velocity in the pipeline. Head losses for
-E
other rhan sharpsdge entrances may be found in treatises on hydraulics.
. -
d.
"
Loss of Head Through Friction
g-:>L
Friction head loss may be detemned by one of the formvlas duit have been discussed
previously . (Data are given in this chapter to aid in solving the formulas.)
- .
&+i:
- Minor Losses Duet o Ubows, Fittings, andvalves
.. .. . . 2.. -
. . . - >.
. - In long lines, minor head losses due to bends and fittings are occasionaiiy ignored. In any
,. . -
. , - given line, however, it is best to consider di losses so that no important factors will be
. .
overlooked. The minor losses should always be recognized when evaluating flow tests. Total
1
Table 3-4 Theoretid Head Corresponding to Wven ~elocity -v '/tg
. -
Vekooty Head Veiocity
fps ft fP5
1 0.02
2 0.06
3 0.14
4 0.25 22
5 0.39 24
6 0.56 26
7 0.76 23
8 1 .O
9 1.3 32
10 1.6 34
14
Somce: hmard, R.E. Dcsign Standards for Steel Water Pipe. Joirr. A WWA, 40: 124 (Jan. 1948).
m
HYDRAULICS OF PIPELINHS 27
head loss in long lines with low velwities, the s u m of ve1wity head loss and entrance head
. . - - --
*- loss, may be relatively insignifiant; in short lines with high velocities, this sum becomes
very important. Ordinary tables and charts showing flow of water in pipe usually give only
the fiiction head loss in straight pipe. In long lines, this is the largest loss.
In tht fid correct solution to a flow problem, the sum of ali losses must eqmi the
available head, or pressure, prducing the flow. The foregoing formulas determine H or V,
and the volume of fiow Q is found from:
The information contained in Tables 3-5 through 3-9 wiIl be useful when making
hydraulic calculations.
Flow Through Fittings-Ecluivalent-Length Method
Experiments have shown that the head lms in bends, fitrings, and valves is related to flow
velocity and pipe diameter in a manner somewhat similar to that in straight pipe.
Drop per 1000
of Pipe
F
LRngthofEpe
1-ft Drop
S for Sacl Water Pipe. Jm. A W WA, 40: 1 :24 (Jan. 1948).
STEEL PIPE
Tabk 3-6 Flow Equivalents
16 11 111 24.77 62 - 43 056 95.98
. 17 *-- 11 806 -26.31 M ' 44 444 " 99.08
< _ . - A
&.-F.
- ' , 18 12 500 27.86 66 45 833 102.17
- 19 13 194 29.41 68 47 222 105.27
E-:- , . 3 . a 1 3 889 30.96 70 48 611 108.37
:<S+-+ 21 - -14 583 32.51 n 50000 111.4
22 15 278 34.05 74 51 389 114.56
23 15 972 35.60 76 52 778 117.65
24 - '- 16 667 37.15 78 54 167 120.75
25 4 17 361 38.70 80 55 5% 123.85
O
26 . 18056 40.25 82 56 944 12h.94
n 18 750 41.80 84 5s 333 130.04
28 19444 A 43.34 86 59 722 133.14
29 20 139 44.89 88 61 111 136.23
30 20 833 4-44 90 62 500 139.33
31 21 528 47.99 92 63 889 142.43
94 65 278 32 22 222 49.54 145.52
33 22 917 51.08 % 66 667 148.62
34 23 611 52.63 98 68 056 151.71
35 24 306 54.18 100 69 444 154.81
S-: h n a d , RE. Des@ Stadards for Steel Water Pipe. Jour. A WWA, 4&1:24 Qa i ~ 1948).
Consequently, it is possible to determine the le@ of a theoretid piece of straight pi
which the head loss due to friction would be the ame as for some fitting. This method of
equivoilent lengths is reoognized by seved authorities!12 By developing ihe total equivalent
Length (piping plus bends, fi-, valves, etc.), the total head loss in a piping system can
a ]
easily be determined,
The chssi d equation developed by Darcy-Weisbach for energy loss of flow in a
pipeline is:
v2
HL =f (+) (%)
In the equation, Ht is the head (energy) l a s due to friction in the l e n e of pipe L of inside :
diameter D for average velocity V. The friction factor f is a function of pipe mughn
HYDRAULICS OF PIPELINES 29
Table 3-7 Pressure (pd) for H&s (a)
-. Additional Heads
O +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7 +8 +9
Head Bressure
ft PS
O - 0.43 0.87 1.30 1.73 2.16 2.60 3.03 3.46 3.90
10 4.33 4.76 5-20 5.63 6.06 6.49 6.93 7.36 7.79 8.23
20 8.66 9.09 9.53 9.96 10.39 10.82 11.26 11.69 12.12 12.56
30 12.99 13.42 13.86 14.29 14.72 15.15 15.59 16.02 18.45 16.89
40 17.32 17.75 18.19 18.62 19.05 19.48 19.92 20.35 20.78 21.22
50 21.65 22.08 22.52 22.95 23.38 23.81 24.25 24.68 25.11 25.55
60 25.98 26.41 26.85 27.28 27.71 28.14 23.58 29.01 29.44 29.88
70 N31 30.74 31.18 31.61 32.04 32.47 32.91 33.34 33.77 34.21
80 34.64 35.07 35.51 35.94 36.37 36.80 37.24 37.67 38.10 38.54
90 38.97 39.40 39.84 40.27 40.70 41.13 41.57 42.00 42.43 42.87
4: C
Source: W r d , R.E. Dcsign Standards for S ~ e l Water Pipe. Jour. A WWA, 40: 124 (Jan. 1948).
.-.
,'.
, ..
Tabk 3-8 Head (ft) b r Pressures (psi)
Additional Htads
- 2.3 4.6 6.9 9.2 11.5 13.9 16.2 18.5 20.8
23.1 25.4 27.7 30.0 32.3 34.6 3.9 39.3 41.6 43.9
46.2 48.5 50.8 53.1 55.4 57.7 60.0 62.4 64.7 67.0
69.3 71.6 73.9 76.2 78.5 80.8 83.1 85.4 87.8 90.1
92.4 94.7 97.0 99.3 101.6 103.9 106.2 108.5 110.8 113.2
M e w r ~ Water
in. k. Pi
13.6 0.49
27.2 0.98
40.8 1.47
Mercury Water
in. fn. N
13 176.8 6.38
14 190.4 6.87
15 204.0 7.36
16 217.6 7.85
: Bamard, R.E. Design Standards for S t d Water Pipe. Jour. A WWA, 40:1:24 (Jan. 1948}.
30 STEEL PIPE
SHEAR GATE
Source: John F. Lenard. President. Lenard Engineerrng, Inc.
Figure 3-4 Resistance Coefficients of Valves and Fittings for Fluid Flows
, . - . .
. i . . .
t '
VALUES OF Vd FOR WATER AT 60"
v."- -\
108 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 0 ' 2 3 4 5 6 010' 2 3 4 5 6 810' 2 3 4 . 5 6 8 1 0 ' ~ - * 2 . 3 3 - 5 . 6 , B l O b
REYNOLDS NUMBER (RI O.%
Soutce: Pipe Friction Manual. Hydraulic Institute, New Vork (1 954).
Figure 3-5 Momly Diagram for Friction in Plpe
32 SSTI3EL PEPE
velocity, pipe diameter, and fluid viscosity. Values for f have been developed by ~ o o d ~ ~
and others. With a known f and L/D, the Darcy-Weisbach formula can be expressed as:
.Y
In this equation, K is the resistance coefficient. Figure 3-4 shows values for K based on a
summary of experimental data.
Examples to determine head loss HL for fittings and vdves and equivalent pipe Iengths
using Figure 3-4 are as follows:
Pipe = 6 in. C= 100
Flow = 450 gpm V = 5.12 fps
CalcuIaitaon~:
. , -
- 5..
, ,- -
.., ..,. - . Velwiry head:
..
. <.L . := -?;:'a .: - ($)=0.41ft ::
. . --
Y , . , 7 ' -
S:" . . - 1. 6411. gate valve, fuiiy open:
HL = 0. 2x 0.41 = 0.08 ft
2. 6-in. swing check valve, fully open:
- - .
: HL=1.4x0.41= 0.57 ft +
, .
enlargement from 6 in. to 8 in.:
HL = 0.18 x 0.41 =
' 4. 6411. elbow:
..
- >
K = 0.6 HL = 0.6 x 0.41 = 0.25 ft
+: f_
-
Total head ioss 0.97 ft -- m .. i
Using the Hazen-Wiliiarns formula, the equivalent pipe length for 6411. pipe, C = 100
with a HL = 0.97 ft, equis 35.3 ft.
. '
- . '
ECONOMICAL DIAMETER OF Pt PE
, . , . .-
Hydraulic formulas will give the relation between flow rate and head loss in pipes of various -
diameters and interior surface conditions. When a limited amount of head loss is available,
the usual design prmedure is to select the smallest diameter that will deliver the required
flow when utilizing the available head. This results in the least construction cost. her re
head is provided by pumping, a part of the cost is for energy to provide head to overcome E
friction. The cost for energy decreases as pipe diameter increases and friction losses ,
decrease; however, the cost for the pipe increases. The objective is u s d y to minimize totai .
cost (inixial cost, operation, and maintenance) by selecting the pipe diameter t ht results in
least Iife-cycIe cost. Energy costs may prove to be the most significant cost. However, when
making an assessment of future energy costs, care must be taken to reduce such costs to the
present worth on which dl other costs of the comparisons have been predicated.
HYDRAULICS OF PIPELINES
Aqueducts
Economic studies of large aqueducts are frequently cornplicatcd by the desirability of
combining different means of carrying water-for example, through open conduits, pipe,
and tunnels-in the same system. Hinds4> demonstrated the use of grapbical rneans in
making such studies in the design of the Colorado River Aqueduct. The methedoffinding
economical slopes elaborated by Hinds had been csd previously in &e desi of rhe Owens
River Aqueduct of Los ~ n ~ e l e s ~ and the Catskill Aqueduct of New York.
P
Penstocks
An economic study to determine penstock size generally requires that the annual penstock
cost plus the value of power lost in friction be minimai. The annual pwstock cost includes
amortization of al1 rekited construction costs, operation and maintenance costs, and
replacement reserve. A precise analyticai evduation, mb g al1 facuirs imo account, may be
neither justified nor practical, since ali variables entering into the problem are subject to
varying degrees of uncertainty .
Figure 3-6, which is used to determine the economic diameter for sreel penstacks and
pump lines, was derived from the method presented by Voetsch md res en.^
3.4 DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS
Methods of determining economical sizes of pipe for disrribution systems have been
published.9
5 AIR ENTRNNMENT AND RELEASE
Air entrained in flowing water tends to form bubbles at or near the summits in a pipcline. If
not removed, such bubblcs become serious obstades to flow. The formation of a hydraulic
jump in a pipe at the end of these bubbles is an importan1 reason to remove rhe air. Possible
air entrainment and its removai must be considered and remedies applisd if needed. The
ability of the hydraulic jump to enuain the air and to carry it way by the flowing water has
been investigated. Quantitative data have been published10 rehting b c t e r i s t i c s of the
jump to the rate of air removal. Removal of air through air valves is discussed in Chapter 9.
COOD PRACTICE
Waterworks engineers should use hydraulic-friction formulas with which they are most
familiar and with which they have had experience. Three of the common conventional
formulas have been discussed in this chapter. In any particular case, the results c a l h t e d
using the different conventional formulois can be compared. Engineers should, howwer,
recogniae the increasing use of the rational or universal formulas, become familiar with
them, and make check calculations using them. A practica1 d ~ c i w r value for the formulas
should ix conservatively selected.
The results of flow tests will generaiiy be more usefui if related to the rational concept of
: . - fluid flow. This entails more attention to relative surface roughness, water temperature,
nolds numbers, and an amlysis of test results aimed at fitting them into the frame of the
' fluid-mechanics a p p d to flow determination.
Definition of Syrnbols
Hydrauiic symbols:
A = asea of pipe (sq ft)
C = Hazen-Williams coefficient
D = diameter of pipe (ft)
d = diameter of pipe (in.)
; .
f = Darcy fiiction factor
34 STEEL PIPE
a : Coat o f pipa p i r lb., i nst i l l i d, dol l ors. n =
B * Oiometir muitiplisr from Groph 8.
b - olus d !ast powt r in dollar, pw k wh.
D : Economic di omi t i r ir f i i t .
Ks '
n =
o : Ovarotl plant eiieraney. 9 =
e) : Joint lffieieney. r :
I : Lpss factor trom G w h A.
p =
t, =
Wsightld ovi mpi hi od i ml udi i q wot i r
hammar. (bid m dmign haad)
Frictim c~l f f i ei ont in Seabiyh formulo (R34).
Ratio oi owrwmight b wi gM o pt pi s h l l .
Flow in tubi e f& ver sacmd. (ai M p n hMd at turbina 1
Rotio of onnuol cost tobm( $me i xol anot i onl
Al l owi bl i ti nri on, p r l
Wrightid w t r i g i pl #i thi ckni sr( oi dnipn hi ad 1 f or t ot al Iingth.
Avsraga pl at l thi cknns for frnpth Lo.
E X P L ANAT I ON ANO L XAY PLE
Eaomplo for pl nstotk
Q = le6 CFS
L ,= 2 6 L*. 1% ~f &, L*:loo'
625
r: ~ o ~ + o . ~ ~ + ~ o ~ I ~ : o . ~ T ~ saar = %#a 0.0119
+,
L,t,*C,t,*L,t,* ... tkk
K: sit%qb: ~x465i aSl or&twi oxasoxaopg, , ,
L , + L I * L I * . . +Ln prt I+n)
R27 a D. N70 i 1.15
0 : 1.281 Ifron m 61; 6. 3 7 ( h BUpk C) i EeoooiiTc &O. I.ZBS ~ 3 . 7 ~ 475 I m i 4'IOm0'dip.l
n:
L, + C2 + Li * . +Ln
&ME: Cdeuldad 0- d i gpdd k v * r ~ cbsi tp msrmd di- m it
8 r f wt
k m this i ~ampl i . Thi wbl ni shosiid k nwor kr d mt i l tkir mi*
m ! o s t y " p ~ ~ ~ P t o f ~ ~
Oi pri ci ati m ir k r t d on t hi mmiiptiwi ot m a m l ihhing f d iarninp 3*
i nt i r i st roquired b npluce 50% o thi pi pi in 45 pi ri . Thi onnwl
0.8 M : Cwt ot mpiniuininp inhriar and mterior surfoet
wymi nt nqui r t d 13 quai to 0.M5135 timar t hi t i r i t cort.
mi o f E r I w r i i r i o w o r w f o r ~ p ~ r ,
nridt wd whidt s&w ama kr i t p o n d ppi I
por p a r .
Dapriciotim : Si0 Redamtion Ymuil, MI. m mr , poqi 2,4,llD.
t:liihrest+[kpracioti~n+ % O B Y
Adaptd from Steel Penstocks and Tunnel Liners. Steel Plate Engineering Data Vol. 4. American lmn and Steel lnstitute
cooperation with Steel Plate Fabricators Assoc., lnc., 1982. Courtesy of AISI.
Figure 3-6 Economic D i e t e r for Steel Penstocks and Pump Unes
HYDRAULICS OF PIPELINES 35
g = acceleration of gravity (32.2 fps/s)
hf = head loss (ft) in pipe length L (ft)
H = head loss (ft) in 1000 ft of pipe
Ks = Scobey constant
L = length of pipe (ft)
n = Manning coefficient
Q = discharge (cfs)
r = hydraulic radius of pipe (ft)
s = T = 1O~0=slopeof hydraulicgradient
V = mean velocity (fps).
Other symbols: '
b = value of power ($/hp/yr)
Qa = average discharge (cfs)
S = allowable unit stress in steel (psi)
t = pipe thickness (in.)
a = cost of steel ($/lb)
i = yearly fixed charges on pipeline, expressed as a ratio
Ha = average head on penstock including water hammer (ft).
References
The following referencesare not cited
in the text.
- ALDRICH,E.H. Solution of Transmission
Problems of a Water System. Trans.
ASCE, 103:1579 (1938).
- BARNARD,R.E. Design Standards for
Steel Water Pipe. Jour. AWWA, 40:1:24
(Jan. 1948).
- BRADLEY, J.N. &THOMPSON, L.R. Fric-
tion Factors of Large Conduits Flowing
Full. Engineering Monograph 7, US
Bureau of Reclamation (1951).
- CAPEN, C.H. Trends in Coefficients of
Large Pressure Pipes. Jour. AWWA,
33:1:1 (Jan. 1941).
- CATES, W.H. Design Standards for Large-
Diameter Steel Water Pipe.Jour. AWWA,
42:9:860 (Sept. 1950).
- CROSS,HARDY.Analysis of Flow in Net-
works of Conduits of Conductors. Bull.
286. Engrg. Expt. Stn., Univ. of Illinois,
Urbana, Ill. (Nov. 1936).
- DAVIS, C.V., ed. Handbook of Applied
Hydraulics. McGraw-Hill BookCo., New
York (2nd ed., 1952).
- FARNSWORTH, GEORGE, JR. &ROSSANO,
AUGUST, JR. Application of the Hardy
Cross Method to Distribution System
Problems. Jour. AWWA, 33:2:224 (Feb.
1941).
- HINDS,JULIAN.Comparison of Formulas
for Pipe Flow. Jour. AWWA, 38:11:1226
(Nov. 1946).
- KING, H.W. Handbookof Hydraulics. Mc-
Graw-Hill Book Co., New York (4th ed.,
1954).
- MOODY, L.F. Friction Factors for Pipe
Flow. Trans. ASME, 66:671 (1944).
- PIGOTT, R.J.S. Pressure Losses in Tub-
ing, Pipe, and Fittings. Trans. ASME,
72:679 (1950).
- Pipe FriccionManual. Hydraulic Institute,
New York (1954).
- Pipeline Design for Water and Waste-
water. Report of the Task Committee on
Engineering Practice in the Design of
Pipelines. ASCE, New York (1975).
- Report of Committee on Pipeline Friction
Coefficients and Effect of Age Thereon.
Jour. NEWWA, 49:235 (1935).
I
~
1. CROCKER,SABIN,ed. Piping Handbook.
McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York (4th
ed., 1945).
2. Flow of Fluids Through Valves, Fittings,
and Pipe. Tech. Paper 409, Crane Co.,
Chicago (1942).
3. MOODY, L.F. Friction Factors for Pipe
Flow. American Society of Mechanical
Engineers, New York.
4. HINDS, JULIAN. Economic Water Con-
duit Size. Engineering News Record,
118:113 (1937).
5. --- Economic Sizes of Pressure Con-
duits. Engineering News Record, 118:443
(1937).
6. BABBITT,H.E. & DOLAND,J.J. Water
Supply Engineering. McGraw-Hill Book
Co., New York (1927; 1955).
7. WHITE, LAZARUS. Catskill Water Supply
of New York, N. Y. John Wiley and Sons,
New York (1913).
8. VOETSCH,CHARLES& FRESEN, M.H.
Economic Diameter of Steel Penstocks.
Trans. ASCE, 103:89(1938).
9. LISCHER,V.c. Determination of Econ-
omical Pipe Diameters in Distribution
Systems. Jour. AWWA, 40:8:849 (Aug.
1948).
10. HALL, L.S.; KALINSKE, A.A.; & ROBERT-
SON,J.M. Entrainment of Air in Flowing
Water-A Symposium. Trans. ASCE,
108:1393(1943).
Chapter 4
AWWA MANUAL M 1
an
Determination of Pipe
Wall Thickness
- . -
, The wal thickness of steeI pipe is dect ed by a number of factors that will be discussed in
this and succeeding chapters, including the following:
1. Interd pressure
a. Maximum &sign pressure (Chapter 4)
b. Surge or warer-hammer pressure (Chapter 5) .'
. .
2. E x t e d pressure ,.. ,
a. Trench Ioading pressure (Chapter 6)
b. Fwth-fili pressure (Chapter 6)
c. Uniform oollapse pressure, atmospheric or hydrauIic (Chapter 4)
d. Vacuum underground (Chapter 6)
'." .
3. Special physical loading
. .
a. Pipe on saddle supports (Chapter 7)
b. Pipe on ring-girder supports (Chapter 7)
4. Fhcticoil requirements (Chapter 4)
. -
The thickness selected should be that whic'h satisfies the mom swere requiremei
When desi- for internai pressure, the minimum thi- of a cyhder shouId be
selected to h i t the circumferential tension stress to a c e h kvel. This stress is frequwtly
termed hoop stress. The internal pressure used in design should be that to which the pipe
may be subjmed during its lifetime. In a transmission pipeline, the pressure is m
the dismce between the pipe centerline md the hydroiulic gmde line. If there
valves, the h u m pressure on the pipe between them wiil be measured by the dis
i .'
PIPE WALL THICKNBSS 37
between the pipe centerline and the elevation of the static leve1 with the valva closed. Surge
or water-hammer pressures must also be considered. These are discussed in Chapter 5. In a
...
pump-discharge pipeline, rhe internai pressure is measured by the distance between the
pipe and the hydradic grade line created by the pumping operation. Ressure at the outlet
and the loss due to friction enter into this determination. If it is possibie to impose a pressure
equal to the shutoff head of the pumps, the pressure is measured between the pipe and the
shutoff grade line. Figures 4- 1 and 4-2 show typical pipeline and hydraulic grade profiles for
gravity and pumped flow.
With pressure determined, the wail thickness is found using Eq 4-1:
Where:
. .
+, t = minimum specifed wall thickness (in.) -:.
p = pressure (psi)
d = outside diameter of pipe (in.) steel cylinder (not including coatings)
s = allowable stress (psi). -- . m
STATIC TEST HGL
) - - m- - - - - - - 4
STATIC TEST HGL
1 - - m- - - - - - - 4
STATIC HGL
- .&&i
figure 4-2 Relation of Various Heads or
Pressures for Selection of Design Pressure
(Pumped Flow)
.. .
WORKING TENSION STRESS IN STEEL
Tension Stress ancl Yield Strength
Modern steel technology has dowed increases in the allowable working stress for steel, with
. xhis working stress determined with relation to the steel's yield strength rather than its
*
ultimate strength. A design stress equal to 50 percent of the speci f ~d minimum yield
strength is often accepted for steel water pipe. Design criteria for penstocks h v e been
- adopted by the Bureau of ~eclamation' that base design stress on 93the minimum tensile
strength or 2/3 the minimum yield strength, whichever is least. With the use of given
methods of stress d y s i s and proper quality control mesures, hese ailowable design
stresses are considered conservative for the usual water-transmission pipelines. Table 4-1
illustrates grades of steel used as a basis for working pressure and the design stress as
to minimum yield point and minimum ultimate tensile strength for common
steel as referenced in AWWA C200, Standard for Steel Water Pipe 6 Inches and
-
38 STEEL PIPE
Table 4-t
Grades of Steel Used in AWWAC200 as Basis for Working Pressures in Table 4-2
Table 4-2 gives the designer working pressures corresponding to 50 percent of the
specified minimum yield strength for several types of steel commonly used in waterworks
pipelines. The designer is cautioned that the diameters and wall thicknesses listed in the
table are for reference only and do not represent engineering or manufacturing limits.
Modern steel-mill capabilities permit the manufacture of almost any diameter and wall
thickness of pipe; in practice, however, most pipe manufacturers fabricate pipe to standard
diameters and wall thicknesses. Pipe with thick linings such as the cement-mortar l~nings
specified in AWW A C205, Standard for Cement-Mortar Protective Lining and Coating for
Steel Water Pipe-4 In. and Larger-Shop Applied,3 and AWWA C602, Standard for
Cement-Mortar Lining of Water Pipelines-4 In. (100 mm) and Larger-In Place,4 is
usually fabricated to the individual manufacturer's standard diameters to accommodate the
required lining thicknesses. It is, therefore, recommended that the pipe manufacturers be
consulted before final selection of diameter and wall thicknesses. .
Pressure Limits
High quality in the manufacture of both the pipe and the steel used in its manufacture is
required by AWWAstandards. Therefore, hoop stress may be allowed to rise, within limits,
above 50 percent of yield for transient loads. When ultimate tensile strength is considered, a
safety factor well over two is realized. For steel pipe produced to meet AWWA standards,
the increased hoop stress should be limited to 75 percent of the specified yield strength, but
should not exceed the mill test pressure.
4.3 CORROSION ALLOWANCE
At one time it was a general practice to add a fixed, rule-of-thumb thickness to the pipe wall
as a corrosion allowance. This proved to be an irrational solution in the waterworks field,
where standards for coating and lining materials and procedures exist. It is preferable to
design for the required wall-thickness pipe as determined by the loads imposed, then select
Design Stress
Minimum Ultimate
Specifications for
50%of Yield Point Minimum Yield Point
Tensile Strength
Fabricated Pipe psi psi psi
ASTM A36 .18000
36000 58 000
ASTMA283GR C 15000 30 000 55 000
GRD 16500 33 000 60 000
ASTM A570 GR 30 15000 30 000 49000
GR33 16500 33 000 52 000
GR36 18000 36 000 53000
GR40 20 000 40 000 55 000
GR45 22 500 45 000 60 000
GR50
25 000 50000 65 000
ASTM A572 GR 42 21 000 42 000 60 000
GR50 25 000 50000 65 000
GR60 30 000 60 000 75 000
Design Stress
Minimum Ultimate
Specifications for
50%of Yield Point Minimum Yield Point
Tensile Strength
Manufactured Pipe psi psi psi
ASTM A53, A135,
and A139 GRA 15000 30 000 48 000
GRB 17500 35 000 60 000
ASTM A139 GRC 21 000 42 000 60 000
GRD 23 000 46 000 60 000
GRE 26 000 52 000 66 000
PIPE WALL THICKMESS 39
linings, coatings, and cathodic protection as necessary to provide the required leve1 of
corrosion protection. . ..
4.4 EXTERNALFLUIDPRESSURE-UNIFORMANDRADIAL
The proper wall thickness must be selected to resist external loading imposed on the pipe.
Such loading may take the form of outside pressure, either atmospheric or hydrostatic, both
of which are uniform and act radially as collapsing forces. Buried pipe must be designed to
resist earth pressure in trench or fiil condition. These considerations are discussed in
Chapter 6.
Atmosphere or Fluid Environrnents
A general theory of collapse-resistance of steel pipe to uniform, radially acting forces has
been d e ~ e l o ~ e d . ~ Any unreinfoxced tube longer than the nitical length can be considered a
tube of infinia length, as its collapsing pressure is independent of further increase in length.
The foliowing formula applies to such tubes:
- . : ::
. .
. - .. _ .'*A.
_ .,I
Where:
.. .-- -.
-
.. .
- .5
: -. ,
- ; iL.<+ --
--
' 3 - .
L,
rdn = d i a r n e w m n e w W ~ a f t M - w (for thin pipes, the difference
----- --
between inside diameter, outside diameter, and neutral-axis diameter ..
: C
is negligible)
- .
- -.
.:-.- : . - . , $ '
- r = wail thickness (in.) ! , , - , - . .,=,-. :.- ,.., .-
- . -
. Pc = collapsing pressure (psi) . . , .=
E = modulus of elasticity (30 000 000 for steel) !? -.. .
u = Poisson's ratio (usually taken as 0.30 for steel).
Substiming the above values of E and v:
Applied Calculations
Circular cylindrical shels under external pressure may fail either by buckling or by yielding.
Relatively thin-wded shells fail through instability or buckling under stresses that, on the
average, are below the yield strength of the material. In the waterworks field, the
thickness-diameter ratio is such that there is usually a buckling failure. A number of
theoretical and empirical formulas have been promulgated to provide for the effect of
instability due to collapsing. They include the formulas of ~irnoshenko? Love, ~ o a r k , ~
Stewart, and Bryan.
Stewart developed two empirical equations for the collapsing pressures of steel pipes.
The Stewart formula, which automatically accounts for wall thickness variations, out-of-
roundness, and other manufacturing tolerantes, is:
For buckling failure, where
Pc =
formula is considered more
is 0.023 or Iess
dn
conservative than
and PC is 581 psi or less:
the previous formulas.
STEEL PIPE
Equation 4-4 is predicated on the pipe being mmmerciaiiy round, made of steel with a
minimum yield of at least 27 000 psi, and having a length six diameters or more between
reinforcing elementc. -
- . t . . .
. r - - - . ..
. -.
. -
4.5 MlNIMUM WALL THICKNESS
Minimum plate or sheet thidmesses for handling are based w p o formulas adopted by
rnany specifying agencies. They are:'
D
t = -
288
(pipe sizes up to 54 in. ID)
.- .
t =
+
(pipe sizes greater than 54 in. ID)
400
In no case s W the sheli thickness be less than 14 gauge (0.ll747 in.).
Ir should be mted that for pipe diameters smaller than 54 in., the use of Eq 4-5 (Pacifc
Gas and Electric formula) will result in a rhinner pipe wdl than the use of Eq 4-6 (United
States Bureau of Rechmation formula). For 54411. and larger pipe, the opposite is t r u ~
4.6 WOD PRACTICE
' > X !
Interna1 pressure, external pressure, special physical loading, type of Iinq and coating, and
other practicd requirements govern wall thickness. Good practice with regard to internal
pressure is to use a working tensile stress of 50 peraent of the yield-point stress under the
influence of maximum design pressure. The stress of transitory surge pressures, together
with static pressure, may be taken at 75 percent of the yield-point stress. The daigner
should, however, never overlook the effect of water hammer or surge pressures in design. It
is more positive and economical to select a proven coating or linhg for protedon against
corrosion hazards rhan to add sacrificial wall thickness.
I r '
--a.
' 1 '
= --
C' -S
ir'. "
PIPE WALL TIfICKNHSS 41
Table 4-2 Working Pressures For Allowable Unit Stresses*
Stress pa'
m WdI Wcight FipeAxis Sccaon
m T'MuEB$ per Foot DJt
h 4 -dUS 15000 16500 17500 18000 21000
Table 4-2 WorWng Pressures for Allowabie Unit Stresses* (continued) y . , .
42 STEEL PIPE
Stress psi
wall waght Pipe&
15000 16500 17500 18000 21000
Diameterf Thicknesst per Fmt t in.' Modulus
m. in. M R a t i o (S) Worlung rssure prix
18 OD .O747 14.30 240.96 168.96 18.77 125 137 145 149 1 74
-10% 19.99 172.08 235.41 26.16 174 192 203 a)9 244
-1345 25.67 133.83 301.m 33.47 224 247 262 B9 314
.1563 29.79 115.16 348.74 38.75 261 287 304 313 365
.1793 34.13 100.39 398.53 44.28 299 329 349 359 418
.2188 41-56 82.27 483.12 53.68 365 401 425 438 51 1
.2500 47.40 72.00 549.14 61,02 417 458 486 500 583
30 OD .1M6 33.40 286.81 1 097.51 73.17 105 115 122 126 1%
-1345 42.91 223.05 1401.02 93-80 135 148 157 161 188
.1%3 49.82 191.94 1 631.50 108.77 156 172 182 188 219
*Vd= have km ampt ed by e k a m k -puta. See agt for formulm u d .
~S~undu45in.~outsi&~sizcs,~45in.andoverartinsidediamoersk.
$Mmuf ar cr s can f uma wall thiche3scs 0 t h thm shown.
$WorlMg press- may be interphed or exn-aplated for other wall thic$Qesses or messe.
PIPE WALL THICKNESS 43
Table 4-2 Working Pressures for Allowable Un& Stress* (cmtinued) - - -
. - - . . . .
m WaIl Weight PipeAxis Scction
DiameterT Tbicknessf m FOO~ Do/t h? Mddus
15000 16500 17500 18000 21000
k OD .1793 57.11 167.32 1 867.28 124.49 179 197 209 215 251
.21# 69.60 137.11 2 269.64 151.31 219 24 1 255 263 306
.2500 79.44 120.00 2 585.18 172.35 250 27s 292 300 350
3 - 99.10 96.00 3Sll.28 214.09 365
/'
375 438
. --4375- 138.15 68.57 4439.73 295.98 438 48 1 5 10 525 613
.5000 157.55 60.00 5 042.20 336.15 500 550 583 600 700
32 OD .lo46 35.64 305.93 1 332.85 83.30 98 108 114 118 137
45.78 237.92 1709.04 106.81 1% 139 147 151 177
53.16 204.73 1 981.98 123.87 147 161 171 176 205
60.94 178.47 2 268.73 141.80 168 185 1% 202 235
74.28 146.25 2 758.28 172.39 205 . 226 239 246 2J37
84.78 128.00 3 142.37 196.40 234 258 273 281 328
3125 105.77 102.40 3 904.95 244.06
293 322 342 352 410
.4375 147.50 73.14 5 403.00 337.69 410 45 1 479 492 574
.5#0 168.23 64.00 6 138.62 383.66 469 516 547 563 656
37.87 325.05 1 599.62 94.10 92 102 108 111 129
48.65 252.79 2051.45 120.67 119 131 138 142 166
56.50 217.53 2 379.37 139.96 138 1 52 161 165 193
64.77 189.63 2 723.95 160.23 158 174 185 190 221
78.95 155.39 3 312.46 194.85 193 212 225 232 270
90.12 136.00 3774.37 222.02 221 243 257 265 309
.3125 112.45 108.80 4 691.95 276.00 276 303 322 33 1 386
F
sures may be interpokd or exPapolared for 0 t h wd thicknesses or strcsses.
44 STEEL PIPE
Table 4-2 WorWng Pressures for Ailowable Unlt S - * (continud)
Moment
of Inertia
About Stress gs
Pipe wau WeigIlf PipeAxis Scction
Diamc~rt ThicknessI rier Foot Dn/t inP Mdulus
15000 165MJ 17500 18000 21000
57 ID .2500 152.88 230.00 18421.89 640.76 132 145 154 158 184
.3125 191.31 184.40 23 103.11 801.84 164 181 192 197 230
.3750 229.82 154.00 27 814.90 963.29 197 217 230 237 276
,4375 268.41 132.29 32 557.37 1 125.09 230 253 269 276 322
.5000 307.09 116.00 37 330.a 1 287.26 263 289 307 316 368
Values h v e been computed by ekcwinic computer. See text for formulas used.
TSizes under 45 in. are outside diametcr sizes; those 45 in. and over are inside diameter sizes.
SManufmurm furnish w d thiicimesses otkr than shown.
SWorking pressures may be kiterpolated or extrapolated for other wall thiclumses ox smsscs.
PIPE WALL THICKNESS 45
Table 4-2 Working Prwsures for Ailowabk Unit Stressec* (continued)
. '
. - - ..
. .
. . .
stress psi
pipe Wd weight PipeAxis Section
Diamttert Thichmd ncr Foot Dn/t in?
15000 16500 17500 18000 21000
m -
46 STEEL PIPE
84 ID -3125 281.43 270.80 73551.47 1738.29 112 123 130 134 156
.3750 337.97 22.00 88 458.73 2 087.52 134 147 156 161 188
.4375 394.59 194.00 103 432.09 2 43728 156 172 182 188 219
*Val= have k n computed by ekcamic oomputer. See text for formulas u d .
unda 45 in. art outside dhmm sizes; those 45 in. d ovcr m inside diameter si=.
$Manukhms furnish d r ' ' r other tfian s h .
$Workiq pmsures m y be interplated or extrapokd for other wall thiclmesses or suesses.
BIPE WALL THICKNESS 47
Table 4-2 Working Pressures for Ailowable Unlt S&-* (contfnued)
stress psi
RF Waii Weight Pipe AKi s Section
Dimead Thicknessf per Foot Da/t , + hladdUS 15000 16500 17500 18000 21000
iw. iR. (bare) ht i o ( I ) (S) Working Pnssuit psi3
STEEL PIPE
i
$
i
J
< .
<
Table 4-2 Working Pressures For Aliowable Unit Stresses* (continued) , _ . .. -, . , ..
i
Moment
of Irleda
About Stress pss'
P i ~ e Wd Weight Pipe Axis Section
Diameaq ThicknessS per Foot Dd t i n ~ lModulUa 15000 16500 175M) 18000 21000
m. zk. (bare) &ti0 (1) wokhg Pressure psi$
102 ID A875 754.08 150.36 292 350.87 5 656.12 202 222 236 243
.7500 823.14 138.00 319513.64 6174.18 221 243 257 265 - 309
.a125 892.27 127.54 346 774.99 6 92.88 239 263 279 287
-8750 961.49 118.57 374 135.14 7 212.24 257 283 300 309
.9375 1030.80 110.80 401 594.41 7 732.26 276 303 322 33 1
1.0000 1100.18 104.00 429 152.98 8 252.94 294 324 343 353
108 ID .3125 361.54 347.60 155 936.84 2 871.10 87 95 101 104
.37W 434.10 290.00 187 449.05 3 447.34 104 115 122 125
.4375 506.74 248.86 219 070.05 4 024.25 122 134 142 146
.S000 579.47 218.00 250 S00.20 4 601.84 139 153 162 167
.S625 652.28 194.00 282 639.72 5 180.1 1 156 172 182 188
.62M 725.17 174.80 314 588.81 5 759.06 174 191 203 208
A875 798.14 159.09 346 647.75 6 338.70 191 210 223 229
.7500 871.20 146.00 378 816.75 6919.03 a18 229 243 250
.S125 944.34 134.92 411 096.20 7 500.04 2a6 248 263 27 1
.87M 1017.57 125.43 443 486.19 8 081.75 243 267 284 292
.9375 1090.88 117.20 475 987.02 8 664.15 260 286 304 313
1.0000 1164.27 110.00 508 599.07 9 247.26 278 306 324 333
114 ID .3125 381.57 366.80 183 313.25 3 198.49 82 90 % 99
, - 7
.3750 458.13 306.00 220 337.67 3 840.31 99 109 115 118
r -.-
. .
- . ,4375 534.78 262.57 257 483.24 4 482.84 115 ln 134 138
si .HXIO 611.51 230.00 294 750.26 5 126.09 132 145 154 158
.E -5625 688.32 204.67 332 139.01 5 770.06 148 163 173 178
<..L *. .
- . -
.6250 765.22 184.40 369 d9.79 6 414.75 164 181 192 197
- - -- - -
, . ..Li -
. >
-6875 842.20 167.82 407 282.80 7 060.16 181
-- -
199 21 1 217
<?%-+;,-. . -: -
.. . . -i-
te:k
-,
.7500 919.27 154.00 445 038.33 7 706.29 197 217 230 237
<E .8125 996.42 142.31 482 916.58 8 353.15 214 235 249 257
! ! - L . .8750 1073.65 132.29 520 917.94 9 000.74 230 253 269 276
. .
-
. .11 .9375 1150.96 123.60 559 042.60 9 649.06 247 27 1 288 296
B . 1.0000 1228.M 116.00 597 290.87 10 298.12 263 289 307 316
120 ID .3125 401.60 386.00 213 719.72 3 543.54 78
I.;
86 91 94
.3750 482.17 322.00 2% 864.35 4 254.48 94 103 109 113
.4375 562.82 276.29 300 143.19 4 966.17 109 120 128 131
S000 643.55 242.00 M3 556.43 5 678.62 125 138 146 150
.5625 724.37 215.33 387 104.47 6 391.82 141 155 164 169
.62W 805.28 194.00 430 787.49 7 105.77 156 172 182 188
.6875 886.26 176.55 474 605.90 7820.49 172 189 201 206
.75M S7.33 162.00 518 559.88 8 535.96 188 206 219 225
S125 1048.49 149.69 562 649.73 9 252.21 203 223 237 244
.S750 1129.73 139.14 606 875.67 9 969.21 219 241 255 263 306
.9375 1211.05 130.00 651 238.16 10 686.99 234 258 273 281 328
1.0000 1292.45 122.00 695 737.31 1 1 405.53 250 275 292 300 350
126 ID .3125 421.62 405.20 247315.39 3906.26 74 82 87 89 104
-3750 506.20 338.00 297 220.04 4 689.86 89 98 104 107 125
.U75 590.86 290.00 347 272.54 5 47425 104 115 122 125 146
.HWK) 675.60 254.00 397 473.19 6 259.42 119 131 139 143 167
5625 7M.42 226.00 4-47 822.27 7 045.38 134 147 156 161 188
.6250 845.33 203.60 498 320.19 7 832.14 149 164 174 179 208
.6875 930.33 185.27 548 967.03 8 619.70 164 180 191 1% 229
-7500 1015.40 170.00 599 763.30 9408.05 179 1% 2CM 214 250
.8125 1100.56 157.08 650 709.09 10 197.20 193 213 226 232 271
r other wall thiclrnesses or smsscs.
PIPE WALL THICKNESS
49
= "" ~-.-
Table 4-2
Working Pressures for Allowable Unit Stresses* (continued)
Moment
of Inertia
About Stress psi
Pipe
Wall
Weight Pipe Axis
Section
15000 16 500 17500
Diametert Thicknesst per Foot Dolt
in.4 Modulus
18000 21 000
tn. tn.
(bare)
Ratio
(I)
is) WorkingPressurepsi
126 ID .8750 ll85.80 146.00 701804.90 10987.16 208 229 243 250 292
.9375 1271.13 136.40 753050.81 II 777.92 223 246 260 268 313
1.0000 1356.54 128.00 804 447.32 12569.49 238 262 278 286 333
132 ID .3125 441.65 424.40 284259.12 4 286.66 71 78 83 85 99
.3750 530.23 354.00 341 595.49 5 146.45 85 94 99 102 119
.4375 618.90 303.71 399 093.85 6 007.06 99 109 ll6 119 139
.5000 707.64 266.00 456 754.99 6868.50 ll4 125 133 136 159
.5625 796.47 236.67 514578.70 7730.76 128 141 149 153 179
.6250 885.39 213.20 572 565.57 8 593.85 142 156 166 170 199
.6875 974.39 194.00 630716.01 9457.78 156 172 182 188 219
.7500 1063.47 178.00 689030.01 10322.55 170 188 199 205 239
.8125 ll52.63 164.46 747508.16 II 188.15 185 203 215 222 259
.8750 1241.88 152.86 806 150.65 12 054.59 199 219 232 239 278
.9375 1331.21 142.80 864 957.68 12921.87 213 234 249 256 298
1.0000 1420.63 134.00 923 929.84 13 790.00 227 250 265 273 318
138 ID .3125 461.68 443.60 324710.23 4684.73 68 75 79 82 95
.3750 554.26 370.00 390 181.56 5 624.24 82 90 95 98 ll4
.4375 646.93 317.43 455 830.18 6564.61 95 105 III ll4 133
.5000 739.69 278.00 521 656.30 7505.85 109 120 127 130 152
.5625 832.52 247.33 587660.13 8447.94 122 135 143 147 171
.6250 925.44 222.80 653 842.24 9390.91 136 149 159 163 190
.6875 1018.45 202.73 720202.83 10 334.75 149 164 174 179 209
.7500 1111.53 186.00 786742.10 II 279.46 163 179 190 196 228
.8125 1204.70 171.85 853 460.45 12225.04 177 194 206 212 247
.8750 1297.96 159.71 920 358.44 13 171.50 190 209 222 228 266
.9375 1391.29 149.20 987436.10 14 ll8.84 204 224 238 245 285
1.0000 1484.72 140.00 1054693.80 15067.05 217 239 254 261 304
144 ID .3125 481.71 462.80 368 827.58 5 100.47 65 72 76 78 91
.3750 578.30 386.00 443 169.18 6 123.24 78 86 91 94 109
.4375 674.97 331.14 517703.79 7 146.90 91 100 106 109 128
.5000 771.73 290.00 592431.62 8 171.47 104 ll5 122 125 146
.5625 868.57 258.00 667 352.85 9 196.94 117 129 137 141 164
.6250 965.50 232.40 742467.87 10223.31 130 143 152 156 182
.6875 1062.51 211.45 817777.28 II 250.59 143 158 167 172 201
.7500 1159.60 194.00 893281.08 12278.78 156 172 182 188 219
.8125 1256.78 179.23 968 979.66 13307.87 169 186 197 203 237
.8750 1354.04 166.57 I 044 873.60 14337.89 182 201 213 219 255
.9375 1451.38 155.60 I 120962.90 15368.81 195 215 228 234 273
1.0000 1548.80 146.00 I 197248.20 16400.66 208 229 243 250 292
*Valueshave been computed by electronic computer. See text for formulas used.
tSizes under 45 in. are outside diameter sizes; those 45 in. and over are inside diameter sizes.
tManufacturers can furnish wall thicknesses other than shown.
Workingpressures may be interpolated or extrapolated for other wall thicknesses or stresses.
STEBL PIPE
Referentes
1. Weided Stcel Penstocks. Engnr. Mono-
graph 3. Bureau of Reclamation, Denver,
C h .
2. Sttcl Water Pipc 6 Inches and Largr.
AWWA Standard C200-80. AWWA,
Denver, Colo. (1980).
3. Cemnit-Mortar Protective Lining and
b t i n g for Steel Water P i p e 4 In. md
--Shp AppW. AWWA S ~ d d
C205-80. AWWA, Denver, Colo. (1W).
4. Cemcnt-Morter Lining of Water Pipc-
lincs-1 In. (100 mm) and Larger-In
Place. AWWA Standard C602-83.
AWWA, Dmvcr. Colo. (1983).
5. R u k for Constniction of Udued PPes-
sure Vcssels. Sec. VIII, ASME Soiler and
Ressure Ve s d Cadt. ASME, New York.
B. TIMOSHENKO, S. Strmgrh of Matm'als.
Part 11. D. Van Nos- Co., NEw York
(1940).
7. ROARK, R.J. Formulas fur Smss and
Strah. McGmw-Hill Book Co., New
York (4th ed., 1965).
8. PARMAKIAN, J. Mnimum Thickness for
Handling Pipcs, Water Power and D m
Constructim. (june 1982.)
References :.L .
1. Welded Steel Penstocks. EJngnr. Mono-
graph 3. Bureau of Rechti on, Denver,
Colo.
2. Steel Water Pipc 6 Inches and Lwrger.
-;. .-i_;;AWWA Standard C2W-80. AWWA,
Dtnver, Colo. (1980).
3. Ccment-Mortar Protective Lining md
Cuating for Swtl Water P i p e 4 In. md
h g e ~ - S b p Applied. AWWA Standard
- C205-80. AWWA, Denver, Colo. (1980).
4. Ctment-Mortar Lining of Water Rpc-
lines-1 h. (100 mm) md Largcr-ln
: - = PIace. AWWAStandardC602-83.
: . A-A, Denver. Cob. (1983).
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sure Vesgels. Sec. VIIf, ASME Soikr and
Aessure V e s 4 Cede. ASME, Ncw York.
TIMOSHENKO, S. S m h of Mar&.
Part 11. D. Van Nos- Co., New York
( 1 W .
ROARK, R-J. Fortttulcu fm Smss and
Strai. McGraw-Hill Book GJ., New
Yo& (4th ed., 1965).
PARMAKIAN, J. Minimum Thickncss for
Handlmg P i p , Water Power md -Dam
C w s d c i n . u~ne 1982.) -. -
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AWWA MANUAL MI 1
O
Water Hammer and
Pressure Surge .:-:.: >-.' . -
b:. .E < +=-
>. T.-
m. :
- .
F.
E ..
S;
Water hammer is the result of a change in flow velocity in a closed conduit causing elastic
wava to travel upstream and downstream from the point of origin. The elastic waves, in
turn, cause increases or decreases in pressure as they mvel dong the line, and these pressure
changes are variously referred to as water hammer, surge, os uansient pressure.
The phenomenon of water hammer is extremdy complex, and no attempt will be made
to cover the subject in depth in this manual. Only the fudamentals of elastic-mve theory
and specific data pertaining to the properties of stael pipe will be discussed. For a more
detoiiled understoinding of water hammer, thc refemes listed at the end of this chapter
shouid be consulted.
, -
. .- '=2 -
-.:-. .
, -. . -
- . .
IC RELATiONSHIPS . - . .
The following fundamentd relationships in surge-wavc theory determine thc magnitude of
pressure rise and its distribution along a conduit, Thc prcssure rise for instantmmw
closure is diredy proportional to the fluid v w t y at cutoff and to the magnitude of the
wave veiocity; it is indepwdent of the ltngth of the conduit. Its value is:
aV
h =
52 STEEL PIPE
In the above equatiom:
a = wave velacity (fps)
h = pressure rise above normal (ft of water)
p
= pressure rise above n o d @si)
V = velocity of flow (fps)
W = weight of fluid (lb/cu ft)
sp gr = specifc gavi t y of fluid (water = 1.0)
k = bulk modulus of compressibility of liquid (psi)
E = Young's modulus of elasticity for pipe wali material (psi)
d = inside diameter of mdui t (in.)
t = thickncss of conduit wall (h.)
g = acceleration due to gravity (32.2 fps/s)
L = length of conduit (ft)
2L
-
a
= criticai time of conduit (S)
For steel pipe, Eq 5-3 reduces to:
using k = 300 000 psi and E = 30 000 000 psi.
2000
0 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 ~ 6 0 7 0 O W
INSIDE DIAMETER
(o'ls)
WALL m
The nurnbers at the rlght of the curves represent the rnodutus of elasticty ( 1 in 1 000000-psi units for various pipe
materials.4
Figure 5-1 Surge Wave Velmity C hart for Water
WATER HAMMER / PRESSURE SURGE 53
Figure 5-1 gives values of pressure wave velocity for various pipt materials with d/f
ratios up to 90. For steel pipe, higher ratios are frequently encountered in kg e sizes, and
Table 5-1 gives mmputed values up to d/ t = 400.
When the flow ratc is changed in a time greater than zero but less than or equal to W a
scmnds, tht magnitude of the pressure rise is the same as with instantaneous closure, but the
duration of the maximum value decrease as the time of closure approaches W a seconds.
Under these conditions, the pressure distribution along the pipeline varies as tht time of
closure mi es. T h e pressure decreases uniformly almg the line if closure is in Waseconds.
The maximum pressure at the control valve exists along the fuli length of &e line with
insmtaneous closure, md for slower ram mvels up the pipe a distance equal to L-(Ta/2)
feet, then decreases uniformly. T h e surge pressure distribution along the conduit is
independent of the profile or p m d contour of the line so long as the wtd pressure remaIns
above the vapor pressure of the fluid.
Table 5-1 Veldty of Pressure Wave for Steel Pipe
Wave VeWty
a
For valve closing times greater than Wa seconds, the maximum pmsure rise will be a
function of the maximum rate of change in flow with respect to time, dV/d T. Nonlinear
closure rates of a vdve can be investigated, and the proper valve closing time determintd to
hold the maximum pressure rise to any de s i d limitiq value. The effea of pumps and
quick-closing check vdves or control vaives can be investigated using the graphical mcthod
or numericai method through use of a computer.
The profile of the conduit leading away from a pumping smtion may have a mjor
influence on the surge conditions. When high points oocur along the lk, the surge
hydraulic-grade elevation may fail below the pipe profde ctiwing negative pressures,
perhaps as isow as the vapor pressure of the fluid. If thi s occurs, the liquid column may be
sepmted by a zone of vapor for a short time. Parting and rejoining of the liquid aolumn can
prdtlce extremely high pressures and may cause failure of the aonduit.'
The effect of friction can be accounted for in any surge probkm. When friction losses
are less ttian 5 percent of the normal static or working pressure, they cm u s d y be
neglected.
The greater the degree of a m c y desired for the resdts of a surge analysis, the more
must be known aibout the various hydradic and physical chmacteristics of the system. The
velmity of the pressure wave a is a fundamental factor in any surge study, as the surge
pressures are directly proportional to its value. l X s vtlocity dtpends on the pipe diameter,
wdl thickness, materiai of the pipe d s , as wdl as the density and compressibility of the
fluid in the pipe.
54 STEEL PIPE
Knowkige concerning the physid characteristics of the pipe material s fairly
complete. Young's moduius for steel iines can be mken at 30 000 000 psi, since ir avcrages
between 29 000 000 and 3 1 000 000 psi, depending on the steel used. Ifthe mtio of diameter
to thickness is known, it is nccessary to know ody the density and the compressibiiity of tht
liquid within the pipe to determine the surge wave velocity a.
Within the range of or- opemting t emperam for water, 32-lWF (0-M0C),
and for pressures in the range of O- 1 psi, the s pecific gravity can be t akn at 1 .OO. In the
same range, the moddus of compressibility, or bulk moduius, has been found by
measurements md veried by field tests to be approximately 300 000 psi with a wiation of
1 3 percentm2
- -
. - ,
5.2 CHECKLIST FOR PUMPING W N S
A few famrs can be c hde d to indicate whether surges of serious proportions will occur in
my given system, once the physid, hyhulic, and operating ckackr i st i cs are established.
For most mnsmission ma h supplied by motor-driven ctntcifugal pumps, the followhg 12
questions wili give a clue to the seriousness of thc surge p~oblern:~~
1. Are there any higb spots on the profile of the transmission main where the
.
occurrence of a vacuum can cause a parting of the water colurna when a pump is cut OE
j
2. Is the length of the transmissiw main h s than 20 tima the head on the pumps Wth
'
values expressed in feet)?
3. Is the maximum velocity of flow in the transmission main in excess of 4.0 fps?
4. b the factor of safety of the pipe less than 3.5 (related to ultimate strength) for
-
normal operaring pmsures?
5. What is t ht natural rate of slowing down of the water column if the pump is cut off ?
Will rhe column come to rest and reverse irs direction of flow in l e s than the critica1 -
surge-wave time for &e transmission main?
6. Will the check vdve dose in l a s than the critical time for the transmission moiin?
7. Are there any quickdosing automatic valves set to open or close in less than 5 s?
8. Would the pump or its driving motor be damaged if dowed to nrn backward up to
- ...
. . fuil speed?
. . . . . .
. .
9. Will &e pmp be tripped off before the discharge vdve is fully closed?
. - . .
..-
10. WU the pump be started with the discharge gate valve open?
11. Are there booster stations on the system that depend on the operation of the
L .
, ..- -
pumping station under consideratioa?
- . -
12. Are there any quick-closing automatic valves used in the pumping system that
become inoperative with the failure of pumping system prasure?
- - - .. .
If the answer to any one of these question is affirmative, there is a strong psi bi l i ty
i . *
--
that serious surges wiil occur. If the mswer to or more of the questions is oiffirmative,
:--
surges will pmbably be experiencsd with severity in r o p d o n m the numbtr of &-tive
- , -
. , .-.
-. -.
. -
answers,
, L . . - - > - ..- . . . -
- , .
. . ::::.- ? , , ---A- -
. -1 :-- . .
. .
- i . > - -
5.3 GENERALSTUDIES FOR WATER H~MMERCONTROL
-
- .. .
--- 3
Studies of surges can be undertaken during the design stke. Once the general hyout
7--- -
,.-.::*. .
-' system has been completd, the kngth,,diameter, tbickness, material, and cap
. J . .
,-. !
-, pipe, as weli as the type and s h of pumps, cm be established. The normal
pressures at various points in the system can be computed and the allowabk
pressures fixed. By this means, the margin for water hammer can be found,
should then be adjusted to provide either safety factors large enough to withstand s
conditions as might be encountered or suitable remedid or control devias.
WATER HAMMER / PRESSURE SURGE 55
method is usually l es costly .1t is important to note that there is no single device that will
- - . -
cure di surge difficulties. Only by a study of both normaloperating conditions and possible
. , emergency conditions can methads be determined to provide proper control.
It is not feasible to make general recommendations on te type, size, and appliation of
surge-control equipment for al1 plants. Several possibk solutions should be considad for
any individual instaliation, and one selected that @ves the maximum protection for &e least
expenditure. Surges can often be reduced subst&tially by using bypasses around check
valves, by cusbioning chtck valves for the last 15-20 percent of &e smke, or by adopting a
two-speed rate of valve smke. Water hammer resulting from power failure to centrifugal
pumps can sometimes be held to d e limits by providing flywheek or by dowing the pumps
. ,
to run backward. Air-inlef valves may be needed, or the preferred solution m y be to use a
. .
surge m&, a surge damper, or a hydropneumatic b b e r . Under certain opera*
A
.>-
conditions, no devices wiii be required to hold the pressure rise within safe iimits.
- -
c:
It is essentiai m coordinate di the elements of a system properly and to ascertain that
. .
opemting practices conform to the requirements for safety. As changes take place in the
C .
?. . - .
system demand, it may be necessary to review and revise the surge conditiom, poirticuhly if
the capacity is increased, additionoil pumpage or storage is addcd, or h t e r stations are
phned.
If a competent investigation is made during the design stage and the remmmeendations
arising from it m a r i e d out, the final plant will almost always operate without damage due
to water hammer. The agreement between te theoreticai analyses, properly applied, and
the actual tests of installations is esremely close. When a surge study was not undertaken
aud dangerous conditions existed, tbere have almost invariably been serious surge, and
sometimes mt l y damage has raulted. The time and efort spent on a surge study in advance
of the fuial design is the least expeasive means of ensuring agahst surges. The elastic-wave
u r y has beea complettly proven in acnial pmxice, and design engineers should take the
initiative in making surge snidies and i nsmbg surge-control dwices without waiting for
. a : ' . serio- failures to oacur.
- . -.
. , ..
5.4 ALLOWANCE FORWATER HAMMER
Mmy conditions have choinged since the standard, niiesf-thumb empiricai allowanms for
water hammer originated. Automatic stop, check, and throttling valves were not then as
widely used as they are today. Valve closures measured in seaonds and motor-driven
centrifugd pumps were practically unknown. New types of pipe have since been introduced
and used. Consequently, it is questionable whether standard allowanws for water hammer
should be appiied universoilly to al1 types of instailations. Nor can it be said that such
dloweuices will provide full security uoder alt circumstances. Potential water-hammer
problems should be investigated in the dcsign of pumping-station piping, force mains, and
10% trouismission pipehes. Suitable meam sfiould be provided to reduce its effect to tht
:mhimum that is practicable or economical.
' '
. ,
+:
'i
It is not withia thc scope of t hi s manual to cover an analysis of pressure rise in a complicated
piptrine. Some basic data are, however, provided for simple probkms.
The pressure rise for instantaneous valve dosure is given by Eq 5- 1. Vdiies of the wave
velocity a may bt read fcom P i 5- 1 for diameter-thicknecs ratios of 90 md less, d from
Table 5- 1 for higher ratios.
Por solutions to more mmplex problems, it is recommended that referenm be made to
the many publications avaihble (see, for example, referentes 5,6,7, and 8 at the end of this
chapter). Computer progmns are available t h t indude &c effecw of pipeline friction and
56 STEEL PIPE
give accurate results. There are several means of reducing surges by the addition of devices
or revising operating conditions, but these are outside the scope of this manual. Most of the
available computer programs permit evaluation of the various means of reducing or
controlling surges. (Reference 8 describes some of these means.)
References
1. RICHARDS,R.T. Water Column Separa-
tion in Pump Discharge Lines. Trans.
ASME, 78:1297 (1956).
2. KERR, S.L.; KESSLER,L.H.; & GAMET,
M.B. New Method for Bulk-Modulus
Determination. Trans. ASME, 72:1143
(1950).
3. KERR, S.L. Minimizing Service Inter-
ruptions Due to Transmission Line Fail-
ures-Discussion.Jour. AWWA,41:7:634
(July 1949).
4. --- Water Hammer Control. Jour.
AWWA, 43:12:985 (Dec. 1951).
5. RICH, G.R. Hydraulic Transients (Engi-
neering Societies Monographs). Mc-
Graw-Hill Book Co., New York (1951).
6. PARMAKIAN, JOHN.Water Hammer Anal-
ysis. Dover Publications, New York
(19
~
.
7. KINN H. Water Hammer Control in
Centrif al Pump System. ASCE. Jour.
Hydraul. Div., (May 1968).
8. STREETER, V.L. &WYLIE,E.B. Hydraulic
Transients. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New
York (1967).
The following references are not cited in
the text.
- ALIN, A.L. Penstock Surge Tank at
Dennison Hydro Plant. Civ. Eng., 14:296
(1944).
- ALLIEVI, LORENZO. Theory of Water
Hammer. Am. Soc. Mech. Engrs., New
York (1925; out of print).
- ANGUS, R.W. Water Hammer in Pipes,
Including Those Supplied by Centrifugal
Pumps; Graphical Treatment. Proc. Inst.
Mech. Engrs., 136:245(1937).
- --- Water Hammer Pressures in
Compound and Branch Pipes. Trans.
ASCE, 104:340 (1939).
- BARNARD,R.E. Design Standards for
Steel Water Pipe. Jour. AWWA, 40:1:24
(Jan. 1948).
- BENNET,RICHARD. Water Hammer Cor-
rectives. Wtr. & Sew. Wks., 88:196
(1941).
- BERGERON, L. Water Hammer inHydrau-
lies and Wave Surge in Electricity. John
Wiley and Sons, New York (1961).
- BOERENDANS, W.L. Pressure Air Cham-
bers in Centrifugal Pumping. Jour.
AWWA, 31:11:1865 (Nov. 1939).
- DAWSON, F.M. &KALINSKE, A.A. Meth-
ods of Calculating Water Hammer Pres-
sures. Jour. AWWA, 31:11:1835 (Nov.
1939).
- EVANS,W.E. &CRAWFORD, c.c. Charts
and Designing Air Chambers for Pump
Discharge Lines. Proc. ASCE, 79:57
(1916).
- KERR, S.L. Practical Aspects of Water
Hammer. Jour. AWWA, 40:6:599 (June
1948).
- --- Surges in Pipe Lines-Oil and
Water. Trans. ASME, 72:667 (1950).
- --- Effect of Valve Action on Water
Hammer. Jour. AWWA, 52:1:65 (Jan.
1960).
- PARMAKIAN, JOHN. Pressure Surges at
Large Pump Installations. Trans. ASME,
75:995 (1953).
- Proceedings Second Intern. Conf. Pres-
sure Surge. Fluid Engineering, British
Hydraulic Res. Assoc., London (1976).
- Second Symposium on Water Hammer.
Trans. ASME, 59:651 (1937).
- SIMIN, OLGA.Water Hammer. (Includes
a digest of N. Joukovsky's study.) Proc.
AWWAAnn. Conf., St. Louis, Mo. (June
1904).
- Standard Allowances for Water Ham-
mer-Panel Discussion. Jour. AWWA,
44:11:977 (Nov. 1952).
- STEPANOFF, A.J. Elements of Graphical
Solution of Water Hammer Problems in
Centrifugal-Pump Systems. Trans.
ASME, 71:515 (1949).
- STREETER,V.L. Unsteady Flow Calcu-
lations by Numerical Methods. ASME.
Jour. of Basic Engrg. (June 1972).
- Symposium on Water Hammer. Am. Soc.
Mech. Engrs., New York (1933; reprinted
1949).
- Water Hammer Allowances in Pipe De-
sign. Committee Report. Jour. AWWA,
50:3:340 (Mar. 1958).
II
II1II
AWWA MANUAI
. - - ,
. Externa1 L o a d s . . , . +:
!:, 1.1,
5 .
5
. Extemal loads on buried pipe are generally comprised of the weight of the backfill together
with live and impaci I d s . T h e Marston theory' is generally used to determine the Icds
imposed on buried pipe by the soil surrounding it. This theory is applicable to both flexible
and rigid pipes instded in a variety of conditions, including ditch md projecting conduit
installations. Ditch conduits are stnictures instaiied and completely buried in narrow
dtches in relatively passive or undisturbed soil. Projecting mnduits are s ctures instalid
in shallow bedding with the top of the mnduit projecting above the surfa of the natural
gronnd and then covered with the embankment. Por purposes of calculo 1 g the extemal
vertical loads on projecting conduits, the field conditions affecting the loads are
. conveniently grouped into four subclassifications based on the @tude of settlemtat of
' the interior prism* of soil relative to that of the exterior prismt and the height of
embankment in relation to the height at which settlements of the interior and exterior
prisms of soil are equaL2
Steel pipe is considered to be flexible, and the Marston theory provides a simple
pmdure for calculating externa1 soil l d s on flexible pipe. If the flexible pipe is buried in a
ditch less than two times the width of the pipe, the load may be computed as follows:
- - <! -
-
.I -.
. .
*The backfii prism dircctly above the pipe. = - --..
: , , .
TThe b d d l prism between the trench walls d vertical linw drawn at the OD of the pipe.
58 STEEL PIPE
Whcre:
Where:
C, = coeficient for embanlrment conditions, a function of soil properties.
For flexible pipe, the setclement ratig may be msumed to be zero, in which ase:
Where:
and Bd is defined btlow
w = tmit weight of fili Qb/cu ft)
Bd = width of trench at top of pipe (ft)
If the pipe is burid in m e m b h n t or wide trench, the load may be computed from:
Wc = C c w ~ c 2
--
. .. - -
- ,
:%- -- - , . , . -
. . ,
The d e d l d calculation in Eq 6-4 is the weight of a prism of soil with a width equd to that
. -
, .. .
of the pipe md a height e q d to the depth of fill over the pipe. This prism load is convenient
. . ,-
. -.- . ,.
to calculate and is usually used for all instalhtion conditim for both trench md
.. ; . y .-TI,.
- ,
embmkment wnditions. For use in the Iowa defltctioa formula, divide Eq 6-4 by 12.
:,,:.., ,;-.+.e: ., ,! .
In ddition to supporting dead loads imposed by earth cover, buried pipelines m also
, . - . be e x p e d to superimposed concentrated or distributed iivt loads. Coactatrated Eve loads
,
are generally caused by tnick-whetl loads and railway-car loads. Distributed live l& are
1 r.
-
.-
caused by surchrges such as pila of material and temporary strucnrres. The &ea of live
. . , . .
loads on si pipeline depends on thc deptb of cover over the pipe. A method for determinhg
"I . . .
,. .
the live l d using moaed Boussinesq equations is presented on pp. 224-235 of refererice 3
of this chapter.
6.2 DEFLECTION DETERMINATION
The Iowadeflection formula was fmt propod by M.G. ~pangler? It was hter md f k d by
Watginc and S&& and has frequently been rearranged. h one of its most commw
forms, deflection is calcuhted as follows:
-
HXTERNAL LOAD 59
Where:
: - .
Ax = horizontal deflection of pipe (in.)
-
, .-.
- ! . . . -
. . . .. . 4 = deflection lag factor (1 .O- 1.5)
?-
. . - K = bedding oonstmt (0.1) . . , ,. , .
R . ,
. .
. ii- -.
E . . - .
- .
W = load per unit of pipe length (lbfin in. of pipe)
i - r = radius (in.) - . . , . .
. . EI = pipe wail stiffness (in.-lb)
, : .
- .,
-. -
. .. , ,
. where E_=~modulus of e l a J t i ~ t y ~ 3 O~ OQ~ O psi for steel and 4 000 000 psi for
- .
-' m >. .
. . .. . cement mortar)
, .
. .
.
I = transverse moment of inertia per unit length of pipe wall*
-
- F = &dulus of soil reaction (lb/ine2) (Tables 6- 1 and 6-2). -. - ; ::. . .: ,
. .
- . . - , . -
- . > -.
. .
,. , . -
- .
- .
- .
. ,- .
*Under Imd, t ht individual elemenm-Le., mortar lining, sreel shell, and mortar mating-work together
as laminated rings (E,[, + EI I ~ + Ec 1, -sheI1, lining, and coating). Strumrally, the combiied action of thesc
clements increases the moment of inertiaof tthe pipe smion, above that of the shell alone, thus incrcssing its
abidity to resist 1 4 s . The pipe wall stiffness EI of these individual elements is additive.
Table 4-1 Average Values* of Modulus of Sol1 Reaction (E') ( For initial flexlble pipe detlettion)
E' for Degree of Cornpetion of edding, psi (MPa)
Sligllt Moderate m&
Soil Typmimmy Pige Zwie Backf-dl Aburid a5% P m r 8595% Pmo r ~ 9 5 % M o r
(Unified Chssific~tion System)? 40% A, den. &?O% rel. dtn. ~ 7 0 % reL den.
Soils in this megory require s@ai engineering analpis
ta determine requi d density, moisnim mtent,
compactive effort.
Fine-grained soils (LL<M)/Soils with medium to no 200, 400 lo00
phticity CL, ML, MLXL, CL-CH, ,MGMH, with
les6 ?han 25% coarse-grained particks
. -
soil beginning with one of diese symbols (i.e., GM-GC, GC-SC).
appkbie d y for fa I e s than 50 ft (15 m).
60 STEEL PLPE
Allowable deflection for various lining and coating systems that are often accepted are:
Mortar-lined and coated = 2 percent of pipe diameter
Mortar-lined and flexible coated = 3 percent of pipe diameter
Flexible lining and coated = 5 percent of pipe diameter
Live-lmd effect, added to dead bad when applicable, is generally based on AASHTU
HS-20 truck loads or Cooper E-80 railroad loads as indicated in Table 6-3. These vdues are
given in pounds per square faot md include 50-percent impact factor. It is noted that there
is no live-load effect for HS-20 loads when the earth cover exceeds 8 ft or for E-80 loads
when the earth cover exceeds U) ft .
'
L
Modulus of soil reaction E' is a measure of stiffness of the embedment material, which
surrounds the pipe. This modulus is required for the calculation of deflection md critica1
buckling stress. E' is a d y a hybrid mdulus that has been introduced to eliminate the
spring constmt used in the origrnal Iowa formula. It is the product of the moduius of passive
resistance of the soi1 used in Spangler's early derivation and the radius of the pipe. It is not a
pure material property.
Table 6-2 Unlfleci Soil Classification
Well-graded pvel s, gmvel-sand mbmrq li& or no fines
-A- .
- ..
k l y grrtded gravels, gravd-sand miimues, 8& or no fines
Silty gravels, poorly graded gravel-sand-silt mixnires
a y e y graveis, powly gradad gravel -sd4ay mixnueS
Well-graded sands, pve i i y sands, link or no fines
Pwrly g d f d sands, gravelly d, link or no fines
Silty aands, poorly graded sanddiit mixnires
Chyey sands, p r l y grad sandxlay mixturcs
ML Inorganic silts md vcry fmc s d , silty w &ycy fmc sands
CL. Imrganic clays of hw to medium phticity
MH lnorganic silts, micaceous or diammaceous fine sandy or silty soils, elastic silts
CH
* >
lnorganic clays of h i i plasticity, ht &ys
. . .
OL m c dts and organic silt-ciays oflow pkiciry
OH Or@c ciays of medium to high pkticity
R Peat and other highly orgmic soils .
S O U ~ : C b d h t i ~ 1 of Soils f ~ r Engir~ee.~ Purposcs. ASTM Standard Da4874, ASTM, Phiiadelphia, Pa. (1969). i
L .
Table 6-3 Uve-Load k t
Highway HS-20 Loadiug* Railroad E-80 Mi n g *
HeightofCover h a d Height of Covtr Load
fi Psf ft
1 1800 2 3800
2 800 5 2400
3 8
...
1600
4 10 1100
5 250 12 800
6 200 15 6Cm
7 > : 176 20 300
8 100 30 100
*Negiect live load when lcss than 100 psf; use dead load oniy.
EXTERNAL LOAD 6
Values ofE' were originally determined by measuring deflections of actual installations
of metal pipe and then back calculating the effective soil reaction. Since E' is not a material
property, it cannot be uniquely measured from a soil sample, thus determination of E'
values for a given soil has historically presented a serious problem for designers.
In 1976, Amster 3oward6 proposed a comprehensive table of recommended E' d u e s .
E' is given as a function of soil type and leve1 of compaction. The values proposed by
Woward, as shown in Table 6-1, are bmed on measurements of a large number of pipeline
installations. This table provides the designa with guidelines for E' that have been
heretofore unavailable.
To circumvent the problems inherent in working with the hybrid modulus E', there has
been an increasing use of the constrained soil modulus The constrained modulus is a
constitutive material property, which is d e n as the slope of the secant of the stress-strain
diagram obtained from a confmed compression test of soil. I t may also be calculated from
Young's mcdulus Es md Poisson's ratio u of the soil by:
The soil modulus can be determined from common consolidation tests, tri&iai
lahratory tests, or from fieldplate-bearing tests of the actual soil in which the pipe will be
embedded.
Since M, is taken as the secant modulus, it accounts in part for nonlinearities in
stress-strain response of soil around the pipe. Determination of M* is b a d on the amial
load applied to a pipe. ~ e c r e a s i n ~ the load mults in a decreased value for M,. Many
vsearchers h v e studied the relationship bemeen E' and M,, with recommendations
varying widely (E' = 0.7 to 1.5 Ms). This is understandable, since M, is a "pure" soil
property, whereas E' is empirical. It appears justified to assume the two to be thesame, E'=
6.3 BUCKLING
Pipe emkdded in soil may coiiapse or buckle from elastic instability resuiting from loads
and deformations. The summation of extemal loads should be equal to or kss than the
allowable buckling pressure. The allowable buckiing pressure may be determined by the
following:
- 3 . > _ -
Where:
qa = allowable buckling pressure (psi)
- --
FS = design factor
= 2 5 for (h/ D) 22
= 3.0 for (WD) (2
where h = height of ground surface above top of pipe (in.)
D = diameter of p;ipe (in.)
R, = water bouyancy factor
=
1 -0.33(hw/h), O lhw Sh
where , = height of water surfac: above top of pipe (in.)
B' = empirical cwfficient of elastic supporr (dimensionless)
= 1
1 + 4e(-.065H)
where3 = height of fill above pipe (ft) (Referente ANSI/AWWA
C950-8 1, Glass-Fiber-Reinforced Thermosetting-Resin Pressure Pipe,
Appendix A).
62 STEEL PIPE
Nomal Mpe lnstallations +' ._ .-.
For determination of external loads in normal pipe in~tallations~use che following equation:
. .. . -
- --
.
. .. . . .. .,.
_ -. - -
... . . . . >
<, . -
-- - - e . < .. . ,,- : L> . --
. .
., - ,_ '
hw = height of water above ninduit (in.) -.. .:.& ..- ..,5 z
, .,;. - . .- y, = specific weight of water (0.0361 l b / ~ ~ in.) . .
, >-+ - Pn = kteId V~CUUm Pr~sUre (@) -. 7 - r . , ,lf
. ,
- - :
,. . . = atmospheric pressure less absolute pressure uiside pipe (psi)
Wc = vertical mil load on pipe per unit fength (lb/ui.)
In some situations it may be appropriate to consider live loa& as weU. However,
simultaneous application of live-lmd and inted-vacuum uansients need not normally be
considered. Therefore, if live loads are dso considered, the buckling requirement is satisfied
- +:>-r: - -,> . - - ... - --
M=, -
- , - ? - .- ' - -.
Where: :. , --
. .
-. .
. -
WL = live load on the conduit (Ib/lin ui. of pipe)
.,
, -;.
-.. .
.-
--,a, - - A '-. - - -
- r -
&$;!::: \
S-: 7: -.-
5.2. -6.4 EXTJEME UCTERNAL LOADING CONDlTlONS
. -
._ _q -
Ari occasional need to calculate extreme extemal loading conditions arists-for e
. determine off-highway 1- from heavy wns&on equipment. A convenie
- > . .
. . , ? :.-..
.- '
of solution for such load determination using modi f~d Boussinesq -. , equations is p
- :;$"c 'j"
pp. 356361 of referente 3 of this chapter . As an example:
': .. ..:,
. .
. - *: :
, . - -
. 1' - . , .
r
* .
.
As&:
Live iod fmm a Euclid I d e r
Total weight = 127 000 lb
Weight on one set of d d wheels, P = 42 300 lb
Tire pattern is 44 in. x 24 in.
CdcuEata'm:
Using Figure 6-1 as reference:
44 24
Tire pattem: - x - = 3.66 x 2.0 = 7.33 sqft
12 12
Surface presswe is: 42 = 55768 paf
7.33
If height of cover H is 2.0 ft, then:
2 o
A
- 1.83 B= - = 1.0
2 2
. , -*
*- -
. . .
- - - - - - - .
. -
. . . .
. . <
, ,
..: > -
- , . , ..
. - , .
-. -
. -
.
- . h.
. .
. - . .- - $ &$ .
. -
. .
:. . Wme : Spangler, M:G. & ~ a d y , ' ~ . ~ . Soll-Engineerlng. Harper & Row, Pubiishers. &w York (4th ed.. 7982).
- 7
. . .
Coefficient from Table 6-4 = 0.1 17
&:Y- -
. -
- .
-. .. .- - = = .- P = 0.1 17(4)(5768) = 2700 psf -. . .
-
- .
. % -
, .
--
t.- ' y. . Lf hcight of mver is 3.0 ft, then:
....
-- fX.?! '
,: - . m = 0.610 n = 0.333
f.::%
.- ,
- - p = 1615 H. '.-- c '
- t
?+-: ; , .:
b : , . . .
Using the Iowa formula (Eq 6-5) to calculate deflection for 54-in. pipe and 60411. pipe,
g7.w. -.
3;::
-
wall thickness '/4 in. for .$ach size, lj' = 1250, DI = 1 .O, md soil weight of 120 pcf, &e mults
gs . - are: . _
9 , :
. -.
Total l d ( de d and live I d ) : p- ,
3 ft cover:
Using Spangler's formula, deflection =
- .
=. .
s.,
< , * < 7 *-
. -
. . ,
S- 60 h., 2 ft cover: = 1.58 in. = 2.6%
I-c: 3 ft cover: = 1.06 in. = 1.8% ; . - - .L. .. . .
AA-< , . :
"'
54 in., 2 ft cover: = 1.41 in. = 2.6%
d'r
=:
-i
. -
I
3 ft cover: = 0.95 in. = 1.8%
k:.,., 1 , - . - ' r ,<. . . - - .-
< -
-. I ,
6.5 COMPUTER PROGRAMS . . . . . . .
-
-L-
. ,
- ,
Traditional procedures dependmg on weight and the elastic modulus of soil w determine
d. However, computer programs that permit a
k:.;= more r a t i d deteminati011 in the design of pipe are now avaihble f r m miversities,
consulting engineers, and manuacturers.
64 STEEL PIPE
*S-: N m 5 N.M. Simplified Compmah d Vertial Rasures in Ei d c F o u d a h . Ck. 24. Engrg. &p. Sm
Univ. of Illinois (1935).
1. M A R ~ N , ANSON. The Theory of Ex-
ternai Loads on Closed Conduits in the
Light of tht Letest Expcriments. Proc.
Ninth Annual hetting Highway Res.
Board (Dee. 1929).
. . +.
2. SPANGLER, M.G. Underground Con-
duits-An Appraisal of Modmn -.
, Proc. ASCE (Jum 1947).
'-
3. -- & HANDY, R.L. Soil Etigi'm'ng.
- 7'
Hitper & Row, Publishers, New York
(4th Ed., 1982).
4. -- The Structural Designof Flexible
Pi p Culvem. Iowa Scatc Collcge Bull.
153, Ames, I A (1941).
5. WATKIWS. R.K. & SPANGI.RR. M.G.
p. r . Some Chamct&stics .of thc Modulw of
- . Passive esismnce of Soil: A Study in
Similinide. Highway Research BoardPm.,
37576 (1958).
6. HOWARD, AMSTER. Md d e s of Soil
M o n Vdms for Buried Fkxible Pipe.
EXTERNAL LOAD 65
7. ~ R I Z E K, R.J.; PARMELEE, R.A.; KAY,
J.N.; & ELNAGGAR, H.A. Stnictural
I
Analysis and Design of Fipe. HCHRP
Rept. 116 (1971).
- PROUDFIT, D. P. Performance of Large-
Diameter Steel Pipe at St . Paul. Jour.
A WWA, 55303 (Mar. 1963).
- REITZ, H.M. Soil Mechanics and Back-
fiiIing Prmices. Jour. A WWA, 48:1497
(Dcc. 1956).
- ;
.
- Report on' Steel Pipelines for Under-
The follming refmences are mr cired in
ground Water Service. Special Investi-
the texs.
:.
gation 888, Underwritcrs' Labs., Inc.,
- BARNARD, R.E. Design Standards for Chicago (1936).
.. Stael Water Pipe. Jour. A WWA, 40:24 - SOWERS, G.F. Trench Excavation and
;i- (Jm. 1948).
3-Hing. Jour. A WWA, 48:854 (July
- -- Behavior of Flexible Steel Pipe
1956).
Under Embadcments and in Trenches. - SPANGLER, M.G. Underground Con-
Bull. Armco Drainage & Metal Products, duits-An Appmisal of MDdern Research.
Inc., Middlctown, Ohio ( 1 955). Trans. ASCE, 1 13:316 (1 948).
- --- Design and Deflection Control of
- --- Protective Casings for Pipelines.
Buried Stwl Pipe Supporting Earth M s lowa State College Engr. Rpts. 1 1
md Live Loads. Proc. ASTM, 57:1233 (195 1-52).
(1 957). - --- & PHILLIPS, D. L. Deflections of
- BRAUNE, CAIN & JANDA. E&-th Fressure Timber-Struttcd Corrugared-Metal Pipe
Experiments on Culvcrt Pipe. Public Culverts Under Earth Fas. Bd. 102.
Roads, lO:9 (1929). Highway Research Board; Pub. 350,
- BUMISTER, D.M. The Importmcc of National Acaderny of Sciences-Natiod
Maniral Controlling Conditions Upn Tri- Research Council, Washington, D. C.
axial Compression Test Conditions. Spe- (1955).
cid Tech. Pub. 106, ASTM, Philaddphia, - TERZAGHI, KARL. TReoreticai Soil Me-
Pa. (1951). chni cs. John Wiley and Sons, New York
- HOUSEL, W.S. Interprctation of Triaxial -. . . (1943).
Comprcssion Tests on Granular Soils. . * - WAGNEK, A.A. Shear Characteristics of
.- - :, .. Special Tech. h b . 106, ASTM, Phila- , - y - Remolded Earth Marerials. Special Tech.
del phi Pa. (1951). , . . . . , Pub. 106, ASTM, PhiladeIphia, Pa.
- - Lusmn?, U. Buckling of Soil Surrounded T . . (1951).
2 . Tubes. Jout. Soil Mechanics and Forrn- ; : , - - WIGGIN, T. H.; ENGER, M.L.; &
datim Diei. -ASCE (Nov. 1966). SCHLICK, W. J. A Propwed New Method
PROCTOR, R.R. b i g n and Construdon : - - - :" -- 2 '- for Determining Barre1 Thickntsses of
of Rolled-Earth Dams. E n g i ~ ~ n g News 2 i';;!: - - : Gst-Iron Pipe. Jour. A WWA, 31:811
Record, 1 1 1245 (1933).
. . '
(May 1939). ; ,
An Approximate Method for Pre-
. .
. .
. .
the Smlement of Foundauons ': - r - . . - ., - , - ' c . -
L. . . h , ? - - ,
otings. Second Intexn. Conf. Soil a ' -' ,:; . .. .
.. I - . ' ? ' .
- . ,
- .
nics & Foundation Engr. The - : ,:-- . .- =. . . . . --, . '
- .-
> ,- -, .- L .-: - . , .. , . -
Hague, Netherlands (1948). . + . I-
, -
.q. >-
- , ,
, .,
I . , -
. , .:,. ;: - y , . -. .'.*.
, .
- . - ->. -. i'
. .
. ' .
. i . . - ' *
, ,. . ,,
-.. . - .f
,
Y .
- ' : . *
, .
. .
.. '
-
2.. .*. - '
' ..,! 'F.
. . . - *
- .-1- . -
: .
: -
' . . ! . > , :
There has been very little uniformity in the design or spacing of saddie supports. The spans
have k n gradually increased, however, as experiwce has shown that such increases were
safe and practical. In general, the ordinary theory of flexure applies when a circular pipe is
supported at intervals, is held circular at md between the supporw , and is compktely fillsd.
If the pipe is only partiaily fded and the cross section at poinrs between supports becomes
out-of-round, rhe maximum f&er stress is considerably greater than indicated by the
ordrnary flexure formula, being highest for the haif-fiiied condition?
In the case of a pipe carrying intemd pressure where the ends are fully restrained, &e
Poisson-ratio effect of the bmp stress, which produces lateral tension, must be added to the
flexural stress to obtain the total beam stress.
Excessive deflection should be avoided when the pipe acts as a beam. A maximum
deflection of ' h o of the span is suggested as gmd practice. This is the same recommendation
used for beams carrying plastered ceilings.
SUPPORTS FOR P I E 67
->
-2
::, . . - , - SEVERAL LAYERS
OF FELT Wl f H
QRAPHITE BETWEEN
. . -
: .
uyce: Barrilird. RE. h i g n Siandards tw S h l Water Piw. Jour. AWWA. 40:1.24 (Jan. 1948t
-
ure 7-1 Detaiis of Concrete Saddle
,y-2 Saddle Supports for 78-111 Pipe
Saddle supports cause high locd stresses both Iongitudidly md circumferefltially in
unstiffened, compmtively t h - wd i pipe at the tips and edges of the suppwts. Stresces v q
with the l d , the diameter-wdi thickness ratio, and the angle of contact with the pipe. In
stresses are less for a large contact angle than for a smdl one, and interestingly, their
intensity is practidly independent of the width of tbe saddle (Dimension B, Figure 7-1).
The width of the saddle may thcrefort be that which is most desicable from the stadpoint of
good pier design.
Because saddie supporw =use critica1 points of stress in the memi adjacent to the
-
saddk alg&, it is frequcntly more economical to &ase rhe wall tbickness of the pipe when
1
a,. . .
68 STEEL PIPE
it is overstressed than to provide stiffening rings. This is especially true where pipe sizes are
36 in. in diameter and smaller. Even a small increase in wall thickness has a great stiffening
effect. The whole length of the span may be thickened, or only a length at the saddle
support-equal to about two pipe diameters plus saddle width-need be thickened.
When pipe lengths resting on saddles are joined by flanges or mechanical couplings, the
strength and position of the joints must be such that they will safely resist the bending and
shear forces while remaining tight. Ordinarily it is advisable to place joints at, or as near as
practic~ble to, the point of zero bending moment in the span or spans. Manufacturers of
mechanical joints should be consulted regarding the use of their joints on self-supporting
pipe spans.
The pipe should be held in each saddle by a steel hold-down strap bolted to the
concrete. Secure anchorages must be provided at intervals in multiple-span installations.
The ability of steel pipe to resist saddle load has sometimes been greatly underestimated
by designers. Unnecessary expense has thus been entailed, because more supports have
been provided than may have been necessary. According to one report, 1the maximum value
of the localized stresses in a pipe has been greatly underestimated by designers. The same
report states that the maximum value of the localized stresses in a pipe that fits the saddle
well probably does not exceed that given by the following formula:
S =k ~ loge (~ )
t
(7-1)
Where:
S = the localized stress (psi)
P = the total saddle reaction (lb)
R = the pipe radius (in.)
t = the pipe wall thickness (in.)
k = 0.02 - 0.00012 (A - 90), where A is in degrees (see Figure 7-1 for A).
The maximum saddle reaction a pipe can stand is about twice the value of P (Eq 7-1) when Sf
equals the yield point of the steel used. Equation 7-1 does not account for temperature
stresses.
Certain other stresses must be added to the localized stress to determine the total stress.
Let:
Sf = flexure stress in span with pipe having unrestrained ends
Sp = ring stress due to internal water pressure
Sb = Sf+ 0.25Sp =maximum beam stress in span with pipe having restrained ends
Sb = Sf for pipe with unrestrained ends
Sf = localized stress at saddle*
Sc = maximum stress at saddle.
Then, for single or multiple spans of uniform thickness:
Sc =Sb + Sf
(7-2)
It should be noted that Scis the maximum stress at the saddle. Any pipe selected must
meet two requirements: the maximum beam stress Sb in the span must be within the
allowable limit, and the maximum stress at the saddle must also be within the allowable
limit. One or the other will govern.
*A reference by Pablo Arriaga3 gives a more realistic stress than previous reference by Schorer2 and
reference by Wilson.4
~-
III
II
SUPPORTS FOR PIPE 69
.--
The flexure stress Sj should be calculated in the usual manner. In single spans, this
stress is rnaximum at the center between supports and may be quite small over the support if
flexible joints are used at the pipe ends. In multiple-span cases, the flexure smess in rigidly
3
joined pipe will be that indicated by the theory of continuous beams.
For pipe with diameters of 6 in. to 144 in., Table 7- 1 gives practica1 safe spans that may
E -
be on the conservative side for pipes supporting their weight plus that of the contained
water. Other live loads such as earthquake, wind, or the like should also be calculated. Data
for calculating spans for kirge pipe on saddles have been publis hed.2
.., . . .
. -,
-.
. . . . -. . . . - - , .
Table 7-t Practical Safe Spans for Simply Supported Pipe in 1 20Contact Saddles*
..- -+-, ., --. W d T h i h S s - - - - = . .
t are
US ca
pipe dimeter
mtainer water.
(in and L . feet; fiber stress =
70 STEEL PIPE
7.2 PIPE DEFLECTION AS BEAM
-
In the designof free spans of pipe, it may be desirable to determine the theoreucai deflection
in order to judge flexibiIity or ascertain that the defiection dms nor exceed a desirable upper
limit, Freely supported pipe sometimes must be hid so that it wili drain fully and containno
. : - pockets between supports. The allowable deflection or sag between supports must be found
to determine the necessary grade.
In any given case, the deflection is influenced by conditions of instdation. The pipe
may be a single span or may be continuous over several supports. The ends may act as .
though free or fned. In addition to its own weight and that of the water, the p
'
the weight of insulation or other uniform load. Cuncentrated loads such as
, . , , , : =, appurtenances, or fittings may be present between supports. .-.- ...-- .
The maximum theoretical deflection can be determined using :
- . -
W L ~
= 22.5 -
EI
. ,
. -
. , , *
- -. .- . - . -
Where:
. . . . . - - .
y = maximum defledon at center of span (h.)
W = total load on span (lb)
L = length of span (ft)
E = modulus of elasticity (psi) (30 000 000 for steel pipe)
I = moment of inertia of pipe (in.4) (values of I are given in Table 7-2, page
Except for some changes in unit designation, this is the standard textbook formula for
uniformly distributed lmd and free ends. It can be used for concentrared loads at the center -
of the span, and it can be applied to other end conditions by applying a correction factor
described later in this chapter.
Tests conducted to determine the deflection of horizontal standard-weight pi
filled with water1 have indicated that with pipe larger thm 2 in. and supported at intervals
greater than 10 ft, the deflection is less than that determined theoretically for a uniformiy
loaded pipe fmed at both ends. The actual deflection of s d r pipe appmched the
theoretid deflection for free ends.
; -
. L .
7.3 METHODS OF CALCULATON
- -, -
The foliowing methods of calcuhting deflection are based on the formulas commonly foun
in textbooks for the cases given. Maximum deflection in a given case can be c a l d t e d b
first assuming that the load is uniformly distributed and the ends are free. This is case
below. Later this result can be modified if the bad is concentrated or the ends
[cases 2,3, and 4 below). The deflection for case 1 may be calculated using Eq 7-3. Note
in cases 1 and 2 the load W is the total uniformly distributed load on the span, but in cases
-
and 4 it is the load concentrated at the center of the span.
4 . ~ The four most commonly enaountered conditions, with their corresponding deflection
-
factors, are:
Case 1: If the ioad W is uniformly distributed and the ends are free, the defle
calculated using Eq 7-3.
Case 2: If the load W is uniformly distributed but the ends are fixed, the deflecti
0.2 times that for case l.
Case 3: If the load W is abncentrated at the center and the ends are free, the deflection i
1.6 times that for case 1.
SUPPORTS FOR PiPE 71
Case 4: Xf the load W is concentrated at the center and the ends are fmed, the deflection
is 0.4 times that for case 1.
The deflections caused by different loads are additive. Therefore, if a uniformly loaded
pipe span contains a concentrated load, the calculated deflection for the latter is added to
that for the uniform load, and the total sag in the pipe is the sum of the two deflections.
r .:
. -
-
---& ;- -. ,.T. y
, .-
: +t . - - :- *;2? -. .
7.4 GRADIENT OF SUPPORTED PIPELINES TO
If intermittently supported pipelines are to drain freely, they must contain no sag pocketc.
To eliminate pockets, each downstream support leve1 must be lower than its upstream
. neighbor by an amount that depends on the sag of the pipe between them. A przticd
average gradient of support elevations to meet this requirement may be found by using the
following formulad
:ir:.-- -
.:-,.- -
(7-4)
>,
- -
. . .:
. .
. -
, .-y..
? =.
, -
. .- L ;: - .
- =
-' ,: , ; ., 3>*= -
.... - -*
. .
- ;:-<;.:7:
G = gradient (in. per ft)
, 2 . 5 '
-.
: . - :- l. '
In other words, thc eleiatiogof one end should be higher than the other by an amount
equal to four times the deflection calculated at midspm of the pipe.
Example: If the deflection of an insuhted, 20411. OD, 0.375-h. wall thickness pipe
-;c.. r carrying steam is 0.4 in. in a simple, free-ended 50-ft span, what should be the grade of a
-
-. ..
.. ..-. .
Solurh: G = - =
. , . . . .
, ; -.! .ter
4(u'4' 50 . O . .:!: 032 T. .. k f t ..
..
- .
- , *
. .- , &, . -
It has been s&estedl h t , in the interest of satisfactmy operation, it is well to doubk
the calculated theoretical deflection when det ehi ng the shpe of the pipcke gradient . If
le, the @e ussd wodd be 0.064 ia./fi.
a downstream s u p r t aad its upstream neighbor
of the pipebetween them to establish the @e
is eight -times the deflection if the suggestim
. 2 -' ! =' ; : :;- :: ;:. 2 --, . -:
. - -
GRDERCONSRUCTION
- ' y - ' - - -
or across ravines or streams, rigid ring
. girders, spaced at- reiatively long infervals, b v c been found to be very efZctive supports.
:
These girders prevent the distortion of the pipe at&e pdnw-of supporr anii thus mainth its
7-3 through 7-9.
ased on the elastic theory, .
,m interpreted by ~i gure
72 STEEL PIPE
D. Doiaii (Altemate)
EQUIVALENT FIANGE WIDTH fi
A. Section Through Pipe 8.8seion Through Rlng
See Sec. 7.5 for explanation of symbols.
Figure 7-3 Pipe and Rlng Wrder Support
7-3, is used in the designequations. Units must be aoasisrent-for cxample, h&s, pounds,
-
pounds per sqmre inch, or pounds per cubic inch.
Q
a = e~fentricit y of the reaction from tarigent to centroidal axis of stiffener ring
fiaving radius R (h.)
C = contact width of circuIar girder rjng of reamguh cross sedon (in.)
- -.
:? C' = 1.56 fi+ r, (see Figure 7- 8~) ifshell is used as combincd sedon with stiffener
gicder web or if additional phte reinforcement is used at contact face
f, = maxhum combined ring stress in sheil (psi)
fL = combined mrirrimum longitudid b m stress
fh = h u m longitudinal rim-bendiag stress in sheii
h = head above bottom of pipe (ft)
, L . p = variable pressure on inside of pipe circumference
- - ,
. . q = unit weight of fluid flowing in pipe (lb/cu ft) . .
r = mem roidius of pipe shell (h.) .:
t = thiclmess of pipe shell (in.) . ,.
t , = thickness of girder web (in.) . ., . . ... . .. . ..
w = weight of pipe shell per unit of arta (psf)
A, = m of supprting ring (sq h.) (sce Figure 7-88)
D = diameier of pipe = 2 r (h.) ,
L = length of span from -ter to ccnter of ring-gder suppom (ft)
Q = total lmd of pipe sheU transmitttd by shear to one rhg mer(lb)
y = distance from neutral mis to extreme ftber (in.) @
i f - I = moment of inertia (in.9.
Stress in Pipe Shell
The h u m combined ring stress2 is:
t 4,k FILLET WELD FULL N-'--"- IFERENCE .
IRTS FOR PIPE 73
SPAN L SPAN L
SUPPORTS C. TO C. OF SUPPORTS
mi: Bafnam: R.E. DesJgn Standard$ tor Steei Water Pipe. Jour. AWWA, 40:1:2# (Jan. 1948).
:se girders prevent the distortion of the pipe at ths points of support.
ure 7-4 Details of Ring Cirder Support for Smail Ppe
1 : - , :& .--
35-
',' The combined maximurn longitudha1 stress (for free-end beam conditions) is:
FA
I. .
The maximurn rim-bending stress in the sheii due to internal pressure is:
- +'
i -
., .
1.82 (Ar - Ct) pr
.,'
fbo =
A, + 1.56t 6 (7)
i . - . A ;:
- .,:;
.Q . -
. i. -S{ ' - -.
-=> -
..
& , ~This equation was developed on the assumption that the stiffener ring is integral with the
. . pipe shell and that the rim ioad is S ymmetrical. As the rim load is not symmetrical, bemuse
-
&P' ..
of the weight of the water, a g w d approximation of the maximum value of& is obtained by
e,-:.?:- substituting the value of f, from Eq 7-5 in place of p/t.
!g@+# ,
If the girder ring is fitted to the pipe in a loose manner, the rim-bending stress due to
p
r L , the reaction at the supports should be &en into account, because the load will be
transmitted mostly by direct bearing on the lower hdfof the ring rather than through shear
distributed around the pipe. 5 - .
. . 7 The total combined Iongitudinal shell stress f is:
A,-- K.
3.
- $ i<:
- " ?Stress in Ring Girder
-a
b>:-:.? ><
'L. ; The minimum possible value of the maximum bending moment in the ring girder occurs
when a = 0.04R-outside the neutral axis. When this is &e, the maximum bendmg moment
&' . M in !he girder is:
. ..
The &um bending stress fi (general bending formula) is: . . . . - - . . ..>. - -. - , , - .
- . ..
. . - .
IPE
The maximum ring stress fi due to shear forces is:
i1-
Q
f 2 = q
The ring stress f3 due to radial forces is:
As al1 of these stresses are combined at the horizuntal diameter, the total maximum stress f in
. .
the ring girder is:
. C..
' f*j -+j 2+b5 (7.'14' . j
, ,
..
< -
,I
- , . 3. sI&+ - -
& $ - - .. * 3 ;
~ ~ * ~ ~ ~ ~ k ~ & ; i i P g g i t d c i ~ 6 ~ r h c p ~ * ~ U w t v n t a e pipskf&y 2
I d i d "*i o s d y 10000 psi, or 18000 psi .If'Mloacicd,
- - T m
- I
- ~~~e r , ~&m~b~~. s i QR. &~s l ?r ~~mn- hc dt o& -$
SUPPORTS FOR PIPE 75
Figure 7-5 Ring Glrders M d e Support b r 54-in. iameter Pipe
The rings are supporting a 54-ln. diameter plpe laid on a slope.
Figure 7-6 Expnsion Joints Betwen St i ke r RIngs
T h i block anchor~ a Wn . dlameter pipe agairmt fongitudinal movement.
Figure 7-7 Anchor Block
SUPPORTS FOR PIPE 75
figure 7-5 Ring Cirders Provlde Support for 54-in. Mameter Pipe
f he rings are supporting a 54-in. diirneter pipe laid on a i l op.
Figure 7-6 Expansion Joints Betwen S t i h r Wn g s
This btock anchor~ a W n . diameter plpe agalnst tongitudinal movernent.
Figure 7-7 Anchor Blodr
76 STEEL PIPE
beam stress fL for a simply supported full pipe (Eq 7-6; w = o ) . ~ The corresponding stress
ratios designated by nL and n, become functions of a pure number k defined as:
In actual cases, the vaiue of k varies from about 0.20 to 1.20. Within this range:
The half-full condition causes higher stress than the full condition when k is less than unity.
The ratio n~ remains the sarne for canti~uously supported pipe. The value of fL (Eq 7-6; w =
O) multiplied by n~ gives the maximum longitudinal stress for the half-full condition;
likewise, if multipiied by n , it gives the maximum radial bending stress in the pipe sheii. As
the rim bending stress fb, from Eq 7-7 is zero in Eq 7-8, relatively high langitudiaal stresses
may be ailowed for rhe half-full condition. A value of 10 000 psi has been suggested by
Cates7 for the full condition and 18 000 psi for the half-full condition.
In the Bng girder, the maximum moment for the half-fuU condition is 3.88 times the
moment value for the fuli pipe when a value of 0.04 for a/ R (the value that gives the
minimum moment for full condition) is used in design. This is notas serious as it rnay appear
at first, because the assumptiom leading to the vdue 3.88 are conservative. Also, severa1 of
the forces and conditions present when the pipe is full are not present when it is halffull. For
these reasons, stresses near the yield point may be dowed for the relatively infrequent
conditions of filling and emptying the pipe.13 The pipe shell and ring girder should,
however, be investigated for the half-fuU condition. T h e references should be consulted.
Design-aid coefficients for analyzing stiffener rings for fuii, partly full, and earthquake
forces have been p~blished. ~. Other useful data have aIso appearedb3* '*12. l4
Exam ple of Calculation, Continuous M pelines
Condira'ons: Consider a case in whichD= f 20 in.; t=0.25 in.; L = 100 ft; C= 1 in.; A, = 1 in. x
12.25 in.; a = 0 . M; h = 100 ft; w = 12 psf (including weight of stiffener); q = 62.5 lb/cu ft.
ShelI strdss: From Eq 7-5, the maximum ring stress:
-.
f r = + (W +9h)
1
- -
120
[12 + 62.5 (LOO)] (=)
2 (0.25)
= 10 440 psi
The maximum longitudinal srress (Eq 7-6) for continuous pipeline:
Zw+&
f ( 2) (5)
10o2 (12)
(
2(12)(12) + 62.5
- -
4(0.25) 120 2
= 18 690 psi
SUPPORTS FOR PIPE 77
- - The maximum rim-bending stress (Es 7-7):
, -
. .
- . . ; . - .- .
.. - ; F -:-:.. '
-<
, .
. ,
4. .c.- .,.Y -,
.L..
- . . . . . , . -.-
-
. .
, . '. ,
..<S . -
-.
. ... > --.
-- , , 2 L.?--.
. .,i .-S
- .
.-
.
, . -<<+-': -
--<- - - -
, .-
. .-,
--., -.
-. -
2.; . . : .- -
-:.
- ,.
- . : .
.
.
, . - . . .
.. .
.: ..., - .... - - -
. - 5
- .
. .. . =18690+16540=35230psi - . - . . - --,:.:A>, - - - . - * =. . .
1.
-
- -
.-, . , :;y- -: .-.; p .
. - , , . .
., .-
.-A- -
... .
- - -
7; ; .
, -
, .-
- ..
. .. . . . . . -
T. - . .
#. --; ,-.
iG: . - -.+ -
2- -- - -. . '
By changing L = 100 ft to L = 60 ft, the value of f b mmi i 16 650 psi.
'
= ,
R= _, - = .
-GIRDEK CONSTRUCTION FORLOW-PRESSURE PIPE
General designs for four types of long-$pan pipe of the flow line variety are shown in Figure
7-8.
Ty p l .
UsuaUy recomrnended for crossing canals and other Iow places where a s@e
le@ of pipe for spans up to 60 ft can be ussd, type 1 pipe may be d e and shipped from
- - -
the factory in one length or in two lengths; in the latter case, a welded joint must be d e in
the field at the time of instalhtion.
Type 2.
Used in aossing highways, canals, or rivers, where the length of the crossini
makes necessary two intermediate supporting columns, typt 2 pipe is designed in three
lengths with flanges welded to the ends of each length at points of contraflexure, together
with expansion joints for both intake and outlet. This type is normally used for crmsings
fmm 60 ft to 132 ft, with end spans haif the length of the center span.
Type 3.
Type 3 differs from rypc 2 in that each end span k 80 percent of the length of
the center span. Type 3, therefore, can be used for longer crossings rhan type 2. It requires
two expmsion joints md five lengths of pipe with flanges welded m ends of ea& Iengrh at
points of contrafiexure. Type 3 may be used for overall crossing lengths from 104 ft to 260 ft.
Figure 7-9 Ill-in-PipeonRingGirders
-
< *
-
- . .A
. . - .
:.. -- -
Type 4. Type 4 is designed for mditions where it is necessary to support a
wntinuous series of long, clear spaus. The smcture may be made io lengths to suit my fieid
c ondi h. Any number of intermediate spans may be used, with as m n y expoinsion joints as
needed for the ove d length of the installation.
-
.- -
NSTALLATION OF RiNG GIRDERSPANS
In addhion to proper design, long-span, ring-girder-supprted steel pipelines ctquire
d u l f~id e d o n , pmicularly in regeird to digmm~t md mnber, avoidanoe d
movement aused by tempmture differences on opposite sides of the pipe, and coma
wclding m u r e . The foiiowing suggest i m wiil be helpful, d more informatia has
. . beem published?
Pipes such eis these that may be exposed ta low temperatures can &ect the ability of &e
sml to mist brittle fracture. (See Sec. 1.6.) Steel should be properly d e c t d , demiid, aad,
welded to mitigate tbis effect.
SUPPORTS FOR PIPE 79
, i ; d i -
80 STEEL PIPE
Concrete Footings -, - - --:- -
Before assembling the pipe, concrete footings (but not the intake or outiet boxes) should be
r- poured. If the pipe is to be supporkd on rollers, a pocket is ieft at the topof the hotings as a
-
base for the roller bed phtes. If steel bents are to be used, anchor bolts are set in concrete
. footings for holding the lower end of the pin-ended steel bents or the base plates. The
concrete footings should be finished a little iow to do w for grouting these suppodng
members to their proper height.
-+ 2-
- .
> ,
Expansion Joints '
. . - >
Expnsion joints are installed in lhg-spoiii steel pipe to aliow for expansion or contraction
caused by temperature changes . These joints are placed near the concrete headwaiis and
should be left entirely loose until the concrete has been allowed to set for at ieast two weeks.
-
..-
Ifexpansion jaints are tightened before concrete is poured, the pipe may pull loose frorn the
green concrete. After concrete has set thoroughly, expansion joints are tightened and al1
danger of damage fmm pipe movement is eliminated.
To protect the expansion joint during shipment, it may be necessary for the
manufaaurer to tack-weld steel ties to the inside of the pipe, tying the two pieces of pipe
.
. together across the joint. NOTE: When this is done, the steel ties must by hccked loose from
--
the pipe as soon as it is set in place and before concrete is poured.
Assembling Pipe
, .
Pipe being assembled should be supported by temporary framework between piers. Al1
. . -
bolts except expansion joint bolts should be tightened. When pipe is in place, concrete
intake and outlet boxes should be poured. Bed plates for the rollers or pin-ended steel bents
can then be grouted in place to the proper height. Temporary supports and blocking should
be removed before the pipe is fiiied with water, otherwise the structure will be subjected to
. .. undue stress.
-,. -.
-. . .. -
:. '=% , ..<
- , -
- . .. ...- ;t , .
2 .- - ,;- - -
. . . -'
-0:"
82 STEEL PIPE '-+
Tabie 7-2 Values of Moment of Inertia and Sedion Modulus of Steel PIpe (continued)
-
Nominal Sizt* Wd Thicluiess Weight of Pipe and Water Moment 9 Znema S"c'on qdulu9
in. h. lwft in. m
O. 188 5Q4 3 390.87 188.38
0.250 524 4 485.86 249.22
0.312 545 S 569.M 309.42
0.375 566 6 658.W 369.94
0.438 586 7 736.,68 429.82
, A
.. L : 0.500 607 8 786.13 488.12
* S i m under 45 in. are outside diameter s e thcise 45 in. and wer are imih diatnetcr sizes.
84 STEEL PiPE
Tabk 7-2 Values of M m t of Inertia and Sedan Moduhis of Steei Hpe (continued)
0.625 5188 369 669.79 6415.09
0.79 5345 , W062.21 7 706.7 1
0.500 5545 343 575.02 5 678.93
0.625 5706 430 8 10.89 7 106.16
0.750 5869 518 58823 8 536.43
0.m 6079 397 494.49 6 259.76
0.625 6249 498 34695 7 83257
0.750 6119 559 79537
.. .
940%56
6638 :' ,
- :.
456 779.50 6 %S87
0.625 6816 ' 572 596.56 859432
0.750 6994 689 067.4 10 323.1 1
0.500 7221 521 -34 7 m25
0.625 7407 653 877.33 9 391.42
0.7% 7593 786 784.58 I l zsO.07
0.m 7a29 592 463.77 8 17191
: *S& under 45 in. are ourside diameter sizes; time 45 in. and over m inside diameter si=.
Referentes
1. ROARK, R.J. Form~las for Stress and 9. --- Siphon Sclf-Supporting in Long
Srmtn. McGraw-Hiii b k Co., New Spans. EtigitigineerriPg News-Record, 124:852
York (1954). (1940).
2. SCHORER, HEMAN. Des@ of Large 10. FOS~ER, H.A. Formulas Facilimte Design ..
Pipeiines. T m . ASCE, 98: 101 (1933). of Ring-Supporred P i p . Ch. Eagrg.,
-
3. ARRUGA, P.M. The Infiuence of Cir- 19: 629 ( 1949).
cumferentiai Tensiw w the Trmverse f l. GARRETT~ G.H. Dcsign of Long- Sp
1 - Bending of a Pressure Cd u i t on Con- Self-Supporting Steel Pipe. Jour.
mete Masonry Supports (Saddlt Sup AWWA, M1197 (Nov. 1948).
poxrs) in thc Vicinitg of the Supprt. 12. BARNARD, R.E. Design Standards for
Technid Library, US BUREC, Denver, Steel Wat r Pipt. Jour. AWWA, M2 4
(Jan. 1948).
4. WILSON~ W.M. & NBWMAEK, N.M. The 2- 13. C R O C ~ , SABIN, ed. FipUng Hd b o o k .
Su.ength of Thin C y W d Shells m McGmw-HiU Book Co., New York (4th
Columns. Bd. 255, Engrg. Exp. Stn.,
Univ. of iilinois, Urbana, N. (1933).
5. FOSTER, H.A. Formulas Indicate Earth-
- ' Graw-Aill Bwk Co., New York (1st ed.,
6. Penstock Analysis and Stiffener Design.
The folIoamoamng refmences are nur cited in
t k texr.
Bull. 5, Pan V. Tech. Inwst., Final Rept.,
Boulder Canyon Project, US BUREC
- Steel Pensmks and Tunnel Lim. AISI.
Steel Plate Engnecring Data Vol. 4,
Lmge-Diameter Steel Wam Rpe. Jmr.
- YOUNGER, J.H. SmmraiDesigm of Metal
AWWA, 42860 (Sept. 19%).
Airplams. 1LieGmw-Hill Book Co., New
8. BIER, P. J. Welded Sacl Pensmks-De- -.
Yo& (1935).
, , signandConstnictimi.Engrg.Monmph. - .
3, US BUREC, Washington, D.C. (July
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AWWA MANUAL
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Pipe Joints -
L. . ?.>L.
The pipe joim selected and the care with which it is instdied are important consideratims
for the design engineer md inspeaor. Many kinds of joints are used with steel water pipe.
-
Common t y p are bell-md-spigot rubber-gasket joints, field-welded joints (both Uus&
- .
in Figure 8-11> sleeve couplings, grooved-and-shouldered coupiings, and fhges. Aii of
p- - .
these joints are covered in tbis chapter. Patented joints obtainable from some pipe
- -
mmufacturers include, among others, the integral mechmid-compression gasket of
sMing-box type and the r o l l a gaslret type. Remmmended use and des& data for
patented joints may be obtained from the mmufacnmr of the joint.
8.1 BELL-AND-SPIGOT JOINT WITH RUBBER WK E T
'-"
Seved types of mbb-gasket field joints (shown in Figures 8 1 % 8-1
8-11] havt been developed for steel water-pipe M c e . We t e d j
instdiation in the f d d md, when properly mmufactured d
watertight joint that wiii give long service without rnaintenanm
allows flexibility in the line, permitting certeiin angular and long
settiement of the ground or other conditions while dowing the joints to remain
Thc joints are easy to assemble md comquently reduce he cost
- - - .
of mting can be applied to the pipe in the shop and not be m e d at the j
operations. T h e joint is self-centering and economicoil. 3e
- - . maintaining joim integrity, caution should be exer- in
joints to maintain tight &arame between the be11 md spigot.
The rubber goisket should d o r m to AWWA standards.
to thrust at elbws, tees, hteds, wyes, reducers, valves, and dead ends. Joints
be restrained by welding (Figure &1), by harnessing, by anchors, or by thrust
(Chspter 13). Cllculations shouId considcr the anchoring effect of soil friction (Ss. 8 . ~ mI .
Sec. 13.81. -1
PIPE JOIMTS 87
0. Single-Butl Weld Jolnt
A Lap-Welded Stip Joint BUTT STRAP
E. Fabrieated Rub
D. Bun Strap Jolnt
. . ..
. - -
Gasket Jolnt F. Rolled-Groove Rubbr Gisket Joint
RUBBER GASKET
h
H. Carnegie-Shape Rubber Gasket Joint
CARNEGIE SHAPE \RUBBER GASKET '
U. I leu nuouar uuiiret auiiii
l. Carneaie-Shaue Rubber Gasket Joint With Weld-On Bell Rlna
A -.
, ,r-- -: -. .
- .
11 Welded and Rubber-Gasketec( Field Joints
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thelimit of pipe-wali strength, longitudinai extension loading that may be caused by
-
settlement, washouts, and other disjointing forces. No other common water-pipe joint will
withstand such loading. Where welded joints are used, the pipe shodd be left bare a
sufficient distance back from the ends ro avoid damaging the protective coatings by the heat
Field welding of joints in steel water pipe 24 in. in diameter and larger is a frequently used
-., jointing method that results in strong, permanently tight joints. Slip joints for lap welding
_.,-: having a single fillet weld (Figure 8-1A) have proved satisfactory for most installations.
, '; ..,. Singie-butt welds (Figure S l B ) and double-butt welds (Figure 8- lc) should withstand, to
: y - - dproduced during welding. These joints should be field-coated after welding. Field-welding
in the interior of steel pipe with hi ng is ordinarily limited to 24411. or hger pipe, kcause a
worker must enter th &e after welding to apply lining to the inside at the welded joints.
- -.
, .
Forced ventilation must be provided to ensure adequate air exchange when men are working
- - inside the pipe.
-. ..
The slip joint is commonly used because of its flexibility, ease in forming and laying,
i:-:,-. . watertight quality, and simplicity. S d l angle changes can be made in this joint, It rnay be
-
welded on the outside only, or if the diameter permits, on the inside only. In certain special
-A-
F_.
conditions, it may be desirable to weld both on the inside and outside, in which case a
...,
e3% method of field testing described in A m A C206, Standard for Field We1ding of Steel
L=- F: - Water Pipe, ' may be ernployed advantageously .
7.. -.
-
g:: .
AWWA C206 fuiiy covers the requirements and techniques for satisfactory field
* = ,
~3 ..
welding. Whare the pipe wall is thicker than y2 in. and the pipe is subject to temperatures
+. ..
5: -
' U - , - .' ,, ,
beiow 40F (4OC), the SEA md weidhg pracedures should be carefiiy sel& to
. .
aacommadate these adverse conditions. =. . -e - ..:. .= . . . , ,
8.3 SLEEVE COUPUNGS
Sleeve couplings are used on pipeiines of al1 b e t e r s and especially on lhed pipe tao s d
for a person m enter. Very complete technical data have betn publjshed? A typid sleeve
coupling is shown in F i 8-2.
Sleeve couplings provide tightness md strwgth with flexibility. They relieve
-ion md c o n d o n f o m in a pipeluie and prwide sufficient flexibility so that pipe
=y be laid on long d u s curves and g m h without thc use of s p d . The mbber gaslets
are firmly held between the coupling prts md tht pipc, and they join thc lengths securely
@nst high pressure, iow pressure, or mcuum. The compkteiy endosed mbber gaskts m
pro- from -e ami h y . These joints h v t been used s d u l i y sin= 1891.
Acceptabk axid movement inflexible sleeve couplings rcsults from shear di spkment
of the rubber gaskets rather from si i di ng of the gaskets on ihc niating S& of the
pipe. If greamdispiace.ment is needed, true expmslon joints should be prwidad r a k
$ Y .
sleeve muplings.
Skve couplings trmsmit only minor tension or shear smsses acms pipe joints, rind
. - - they wii not mtMerentid setteement at the j h t s when usad done. However, a degree
of aegi bi h is psi bl e when used in c o n j d m with an~ther adjacent flexible joint.
Skeve couphgs are suitable for joining buried or exposed anchored pipe that are M on
curves tstablisked using defkdcms up to the d m u m pmitted at &e thupiing.
discusd in Sec. 8.7 and Scc. 13.8. Details of joint haraess are @ven in Chaprer 13.
- PipeLayoutWhen UsingSleeveCouplings
centerline should be determhd u s a data suppbd by thi: wupling manufacrurer.
Extreme uamq is nmssary only in p h t layout work md other very specid pro*.
-. When these cases [Kxur, tbe data supplicd by the coupling manufacmer wiU aid
t e c h n i k and checkers in rcaching agreement on dimensions.
Data for Pipe Layo~ts i ;
The profile and oilignmeat of pipeiines is frequently s m k d on a curve. It is useful to know
* . ' .
Figure 8-2 Sleeve Coupling
PIPE JOINTS 89
loca= properly the free end of the pipe seaion behg laid. Tables showing d w of curves,
pipe lengths, and offset defkctions, as well as formulas and sketches showing dimensions,
are avaiiable from ooupling manufacmrers.
F h g e s commonly used for steel water pipe ase d the slip-on typt welded to thc pipe.
k g e s m y be of two das=, as follows:
steel rhg, hubless fIange, which is made from miid plate, biet, or curved flat;
forged steel, md e with a low hub, or with a welding neck, by a rolling or forging
pmcess.
The more costly welding-neck type of flange ordinarily is not justifitd for the
comparatively low pressures usuaiiy found in w a m r k s serviae.
Steel Ring Flanges
Carefd studies and experiment~~~ a o n d d on full-size specimens demonstrated that
satisfactody-tight joints can be obtained using steel ring h g e s with lho-in. thick
txtending at least to the bolt holes. Referente should be made to AWWA C207, Standard
for Sml Pipe Flanges for Watemrks Service-S* 4 in. Through 144 in.? for
dimensions and other d d l s concernhg the series of steel ring flanges and hub flanges as
developed by an ASME- A m A committee.
-
Steel ring m e s conforming to AWWA C207 have b4Fa designe. for use with rubber or
asbestos ring giiskts that are either h6 ia or l/a h. thick, at the purchaser's option. The
gskexs should occupy the s u b of the f h g e between the bolt holes and the inside
diameter of the pipe or m e . Buth the size of the gasket and the type of gasket material are
iutegrai d &trohg factors in the design of a boltcd joint. Recommendations of the
gasket manufactwer should be observed.
- >
->-
In waterworks service, it is frequtntly ne c e s s a q to use b g e s for amching pipe to pumps,
- -
valves, or other appurtcnanm having staadard ASA drrlling. Fianges of lesser t h i h s ,
but having the same dril- tempiate, are obtabbk from pipe and fiange mmufmrers, . u > i
I
who wili provide dimensional data.
Pressure Ratings
S in AWWA C207 are for cold water. Working pressure should
s.: include water hammm. Test pmsurts of flanged fatings should nevm ex& 1 '/a times &e
.: flrmge pressure rathg, or mesmay be dama@.
When wor hg pressurts require flanges heavier than Class E (275 psi) in AWWA
~c C207, other ASA m may be ~s e d. ~ The cold-water (lOOF [3aC]) rsting of an ASA
it m e - & greatly in excess of.the rating of an AWWA C207 ciass flan&. For example, the
for &e 300-psi ASA m e is 720 psi. Whm heavier flringes are
selectal, data on sizes above 24-h. must come from the flange mmufaccamr.
D-AND-SHOULDERED COUPLINGS
coupling is a bolted, segmentd, clamp-type, mechanical
encloses a U-shped rubber gasket. The housing Imks the
end movement, yet dows some degree of flexibility and
COUPLING
GASKET
COUPLING
GASKET /
v
GROOVES
alignment. The rubber gasket is tight under either pressure or vacuum swvice. The
coupling is shom d o n e d in F i 8-3 ami 8-4.
Errds of pipe must be spckdiy prepard to - dat e grooved-and-shouMered .:
coupihgs. Thk is done by grooving, bmding, rolling, or welding adapten to pipe enh. .:
Careful stmtim must be &ven pipe-end prepamion so h t the c~luphgs wi i i fit properiy. -2
Some typi d groovcd-8nd-shouldcred joints are demibed in AWWA C606, Standard for
Groovcd and Shoutdcred Type ~oints?
+>
8.6 EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION -GENERAL * h
The coefficient of expansion of sttel is 6.5 x 186 per degree (F) of temperaturc change. The
changc in length of an unrestrained s t d pipe can be determined using:
- ..,
. 1 -
. .
. .-
T , .
-
- 4
Ai = c h g e in length (in.)
L = length (in.)
At = c h g e in tempature (OF)
- ,
he cqmsionor contraceion of an unrrsuaincd steci pip is about 3/4 in. per 100 ft of ' .
pipe for each 100F (56OC) change in ttmperam. . ..,
, -
:.- i>..:j
Expansion and Contraction-Underground . .-... .
Ordinarily, a buried pipeline under o - conditions will not experienct signjfic8nc.-
chmges in temperature, and t h e d stresses will be minimal. However, during the .
constniction periad prior m completion of b a c k f l l , -me changes in ambitnt
temperatures may atuse excesive expnsion or conmction in the pipe. These extreme
tanperature chmges md the resulting expmsion md contradon may be avoided by
W d h g the pipe as isconstruction progresses.
Por f~ld-wcldcd lines, AWWA standard describes a me- b i t has been used
satisfactorily to reduce the t h e d stresses r e s u l a from kmperature variations. This .
mtthod utilizes a speciai closure hp joint at 400-t to 500-ft intervds. The S - closure is
set so tbat the pipe is stabbed deepcr tban the normal dosed position, d joinis are welded
cxcept tht dosure, poirtial Wi 1 1 is p M over al1 pipe cxccpt tht dosw joint to aid in
cuoling and aonmdon of the pipt, and the closure weld is made during the coolest part of
'
the day. (See Chaprer 12.)
PIPE J Oi mS 91
Forces due to expansion and oontmction shodd not be dowed to reach vaives, pumps,
or other appurtenances that might be damaged by these forces. Appurtenances can be
protected by making the connection between pipe ami appurtenance withan expansion joint
or sleeve coupling, or by providing anchor rings and thnist bloclts of suff~cient size and
weight to prevwt the forces from reaching the appurtenance to be protected.
Expansion and Contraction-Aboveground
Expansion and contraction of exposed lines must be pmvided for where individual pipe
sections are anchored and sleeve couplings are used for field joints. The joints wi l l ordinarily
aliow enough movement so that expansion or contraction is not cumulative over several
lengths.
On exposed field-welded lines, expansion joints m a y be lacated midway between the
anchors if the pipeline is laid ievel. On slopes, the joint is usually best placed adjacent to or
on the downhill side of the anchor point. Pipe ordinarily offers great resistance to movement
uphill; therefore, the strength of the pipe at the anchor block should be investigated to be
-.*-
sure that it is adequate to resist the downhiU thnist. The coeficienf of s l i d i n g friction for
- bare pipe bearing on supports should be determined. Spacing and psitioning of expmsion
-'
r joints should be governed by site and profde requirements. Expmsion joinrs in pipe on
bridges should be at points where the bridge structure itself contains expansion joints .
T h e sMng-box type of expansion joint is sometimes used. These joints permit linear
movement of the slip pipe relative m the pachng. Details ofa stuffing-box type of expansion
joint (slip joint) are shown in Figure 8-5. The p d mg of expansion joints may consist of
. -
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, .. . -
'2. . -.
. .
- 3 : .1.
. . , . -,. - -.-
, . :+ ..
- .-.-
- -.-: -
- -
- .
5 Expansion Joint
- , - -
The sMmg-box expansion joint is sometimes made doublesnded. Limited-move-
.7 GROUND FRiCTiON AND LlNE TENSION
92 STEEL PIPE
The change in longitudinal stress in a pipe with fmd ends due to a temperature change
may bedetermined by: . -.
-i -
- - - . : : A S = change in stress (psi)
:',. ' E = rnodulus of ehsticity of steel, 30 x lo6 psi
. .
c = coefficient of expansion of steel, 6.5 x lo4 per
degree (OF)
At = change in temperature (OF)
. . , A temperature change of 30F (17OC) causes a theoretical smess of 5850 psi in the pipe
!
1
, . ,- wall if ends are restrained. The stress in ail-welded buried steel pipe has been investigated?
. ,. . . i
. .
with the resdt that some measured stresses were found to be higher md sorne lower than
theoretical. It was fomd in aU cases, however, that the soil restraint was sufkient to absorb
I
the longitudinal stress in a length of approximately 100 f t of pipe. Chapter 13 includes
discussion and design aid on frictional resistance between the pipe and ground.
.- .
.. .. .
8.8 &00D PRACICE . >A-;: .
.- . .;--,
. .
.. , . . . . , .
- The requirements of installation and operation of a pipeline may dictate the use of more than
one type of field joint. The type of inte
facton in joint selection. Bell-and-s
installed-cost basis. Flanges are co
other flanged accessories. Thermal stresses may be a consideration, and these can be
accommodated by sleeve couplings, grmved-and-shouIdered couplings, special we1de.d
joints, or expansion joints.
References
1. Field Welding of Steei Water Pipe.
AWWA Standard C206-82. AWWA,
Denver, Colo. (1982)
2. KILLAM, E.T. Mechanical Joints for Colo. (1978).
Water Lines. Jour. A WWA, 35:11:1457 6. Pipe Flmges and Flanged Fittings. ANSI
(Nov. 1943). Standard B16.5. ANSI, New York (1977).
3. Steel Ring Flanges for St ed Pipe. BuU. 7. Grooved and Shouldered Type Joints.
47-A. Armco Steel Corp., Middetom, AWWA Standard C606-81. AWWA,
. . . . .. ., Ohio. Denver, Colo. (1981).
4. BARNARD, R.E. Design of Steel Ring 8. MCCLURE, G.M. & JACKSON, L.R. Slack
Flanges for Water Works Scrvice, A Pro- - '
. . -..: . , I gress Repon. Jour. AWWA, 42:10:931
(Oct. 1950). . ,
*, -
. ,. -
. - .
. .
- ... - -
Fitting
AWWA MANUAL
CO
S and
tenan
k y
The wide range of design made possible by the welding and fabriuition procases applicable
to steeI pipe provides the mems of solving almost any problem involving fittings and
specials. The design of pipe layouts, especidly intricate mes, ic greatly facilitared by having
standardized dimensions for the center-to-face dismnce or the center-to-end dismce of
b fittings. AWWA C208, Standard for Dimensions for Fabricated Steel Water Pipe Fimngs,'
provides dimensions for welded steel pipe fimngs in sizes 6 in. and larger. AWWA C200,
Standard for Steel Water Pipe 6 Inches and Larger; specifies the manufacturing
requirements for fittings and special joints.
The standard dimensions of fittings for screwed-joint pipe can be found in the catalogs
of many manufacturers. Manufacturers can also furnish the dimensions of compression
fittings for use on standard plain-end pipe in the smaiier sizes.
SNATION OF FI1
Fittings should be designated using standard methods to prevent misunderstandings.
Figure 9-1 is diagrammatic and refers to smooth as well as segmental fittings. T h e desired
deflection angle of the elbow or lateral should be shown on the diagram. On ordinary
elbows, both ends are numbered the same because both are the same size. Thus, only one
diameter need be given for a standard or nonreducing elbow, together with the deflection
angle. (Example: 54-in. OD, W0 elbow.)
Reducing crosses and elbows are always identified by first giving the size or outside
E
diameter of the largest openings, then following with the sizes of the openings in the
i
numerical sequence shown. (Exarnples: 48411. OD x 36411. OD 90 elbow; 24411. OD x
t
22-in. OD x 8%-in. OD x 6%-in, OD crms.)
Tee
90" wye
? . . > Y +:
80P Note
3: :
'This dimension should be
adiusiid to su! condltions.
- .
. . ,
Three-Plece Elbow (N-90')
, -Note
Four-Pleee Elbow (45-90') Five-Pise Elbow (6-9O0)
-, 7 -
, .
- - Tangent-Type Outlet , -
NOTES: 3. "a" rnay be extendd beyond tangent line lf necessary to sult jolnt requirernents. . . . . <- . =. - - ,
2. Refer to AWWA C208 for additional information.
,, .
.,;
- .:.?
. -
.
- . ..
Figure 9-1 Recommended Dlmensions for Water Ape Httings
I , . . ' : , . . . ,. -
complete specifiation for the types of ends or flanges desired.
FITllNGS AND APPURTENANCES 95
. Tees and laterals are specified by giving the size of the largest opening of the run first, the
opposite opening of the run second, and the size of the outlet or branch last. (Example:
72-in. OD x 66-in. OD X 24411. OD tee.)
The size of side outlets on firtings should be specified last. When specifying side-outlet
tees in reducing elbows, particular care should be exercised to show whether they are right
or left hand. In addition to designating the size of the Mng, the purchser should give a
HOLE POSITION
- - -
-
DESlGN OF WYE. BRANCHES
It is standard practie to attach flanges to pipe lengths so that the bolt hol a straddle the
vertical centerline. If W e d pipe is to be instailed at various angles to the vertical, this
5- -
standard practice should be mcdf ~ed and the proper data shodd be given on drawings md
; in seecifications so rhat thc flanfie wi i l be attached as needed.
.&- A full treatise on the design of wye branches for steel pipe, including a nomogriiph design
&-
method, is covered in a paper prepared under the auspices of the Department of Water and
SK
Power, City of Los ~ n ~ e l e s ? The design using this nomograph method is presented in
3;
Chapter 13. Examples are given for single-plate, two-plate, and three-plate design. Larger
$
wye branches (up to 144411. diameter and up to 150-psi pressure including safety factor)
. Z
may be designed by extraplation beyond the limits of the graphs and tables in the referente.
C"
Other data on the subject also have been published?
AWWA ~ 2 0 0 ~ provides for nondestructive testing of weld seams on fitting$ and special
sections. Special sections fabricated from previously hydrostatically tested straight pipe
require testing of only those welded seams that were not previously tested in the straight
pipe. Nondestructive testing methods include dye penetrant, magnetic particle, ultriisonic,
x-ray, or other methods as agreed on by the manufacturer and the purchaser.
AWWA C2002 also permits hydrostatic testing of specials in lieu of other nondestructive
testing. Maximum test pressure should not exceed 1% times the design pressure. This
maximum should be observed in the interest of design economy because fitting tests are
costly. If higher test pressures are d e d for, it may be necessary to provide expensive
reidoremen1 for the fittings, even though the anticipated operating pressure may not
require reinforcement. This is particularly me in the case of flanged fittings, wbich would
be anchored in actual service, but which, if unresnained, would be subjected to much
greater mpturing forces when shop tested to higher pressure. Flanged joints should never
be tested in excess of 1 l/4 times the rated fiange pressure if subsequent installation troubles
are to be avoided.
IANCED THRUST FORCES
Piping systems are subject to unbalanced thrust forces resulting from staric and dynamic
fluid action on the pipe. These forces must be absorbed or b h c e d if the piping systems are
to maintain their integrity. Unbalanced thrust forces occur at changes in directions of flow,
such as elbows, tees, laterals, wyes, and at reducen, vdves, and dead ends. Reactive forces to
, balance these thrust forces can be provided by thrust blocks or by transmitting forces to the
pipe wall by restrained, harnessed, flanged, or welded joints. Forces in the pipe shell are
ultimately uansferred to the soil. In many cases it is desirabk to combine blocking and
- -
96 STEEL PlPE
transmitting forces to the pipe wdl. Methods of handling these thrust forces, together with
helpful data, are mentioned in Chapter 13.
9.6 FRiCTiONAL RESISTANCE BEWEEN SOIL AND PIPE
2
If m unblocked fitting is tied to buried pipe such that movernent is prevented and tension is 4
3
placed on the pipe, it may be necessary to determine the length of the pipe on which the
earth friction will overcome the dis jainting force. Chapter I3 includes discussion and design
aids on this subject. '1
3
9.7 ANCHOR RINGS
Anchor rings for use in concrete anchor blocks or concrete walis may be simple ring flanges. '.
Rings are proportioned to accept dead-nd pul1 or thrust imposed by the interna1 pressure
and any pipe thrust or puli due to temperature m e , with approximately 500 psi bearing
on concrete. Care must be exercised to ensure that thrust rings are positioned so as to -
provide an adequate safety factor against punching shear of the concrete. The recommended
filiet welds used for flange attachment in AWWA (207, Standard for Steel Pipe Flanges for '
Waterwarks . , SeMce-Sizes 4 in. Through 144 in.: offer a high safety factor against shear.
. -
9.8 NOZZLEOUTLETS
Outlets from steel mains can be easily arranged in any desired location with regard to size,
shape, or position. Nozzles are welded to the main h e with reinforcing coiiars. This work
can be done in the shop during fabrication of the pipe, or at trenchside, or after the pipe is
- instailed. Shop lining and coating of nozzles and pipe is satisfactory and more economical
' - . '-,'- than work done in the field. Al1 outlets should be checked to determine whether
- ' C - -.
. %
-
-' reinforcement is required; however, outlets larger than about one third of the diameter of
- 7 . i- ,
.>,. L. the line need special consideration as to reinforcing, even for small size pipe.
If required for hydraulic efficiency, a reducer may be welded to the main pipe with the
1
outlet welded to the reducer. The reinforcing of the shell must be computed on the brger
'
diameter. 1
The end of the outlet nozzle should be prepared to receive the valve or fitting to be
attached. This may cal1 for a flange, a grwved or shouldered end for a mechanical coupiing, - .
a plain end for a flexible coupling joint, a grooved spigot end for a bell-and-spigot joint, or a
. threaded end.
9.9 CONNECTiON TO OTHER PIPE MATERIAL
Care must be exercised when connecting dissimihr pipe materials, because of the possibility
of galvanic corrosion. See Chapter 10 for principies of this reaction. When connecting steel
pipe to either gray or ductile cast-imn pipe, or to steel-reinforced concrete pipe, or to copper
or galvmized pipe, an electrically insulating joint should be used. The insulating joint can be
accornplished with an insulating gasket wi th sleeves and washers on a flanged connection or
with an insulating sleeve-rype flexible coupling. (See Sec. 9.14.)
Any valves or other ferrous equipment connected to sreel pipe should be incapsulated
in polyethylene sheeting or coated with a coating compatible with the steel pipe coating.
Similar precautions are not necessary when connedng to nonmetaiiic pipe, such as
asbestos-cement or plastic. - :- '
.. -
-- .
IANGED CONNECTIONS
: - the main line s l o p, the m e should be mtated with reference to this slogt to b a the
2 - attachments vertical.
Outlet nowles should be as short as possible to reduce.the leverage of any bendiag force
appiied to the outlet. In generd, every outlet shouId h v e a Ave f d y affached to tt
- . d e md a flexible connection to the pipe downstreoun froi tliis valve.
CONNECTiONS
being strained there should be at k t one flexiile joint ciose to it.
Ir is good pracrice to provide for a flexible joint when finhgs are -d. This c#in be
easily accomplished by inslalling a fiexible coupling or a groovcdad-shouldered
mechanical coupling immediately adjacent to ont of the m e s . Such a coupling not only
provides a satisfacmry degree of fiexi'bity but malres i n s ~ t i o n and possible removal of
&e vdve ~ u c h easier. in such a situation, it may be dmtqeous w have the center smp
removd if a fiexible coupling is used. The coupling, when laose, may be moved along the
pipe to expose the joint and acilcate placenaent or remod.
FF CQNNECTiONS
S located on a slope. Short dips, such as may occur in practidy di pipelieies in
when a line must pass under a iarge drain or other mwturc, csn often be:
ammt be completely drained into the cbannel. In su& a siwtim, iris preferable w l a t e i
blowoff co~oction at the lowest point that will drain by gravity d provide easy means for
pumping out the part bclow the blowoff.
Blowoffs must, of m-, be provided with a shuwff Ave. If the pipeline is above
ground, the valve shouid be attached duectly to the outiet nozzle on the bottom of the
pipeline. A pipe amched m &e d v e will route the d i m e to a safe location. me
pipc will usuaily require hsmihtion of m e l bw at the blowoff valve, which must
be d y blocked to avoid smsses on the at~a-t to the pi-.
, - .Usually the biuwoff will be below ground. Mu s e the operating nut of the vdve must
be accessible from the surface, the vdve cannot be under the main but may be set with the
stem vertical and just beyond &e side of the pipeline. A t ypi d demil of a blowoff is shown in
AWWA ~ 2 0 8 ~ oind in Chapter 13.
pmtice. Elliptical manholes with the cover on xbe pressure side are sometimes used, but
98 STEEL PIPE
- -- - .
because they present an obstniction to smooth flow they are not common. The most
common t - in waterworks is cirdar, having a short, flanged neck md a flat, bolted cover.
Such manboles are commonly 18-24 in. in diameter.
Careful consideration should be @ven to lmting manhoies so as to afford the grearest
conveniente in use, Manholes give access to the inside of the pipeline for many purposes
.
besidcs inspection. In general, they will be most useful if located close to vdves and
sometimes close to the low points that Wht need to be pumped out for inspection or repair.
Long steel pipelines frequently become carriers of electric currents originating from
differences in ground ptentials or stray currents. This phenomenon is expiahed in Chapter
10. Where tests indicate the necessity, a long h e is often separated into sections or insulated
from other parts of a system by insulating joints. These joinrs can be provided at any flanged
joint, but it is often necessary to make a joint at a particular place by instding a pair of
flanges for this purpose.
Special insuhting gaskets, sleeves, and washers are used to provide electrid insuhtion
at the flanged joint. These insuloithg sleeves and washers are made of fabric-reinforced
bakelte, micarta, teflon, or similar mat eds that have long Me and g w d mechanical
strength .
The bolts of the insuhted flanged joints must be carefdiy insulated by sleeva and
.-
washers. It is recommended tbat insulating washers be used at both ends of the bolts. Some
pipe usen specify flange holes h-in. larger in diameter than normal flange holes.
It isimpomnt that insulating gaskets, sleeves, and washers be insealled carefuUy so that
the flanged joint will be insulating as intended. After the installation of the insuhted joint is
complete, an electrical resistance test should be performed. The electrical resistance should
be at least 10 000 ohms; if the resistance is less, the joint should be inspected for damage, the
damage repaired, and the joint retested.
9.15 AIR-RELEASE VALVES AND AIR-AND-VACUUM VALVES
Air valves are instaed with pipelines to admit or vent air. There are ba s i dy two types:
air-release valves md air-and-vacuum valves. In addition, a combination air valve is
available that combines the functions of an &-release vaive and m air-and-vacuum valve.
Air-release valves are used to release air entrained under pressure at high ponts of a
pipeline where the pipe slopes are tcio steep for the air to be carried through with the flow.
The accurnulation of air can become so hrge as to impair the pipe's fiow capacity.
Air-release valves are installed at the high ponts to provde for the continuous venting
of accumulated air. An air-release valve consists of a chamber in which a float opemtes
. . -
through leven to open a smdi air vent in the chamber top as aiF sccumulates md to close the
,. .
i vent as the water leve1 rises. The float must operate against an air pressure equal to the water
pressure and must be able to sustain the maximum pipeline pressure.
Air-and-vacuum valves are used to admit air into a pipe to prevent the creation of a-.
vacuum that may be the resdt of a vdve operation, the rapid draining or failure of a pipe, a
column separation, or other causes. A vacuum c m cause the pipe to collapse6 from
atmospheric pressure.
Air-and-vacuum valves also serve to vent air from the pipeline while it is filiing with
water. An air-and-vacuum valve consists of a chamber with a float t h a is generally cenar
guided. The float ogxms and closes against a large air vent. As the water kvel recedes in the
, -
. - - . J.,, . . --
chamber, air is permitted to enter; as the water level riges, air is vented. The air-and-vanium
.. .
...
valve does not vent air under pmsure.
/ TWO AtR VALVES
' CHANC
PARALLEL TO ' y ' '
HYDRAULIC GRAOIENf" ,' L L O N G DESCENDING STRETCH
T SU
FITTINGS AND APPURTENANCES 99
the pipeline. The connecting pipe should rise gradually ro the air vdve to permit flow of the
air to the valve for venting. The performance requirements of the valves are based on the
venting capacity (cubic feet of free air per second) and the pressure differentiai across the --
typical pipeline and locations of air valves.
7
HMRAULIC GRADIENT LONG ASCENDING STREFCH DOWNWARD GRADE BUT
WHEN DRAlNlNO LlNE WlMOUT SUMMIT APPROACHING THE HYORAULIC
DOWNWARD GAD1ENT CamMmtbn A k V h
UM WHEN DRAlNlNQ UNF
O Alr end V-um Vdvt
Types of Val- Recmmendad
Cornbination Alr Valvwr
Combination Air Valvas ' I ncreasing Downgrade
Decreasing Upgrade Combination Air Valves
Air and Vacuum Valves-lk to %mi lntewals
Combination Alr Val v~- ~/ 4- to '/rml lntervals
Avoid if Posible; if Unavoidable, fnstall Combination
Air Valves '/4- to l/rrni lntervals
. mOD PRACTICE
The standard-dimension fitings covered by AWWA ~2 0 8 ' should be used whenever
possible. If drawings are not used in purchasing, the designation of fitnngs is aiways
necessary. Design data should be used to determine if reinforcement is needed. When
necessary, special welded steel-pipe finings can be fabricated to meet unusud requirements
and severe service oonditions. When special sml-pipe Frttings are desigmted, they should
- ..
be aonimpanied with drawings to show their exact dgumtion.
100 STEEL PIPE
Referen ces
1. Dimensions for Fabriatcd Stael Water
Pipe Fittings. AWWA Stundard C208-83.
AWWA, Denver, Colo. (1983).
2. Statl Wam fipc 6 Inches and m e r .
AWWA Standard C200-80. AWWA,
Denver, Colo. (1980).
3. SWANSON, H.S. ET a. Design of Wye
Brmches for Stecl Pipe. Jour. A W WA,
47:6:581 (Jurie 1955).
4. RUDD, F.O. Stress AnaIysis of Wyc
Branches. Engrg. hl onwph 32, US
BUREC, Denvw, Colo.
Sael Pipe Wgesfor Watcrworks Ser-
vice-Sizes 4 in. TBrough 144 in. AWWA
Standard C207-78. AWWA, Denver,
&lo. (1978).
TIMOSHEMRO, S. S mg t h of Matds.
Part II. Van Nos- Company, New
York (1944).
AWWA MANUAL
Principles of Corrosion
. - C
and Corrosion Control
.--
Corrosion is the deterioratia of a substmce (usuaiiy a memi) or its properties beause of a
' -
remion with its environment? Even though the process of corrosion is complex and tht
detailed t xpht i ons even more so, relatively nontdmid publications m the subject are
avdable .2d
An understanding of the basic principies of corrosion leads to an undmtanding of the
means md metfiods of corrosion control. Methods of corrosion control are discussed in this
chapter and in Choipter 11. Alrhough mmy of t hae merhods apply to al1 me&, both
chpters deal specifidy with aomi on ami corrosion control of steel pipe.
ERAL THEORY
Al1 meltmkis exposed to the elements e m W y chmge to the state h t is most sable under
prevailing conditions. Most stnicniral me&, hving been converted from an ore, ttnd to
mm to it. This reversion is an electrochemid process-M is, both a chemical d o n
the flow of a direct electric cumnt mar . Such a cumbimtlon is ter& m
d Electrochemical ceiis fa11mto three general &m:
galvanic &S, with ekctmda df.dissimilar mctafs in a homogeneous - 19,
.
concentrationceiis, with eZectrodes of similar material, but with a nonhomogeneous
- electrolyte,
el ml yt i c d s , which are s W to gdvmic ceh, but which have, in addition, a
conductor plus oin outside source of electrid energy.
Thm g e d types of corrosion are recogni d: gdvanic, ektro1ytic, and biochemid.
102 STEEL PIPB
Wani c Corrosion
Wvmic corrosion occurs when two electrodes uf dissimiiar materiais eire e l d d l y
umuected and e- in an e-lyte. An example is the common fiashiight cell (Figure
10-1). Whmthe cell is comected in a circuit, m n t flows from the Pnc case (the anode)
into the electrolyte, carrying i oni d atoms of zinc with it. As smn as the Uac ions are
dissolved in the clecu01ytc, they lose their ionic charge, passing it on by ionizing a m s of
hydrogea. Thc ionic charge (the e l d c current) flows through the electrolyte to the =boa
rod (tbt mhade). There, the hydrogen ions are r e d d to awms of hydrogen, which
combine to fom hydrogen gas. The current flow through the cjrcuit, therefore, is from the
zinc anode to the elecmolyte, to the carbon r d cathode, md back to the zinc anode through
the eiemicai conductor mmeahg &e ande m the cathode. As the current flows, the zinc
is destroyed but the a b o n is unhanned. In other words, the a n d e is destroyed but the
cadlde is protected.
If the hydrogen gas formed in the galvanic ceii coikm on thc cahde, it wiii insdate
the athode from the electrolyte md stop the flow of current. As long ss tat hydrogm film is
maintained, corrosion wiii be prevented. Removal os destniction of the hydrogen film will
d o w corrosion to S- again at it originai ratc. Formation of tbe a is d e d polarkmdon;
its removd, de po bt i o n. Corrosion ceiis n o d y fonned in higbly comi vt so& or
watersartsuchthatthehydrogenformedonthe~~~~pes~a~sndcombi atswi tb
dissolved oxygm in tht ekctrolytc, thus dtpolarizing the cathode and dowk g mmi on m
p d .
In the Qashii&t battery, the zinc case is atraclred d the ah is not. However, zinc
or any othcr metal -y be amcked when in circuit with one meta& but not amckd when in
circuit witb another. A metal listed in Toible 10-1 will be amcked if comected in i circuit
with one listed beneath it in the table, if they are p M in a common elecmolytic
mvironment su& as wam or moist soil.
Tht order in Table 10-1 is b w n as the gaivmic series; it g e n d y holds true for
neutral electcoljrtts. C b q p in the compition or temmhi re of the electrolyte, however,
may cause d n rnetais listed to shit positions or amdi y reverse positim in the table.
Por example, zinc is lisred above iron in the tabk, and zinc wdi corrode when co-d to
iron ia fresh water ar normal temperature. But when the temperature of the water is above
+
Ci
C
+ -
- + ELECTROLYTE
C
-
4-
+
ZINC,
POROUS SEPARATOR NONMETALLIC
Figure 10-1 Caivanic Cell -Mssimilar
Metals
ELECTRODES SIMILAR IN
COMPOSITION AND SlZE
CORROSION 103
!;S1 Gahranic Series of Metais and Alloys*
a-
Magnesium and magneSium aiioys
....
. ,
. .
. -
- - t
@$, - , zinc . - 7 . - - .. 8 -
G . Aluminum 2s
&--- w u m
Aluminum l7STt
-.
&,S:- Stecloriron
6
$1- .-
Cast irw
Chromium-imn (active)
&L>
Ni-Resise
184 Sminless s w i (active)? . . . . - < . - . , .
. . .
. -
. . . . .
18-8-3 Stainlcss stctl (dvcH ! , ,l. -. . ! - . .
? . - 3 =- . - -
B 4
.2
--1, - - y-' - -
. . . .
. .
2 . '
- -
..+. - : - -
b : -
., .
. .
- .
TI
Ni&l (active)
. . . .
- :
i -
', . . < - ; 2 y - , - y % :';+ .
-
18-8-3 Stainiess stcet (psive)
- .-h- .
- -
when the protective ih i s formed.--
f irems is as foUows: Muminum 17ST-95% Al. 4% Cu. 0.5% Mn, 0.5% M g Ni-Resist, Internatid Nickei
k, 8% Ni; 18-8-3 stainiess steel-18% Cr, 8% Ni,
, -
Platinum a'; , -d3=.--: w - - - -
e" d has a SU- film of absorbed o x y m or bydrogen. A metal may be initiaiiy "active" and beaorne km as si ve"
-k, N.Y .-austenitic nickel d mt im, 18-8 s k stee1-'18% C
~ i i o y C, Union Carbide C a r h Co., N- FaUs, N.Y.-59% Ni, 17% Mo, 14% Cr, 5% Fe, 5% W, Inconel
Nckel Co., New York, N.Y.-59-80% Ni, 10-35 Ci, &23% Fe; bt ei i oy A* Ni, 20% Mo, 20% Fe; fIastciioy
104 STEEL PIPE
about 150F (66C), the iron will corrode and protect the zinc. Thus, the table cannot be
used to predict the performance of all metal combinations under all conditions.
In the flashlight battery, dissimilar metals and a single electrolyte cause the electric
current to flow. Similar metals in dissimilar electrolytes can also produce a current, as
illustrated in Figure 10-2. In corrosion underground, differential oxygen concentration in
soils is one of the chief reasons for dissimilarity in the electrolyte. Differential oxygen
concentration (or differential aeration) may be caused by unequal compactness of backfill,
unequal porosity of different soils or of one soil at different points, uneven distribution of
moisture, or restriction of air and moisture movement in the soil caused by the presence of
buildings, roadways, pavements, and vegetation.
The electrochemical cells described in the preceding paragraphs demonstrate the
fundamental principles of the many kinds of electrochemical cells found in practice. The
common forms of corrosion encountered on unprotected buried pipelines are shown in
Figures 10-3 through 10-11.
.
. .
Moist earth is electrolyte; two areas on the pipe are anode and cathode; pipe wall takes place of wire in Figures 10-f
and 10-2. Pipe wall at anode will corrode like zinc battery case; pipe wall at cathode will not corrode but will tend to
be coated with hydrogen gas, which if not removed, will tend to build resistance to current flowand thereby check
corrosion of pipe wall at anode.
Figure 10-3 Galvanic Cell on Embedded Pipe Without Protective Coating
TUBERCLE
~
HYDROGENION
."""--. PIT -.
.
\
. .
PRODUCT OF ~ t ~ ~HYDROGEN
CORROSION~.--""'" FILM
Detail of pipe wall at anode in Figure 10-3 is shown. As current leaves surface of anode, it carries with it small
particles of metal (ions). These ions go into solution in soil (electrolyte) and are immediately exchanged for
hydrogen ions, leaving metal behind as rusty scale or tubercle around pit area. In many soils, especially
comparatively dry ones, this barnacle-like scab will "seal off" pit so that ions (electric current) cannot get through
and cell becomes inactive as long as tubercle is not disturbed.
Figure 10-4 Galvanic Cell- Pitting Action
"'~
- .
is cathode (protected areii, steel pipe is anode iwrroding area). and gurrounding earth is electrolyte. As
ode s small in area relative M ande, corrosion is not ordinarily swere or rapid. If these area proportions
rsed, corroslon may be much more rapid.
10-5 Corrosion Caused by Dissimilar Metais in Contact on &id& Pipe
. .
ldom considered, galvanic cell is created by installing piece of new pipe in old line. New pipe always
&le and its rate of corrosion will dspend on type of sail and relative areas of anode and cathode.
areful protective measures are essential.
i; Acid leached frwn cinders contaminates soil and increases its activrty. No hydrogen wllectc
II rernains active, and corrosion is rapid.
t
106 S m L PIPE
/ COUPUNG /BREAK IN FILM
' THREADS
BRlGHT METAL
SCRATCHES CAUSED
BY PlPE WRENCH
Brighf scars or scratches of threads becorne anode areas in buried pipe, and rest of the pipe is cathode area. In some
soils, these bright areas can be very active and destnictive because the small anode area and lar* cathde area
produoe the most unfavorabte ratios pssible.
figure 10-8 Corrosion Cauced by Dissimilarity of Surface Conditions
PIPE
In this galvanie cell of dissimilar etectrolytes icompare Figure 1Cb2i. seaions of pipe in sandy loam are cathodes
( protected areas ), sections n clay are andes I corrding areas), and soil is electrolyte. If resilance to electric-
current flow is high in electrolyte, corrosion rate wi l be slow. If resistan= to current flow is Iow, corrosion rate will
be high. Thus. knowledge of soil resistan# to electric-current flow becomes rnportant in corrosion control studies.
Figure 10-9 Corrosion C a u d by Dlssimilai Sdb
CORROSION 107
GROUND UNE-
RI? AFFi A T
MOlS. -. . -. . . -. .. . . -- --.-, . --. . , . . .., . .,..... ION
Uectrolytic Corrosion
- either through p a d d circuits in the ground or through some metdic s t r u m . -use
-
these currents stmy from the de s i d pth, they are mmmd y referred to as stray carth
cwrents or smy currents.
e = - . The -tic sketch of m electric street-milway system shown in Figure 10-12 is
3 an example of a system that a n create stmy DC currents. Mmy modern subway sptems
.:: opwrite on the same principk. In F i 10-12, the direct current flows from the generamr
motors driving it. To complete the circuit, the re- path of the current is intendd m be
from the motors to the wheels of the cm, then through the A s to the generamr at the
. r rcsistmce to the flow of the electricity, what usually hppens is that a portion of the cumt,
11 satking an easier path to the substation, leaves the roiiIs, polsses into the ground, md returns
- to the substation through thc moist c h . If, in its journty through the ground, the current
pses mar buRed mctal pipe-which offers an eas k path for return than dms the ground
& substation; there it will leave the pipe mi flow through the ground back to the mil, and fineilly
rehirn to the subsmtion genemor.
Areas of the pipe where the current is entering are not mrroded. Whex the current is
leaving the pipe, however, steel is destroyed at it rate of about 20 ib per ampe-year of
1[i8 STEEL PIPE
POSITIVE AREA P'PEL'NE NEGATlVE ARE4
STRUCTURE CORRODING STRUCTURE CATHODICALLY
PROTECTED
Fsure 10-12 Stray-Current Corrosion Gused by UectrIRed Rnllway Systems
GENERATOR
.-.
- ' TROLLEY WIRE S '
'
..,
.' . NEGATIVE AREA
PIPE
-
- .'," .
, .
. , - . . .- +; .. : . .
Figure 10-1 3 Control of Stray-Current Corrosion
.;- - : - , :
Biochemical Corrosion
Certain soii bacteria create chemicals that may mult in comion. Bacteria1 wirrosion, or
anaembic-bacteria1 oorrosion, is not so much a disthct typt of corrosion as it is mother
cause of electrochemical corrosion. The bacteria cause changes in the physical and chemical
propcrties of the soii to produce active pseudogdvanic cds. The bacterioil adon may be one
of removing the protective hydrogen fdm. Difftrcntial aeiaaon plays a major rok in this
activiv. :- > * ,
The only d n way of determining the pmence of anatrobic bacteria, the prticuhr
kind of microorganism responsible for this type of comsion, is to secure a sample of the soil
in the immediate vicinity of the pipe and develop a bacteriat culture from that sample.
hs@m under a microwpc wiH determine definitely whether harmful bacteria are
p m t .
Stress and Fatigue Corrosion
Stress corrosion is caused from tensile stresses that slowly build up in a corrosive
atmcwphere. With a static loading, tensile smsses are developed at &e metal surfacts, Ar
bighly smssed points, accehted corrosion occurs, causing increased tensile smss and
failure when the metal's safe yield is exceeded.
Corrosion fatigue occurs from cyclic loading. In a corrosive atmosphere, alternate
l aabgs cause corrosion fatigue subscantially below the metal's fdure in nonaorrosivc
conditims.
#
- -
Crevice corrosion
k v i c e currosion in a steel pipent is a& by a conaeatration citll formed where the
dissolved oxygen of the water varies from ont segnment of thc pipc memi m mother. In a
crevia area, rhe dissolved oxygen is hi nded fmm difhiionr m t h g an seodic d t i o n
h i atuses metal w go ht o soiution.
Severity of Corrosion
Severity of corrosion in any given case will depend oa maay different factors, some of which
may be more impormt tiun others. The f-rs most W1y to affm the me ofcorrosion m
dative Wtiof18of mecals in the gaivanic series,
~ i z e ~ f a n o d e ~ w i t h ~ p e c x t o ~ ~
l a ~ 8 t i o a o f ~ ~ w i t h ~ p e c t t o ~ t h o d e ,
resistan= of mEeallic ci mi t,
tgpe mi oompi ti on of e h l y t c ,
duct i vi t y or resistivity of eiextrolyte,
u n i f O f m i t y o f ~ 1 ~ ,
depl ari zi ngd*.
Soll-Corrosion lnwstigations
The first organhd soil-corrosion investigati011 was begun by the NatiOnal Bureau of
Stadds(Nl3S)in 1911.Thtprpostatthoitti~wasmstudy theeffectofsttaycumnts
from smet-railway lincs on b d d meallic stnichircs. In its inithi inm@aw the
bureau found that in many instanccs whcrc mther stvere amosion was anticipated, little
damage was observcd, whercas in o h , more amaion wm f d tban d m bc
indicated by tht t l &d data associatad with tbe corroded smmar e. These obserwtions
led to a second nwstigation, u n d c d m m 1921. Or i gi dy about 14 000 specimens were
buried at 47 test sites, but tbt numbcr was sukqumtly i n d to 36 500 qechm at
128 mt sites. The American Ptmiltum Lnstimtt and thc Anterican Gas hso&tion
c o h b o d in the mults of the latter tests.
Buriai sita were sekctcd in typical soils representiag a sampling ofartas in whichpi@
was ar mighf k buried. Tbe purpx of tbe i nvesmon was m h. w k h r
. .
A Method o1 Deietminsng Wall Thickness of Steei Pipe for Uno'efground Sewrce. Jour AWWA.
defrned tn Table 1-2
Corrosion Rate in Various Wls
- 0 5 1 0 1 5 2 0 ~ ~ 3 5 ~ 4 ! 5 ! X
TIME, YEARS
CORROS ION
STEEL PIPE
corrosion would occur in pipelines in the absence of stray c e under conditio
representative of those encountered by working pipelines.
The NBS soil c omi on tests are probably the most extensive, weil coordinate
best analyzed of any test made for the same purpase. A final report on the studies
between 1910 and 1955, including over 400 referentes, has been publishd! An imp
fmding was that in most soiis, the corrosion rate deneased wi th time. This is largely
the fact that corrosion pmducts, uni ess removed, tend to protect the metal.
i-
Figure 10- 14, taken from the NBS repmts, clearly shows the decreast in corrosion rate
with time in ali but &e worst soil group. Only a very small percentage of pipe is ever buried
in $02 beloaging to that group. Modern methods of corrosion pmenUon generdy make it
unnecessary to allow extra wall thickness as a safeguoird agahst mrrosion. Tables 10-2 and
10-3 givt summary data on the corrosivity of soib and the relationship of soil corrosion to $
Table 10-2 Soils Crouped ln Order of Corrosive Action on Steel
Group z-Lightly C m ~
Aemtion and drainage g d . chamcterkd by uniform color and no mottling anywhere in soil profile and by very low water
mbie. Induh:
1. Sandsorsandy h m ~
1 - -
2. Light, t ext ud silt hm
3. Porous loams or &y loams thomughly o x i M to great depths.
- . . =
Ewrrp II-Moahtdy CGWOSI'W -
>. - 1, ;.' . .
Aeratim ami draimge fair. h a c m h d by slight r nodhg ( ye Ms h brown md yelhwish gray) in lower part of profIle
- - .
.
(depth 18-24 in.) and by low water mble. Soils would be considered well dmined in an agriculnual sense, as no a1~6cial
<!*'.%
- - - is raecessary fw m p raising. hcludes:
. .
- .,- ;.-
- . 5
. , 1. Sandy -
, - -;: , .
-
. . . : 2. Silt loams .. ..
3. Clay loams . . . , . -
, :T.. ...
. : - > s. -: ' . .
Group III-Bdy C N '
h t i o n d hi mge p r . ChactenZed by hcavy texture and moderate mottiing close to s ur f e (depth 6-8 in.) and with
water tabk 2-3 ft below surface. Soils u s d y occupy flat areas and would require arrifcid drainage for crop raising. Indudts:
l . Clay loams
2. Ciays
Vroup I V - U d I y Cmosiw
Aeration and drainage very p o r . -rized by bluish-gray mottling at %phs of 6-8 in. with wafer table at s urf e, or by
extreaae impermeability -use of colloidal material contained. Incl~des:: - - .
1. M&
. -
2. h t
3. Tidal mmb
4. aayS and @ soils % . -
5. Adobe &y. .. . . . - , -
Table 10-3 Relationshlp of Soil Corrosion to Soil ResistMty
Resismce
Soil Class Description ohtn/cc
10 coo4ml
1 exceknt
2 good 6MW45(M
3 fair 4500-2000 L -*2
4 bad 2 0
CORROSION 111
10.2 INTERNAL CORROSION OF STEEL MPE
Corrosion of the i n ~ d surfaces of a pipe is principally wiused by g d 6 cells? The
extent of corrosion of the interior of an unlined pipe depends on the cwmivity of tht water
amed. Lanigelid ha developed a method for determining the corrosive effect of diiercnt
kinds of water w bare pipe interiors, md wier7 has extensively investigateti and reportad
t h e e f i ~ o f m t e r ~ ~ < w ~ o ~ k i n d s o f p i p e ~ . A l ~ w g h s o m e u n l i n e d p i p e s
h v e been pitted through by some waters, the principai result of interior corrosion is a
reduction h flow capacity. This redudo11 is causcd by a formati011 of tubercles.of ferric
- -
hydroxidc, a conditim $nown as mhrmlation? It is primariiy to mhr ai n fiow capaciy
that pipt ihhgs h e becn developed. Whtre i n w d comion is a l 1 4 m persist, qualiy
of water deurioratts, pumping and transmission capacitp de- efficitncy diminishes, -
and mt l y rtplaccment b m e s inevitable. Scrious accidents rrad h s of revmues h m
systtm shutdowns are aiso psi bl e. The mxnmct of &ese problems. can be red& by
the use of quality p d v e linings.
ATMOSPHERiC CORROSION
Atmospheric corrosion of exposed p i p e h s is u s d y insjgnificant, except in industrial and
sea amt areas. Where siach owrcision is sigdhnt, the msUntmamc problem i n d is
si* m that for bridge5 or other e x p d steel stnictures.
corrosion. Third, m inhibitive environment a n bt mt e d to prevent or reduce c o d o n
To impkment the fmt method, satisfwry and & d v t pmtcdve a d n g s hve been
developed. athodic protection, implemcnting tbe s e d method, is bcing more and more
widely used in corkion control. hhibitive coa* impkmtnt tht third methd by
providing m environnaent in which oxidation or comim ofsteef is inhibid. By jud.khus
use of ail of these methods, any rcquircd dqpee of comion control am be d c a l l y
Coatings mi hhgs are mvered in Chaptcr 11. Tbt ranaindet ofthis chaptcr deals
with corrosion mtrol by ~01-c pro&.
. .. .
:, '
. ,
<, . - -
- -- .- - , :
CATHODIC PROTECnON
Cathodic protection systems reverse the electmckmicai corrosive force by creating an
externa1 circuit between the pipeline to be protected md an auxiliary anode (sacrificid
memi) immersed in water or buried in the ground at a pdetermined distmce from the pipe.
D i current appiied to the circuit is dischmged from the anode surface md travels
Two methods are avdable for genmting a current of suffrcient magnitude to
F.:
gwrmtee pnmction. In the fmt method, sacrjf~chl-anode material such as magnesium or
current to flow from the anode to the pipe, retuming to the anode through a simple
connecting wire (Figure 10-15). This system is generally used where it is desirable to apply
s m d i amounts of current at a number of locations, most oftcn on coated pipelines in lightly
or moderabeiy corrosive soils.
112 STEEL PIPE
PROTECTED
STRUCTURE
Rgure 10-1 5 Gthodlc Protection -Gaivanic Anode Type
RECTlFlER UNlT / GRADE
Figure 10-16 Cathodic ~ro-tim- ~ecnfier Type
The second method of current generation is to energize the circuit with an externai DC
power supply, such as a rectifier. This technique, commonly referred to as the impressed
current method, uses relatively inert anodes (usuaily graphite or silicon cast iron) connected
to the positive terminal of a DC power suppiy, with the pipe connected to the negative
terminal (Figure 10-16). This system is generally used where large amounts of currents are
required at relatively few locations, and in many cases it is more economical than sacrificial
anodes.
Bonding of joints
Where a pipeline is to be cathodically protected, or where a pipeline is to be installed with
the possibility of future cathodic protection, the bonding of joints is required to make the
line electricaiiy continuous (Figures 10-17 and 10-18). It is usually desirable to bond al1
joints at the time of installation, because the cosr later wiii be many times greater. In
addition to bonding, the pipeline should have test leads conneaed to it at appropriate
intervals to permit monitoring of the activity of electrical currents within the pipeline,
whether under cathodic protection or not. Field-welded lines require no additional
bonding.
- - - - . . - -. . . . . . .
1. NACE &sic Corrosion Courst. NACE, - Corrosion Control in Water Utilities.
Houston, T e a (June 1975). .-. . Corrosion Control Committee, Cali-
2. Manual on Undeqmund Comion. Co-
-
fornia-Nevada AWWA Scc. (1980).
lumbia Gas Systcm Savia Corp., Ncw - - .
- .
- DAVIS, C.V. d. HadbooK of AppikdHy-
York (1952). draulks. McGraw-Hill Bmk Co., New
3. HERTZBERG, L.B. Suggcstcd Non-ttch- York (1969).
n i d Mmd on Comi on for Water - DENISON, I.A. -1+ bur e ni c nt
Works Operaton. Jow. A W WA, 48:719
(June 1956).
4. Underground Cwrosion, NBS Circ. No.
579, (1957).
5. ELIASSEN, R. & L m , J.C. 111. Me&-
anism of Internal CDrrosiw of Water
Pipe. Joirr. AWWA, 45:12:123I (Dec.
1953). r . .
6. LANG~LIER, W.F. ~ b t A d y t i d ~ontrol-
of Anticormsion Water Treatment. Jow.
A -A, 28: 1500 (Oct. 1936).
7. WEIR, P. Tht Hffcct of I n t d Pipe
Lining on Water Quality. Jow. A WWA,
321547 (Sept. 1940).
8. Lmsw, R.K., b FRANZINI, J .B. Water-
Res oums Bt r gi ' m. McGraw-Hill Book
Co., Mew Yo& (1979).
9. PEABODY, A. W. Control of Pipline
. --
Cwrosiwn. Natl. h. O f ~ l T O s h ~ . ,
:..:i. . . L. . r- . - . 5
--
-%- ? ,
e;:; '-
Katy, Teas (1967).
S' - . .-. -
- .,-.+' b
5, - - - - .
. . . .
' . T h follming ref erms are not cited in
. .
<.> .% d
.. . she texr.
- BARNARD, RE. A Method of Determining
Wall Thickness of Swl Pipe for Under-
ground !hvice. Jow. AWWA, 29:791
(June 1937).
of tbe Comsiveness of S&. NBS Re.
Papcr RP 918 (1936).
- LOGAN, K.H. ASTM Sympi um um i
Corrosion Testing Prmdures. (=hia#--l
Mattings (Mar. 1937). -.S
- MCCOMB, G.B. Pipcline Protedon Ushg '
M Tar Emmels. St. Louis, Mo. (June
1965).
- m, G.N. Adjwiment of Soil Cor-
rosion Pit Dcpth ~ s u f c m e n t s for Sizt
and Sample. M. Bull. 212. M-
Peaolwm Instirute, New York (1933).
- --- A Preminary Study of thc &te
of Fitting of Iron Pipt in Soh. Prod. Bull.
212. Americm P d e u m Instirute, Ncw
York (1933).
- -- API Coa* Tests. M. B
214. Amcricm Pctrokum iustitu~, N
York (1934).
.-<: . K -. - Steel Plate Etigt'tfeaing Dafa-Volttme 5.
Amw. Iron & Steel Inst. and St t d ate
Fabricaton Assoe., Inc. (1980).
C. , -
p....:
&& .. .
kc- -.; - :
. .-
Chapter 11
AWWA MANUAL
ao
Protecti
. .
tir and
I
Linings
L. ;. Coatings for carrosion control are extremely effective when properly used. They are
4-
,, ronsidered ro be the primary h e of defense @nst corrosion of steel p i p e b systems,
>- - ,
Coating costs are only a fraction of pipeline costs, yet coa* is the major means of ensusing
G. 10%-term operation by preventing pipeline deterioration aad corrosion leaks .
F-
QUIRIEMENTS OF GOOD PIPEUNE COATINGS
'
. .
8": ~ The mquirrmentg of a coating vary with the type of mnsmiaion, the aggmsiveneps of rhe
rr i.. .
' y ' environment in which it will serve, and the system opemting conditiom. The effeaivemss
of a good prouaive pipeline coating depends on its permanente and the degree to whi& it
- possesstx physical resistance ro hazards of tmportation, installation, temperantre -e,
5 so9 stcess, and pressure; resistance to water penemtian or absorption; effective elecacal
-
insulative properties; and chemical inertness w soil, air, water, o@ acids, alkalies, and
k1 : bacteria1 action. Coating effectiveness &o depends on such g e d chmcteristics as ease of
%:-
e&xappiication, high adhesion, compatibility of use with Cathodic protection, and reasonable
, ,S,~
T h e requirements of a lining also vmy with the system md the environment. In
ddition to the factor5 considered for coatings, linings must be judged on their smoothness
L m w flow resismce), md they must meet toximlogid requirements for potable water.
S'
ETION OF THE PROPER COATING AND LINING
1; : Selection and recommendation of the h h g md coating mate* for use on mderground
-. sad undcrwater steel pipelines is one of the most i mpomt activities of the enginaer.
STEEL PIW
Selection for a given use is a matter of assessing the magnitude of the corrosion, installation,
and service hazards. Testing pmcedures have been developed to aid the engineer in
evaluating and selecting the coating system that best meets a system's n e e d ~ . ~ - ~
Requirements for externd coating and interna1 lining are different, so each should be
considered separately with respect to tbe anticipated corrosion severity.
Coating Selection
The corrosion potential for the exterior of steel pipe is diff~cuit to judge because of the
variery of environments encountered. Resistivity of the soil (see Tabk 10-3, Chapter 10) is
the most important parameter for judging soil corrosivity. Soil chemical and physical
analyses, pH, moisture content, and existence of stray electrical currents are also important
factors that can aid in making the selection decision.
After the leve1 of soil cormsivity is assessed, the other conditions that &a the
long-term performance of pr ot dve coatings should be considered.' Among hese are
distorting stresses exerted on the coating during compaction and sertling of the
backf'iI1;
medlanical stresses created by certain soils having very high expancion and
shrinkage during wet and dry cycles;
penetration by growing roots;
action of bacteria and fungus in soil surrounding the pipeline;
penetration by rocks, clods, or debris in the b&Ii;
attack by soil chemicals or industrid wastes, chemicals, and solvtnff that may be
present along the pipeline route.
Coating performance depends on putting the pipeline into service with the lem
amount of coating damage. The coating system selected must not only rneet the corrosion-
control needs, but must also allow economical transportation, handling, storage, and
pipeline construction with minimal coathg damage or repair. To ensure precise control d
coating application and quality, many types of coatings are applied in a plant or shop. The
coating manufacturer can provide a guide m the proper protection during transportation,
handling, and storage of pipe that has been coated with such a system. General guidelinea
are given in a later section of this chapter. There are several recognized resting procedureg
that are used in evaluating coating system characteristics related to transportation, storage,
and ~onstniaion.~~ ' Among the characteristics to be considered are
resistance of the coating to cdd flow oi penetration under mechanicai loading,
resistance of the coating to ultraviolet exposure and temperature cycling dunng
outdoor storage,
resistance of the ooating to abrasion and impact.
Lining Selection
covered with cement-momr are protected by the aikaiine cement environment, w
passivates the sreel and prevents iron corrosion in most natural environments.
- . .
-
- passivation occurs quickly in newly coared surfaces and is not destroyed by moisture
oxygen absorbed through the mortar coating. Cement-mom W g s provide low hydra
frictional resistance, and any leached products from mortar lining carrying soft water
nontoxic and anticorrosive.
- .
-.-
PROTECTIVE COATINGS AND LININGS 117
protecr steel water lines by electridly insulating the coared pipe surfaces from the
environment. When reinforced, the coatingc provide addi t i od resistauce to physi d
rial ~Iected, consideratiw should be given to the effects of
D COATINGS AND LININGS
- Cmn t AWWA standards list coatings and linings for steel water pipe that are beliwed to
be the most reliable, as proved in prmice. The AWWA Steel Pipe Commirtee is alert,
however, to the possibilities of new developments, and dditions to and modifications of
existing standards will be md e as deemed advisable. The current list of AWWA coating and
lining standard$ for pipe protection is as follows:
AWWA CB3, Standard for Goal-Tar Protective Coatings and LinIngs for
Steel Water Pipeiines-Enamel and Tape-Hot-Applied. AWWA ~ 2 0 3 ' ~ describes
ments for shop-applied mal-tar protective mtings and
n o r d conditions when the
WF (3ZC). The standard covers
of pipe, s pecial sectians, connections, and
oal-tar tape applied to the exterior of special sections,
Coal-tar enarael is applied over a crial-tar or synthetic primer. Externa1 coal-tar enamel
ded asbestos-felt and fibrous-giass mat to reinforce and shield the mal-tar
lied e x t e d coating is usually finished with either a coat of whitewash or a
"'! single wrap of kraft pper.
reinforcement or shielding. The hot
a smooth interna lining having low hydraulic
The standard provides a rigid yet reasonabk mdacmrer' s @de for the productiw of
.. the coating, calls for t e s ~ of material and its behavior ro ensure the purchaser tht tht
product has the desired qualities, and furnishes directions for the effective application of the
*i
>< --
AWWA C205, Standard for Ccmcnt-Mortar RotcetRc Liniiy and Coa-'
for Steel Water Pipe-4 In. and Larger-Shop Applied. AWWA ~ 2 0 5 l4 describa
the material and application requirements to provide proredve Bnings and coatings for steel
water pipe by shop application of cement mortar.
Cement mortar is compod of Porthnd cement, sand, and water, well mked md of the
proper consistency to obtrtin a dense, hornogenas lining or coating. Internally, the cement
' ' -mortar is cenwifugally mpact ed to remove excess water aad produce a smooth, uniform
surf a. Externally, the mting is a reinforced c e m t mortar, pneumatically or mechoinicaiiy
applied to the pipe suihce. Reinforcement consists of spiral wire, wire fabric, or ribbon
ide for application and curing of the mortar
Chatings for the Exterior of
el Water Pipelines. AWWA
mpe on the exterior of specid
nstailed underground in any soil
itions. Tapes with both polyvinyl chloride and polyethylene
listed. The thicknesses of the tapes vary; however, d tapes may be sufficiently
to meer changing performance requirements. Cold-appkd tapes provide ease of
pe c d equipment md can be appiied over a broad application
rerture mnge. If severe constniction or soii conditions exist where mechanicd damage
may occur, a suitable overwreip of an exm thickness of tape or other wrapping m a y be
required.
AWWA C210, Standard for Liquid Epoxy Coating Sysgems for the Interior
and Exterior of Steel Water Pipelines. AWWA ~ 2 1 0 ' ~ describes a liquid epoxy
mtbg system, suitable for potabk water sewice, which will provide corrosion protection to
the interior and exterior of stotl water pipe, fittings, and special sections installed
underground or undcrwater. The coating system consists of one ccwit of a two-pm
chemically cured inhrbitive epoxy primer, md one or more coats of a two-pm chemi dy
cured epoxy fmish coat. The fish coa1 may be a mal-tar epoxy coating, or it may be m
epoxy coating containing no coa1 tar. The mting system may d m t e l y consist of two or
more mars of the same epoxy coating without the use of a separate primer, provided the
coatiag system meets the performance requirements of AWWA C210.
These coa- are suitabk when used for corrosion prevention in water service systems .
at temperatures up to 140F (60C). The p d u m are applied by spray application,
preferabiy airless.
.. , The liquid epoxy system described in the standard differs from the customary produa .i
commercialiy avaihbie in that it has a very high flexibility, elongation, and impoict 2
-. .
- . resismce. Any liquid epoxy offcred for water utility purposes must meet the requircments ,
. - --.. . -, -.- of AWWA W 10. . . . . . - . -:. . : ,
-
AWWA CZ13, Standard f& Fudon-Bonded Epoxy Coating for the Interior %
d Exterior of Steel Water Pipelines. AWWA ~ 2 1 3 ' ~ describes the material and d
- .
,- .
4
applrattion requirements for fusion-bonded epxy protective mtings for the interior and --
. . ,
- exterior of steel water pipe, s@al secrions, welded joinrs, connections, and fittings of s d
2- . L m . water pipelines installed underground or undenvater under normal construction conditions.
-13
Tht tpoxy coatings are suited for corrosion prevention in potable water systems opera- at
T. - ..+A temperatura up to 140F (60C).
Fusion-bonded epoxy matings are heat activared, chemi dy cured coating sys
The epoxy coatings are furnished in powder form. Except for welded field joints, th
. . : _ -.: p h t - or shop-applied to preheated pipe, spbcial sections, c o ~ o n s , and fmings
, :-: --,. fluid bed, i r , or electrostoltic spray.
-.: :.
-- .
AWWA C214, Standard for Tape Coating Systents for the Exterior of S
--' Water Pipehes. AWWA w 14 l8 covers the mate*, the systems, and the applica
requirements for prefabricated cold-applied tapes for the exterior of aU diameters
water pipe placed by m d d d m-. For nonmi comtniction conditions, prefa
.-
- , - cold-applied tapes are applied as a thrte-layer system comisting of (1) primer, (2) con
preventive tape (inner layer), and (3) mechanical pmtective tape (outer layer). he
j
r vppM in the form of a liquid musisting of rolid hgredie11ts arried in i solvent.
corrosion preventive tape and the mechanical protective tape are supplied in suita
thicknesses md in roa form. The standard c o m application at orwiting p h m.
-. md application, surfae finisI$ng, and curing of the c-q-nt mortar.
--*- ? ': :
. .
: : : : , . . ?
11.4 COATING APPLICATION
This manual dots not fumish details on methcds of coating and paint application, but
importauct of ob- proper application cannot be overemphasized. Efictive res
m o r be secured with any cmting material d e ? adequate a r e is taken in p r e m
. . . .
: r .
- .--
PROTBCTIVE COATINGS AND LINIMCrS 119
- surfaces for coating, inapplying the coating, and in handling the pipe &r coa-. AWWA
standards provide the requirements for ob-g g d coating work. The atwiting
manufa~urer, the applicator, and the &eer should d cooperate to see that the work is of
the prescribed quality. Mmy e x d h f sources of Informatim have k n published deahg
with the protedon of steel pipe, the pitfalls of mting mrk, and the mems of avoiding hese
Coating of Special Sections, Connections, and Fittings
of application moiy differ from
The AWWA standards for protective coatings have been a r e f d y prepared by experienced
-
individds and me based on the best current pmcaice. They should be used by incorporating
them in the job smcation by direct referente. Modification should be made only by
experienced coa- specialists.
For AWWA Standards C203, C205, C209, C2 14W 13, C214, and ~ 6 0 2 ' ~ ) l4I9 to be
complete for bidding purposes, the pirrchaseis job spafi (#~ti ons must provide the
suppkmenteiry h i l s required h each standard.
1. Control of Externa1 Corrosion on Under-
ground or Submtrged Metailic Piping
Systems. NACE Standard RP-01-69.
NACE, Houston, Texw (1983 revisim).
2. Test for Cathodic Disbonding of Pipeline
ht i ng s . ASTM Sfandard G8-79. ASTM,
Philadeiphia, h. (1979).
4. Test for Disbonding Characterisrics of
Pipeline h t i w by Di mt Soil Burial.
ASTM Standard G19-77. ASTM, Phila-
dtlphia, Pa. (1977).
5. Test for Chemical Resistance of Pipeline
Coitings. ASTM Standard G20-77.
6. Tcst for Abrasion Resistame of Pipeline
btings. ASTM Smdard G6-77. ASTM,
Phildelphia, Pa. (1977).
Test for Bendability of Pipelint Coatings.
ASTM Standard G10-77. ASTM, Phila-
delphia, Pa. (1977).
. Test for Efftcts of Outdmr Weathering
on Fipeline Coatings. ASTM Standard
G11-79. ASTM, Phildelphia, Pa. (1979).
. Tcst for Impact Resistance of Pipcline
Coatings (Limcstone Drop Tat). ASTM
-
Standard GI3-77. ASTM, ~hi l a de l ~d;
Pa. (1977).
10. Test for Impact Resistance of FipeIine
Coatings (F&g Wtight Test). ASTM
Standard G14-77. ASTM, Philadelphia,
Pa. (1977).
1 1. Test for Pentt~ation Resismnce of Pipeline
Cuatings (Blum Rod). ASTM Standard
G17-77. ASTM, Hddeipbia, Pa. (1977).
12. Coal-Tar Protective ht i ngs and Linings
for Stccl Water Pipelines-Ename1 and
Tape-Hot Applied. AWWA Standard
(203-78. AWWA, Denver, Colo. (1978).
13. (Refereme deleted pcr errata issued in
June 1986.)
14. Cement-Monar Protective Lining and
Cuating for Steel Water Pipe-4 in. and
Larger-Shop Applitd. AWWA Smndard
(205-80. AWWA, Denver, Colo. (1980).
15. Cold-Applied Tape Cositings for the
Exterior of Spacial Sections, Connectiws,
and Fittings for Steel Water Pipelines.
A W W A Standard C209-84. AWWA,
Denver, Colo. (1984).
16. Liquid Epoxy Coating Systems for the
Interior and Exterior of Steel Water
Pipclints. AWWA Standard C210-84.
AWWA, Denver, Colo. (1984).
120 STEEL PIPE
17. Fusion-Bwdd Epxy Coating for thc 20. Good Paiftmrg RacnCttd-Volumc 1. Sys-
Interior and Exterior of Steel Water tem md Spafi-S-Volume 2. Steei
Pipclints. AWWA Standard C2 13-79. Stnicturcs Painting Manual. Stacl Struc-
AWWA, Denwr, Colo. (1979). nires Paintiag Councii, Pittsburgh, Pa.
18. Tape Cooiting Systems for thc M r of 21. Paint M d . US BUREC Denver, Colo.
Swl Water Pipchm. AWWA Standmi (aydable from US Govemmnt Printing
(214-83. AWWA, Denver, Cob. (1983). Offce, Washington, D.C.).
19. Cement-Mortar Linhg of Water Pipe-
i i nes 4 in. (100 mm) and Larger-in
h. AWWA ! 3mdd C602-83. AWWA,
Denver, Colo. (1983).
AWWA MANUAL
CO
. .
Transportation, , -
Installation, and Testing
5-b: -
R -
- . . >-.<T- . .
- J.* - Y
,:m kracd prmx~urr. for nanspo&, -6 ~ying, m, md rcs8iig any
q
, steel pipeiine depend on many amtrolling factofs, including f i e character md p q me of
& < u the h e ; its size, opemting pmsure, and a - am&tions; its hthd,
g,, subwban, or rural; and rhe mrab wer which it is U-lat, ro-, or momtaimw.
$ + Procedures also are affecfcd by tren& deph, chmacter of the soil, md backfili.
. m -. .
This chaprer brkfly di- a number of the more c o m r equk x nt s of
chpfer, the importmce of the engirneering properties ofthe soil being excawted and the
that will be used for b d i shodd be kpt in d. The principies of soil mecha
mil
nics
pruperly applied to exawtion md baclcfiil p d c e s lead to safer wor hg conditi- and to
p7 better md more economical pipeline i ns t dat i m. l ~
SPORTATiON AND HANDLING OF COATED
~jned and mted st cd pipe is rcadily transporied by mck, mil, or ship and has been
- d u i l y t n mp o d to aU parts of the United Smes and to otber parts of rhe worid.
'L Regardiess of which m& of transportation is used, lined d cuated s t d pipe is vduabk
. cargo and shouid be handkd as such.
Modes of Transportation
Requirements for packagitig, stowing, and restroiining pipe during transit depend 0x1 thc
mode ofmnqmrtation.
RaiL Flrit ~~ cars can be l d e d to approximttly 17 ft iabove the top of tbt mil
. sind 20 widths of 10 ft. Cars are normally adabl e for shipping 40-, m-, or 804 lengths of
:pipe. Pipe can be resmhed on the a r s through use ofs& pockcts or made inoo fl-
121
loads in 8ccordaace with current Association of Americm hiiroads de s . An inspector
fro& the r a h d will check each car for proper l d n g before accepting it for shipment.
Water. Constant pitchhg and rolliag motions should be anriupated for pipe stowed
aboard ships. Smd pipe must be padqged, and largt pipt must be stowed in such a menfier
to ride with or offset the pitching and rolling motion. Adequate padded timbers or similar
barriers must be used to kee.p pipe from rubbing together. in -y cases, fiat racks or
wntainers a n be used. Air bags can help prevent pipe shifting inside the container, The
surveyor who is commody responsible for chec$ing imding mangemeflfs shouid malte
c e h that d dock and ship handling equipment is approved for use on mf ed pipe. Pipt is
normally shipped on a Cubic-foot freight basis. The feasibility of aesting s d r diameter
pipe inside hrger pipe to reduce freight costs should be investigated; howwer, such nesting
must be paddsd to ensure thoit and aating integrity is maintakd.
Truct Most coated pipe is carricd on flat-bed tnicks and trailers di redy m the job
site. This one-time handiing betwecn shipptr and customer avoids damage sometimes
enmuntered by multipk loading and doading. The shipper shodd caution the tmcking
firms agaimt use of tiedown cquipmenr that could injure the e.
Air. Delivery of the pipe to discant sites can be expedited by airplane, and delivery
into otherwise inaccessibk iocations may require a g o helicopfers. The air carrier should
be contacted to obtain maximum length, width, height, and weight limitations for the mute
involved. Generdy, the carrkrs will require pipe to be strapped M y to pallets suitable
for handling.
Loading and unloading. Lmds should be pepared in a m e r that wiii protm -
the he d and a t e d pipe. SufFicient stringm should be used to hyer the pipe without
p h h g too much iaad on a single be- point. Where plain-end pipe is being shipped,
consideration should be @ven to a ppmi d load with the fuil length of pipe resting on
adjacent pipe. Interior stulls should be used where the pipe wall is too light to maincain
roundness during shipment. Contoured block5 may be necessoiry to give proper support to
some loads. Pipe should not be h w e d to rol1 or fa11 from the conveymce to the ground
Jhndling equipment. Both looiding and unloading of coated pipe should be
performd with equipntent that wiH not damage tht pipecoating. Approved equipment for
handling coated pipe indudes nylon straps, wide canvas os padded slings, wide padded
forlls, md skids designed to prevent m e to the coating. Unpaddcd m, sharp edges
on buckts, wire ropes, narrow forks, h k s , and m d bars are wcceptable.
St hghg. If the pipe is to be distributed along the right-of-way in rock or p v d y
tcrrain, both ends (at about o n e q mr length from the ends) should be hid on padded .
wood blocks, sandbags, mounds of sand, or othcr suitable supports to protect the pipe
mating.
12.2 TRENCHING
... - - kpt h
Trenches should be dug to grade as shown in the profile. Where no profile is provided, the
minimum cover should be generally s e l d to protect the pipe d e l y from mnsient loads
where the dimate is d d eind should be determined by the depth of the frost line in freezing
climate. The profie should be sekaed to mbi mh high points where oiir may be trap@.
Depth of tren& in ut y streets may be governed by existing utilities or other conditions.
Wdth .. . .
. . .
Where the sides of the trench will afford reasonable side support, the trench
be maintaincd at the top of the pipe, regardless of the depth of excavation,
practica1 width that wili d o w pmper densificatim of pipe-me beddiig an
materiais. If the sides of the trench remain vertical after excavation, and if beddmg
backfill are to be consolidaited by hydraulic methods, then the minimum trench width at the
top of the pipe should be pipe OD plus 20 in. If the pipe-zone bedding md b&i require
TRANSPORTATION, INSTALLATION, TESTlNG 123
dinsification by compacti&, the width of the trench at the bottom of the pipe should be
determind by the spsce required for the proper and effective use of tamping equipment,
but it should ncvcr be l e s than pipe OD plus 20 h.
When mechanical joiacg are assembled on pipe in the tren&, beil hola must be
provided at each joint and hola excavated to permit removal of the slings without dimuge to
the pipe coating. In order to avoid i mp i n g excessive e x t e d f d s on the pipe, the trench
width should be kept to the minimum width consisten1 with the baMdampaction
equipment and the type of joint used.
Bottom Preparation
Fht-bottom trenches shodd be excavated to a depth of a minimum of 2 h. below the
established grade line of the oukide bottom of the pipe. The excess exavation should then
be filled with kmse material from which aii stones and hard lumps have been removed. The
--
loose subgrade materid should be graded uniformly to the established grade line for the f d
Iwigth of the pipe. Steel pipe should not be sct on rigid blocks 0x1 the trench bomm that
would cause concentration of the load on small areas of pipe 008- or cause deformatim of
- t h e p i p e d .
Where the bottom of the trcnch is covered with soiid, hard objects that might penetrate
-
&e protective wting, a btdding of cnished rock or sand, 5 in. thick, should be p W
.
gnder the barre1 of the pipe. Screened emth also has been used successfully for su& a
.- Wdi ng, where ir will d n dry during pipe insmihtion and backtidi. It may be
dvantageous to s hpe the trench bottom under hrge sml pipe for fuii arc contact.
Overexcavation and Spdal Subgrade Densification
When required by the cpmilcstians, the trench should be exavated to a depth of nt leasr 6
in. Wow the bottom of the pipe (Figures 12-1 md 12-2) where the trench bottom is
uistable, or where it includes orgmic materials, or where the subgrade is composed of rock
dr other hard md unyielding materials. The overtxcavation should be replaaed with
well-densified mat e d to a depth of approximately 2 h. below the bottom of the pipe, and
the remaining subgrade should be completed witb loose maurhi, as shown in F i 12-1
and 12-2. Voids formed by the removal of bodders and o t k large interfering obje.
extending bdow n o d excavatiw limits should be refilled with material as dacribad
above. , =. . . . . . -' - -
Regulations
ti
.-
All applicable local, state, ami federai laws and reguiations shodd be ar e f dy ob&
i ncl ukg those relating to the proteaion of excavations, the safety of persons working
-herein, and provision of the required barriers, signs, and lights.
Handling and Laying
Coire similar to that exercised during loading, transporcing, doadhg, md stringing should
be observed during instdation of the pipe in the m&. Di-cally cosed pipe may
require a ddi t i d s p e d care when h a n W at temperatures btlow that recommended by
the manufacturer, or when the coating tempecanire is above that recommended by &e
Coated pipe shouki not be strung on rough ground when stored at the trench site, nor
huid it be roiled on such a surface. Rolling of mted pipe should be permitted only when
joint ends are bare and rails are provided on which to roU the expostd sted.
- /""
I
l
I!'-
~
124 STEEL PIPE
It
EMBANKMENT I TRENCH I
WELL-DENSIFIED BACKFILL ~INIMUM (SEE NOTE 5)
(SEE NOTE 3) I ~4 1\
MINIMUM (SEE NOTE 5) III
3/4
Ht (SEE NOTE 4)
2 IN. LOOSE MATERIAL
I
ITII"~//'i'
I
'
TRENCH WIDTH
(SEE SEC. 12.2)
Figure 12-1 Densified Pipe Zone Bedding and Backfill
It
E;MBANKMENT TRENCH
WELL-DENSIFIEDBACKFILL .JJ M~IMUM (SEE NOTE 5)
(SEE NOTE 3) I 3/4
MINIMUM (SEE NOTE 5) ~
3/4
Ht (SEE NOTE 4)
21N. LOOSE MATERIAL
WELL-DENSIFIED MATERIAL
-6-IN. MINIMUM
Figure 12-2 Special Subgrade Densification
NOTESTO FIGURES12-1 AND12-2
1. Soil densities are expressed as a percentage of maximumdry soil density as determined by
AASHTOT993(StandardProctor) or ASTMD6984.
2. Class C1, C2, and C3 backfills require that the contractor prepare a firm but yielding subgrade.
3. Well-densified material shall conform to the following relative dry densities as a percentage of the
laboratory standard maximum dry soil density as determined by AASHTOT993for compacted, cohesive
soils:
Specified Bedding Class
C1
C2
C3
Dry Density
95%
90%
85%
For free-draining soils, the relative density shall be at least 70 percent as determined by ASTM
D2049-695 (withdrawn, replaced by ASTM D4253-836 and ASTM 4254-837). Comparative soil density
tests are shown in Table 12-1.
4. Pipe zone backfill height over top of pipe (Ht) shall be 12 in. minimum for pipe diameter larger than
24 in. and 6 in. minimum for pipe diameter 24 in. or less.
5. Side slopes shall be a minimum of %:1 or as required by OSHA, other safety orders, or by the soils
engineer.
6. Figures 12-1 and 12-2 represent Class C bedding as shown in ASCE Manual No. 378(WPCF Manual
of Practice 9, see reference 8).
TRANSPORTATION, INSTALLATION, TESTING 125
1 2-1 Compadson of Standard Denslty Tests*
While handling and placing pipe in the rrench, fabric slings should be used. The pipe
. shouid not be dmgged along the bottom of the trench or burnped. It should be supported by
the sling while preparing to make the joint. The coating on the underside of thc pipe should
i. should be repaired before lowering the pipe into the trench.
.. . trench should be kept free from water that could impair the integrity of bedding and joining
:L: operations. On grades exceding 10 pemmt, h e pipe should be iaid uphill or otherwise held
in place by methods approved by the engineer.
Specid means ofsupportiag the pipe may be provided, but under noconditions should
Slight deflections for horizontal and vertical angk poiuts, lwg radius
shouid furnich data to the engineer and the conrractor i ndi dng maximum j
deflections for each type of joint fumished.
Assembly of PTpe
trewh by suitabk means, which dlows progressive lowering of the msembled runof pipe. If
Trestle and ring-girder consmcrion is often used for highway, river, and similar
tacked for welding.
Bows or bends in the pipe caused by direct rays from the sun are preventsd. (This can
be achieved by providing a sun shield over tht pipe.)
126 STEEL PIPE
bridge contains an expansion joint in its mnstmctiou. Steel pipe is also oftcn suspended
from or a-ed to the underside of existing highway bridges, with appropriste attention
given to the flexibiliry of the bridge's structurc. Exposed pipelinec in any iocation should be
protected againsf freezkg in are85 where such a psi bi l i t y egisfs.
Field- Welded joints
Technid requirements for goDd field welding are mtained in AWWA Standard for
,.
FieM Welding of Steel Water pipe.13 Practica1 data for field use have been published. l4 If
pipe that has been lined and matd is to be field welded, a short hgt h of the pipe at
either end must be kft bare so t h t the heat of the welding operation will not adversely affect
the protective mting. The hgt h of the unprotected d o n may vary depending on the
gind of protective coating and pipe wall thickaess. Care must be exercisad wben cutting and
complete the lining, proper vendation must be provided. Jointc in pipe smaiier than 24 m;
h rtstraining eibows in so& of low
capaciry.
Welded joints are capafile of resisting thrusts caused by closed valves or by changa
sufiaent distance to absorb the force through skin friction provided by the bacgFi11
against the pipe. In such ases, accurate mmputation of the thrust and strength of
must be made, partiahly for iarger pipe under high pressures, to determine if the weld.
~ ~ c i e n t l y strong to transmit the force from one pipe seaion to the next.
Except during the construction period when an open trench exists, pipe with
joints wili usualfy have no problems witb excesi v~ t hemd expansion and contr
Bel-and-Spigot Rubber-Gasket joints
the direction of laying. 3efore setting the spigot in place, the be11 should
adjusted so thc tension on the rubber is uniform around the circumference of ihe
Foiiowing assembly, the pipe joint should be &&ed with a thin metal feekr
ensure that proper gasket placement exists in the spigot g mv e and tha~ the proper
of joint lap has been achieved.
-624 ANCHORS AND THRUST BLOCKS
TRANSPORTATION, INSTALLATION, TESTING 127
The aemsity for mchors or thnist blocks arjses at ande points, side outIets, and valves, and
oint used influences the extent of anchoring necessary at
pipehes laid in trenches will ordinarily need no mchors or thnist bocks
except on extremely steep slopes and at discontinuities where the pipe has been cut for
valves and appurtenances. An all-welded pipehe laid above ground on piers may be stable
when filied and under pressure, but may r equk heavy anchorage at angle points md
particuhrly on steep slopes to resist stresses arising from temperarure changes when the
pipe is empty.
When other types of joints are used that have little oc no ability to resist tension, all of
the previously mentioned critica1 points must be adequately blocked or anchored. In order
,
to provide resistance to tbrust at angla in k g e diameter pipelines, whether buried or
exposed, it is advisable to provide welded joints on each side of the angle point, a distance
sufficient to resist the componente of the thrust. Under high-pressure conditions, lap-
wtlded field johts should be analyzed for proper strength ciose to vdves and at large
Where pipe is laid on piers, antifriction material should separate the pipe from the
supporting snucture. Satisfmory p d c e is for 90-120 degrees of the pipe surface to be
made to bear on the pier. For pipe on piers, the thrust resuiting from an elbow or bend tends
to overturn the anchof pier.
Pipelines laid on slopes, d c u l a r l y abve ground, always havt a tendency to creep
downhill. Ir is necessary to provide anchor blocks placed agahst undisturbed earth at
ent intervals on a long, steep slope to reduce the weight of pipe supported
at each mchorage to a safe figure. Where pipe is lacated in a posirion where disturbance of
ly, concrete thrust blocks may be used to resist the lateral thrust. Vertical.
angies with resultant tbrust in a downward direction require no special rreatxuent ifthe pipe
mf ul l y trimmed rrench bottom, but vertical @es with a resultant
i'
tbrust upward should be properly anchored.
Soil resistame to thrust. A force caused by thrust against soil, whether applied
horimntally or vertically downward, may cause consolidation and shear strains in the mil,
'
aiiowing a thrust block10 move. T h e safe load that a thrust block can transfer to a @ven soil
lidation characferistics and the passive resismnce (shear smength) of
block movement permissible, the areaof the block, and the distance
of force application below ground line. Methods of calculating passive resistan- are
available. l5 For al1 linec, detail dculations are neasary. Data on prmissible soil grip for
13. Some data for the calculation of thrust at
Acceptable p r d u r e s for coating of field joints are described in applicable A W W A
IPE-ZONE BEDDING AND BACKFILL
The following discussion relating to pipe bedding and baddili is of necessity somewhat
general in nature. A foundation study should be performed to provide more precise design
aiteria for large projects or those with unusual pmblems.
STEEL PIPE
Pipe-zone bedding and backfill may be classified as Class C1, C2, or C3 (Figure 12-
oras otherwise defined by the engineer. Bedding and baclbill should be densified around t
pipe to the specified height over the top of the pipe. In the absence of a specific height, t
backfill shou1d be densified to not less than that called for in Note 4 of Figures 12-1 an
12-2.
The dry density of compacted cohesive soil for each ciass of bedding and backfdl,
shown in Figure 12-1, shouid not be less than the following:
D y Density
Class CI
Class C2
Class C3
Soil densities should be expressed as a percent of the laboratory standard maximum
dry-soil density as determined according to AASHTO T99, The Moisture-Density -,
Relations of Soils Using a 5.5-lb (2.5 kg) Rammer and a 12411. (305 mm) I3rop,3 or ASTM
'
D698, Tests for Moisture-Density Relations of Soilr i nd Soil-Aggregate Mixturec, Using
5.5-lb (2.5-kg) Rammer and 12411. (304.8-mm) Drop (DOD ~ d o ~ t e d ) . ~ In-place tests af
soil density as required by the engineer are usually made in accordance with ASTM D 1556,
Test for Density of Soil in Place by the Sand-Cone ~ e t h o d , ' ~ or ASTM D2167, Test for
Density of Soil in Place by the Rubber-Balloon ~ e t h 0 d . l ~
Densification
Regardless of the method of densification used, rnateriais must be brought up at
substantially the same rate on both sides of the pipe. Care also should be taken so that the
pipe is not floated or displaced before backfilling is complete.
l.-? . Mechanical Compaction
Cohesive soils should be densified by compaction using mechanical or hand tamping. Car%
must be taken not to damage coatings during compaction. Equipment with suirably shaped
mmping feet for compacting the material will generaity ensure that the specified soik
density is obtained under the lower quadrant of the pipe. At the time of placement, tht
backfill material should contain the optimum moisture content required for compaction.
The moisture content should be uniform throughout each layer. EacWiii should be placed in
layers of not more than 6 in. in thickness after compaction.
Hydraulic Consolidation
1
1%-in. screen, with not more than 10 percent passing a 200-mesh sieve. The thi
by jetting and interna1 vibration.
-. .
. .-
Trench Backfill Above Pipe Zone
Native backfill material above thr pipe zone up to the required backfill surface should
placed to the density required in the contract specifications. Trench backfill should n
placed until confirmation that compaction of pipe-zone bedding and backfill
the specified compaction. Cohesive materials should always be compacted w
TRANSPORTATION, INSTALLATION, TESTING 129
rolling equipment. To preven1 excessive line loa& on the pipe, sufficient densified b Md l
shouid be placed over the pipe before power-operated hauling or roiiing equipment is
allowed over the pipe.
Interior Bracing of Pipe
the design, installation, and performance of pipe bracing during
transportation and installation is generally the responsibility of the contractor. Such bracing
Iimits the maximum vertical deflection of the pipe duhg installation and backfilling.
CAUTION: Interna1 bracing designed for shipments is not necessmily suitable for
protection of the pipe during backfill operations.
HYDROSTATIC FIELD TEST
The purpose of the hydrostatic field test is primarily to determine if the field joints are
watertight. The hydrostatic test is usually conducted after bacldilling is complete. It is
xed pressure above the des@ working pressure of the h e . If tbrust
;
resistance is provided by concrete thnist bl o h, a reasonable time for the curing of the
bloclMg must be dowed before the test is made.
Field Testing Cement-Mortar- Lined Pipe
Cement-mortar-lined pipe to be tested should be filled with water of appmved quality and
allowed to stand for at Ieast 24 hours to permit maximum absorption of water by the lining.
Additional water should be added to repke water absorkd by the cement-mortar lining.
(Pipe with otber types of lining m a y be tested without this wai hg period.) Pipe to be
cement-mortar he d in place may be hydrostaticdy tested b e f w or after the lining has
1
Y----
.-
-.
lf rhe pipeline is to be tested in segments and valves are not pvi ded to isolate the en
- ends must be provided with bukheads for r e s t a. A conventiod bdkheadusuallyconsiss
. pf a section of pipe 2-3 ft long, on the endof which a flat phte or dished plate bukhead has
been weided containing the necessary outlets for accommodating incorning
1.
Jbe pipeline should be filled slowly to prevmt possible water hamrner, and care should be
exercised to allow al1 of the air to escape during the filling operation. Afrer filling the h e , it
may be necessary to use a pump to raise snd m a h i n the desired pressure.
test pressure is usually applied for a period of 24 hours before the test is
med to begin, principdly to allow for the lining material to absorb as much water as is
should be carefully inspected for evidence of leakage. The
be permitted depends on the kind of joints used in the
he test, the water pressure should be raised (based on the elevation at the
line under test) to a leve1 such that the test section is
ed to not more than 125 percent of the actual (or design) operaring pressure or pipe
t pressure should be maintained for at least 2 hours.
e in an aH-welded pipeline or one tim has been joined
ralled mechanical couplings. On pipe joined with O-ring rubber gaskets, a
130 STEEL PIPE
small tolerance for leakage should be allowed. Aleakage of 25 gal per in. of diameter per mile
per 24 hours is usually permitted. Pinhole leaks that develop in welded joints should not be
stopped by peening; instead, they should be marked for proper repair by welding. Such
welding frequently can be accomplished without emptying the pipeline, providing pressure
can be relieved.
If a section fails to pass the hydrostatic field test, it will be necessary to locate, uncover,
and repair or replace any defective pipe, valve, joint, or fitting. The pipeline must then be
retested.
References
1. SOWERS,G.F. Trench Excavation and
Backfilling.Jour. A WW A, 48:7:854 (July
1956).
2. REITZ, H.M. Soil Mechanics and Back-
filling Practices.Jour. A WWA, 48:12:1497
(Dec. 1956).
3. The Moisture-Density Relations of Soils
Using a 5.5-lb (2.5 kg) Rammer and a
12-in. (305 mm) Drop. AASHTO Stand-
ard T99-8LAASHTO, Washington, D.e.
(1981).
4. Tests for Moisture-Density Relations of
Soils and Soil-Aggregate Mixtures, Using
5.5-lb (2.5-kg) Rammer and 12-in.
(304.8-mm) Drop. ASTM Standard
D698-78. ASTM, Philadelphia, Pa.
(1978).
5. Relative Density of Cohesionless Soils.
ASTM Standard D2049-69. ASTM,
Philadelphia, Pa. (withdrawn).
6. Test Methods for Maximum Index Den-
sity of Soils Using Vibratory Table.
ASTM Standard D4253-83. ASTM,
Philadelphia, Pa. (1983).
7. Test Methods for Minimum Index Den-
sity of Soils and Calculation of Relative
Density. ASTM Standard D4254-83.
ASTM, Philadelphia, Pa. (1983).
8. Design and Construction of Sanitary and
Storm Sewers. ASCE Manual No. 37.
ASCE, New York (1969).
9. Moisture-Density Relations of Soils Using
a 1O-lb (4.54 kg) Rammer and an 18-in.
(457 mm) Drop. AASHTO Standard
TI80-74. AASHTO, Washington, D.e.
(1974).
10. Test Methods for Moisture-Density Re-
lations of Soils and Soil-Aggregate Mix-
tures Using 10-lb (4.54-kg) Rammer and
18-in. (457-mm) Drop. ASTM Standard
DI557-78. ASTM, Philadelphia, Pa.
(1978).
11. (Reference deleted per errata issued in
June 1986.)
12. GARRETT, G.H. Design of Long-Span
Self-Supporting Steel Pipe. Jour.
AWWA, 40:11:1197 (Nov. 1948).
13. Field Welding of Steel Water Pipe.
AWWA Standard C206-82. AWWA,
Denver, Colo. (1982).
14. PRICE, H.A. & GARRETT,G.H. Field
Welding of Steel Water Pipe. Jour.
AWWA, 35:10:1295 (Oct. 1943).
15. TERZAGHI, KARL & PECK, R.B. Soil
Mechanics in Engineering Practice. John
Wileyand Sons, New York (1948).
16. Test for Density of Soil in Place by the
Sand-Cone Method. ASTM Standard
DI556-64. ASTM, Philadelphia, Pa.
(1964).
17. Test for Density of Soil in Place by the
Rubber-Balloon Method. ASTM Stand-
ard D2167-66. ASTM, Philadelphia, Pa.
(1966).
...
AWWA MANUAL
Supplementary Design
Data and Details
UT OF PIPELINES
The problerns involved in swvegring md hying out a pipeline are affected by both the si= o
the line md its location. More detd d c k are necessary as the size increases and as a line
passes from rural o urban areas.
In general, a p h and profile, tQgether with certain other dmtik, are necessary for any
water pipehe. These shodd show:
1. Horizontal and vertical distances, eitfier directly or by s w e y station and elevation (if
slope distances are given, this fact should be stated);
2, Location of angles or bends, both horizontal md vertical (point af intersection
3, Degree of bends, degree m radiits of curves, tangent dismces f ormes , or extemal
distances if dearance is required;
-
4. Pohts of intersedon with pipe centerline for tees, wyes, crosses, ar other branches,
together with direcrion-right- or l eft-hd, up or down-or angle of flow, viewed
from inlet end;
6. Lwation of adjacent or interferiag insdations or srnictwes;
132 STEEL PWE
7. Tie-ins with property lines, curb hes, d or smet cenferLines, and other pertinent
fea- necessary to defrne right-of-wriy and locate pipe centerline clearly;
8. Details or descriptions of al1 specials, together with other data required to supplement
AWWA smdards (Figure 13-1) (see the "Information Regarding Use of This
Standard" seaion of the relevant standard);
9. Details, dimensiws, and class designation or other description of al1 m e s and
mechanical field joints;
10. Any special requirements affeaing the manufacture of the pipe or the instdlation '
procedures.
Investigation of soil conditions m y be necessary to determine protectivecoating .
requirements, excavation procedures, permissible foundation pressures, or design of mchor
or thnist blocks. The Iocation of the water tabk may &ect design md installation. Soil
borings are desirable for aU instabtions, espcially where large water lines are involved.
Pipe identification may be by mnstcutive piece number, or some other scheme may be
used in accordance with tht oommon practice of the pipc manufactures or as estabiished by
mutual agreement between the enginetr and the manufacturer. A requirement for
consecutive numbering and insmbtion of straight pie= of uniformly cut Iength is
uneconomical if the pieces are interchangeable in the h e . Special sections may best be
fnarked to show their survey station number. (NOTE: General marking requirements are
provided in the relevatit AWWA standards.)
A pipe-hybg schedule is a valuable tool for the manufacture and instahtion of a
pipeline system. Such a schedule is shown in Table 13-1. A schedule should show k l y
and completely the essentid details for each pipe piece. In addition, h e schedule should
show the necessaq data for proper assembly sequence and for spotting of pipe s p e d s . . and
sedonc.
13.2 CALCUiATION OF ANGLE OF FABRICATED PlPE BEND
In -y pi pehe jobs, it is necessary or desirable to combine a plan md profile deflection in
one fitting. The relationship between 6 (the angle of the fabricated pipe bend), a and 13
(deflection angla in the plan and profde, respectivtly), and y (the slope mgle of ont leg of
25 '/2 !N. BAND-DRESSER TOLERAN
NOTE: Coat lnside and Outside per Relevant AWWA Standard
PLAN
Figure 13-1 Emnple of Adequately
Detailed PIpe Special
SUPPLEMENTARY DESIGN DETAILS 133
^' , *
- - .
.! i%+:% L. -
s3#7 e
g :
. . . .- . . . . - . . . . . . .- -. - . . . . . . . .-. .- .- - .
-' .
e bend) must be fmown. Although approximate angks are often used, uniess the exact
tionship is known, ir is i mpsi bk to teli how dose the approximatiws are.
zii
A simple relationship is iiiustrated in Figure 13-2. If fl increases the slope angle relative
o y, it beaw a plus value. For the general case:
cos =s i ny s i n( y +p) +c os ycos ( y+f l ) cosa
&e speciai case when :qu& zero:
cos B=cos / 3cos ai
JOIHT ALLOYAHC& FOR DRZSSBtt COUPLINGS- STATfUHIRG IS HORIZONTAL
DISThHCE ALOaG BASE OR SUPYBY LIBI%. DRaSSERS, POR 24 IH. OB PI FE
UWLtSS IOPaD, WITH STOPS TW. PIPP; ACCORDXHG FO A WA C-202 AND C O A T D
ABD URAPPXD ACCORDlWG TO A W A C-203
STATTOHI XTH. WO. PC. 10. D;ISCiZIPTIOI FiTPINGS
CORR. DRdS- WK. RSQ. ( Di ract i on of
- >< >e?-
< < +:: S SR S t at i oni ng)
, : nnr ++; 3 COU- CU
PLIBGS
-
330+53.2 Begin - Se t t l i a g Basin
a t P t l t a r Plant
1 1 5 0 1 Lengfh with Flaagi
329+98.9
f
1 2 1 2 Pc bfl (Verti cal )
Add
1' 9-3/4"
Por
Slope 1 3 1 Flanged Pi ece - J* Conn.
T h i s
Dist.
329+75 1 Bigia l i v e r Croaiing
- + , < . <
?$-?? - T.-*
Pipe Por Crosaing u<A
isi Place
323+25
*a
h d River Croising
1'8"
4 1 5 Pc. E11 ~HOIIZONTAL)
wi t h 3" Conn.
5 1 SOt Langt h
6 X 3 Pc K l l A(Vurti cal )
134 STEEL PiPE
Tees, crosscs, lateral$, wyes, headers, or other fittings that provide means of dividing or
uaiting fiow in pipelims do not havt as high a resistatlce to internal pressure as do similar
sizes of straight pipe of the same wail t h i c h s . This is because a portion of the side waiiof
the pipe in these fittings is removed to aiiow for the b mc h g pipe. Also, there are
longitudid stresses in the k t of uarestraid elbows, owhg to distortion or unhi mced
hydrostatic pressure.
For o d h r y mtemorks insmiiatiom, the d thickaess of tht pipt ~ ~ n mo n l y used is
much greater thm pressure conditions require. Consequently, the lowered safety factor of
fittjngs having the same waii thickwss as the srraight pipe still leaves adequate strength in
most cases, and reinforcing may be UIUieOeSsary. Ifthe pipe is oparing at or near magimum
design pressure, however, the strength of the fittings should be investigated and the proper
reinforcemcnt or e m wall thickness provided.
Fittings may be reinforced in various ways for resismce to internd prcssure. Ty pi d
fitting reinforcements are collars, wrappers, and crotch phtes. The design stress in the
reinforcement should not Be greatter h n the hmp stress used in the design of the pipe.
The type of reinforcement* c m be determined by the magnitude of the pressure-
diameter d u e PDV and the mtio of rhe bmch diameter to the main pipe diameter d/D
T h e press-iameter value is cdcuiated as:
PDV =
p'f2
D sin2 A
-
where:
. .
P = design pressure (psi)
d = brmch outside &meter (in.)
D = main pipe ou~ide dhmem (h.)
A=branchdi amettr~ofddl , ccti on.
For PDV val- gmm 6000, the outlet reidorccmnt should oonsist
platt designtd in accordance 6 t h &e nattbod d d k d ia Scc. 13.6. For PDV
than 6000, &e ourltt mnforcxment niay k eirfier a wmpper or c o k ,
ratio ofrhe o u M diamcttr m the main pipe diameter d/D. Por a d D ratio
may be used. Thc ratiud/D does aior includethe sin Aas in the PDV determi
the coamULagfactor is thc cimmferential dbemions. Wrappets may ix su
coM, d d pkm may be substituted for wrappm or o o b .
W m p and c o h should bc by tbe me- hcr i bed in Sec.
ASME U d d Pressm V d ~ode! This aode prwides that the m s
the removed steel at &e h c h is replaced in the form of a wmpper or c o k
thc ASME requircnstnts whcn thc PDVr mp bemea4000and 6000, the
a r a of thc teplaccd stael should be multiplied by an M factor of 0.000 25 tima
Figure 13-3 shom rht ~ ~ n t d wrapper md o@n@ for wclded
aad Table 13-2 lists a s v of recammded reiufommmt tgpts,
in determining thc required steel replacement, credit should be given to an
a r a of the material inthe d of the branch outlet to the dowabk disfatlce from
* R t i d o r c c mmt f o r d ~ , wyes,ordoubk hemi s msy requiie a d d i h d d y s e s
ditisnissed Mi.
SUPPLEMENTARY DESIGN DETAILS 135
Figure Ooes Not Show the
ion of Necesgary Welds
D
D = mainline pipe outside diamiter (In.) tr = requi&d bknch cylind& thickness
Ty = mainline cylinder thickness (in.) A = brinch deflection angle (degrees)
Tr = requlred mainline cyllnder thickness (in.) T = wrapper thickness (in.)
d = branch pipe outside diameter (in.) W = owrall wragper width (h.)
ty = branch cylinder thickness (in.) w = wrapwr edgs width lin.)
! 13-3 Reinforcement of Openings in Welded Steel Pipe : -
, , -
- .
Recommended Reinforcement Typ& . . . . - - . . S_ . . .
PDV d/ D M F m Reinforcemmt T m
>m al l - CmtChPlrrte --.;*. : = L. . 5
-- 7 -
'3006000 >O.? 0.00025 PDV Wrnvmr . . -.
- - = -- -I--
c4000 >O.? 1.0 wf~pper - .- y;2-;,-&
GUar
- - .e-,-
mMOiM 10.7 0.00025 PDV , , - , . . --.+.-- .-_
. . ..<=-
..: -,,
- -
<4000 S0.7 1.0 Collar
. . > Y-->,.& -.; . , .<
. -
. ? 2 $ A > 7
einforcemmts are for resistame to intmmi pressure. ~ h e y should IX *d for abiiitg to rtsst m- M.:: - --:*' : -2::
or wrapper (2.5tY). Weld areas should not be considered in the design. Overall width of the
m h or mppe r should not be l as than f .67d/sin A and should not exceed 2.0d/sin A. This
widtb range produces a minimum edge width of 0.3Wsin A. Collar edge widths in the
ckumferential diredon should not be kss than the longinidinal edge width.
Cohw may be oval in shape, or they may be rectangular with rounded comers. The
sadii at corners shodd not be kss thm 4 in. or 20 times the collar thickness, whichwer is
greater (except for collars with a length or width less than 8 in.). Longitudinal seams should
- be placed at 90' or more from the center of the removed section.
On the bmch outlet centerline, the limit line of the branch reinforcement occurs at a
listance 2.5 times the thickness of the branch from the surface of the main pipe run or from
he rop of the collar or wrapper reinforcement.
In Figure 13-3, the area Tdd-Zr,)/sin A represents thc senion of the mainlinc pipe
:ylinder removed by the opening for the bmch. The hoop tension due to pressure wirhin
*e pipe that would be d e n by the removed section were it present must be arried by the
:otal areas represented by 2wT and 5ry (r, - ir), or 2.Sty (t, - t,) on each side of outlet.
STEEL
COI
Criteria-data examph-2hin. x 84~. tee
Main-pipe size (nominal diameter) 24 in.
Main-pipe cylinder OD D 25 3/4 in.
Main-pipe cylinder thickness T, 0.135in.(lOgauge)
Bmchsutlet size (nominal diameter) 8 in.
Branchsutlct cylinder OD d 8 H in. :
Branch-outlet thicknegs
. .
' .>* t, 'A h. ' 3
?d
Deflection angk A 90
Design press&c P 150psi
Reinforcement stecl allowablc stress (Tbt ailowable f, 16 500 psi
stress, based on a design stress rcsdting from
working pmsure, shaIi no1 exceed % tbt rninimum
yield of the steel used for the pipe cylinder or in the
reinforcement, wbichever is less.)
Therefort, for PDV <4000 and d/ D 10.7, use collar unless wrapper is provided.
For PDV 40, M= 1.0
13.4.3 Collar &si@
Branch outlet (G)
13.4.3.2 Theoretical reinfmement area.
TheoretIcal rcinforcement area = A,
SUPPLEMENTARY DESIGN DETAILS 137
= 1.0 [0. 117(
8.625 - 210.25)
sin PO0
= 0.951 in.2
13.4.3.3 Area available as excess Ty and d l mb l e outlet area.
Area available = A,
(d - 2ryl
A, = -
sin A
(T, - T,) + 5ty (i, - t t )
=
8m625 - 2'0.25)(~.
135 - O. 117) + (5 x 0.25) (0.25 - 0.039)
sin w0
= 0.410 i a 2
13.4.3.4 Re i nf o r mt area.
Reinforcement area = A,
:
Therefore, use not iess than 12-gauge (O. 105-in.:
1
=
b T = 0.105in.
d
w=2 w+- =
sin A
14.375 in. 2(2.875) + sine=
Use: T = 0.105 h.
W = 1Min.
1 3.5 Wrapper-Mate Design
pd - (100) (49.87~)~
= 4M9 PDV =
D sin2 A - (61.875) sin2 75'
d
Therefore, for PDV 56000 md 5 > 0.7 use wrapper.
For 4000 <PDV 46000
M = 0.000 25 PDV = 0.000 25(4309} = 1.077
Therefore, use M = 1 .Os.
13.5.3 Wrapper design
13.5.3.1 Theoretical cylhder rhicknesses.
Main pipe (T,)
PD (100) (61.875)
T, = -=
a16
= 0.188 in.
2fJ
60 in.
D 61Inin.
Ty Y~'isXn.
48 in.
Critmh-Bora exm&-60fin x 4 8 k . l aml
Main-pipe sizt (nominal diameter)
Main-pipe cyiinder OD
Main-pipe cgijnder t h i c b s s
Branchoudetsize
Branch-outlet cylinder OD d 49%in.
Branch-outlet thickmss t, %sin.
Defkdon angle A 7 5 O
Design pmsure P IOopsi
Reinforcement steel d mb l e stress (The allowable stress f.
16 500 psi
shdi mt e x d % the mhimum lyieid of the sote1 used
for tht pipe cylinder or in thc rnfomment, whichever
t
1
i
I
$
1
1
SUPPLEMENTARY DESICrN DETAILS 139
Pd (100) f,49.8?5)
f r = -=
2fs 2(16 500)
= 0.151 in.
13.5.3.3 Area ava2abZe as excess Ty and a l I d Ze outler ama.
Area available = A,
A, =
'd - 2fy) (Ty - Tr) + 5ty (ly - tr)
sin A
A, =
49.875 - Z(0.188)
sin 7 5 O
(0.188 - 0.188) + (5 X 0.188) (0.188 - 0.151)
d
m = = .
49.875
2sin A 2 sin 75O
=.25.317 h.
(O. 105 h.).
140 STEEL PIPE
d
w(min.) = -=
49m875
= 17.21 1 h.
3 sin A 3 sin 75'
17.21 1 in. (20.740 in.
:. w = 20.740 in.
13.5.3.8 Oeierall reinforcement wixth.
H
w = &y)+--
sin A
49m875
= 93.1 14 in. - 2(20'740) +
sin 750
Use: T = 1/4 in.
W = 93Ya in,
TCH-PLATE (WE-BRANCH) DESlGN
When the PDV exceeds 6000, crotch-plate reinforcement should be used. S
plate reinforcement are illustrated in Figures 13-4 th
nomograph use was taken from a published smdy
Los Angeles?
A single curved plate serves as reinforcement for each
branch of this 9&in. X 66-in. X 66-in., 9O0 included angle
WYe-
Figure 13-4 One-Plate Wye
This 15-ft X 15-fi X lcfi, 90wye has two crotch
and one back plate.
FIgure 13-5 Three-Piate Lyle
SUPPLEMENTARY DESIGN DETAILS 141
Ths 1 Si n. X 12&in. x 125in., 45' wye section has two plates.
Figure 13-6 Two-mate MFye
rdl = existing depth of plate
t 1 = existing thickness of plate
d = new depth of plate
r = new thi chws of phtt seltcted
A = deflection anglc of &e wye branch.
NOMOGRAPW USE IN W'E-BRANCH DESIGN
The nwiograph design, bastd on design working pressure plus surge aiiowauce, iacludes a
safety factor that will keep stresses well below the yieid poinr of steel. ?he minimum yield
strength of &e sml used in this repon is 30 000 psi. The design pressure used ia tbe
nomopph was kept to 1.5 times the working pressure in order w approximtc ari dlowablc
m a s of 20 000 psi.
Step 1. h y a straightsdge across the nomograph (Figure 13-7) through the appropriate
points on the pipe diameter (se step 2b) and inted-pressure scales; r e d off the deprh of
plate from its scde. This r d n g is the crotch depth for l-h. thick plate for oi two-plate, 90,
wye-brand pipe.
Step Za. If the wye bmch deflection angle is othm than 90, use the N-factor m e
(Figure 13-8) to get the factors which, when multiplied by the depthof plate found in s t q 1,
will give the wye depth d, and the base depth 4 for the new wye branch.
Step 2b. If the wye bmch has unequal-diameter pipe, &e hg t r diameter pi p will
havc been used in steps 1 and 21, and &ese rtsults should be multiplied by the Q factors
found w the singie-plate stiffenef curves (Figure 13-9) to give d, and di. These factors
vary with thc ratio of the d u s of the small p i p to the radius of the hrge pipe.
Step 3. If the wye depth $, found so far is -ter thm U) times the thiclmess of the
plate (1 h.}, then $, and db should be converted to winform to a greater thickness t by use of
tht general equation:
A
(0.917 - m)
d=d1(1;?)
142 STEEL PIPE
* . .
. -
with defiection angles from 30" to 909 the N factow obtalned from the above cums are
i the plate depth d, found from the nomograph (Figure 13-71. in accordanee with the equations
A,: + ;-: -2..
ches for S ~WI
h of UneqUat diameter, flnd 4, and Q for the larger-diameter pt$&{from Figures 13-7 and 13-81;
= d;v, crotch depth of single-plate stifener: and &Q = d'b, base depth of singliLplate
-- &T; f . 3: : L, : : , A-:. 2- r? t-+. :, -:-LL .--.lb: ;.-=: -+. <-i F
u. ;..- *<g. a - q+L ,- . - ,.;-f. - .. 7 ., . -::.:! .;% -*44 -1.
. -
-. ,
-. .
.:- . .
13-9 Q actor ~ u & s
. . - t . - -' .
144 STEEL PIPE
Source: Swanson, H,
d't and d'e are om
Figure 13-10.
8 ET AL 5estgn of Wye Branches for Steel Ppe. jour. AWWA. 47.58l (Jum 1W).
+@ate design dmensions; 4 and Q are two-plate design dimensiwis.
Seiection of Top Depth
Sup 4. To find the rop depth d, or dc, use F i 13-10, in which d,
against db or di. This dinmaision gives tht mp amzd bottdm deptbs of p h
crotch depths.
Srep 5. The interior curves foIlow the cut of the pipe, but the outside
both crotches should e q d d, plus the radius of the pipe, or in die sin&+
the radius of the smaller pipe. Tmgmts c o d h e e n these ames com
shape.
The im-t depths of &e reinforcement plates, rd,
and d, (F
found from &e nomgraph. If a w e d exterior is dcsired, a d u s equd to
mdius plus ti, can be used, both for tlx outside curve of the wye d o n oind
m e of the base d o n .
-
O 10 M 50 40 50 80 70 80 9l 100 110 120 130 140 150 180
BASE DEPTH, dh OR d'h !N.
SUPPLEMENTARY DESIGN DETAILS 145
StG I IUN
,i;
TOP SECTION ,di
-d:AsE SECTION
R E = 3 Oh
R~ = 21 m.
A = 4s0
Working pressure, 230 psi
Design pressure, 230 ( 1.5) = 350 psi
Srep 1. With the h g e r pipe diameter 60 in. and the des* prtssu~e 350 psi, r e d the
critical plate depth d h m the nomogrriph (t = 1 h., A = 90):
Sep 2. Using the deiection angle 45O, find the ktors on &e N-factor mmc W will
convert the depth found in step 1 to apply to a 4 5 O wye branch ( t = 1 in.):
Saep 3. With the ratio of tht s d e r pipt radius divided by the larger pipe radiw,
(Rs/Rs) = {21/30) = 0.70 and the dtfxaceion angle (A = 4S0), useFigure 13-9 to find the Q
factor5 that give the crotch dtpths for a single-plate pipe wye stiffener (t = 1 h.):
Qm = 0.52
Qa = 0.66
d& = 0.52(122) = 63.4 in.
di = 0.66(61.5) = 4U.5 in.
Step 4. Because the depth d& is greater than 30 times the thichess t, rhc conversim
equation should be used:
'IPE
Try a tbicbess of 1 '/z in.:
STEEL E
d'-= (0.725)
d& = 63.q0.725) = 46 h.
d i = 40.5 (0.725) = 29 in.
<
Step 5. Find the top depth d: from the curve for one-phte design in Figure 13-10:
Dephof
mof
Depbd
Outsider
e d u s o f ~ s ~ p i p E d ; + R , = I 8 + 2 l = B h . . 1 -
-5
Ibratmrk*--P-d-hP
RB = &=36in. .-
A = 53O
.Workhg prmurc, 150 psi 3
Design -me, 150 (1.5) = 225 psi
- S
3
,:a
iipe ~~of72 in, &a pmureof2
g q h (t = 1 in., A = 90):
si, .i*n
SUPPLEMENTARY DESlGN DETAILS f 47
Three-Ptate -. De g n . . , . . -
. - -
~he-preoedingaAqpphsstian has Covcd rhe da* of one- sndm** wye
i t p ~ ~ p Q m & a t b i t w f ~ m a ~ ~ d e s i g i i . T b e t i d d i t i n a l p b M b
mamd'd*the-athejuiiEtionofthe@tes.Thctrom
h t b * - t h e i m s e o f a t B i r d p h e ~ o f p i p e d i a ~ p m ~ . ~ t f -
~ i s ~ r t h e n 6 0 i n . I D d t b e h t e m a t ~ k ~ t e r ~ ~ @ , a ~
pEatecoinbeadwn@ems. I f e i t h e r o f t I i ~ ~ i s b e b w t h e l i m i t , t B e d a ~ ~ k
- &uwedtu&meathirdphte.
I f a M phteisdesiredas a n Mm totheawo-phte des*, itssizesbuhik
d i ~ b y t b t - t o p d e p t h ~ . ~ ~ o t h e r ~ p l a t e s ~ f l u s h ~ & ~ ~ s ~ ~
the pipe, however, thesidpieite t hi rkness plus ciemnceshodd b e s i r i ~ , &i j i &Wp p
m. This dhensiw s h d & cwst ant throughout, and the $ h e shoumdlb p&-a
right angles to the axk of the pipt, giving it a M-ring shape. ~ t s u s s should
s&r of t hel mi npb.
T h t t f i i r d p l a t e M d b t ~ t o t h t o t h t r ~ r c t ~ i a t n t p l a t e s d ~ ~ a t ~ ~ o p d '
bm,beingMfrtefromthepiptsbellso&rtapI:d~~W~~& -. e - , - +
to the ring phte.
--
= ~ b m n2wam A o r . & - u g i o n - isismder in- pmsure, un-
2
9. .
- foroes-devebp at -p&sand c l h d m in the pipeline, T&appb to bends, tees,
rrduan,.&m,b-'&. (Figure 13-12). ?he magniaide ofthne thrust foroes for !
b -
and b - is<equalm the p u c t of the i n t e d pressure md the cross-sectiod
amofahepipe,m
e:
1
k. T= PA (1 3-3)
Where:
T = the thrusr force (lb)
P = maximum interna1 pressure inciuding any anticipated surge pressure
or st at i c test pressure if greater h n opemthg precswe (psi)
A = ms-sedonal area of the pipe (in.2)
= 0.7854 02, where D is the outside diameter of the pipe (in.)
148 STEEL P I E
NOTE: h the case of mm- l i ned steei pipe, the outside W e r is considerad to be
the outside diameter of the steel sheii.
At elbows or bends, the resuitant thrusf force T is:
Where:
A = the deflection @e of the elbow os bend (Table 13-3, Figure 13-13).
There are also s d mbalanced forces at bends caused by the velocity of water flow
withinthe pipeline. In general, this veki t y is so low in mansmission or distribution s y s m
that its effect on t hni st is insignificant, and thmst forces caused by velocity can, therefore,
be neglected.
Methods to resmin the thrust forces may be provided by a concrete t h t b l d , or by
the development of friction forces between the pipe and the soil through restrained or
hamessed joints, or by a combinatiun of these two'methods.
Whcn thrust blocks are used at eelbom or bends, the Wi n g a r a of h e block is
determined by the bearing capacity of the so3 against which the thrust force will act, or:
The value for safe horizontal bearing a p i t y of the native soil should be detecmined from
field tests by qualified mil engineers.
Restrajned or harnessed joints may &o be used to resist thrust forces through &e
development of friction forces between the pipe and the soil surromding it. When this
method is d, ~ ~ c i e n t lengths of pipe must be restraid by w e d g or haniessing to
counter the unbhoed forces. These unbalanced forces are e q d to PA at bdkheads and
tees (Table 134). As shown in F i 13-14~, the f r i a i d force developed becwten the
pi ~1i ne and the surrounding soil to restrain this unbalanced force of ZPA sin M2 is
assumed to be distributed uniformly dong the restrained length of the pipehe. Properly
compxted backf~il adjacent m bends will provide l a t d restraiint and eliminare any
tendency for movement in' the bend due to u n b b c e d transverse forces. Figure 13-14~
shows a force dhgam, wherein axid b t s are equal to PA cos A. F i 13-14c shows
axial thrusfs versus defkction &s. The length of pipeline required to be restrained on
each side of the bend is then:
length of resrraincd or hamessed joints on eeich side of the bend or
elbow (ft)
i n t e d pressure (psi)
cross&nal area of &e piw (in.2)
bend or elbow deflection (de-)
udcient of friction between the pipe and the soil
weight of the prism of soit over the pipe (lb/ft of pipe iength)
werght of the pipe (lB/ft)
weight of the contained water (lf>/ft)
In the preceding equation, di 'mameters exoept the vdue of p, fnction d i c i e n t
between the pipe md the soil, can be readi1y.determke.d. Tests and experience indicate that
the value of p is mt only a function of the type of mil, it is also greatly dfecred by the degcee
of compaction and moishrre content of the backfill. Therefore, a r e must be exercised in thc
seledon of p. &Ecients of friaion are generally in the romge of 0.25 to 0.40.
As shown in Figure 13-15, an additional horizontal force H will be developed for a
buried pipe to res& tht pipc from its lagmi movement. This resmining force is a passive
foroe. 1t dwelops at the -e when minure movemtnt of the pipe is taking place in &e
diredon of the resultant thmt force. Since this force is not induded in the dculation of
restrahed or hamessed pipe length, ir can be considered to providt an added d e t y factor.
1 9 STEEL PIPE
Tabk 13-4 yldrwtic b t d m k a d E d s and Flarige Cwer P h s per 100 m of In- -re
Ppc Diameter Lnad* Pipe Dh me r M*
nir. lb Un. 8%
*The tabulsted W, or disjoGng form., eqwis 100 times the
pressures other thm 100 psi, the lomi will be in direa prqmtion.
10050 Ib; rhe load at 150 psiequals 1.5 (20 100), or 30 150 lb.
Sww: Bamard, RE. k i g n Smdads for Ste ' -
"' - .
D&eloped Between Pipe and Soil
- .
figure 13-14c Mal Thnists Versus Mextion
Figure 13-15 I-Idmnhk
Rstrains hried flpe Frm
.J
i@ ANCHOR RINGS
Anchor rings for use in cbqmgte anchor bl& or concrete walls are Uusmfed in Figure
13-16. ~ o ~ ~ e s ~ ~ & o n c d t h n i s t o r ~ ~ ~ a r e g i v e n i n ~ a b l e 13-5. -are
proprt i od to r l i - dead-end pull or zhnist imgosed by 150 psi and 250 psi h e d
pressures.
laformatiion fbr joint k i m s tie bl t s or stucfs to be "sed for @ven pipe diarrieters and
&um ~ u r e s s shom in Tabie 134. Hamm des@ data appGab1e EO s k
coiiphgs are sbomia Tabk 157s sad Figure 13-17.
Data src W on rEEG f o l i d q d ~ f l ~ : M bola C O d f o ~ to ASTM A193,
SpeQficsthu for Alhyr%dea aad St ahbs Steel Bolririg Mawiafs for High-Tempermre
=ce, Grade B7 or equ& nuts ennfmnhg m ASTM A194, S~~ for C a r h
and Alloy SteeI U m for .&ts for HQh~Msure md High-Tempemure Service, Giade
lug m a f d d a mh g to ASTM A283, SpecSdons for Low and Tntemdbe
Tensile Strength ~ h ' Steel Phtes, Shapes md h, & d e c5 or ASTM A36,
-
S@Eation Eor Smtcmrd steer? or eqd. Stud bolts %-h. through %-h. diameter have
UNC threads; md bol& 1-in. b e t e r and Largtr have eight UP6 k a d s per inch.
h h h u m bolt stress aliowable is 40 U1 psi, basad on:
~ e s s l ~ a r e ~ y ~ e q u a l l y a r o u n d t h e p i p e . I n ~ ~ t h t a r r a e s s ,
the nuts shoill be tightened gr addy cquay at diammically oppi t t sides
s n w
to we n t misalignnieat and to ensure that dl studs carry e q d Ioads. The thta&,of.the
studs shall protrude a mnimum of !4 in. from_the nm.
Thtend-thnrstmiueg &own iaTatzk 13- 6- themaximumend-thmsf vdzlcs
hamess asmb1ks are da& 10 wirhs&. The Mi p-kire must h&& rm
anticipatBd ailowaacc for sur& pressure. The fiei-test pressure rmst never e&d &e
, daigapmsutt.
Special mmmions are shownin Figufe 13-10 (wih Tabla 13-8 md 13-9), Figures 13- 19
6
through 13-22 (M Tabk 13- 101, md Figure 13-23 (with Tabk 13-1 1). Some examph of
-
vault and m d d e d e are sbwn in Figures 13-24 through 13-26. Figures 13-27 md
13-28 iiiusPrate blowsff connectim. Tire 13-29 shows a mlief-&e manifold layout.
t
L
S* tapping machines for ma b mder pressure are and have been i;sed for
F
t
many y-. Figure f S30 iliuszraxes rhe merhd The reidkcing pad is eii* unkss
-
F:
pressure requires h. The o mb is ordinarily a p k e d exta-kwy, standard-weight pipe
with 8n AWWA s W d phte f h g e atmhed. The tapping valve is sgecial and oillows
pmper &arme for rhe cuw on the ddhg d n e . -
152 STEEL PIPE
Figure 13-16 Anchor fng
Tabk 13-5 Dimensions and Bearing b d s for Anchor Rlngs in Concrete-Mahnum Pipe
of t 50 psl and 250 psi
. + ,
4 0,758 -
154 STEEL PIPE
Table 13-6 Tle Bolt Schedule for Hamessed Joints (continued)
Minimum
Number Maximum
. .
SUPPLEMENTARY DESIGN DETAILS 155
Y
CUT TYPE RP ANO
TYPE RR PLATE TO
UNIFORM HEIGHT
E n . e
CONTINUOUS
AROUND PIPE
HOLE STUD DIA. + l/a tN.
u 3
Q -
E S
a
Back Plate
= WICKNESS OF STEEL HARNESS PLATES
PlPE WALL THlCKNESS ANO St f E OF FlLLET
ATTACHMENT WELD
FRONT PLATE
CONTINUOUS
RlMG AROUND
- . .
PLAN
ALL THlCKNESS AND SlZE OF FILLET
HMENT WELD
134 and 13-7 for dirnensions.
10 for design conditions.
lug type RR, the gumt plates btween the back plate and the front plate m y be perpendicular to lhe
@ates with a rninimum clear distan- betwewi each pair of gusset pl- of dimensian W.
m weld tRickness t shall be in. for cylinder or wrapper thicknesses through '/a h.; and l/4 in. minimum
II other cylinder or wrapper thickneases.
Gumt Plate
156 STEEL PIPE
% H P 5 5 1% 5 3% 3 2
Y, H P 5 5 1 Y2 5 4% 3% 2 7/ 9
'm Ft P 5% 5 1% 5 4% 3% 2 1
'Ig 3% RR 5 m3 1%
x H
RR 5 Ring 1 ! 4
% fi RR 5% Ring , 1% Rhg 4N 3% 2 1
1 'A RR 5 Ring 1X Ring 4f i 3% 2 1% 3
I 1/2 RR 7 ~ i n g 1% Ring 4% 3% 2% 1% 4
1% % RR 7% Ring 2 Ring 5 3% 2% 1%
1 % 3% RR 8% Ring 2H Ring 5% 3% 2L/i 1%
1% % RR 10 R ~ w 2'/a SE 3% 2% 1%
1% K RR 10% Ring 2% m 5% 3% 2% 1%
i N % RR 12 Ring Z1/2 a% 5% 4 2%
17h % RR 13 Eng 2% Ring 6 4 2%
2 1 RR 14 mng 2% m 6% 4% 2%
2% 1 RR 15% Ring 3 RinS 6% 4x6 2% 2%
r
NOTES: ;3 y,
1. Dimeasiwis sbown a b o ~ are in inchts.
-I
2. Use thtst dimensions with Figure 13-17 and Tables 136 ami 1 >?A.
:S
- .
.- :
Table f 3-7A Maximum Ailowable Load per Te Bolt
. . .L
mi l . -&
SUPPLEMENTARY DESIGN DETAILS 157
..-.
AS POSSt BLE
Source: Bernard, R.. Design Standards iw Sieel Water Pipe.
Jour. AWWA, 40:3:24 (Jan. 3948).
F~ur e 13-19 Nipple Wth Cap
WHOLE OR PART LEN
OF DRESSER COUPL
FORM
OASKET
HERE ONL
Souree: amard, R.. Design Standards Tw Sieel- Water Wpe. -
Jwr. AWWA, 40:1:24 (Jan. 1848).
Figure 13-21 Wal1 Connection Uslng .:
CoupBng
$
WELD HEFlE
Source: Bernard, R. E. esign Stendards lor Steer Water Pipe.
Jour. AWWA, 40:1:24 (Jan. 19-48),
fgure 13-23 Thredolets
S F L PIPE
T a k 13-8 Plate Dimensions and Drilt Si- for Reinforced Tap@ Openjngs (See FIgure f 3-18) -
- $7
~ i o a s of Plate
r Size of Drill
SiztofPipcTap .
A-
for Pipe Tap T D*
m.
-. .,, -* .
in. in. un.
3
,-, 3
*Diameter of phe pad b e f a curving to fit outside of pipe.
Sorrrce: mwd, RE. Des@ Saindards for Steel Water Pipc. Jw. A WWA, 40:1:24 (Jan. 1948).
< . j .{
Table 13-10 Dimemions of Extra-H&
HalF-Coupliw (% Hgure 13-22) 4
Table 13-9 Maximum Size of Threaded
Openings for Given S i Pipe Wth Reinfordng
PrtdS(SeeFigure13-18) . .
Pipe SiZt Maximum Size Tapped O@r@
it1. itl.
6% .- 1 v4
8%
. .
1 Y2
10 Y4 - z . u 2
12 Y4 2 V2
14 3
16 3 Y2
18
- -
. - 3 Y2
20 4
\
*For sizes hrga than gven, use the d n shown in
Figures 13-19> 13A), m 13-22.
Somz: mwd, R.E. Design Saindards for Stecl Wmr
Pipe. Jm. A WWA, 40: 124 (Jan. 1W).
Stcei Water Pipc. Qm. A WWA, 4& 124 (Jan. 1948).
'E C
'INC
SUPPLEMENTARY DESIGN DETAILS 159
1- 5 FT. 3 IN. .lP-f.z 5 FT. 3 IN. - 1
Plan
DES
-IN. DIAM.)
--
SECTION A-A
LE. S-/ Pipelim Appurlenances. Jour. AWWA, 4i:i:47 (Jan. 1849).
-24 Casing and Removabk T w Rece Roof
160 STEEL PIPE
LADDER FlUNGS
- .?.
( GRAVEL-FILLED DRAINHOLE (4 IN.) AND POCKET (1 FF3)
Sourm: Goit, L. E. Steel Pipeline Appurienances. Jour. AWWA, 41:1:47 (Jan. 1949).
..
Figure 13-25 Section of Wn g mngAccess to Gate Valve Gd n g
c . -
-
7-
BLlND F W G E
L
ALL 'h-IN. PLAT
6 IN.
' - -. - . -.
'/4-IN. DIAM. BAR - ..
8 IN. 8 IN.
m
Bolted-Corer Typa
Fgure 1 3-26 Access Man hole
SUPPLEMENTARY DESIGN DETAILS
ILET MANIFOLD
-
162 STEEL PIPE
. -
WATER MAlM (UNDER PRESSURE)
Procedure: lai weld outlet and sadd
tool and dril1 hole in main: (d withd
Figure 13-30 Tapplng Main Under Pressure
- - .-=. , .
13.12 FREEZING IN PIPEUNES
Dependence on the saying h t "running water doesn't freeze" is lmi design praaice. W&r
in a pipeline will freeze, running or
32OF (OC). If the water is losing i
wili freeze if not moved out of that
in this sense, the running of the
r e p h the water that is mar freezing. Under some urcumstmces, agitated
tum to ice even when the temperanue is as low as 2S0 to 2g0P (-2.2O to - 1.7OC), l$ut t
condition mmot be pdi ct ed or depended on. The only safe condition is one wk*
water temperature stays above 3ZF (OC) with a m-, if possible, of I D or 2 O F (Q.5'
1C) against contingencia. The heat added to the moving water as a result of W o
resistmce to flow is negligible for large pipe wirh low velociues, but it may be considera
for smaIi pipe with high velacitieg.
Calculations relative to the prevmtion of freezing in pipdiaes are h e d the sa
general principia of heat transmission and loss tbat govern similar Calculation@Jpliei
buildings and other hstaiiations. It is well established that complete fraewd9
occurs when 144 Btu of heat per pound of water is mmcfed after the temperaw Q@
mass has been lowered to 32OF (OC). Also, wirh certain exceptions, the mtio ofthe
of water existing as ice to the w&hf of liquid water at any time during woling L 3
proportianal m the ratio of rhe Bri@h rhermai units per p md withdrawn to the $44 4
pound required for complete freezing.
. I
Water containing only ice partides ( f h l or needie ice) m a y cause S
because hese can quickly block a pipeline by adhering to vaives or ruiy mino1
Experience indicates that the .water must be maintained at about 32.
(0.M0 to 0.3OC) to avoid trouble.
SUPPLEMENTARY DESIGN DETAILS 163
Freezing in Underground Pipes - . - ' z
The Ereezing of water ia buried pipes is usually dw to the cooling of the surrounding soil to a
3 . - - -
point below 32OF (OC). Soil-temperature variations are related to flow of heat in SO*. Air
- : i
. . .
tempefature is the most impormt fctor aecting soil temperamre and frost penetration.
*;+: , m
The most common method of expressing the seasonal effect of air tempemtures on
g> :. .-
water is the freezing index? Thc index is the cumulative total of de.gree4ays below the
L ,- -*&
freezing point in any winter. In this mtext, a degreehy is a unit representing 1 degree (F)
y:?: . y . ,
of difference behw 32OF in the mem outdoor temperature for one day. Values for
%;,= midwinter days hving tempemhires above freezh-that is, ne@ve degree-days-are
subtreicted from the total.
Temperature data for many I d t i e s are av&ble.8 A des@ a me rehting fmt-dcpth
r.;
penetration to the freezing index is shown in Figure 13-3 1. The curve wm devdopsd by the
US Amiy Corps of Engineersgs 'O from an andysis of frost penetration records of the
northern United Sutes. The data on the severai soils in Figure 13-31 are from observations
made at Ottawa, Ont?
.
. .
Exptrimencal work on the subject of frost penemtion7 indicates that:
-.: .- ,
h3=
,
Theoretical equations for computation of frost depth are not free from error. Thc
, -
Corps of Engineers design cucye (Figure 13-31) is the best aid currently available for
-.
i
estimating frost penetration. . .
k-
Fmt penetration is signifbntly greater in distiirbed soil than in undisturbed soil.
Water pipes may safely be placed at less depth in clay so& than in sandy soiis. Frost
penemtion 'has been found about 1% times as deep in smd as in clay.
...
Maximum frost penetration may occur several f ~eeks before or dt er the frtezing index
for a winter reaches a maximum. Water rnains have fmzen as late as June in Winaipcg,
Man.
Frost penetrates deeper in soils on hiilsides with northern expure than in those with
southern expure. . -
Undisturbed continuous snow mver has reduced fmt penetration in the Uttawa
.*.-
c h t e by m mu n t equoil to or greater than the snow-cover ttiickness.
- , -.
, -:..
., c.-- .-
. . ,
, . -
200 400 fOOO 2OMl 4MW1 BOM)
FREUING INDEX, DEGREE OAYS
I ~ mr c e : L-t. R F & Crswford, C.B. So/ Tempratures >o Water Works Pr a c t h . Jovr AWWA, U:IO:# (Oct. 1952).
Measurements were made in Ottawa, Ont., $947-51. Right end of each horizontal line indicates rnaximum frost depth at
maximum f reezing index; let end indicates freezing index at time of maximum frost depth. mrefers to measurements made in
sand (Inierpolated): Olnclay {interpolatedl: Xin aand (by excavation): and +inclay (byexcavation).
Rgure 13-31 Maximum Frost Penetration and Maximum Freezing lndex
164 STEEL PIPE
- 4
Freezing in Exposed Rpes
- <
balance is illustrated by Figure 13-32, The hear input is e q d to Hi + HB
British thermai units per square foot of exposed pipeline per hour avaihbl
hear of water above 3ZF at the inlet end, md H2 being the British thermal unim per sq
foot of pipe per hour genemted by f ri ct i d energy. ( E q ~ ~ for Hl and H2 are give
Table 13- 12.) The heat losses are given by:
At
Hbs =
1 + L + L t + 1
-
rif k k ' &+hm
13- 16, respectively.
Source: RIWick, T.M. ET AL Freezing of Water in Exposed PipIims. Jour. A W A . 42:f f :TU35 ( Nov. 1950).
Ffgure 13-32 Heat Balance in Exposd Pipelines
Tntde 13-1 3 Values of D d v
D
Pipe Diameter
m.
M 11.0
Smw: Riddick,T.M.; Lindsay, M.L.; &Tomassi, Antonio. Freezingof WaterinEffpOgBd Pi penes. 3~. AWW
(Nw. 1950).
SUPPLEMENTARY DESIGN DETAILS 165
166 STEEL PIPE
Table 13-14 Conducdon H e a t - T e r Values
T h e d Gmductivity Assumd Thickntss Heat Tmf t r Value
Substance A* k.
Pa$e mar&
Steel
Cast iron 385 0.75 515
Concrete 5.3 5.0 1.1
Wmd stave 1 .O 2.0 0.5
~ h m i n ~ m 1410 0.25 5w
Askm cement 4.5 1 .o 4.5
-
I d a m
Dry air 0.17 0.08
Water 4.0 2.0
Ice 15.6 7.8
85% magnesia
' 4Foamgh"t
*Btu per square fwt p u hour pu de= Fahrcnhtit
?A product of Pittsburgh Corning Corp., Pittsburgh,
Sosrrce: Riddkk, T.M.; Lindsay, N.L.; & Tomassi,
diffmntial ptr inch thlclmess of
Pa.
Antonio. Freezing of Water in
' material.
h m s d
42: 1 1: 1035 (Nov. 1950).
rl
Table t 3-1 5 Emi ss~t y Factors
Emissivity Factor -
E
w d (u) 0.9
Asbestos ement 0.9
Aluminum O. 1
Brass or mpper (with p i n a ) 0.5
+
Soun: Wc k , TM.; Lindsay, N.L.; & Tomassi, Antonio. Fraezing of Water in Expared P i p h s . Jour. A W W A , ~
(Nov. 1950). .1
Table t 3-16 Wnd Velocity Factors
Factor
. - - - - - - -
. . . - . . - -
Smw: Riddick, T.M.; Lindsay, N.L.; & Tomassi, Antonio. Fieezing of Water in Expsed Pipelines.jw. A W ~ -<
(Nov. I950).
SUPPLEMENTARY DESIGN DETAILS 167
Example of calcutadon. P ~ o b h : An exposed, uninsutated s t d pipeline is 48 h.
in diameter, 0.25-in. thidc, 10 000-ft long, md has a C famr of 14. Wiii this line freeze
when coirrying 25 mgd of water entering the pipe at 3SF, with an outside air temperanire of
-SF, snd a 35-mph wind blowing?
- - ,
' -. For &e d t i o n s given:
Heat input e q h Hi + Hz.
. ?.
. : ; : . +* ; ; . -.. -
. .
7- -
= 143.5 ~ t u / f t ~ h .
-
Because the h a t input is 207.5 ~ t u / f t ~ / h and the heat loss is 143.5 ~ni / f t ~/ h, the
pipeline is safe against freezing under the des* aonditions. Further calculationshows that,
for the same temperature conditions, heat input and heat loss are equaI when the pipeline is
about 14 800 ft Iong and the velociry is 3.1 fps; or, stated conversely, the velocity in the
10 000-ft line could be as Iow as about 2.1 fps before ice might form mar the outlet.
168 STEEL PIPE
Warning of Water in Exposed Pipelines
In desert areas and in the tropics it may be desirable to determine the rise in water
temptraturc caustd by q u r e of pipe to sun and wind. In this case, the heat input is
calculared io accordance with the same basic principies of heat mf e r used to determine
heat losses in lhts undergoing cooling. The values of factors to be usad in the equations in a
given instance should be determined locaily . Data applicable to calculation of heat loads for
air-conditioning and cooling units may be helpful.
13.13 DESIGN OF CIRCUMFERENTIAL FILLETWELDS
Any weld that is continwus wiil contain water, so weld size is insignificant froma seal-we
aspect. Once welded, the weld must withscrind my iongitudinai forces ap
does not behave as an uflsmssed sea1 weid, since it is the only r e s h t that
of the pipe at the joint. In areas of i pipeline not affected by pipeline features that give rise to
longitudid stresses (elbows, vdves, reducers, etc.), the only l o@tudi i stress n o d y ,-
encountered is due to change in temperature or to ixam bending from uneven settiement of
the pipeline. To minimize longitudid stresses, it is customary in specifications to cail for
one joint every 400-500 ft u, be left unwelded untii the joints on both sides of it are weldd.
This joint is later welded at the cooiest time during the wor- day. Determination of weld
size then is as follows (see Figure 13-33):
= fillet weld leg size (h.)
p = thraat dimension (h.)
AT = temperahire change (OF)
T = tempereiture(F)
K = constmt linear dcient of thermal expansion for steel
= 6.33 x in./in./OF
L = iength of pipeline (ft)
AL = c h g e in length (ft)
E = Young's modulus = 30 x lo6 psi
Sp = stress in pipe woiu (psi)
S, = stress in weld (psi)
r = pipe wail (in.1.
Assume an anchored straight pipeline is welded at a temperature TI.
is then reduced to T2. The pi pehc would then tend to reduce in kngth by
a function of Ti-T2, L, md K. S k the ends are anchored, it cannot chringe its
Figure 13-33 fillet Nomendature
SUPFLEMENTARY DESIGN DETAILS 169
Therefore, the stress in the line is the carne as h t which wodd exist if it were stretched by
the same amom that it wodd shorten if it were free to do so. This is a conservative
assumption. Few p i w e s are pe r f dy straight between anchor pints, md kmperature
chmges are usudly gradual, so most lines acnidiy can c h g e their iength by a s d
amount, relievhg the thermal s t ms somewhat. To dcuiate t h d stress:
Shortenhg due to temperature change ~ L T is found as:
(2) ~ T = L ( A T ) ( K )
Hongation due to lorgitudind tension AL, is found as:
According to the oissumption above.:
AL, (stras elongation) = ALr (temperature shortening)
Substituting (2) into (4):
(5) AL, =ALT
E = 30 x 1O6 psi
S, = AT(6.33 x l e ) (U) x 106) = AT(189.9 psi)
For MF change in temperature:
S, = 189.w) = 7596 psi (stress in pipe wall)
CaicuZatim for fiilet sixe:
The weld must carry its load through its least dimension (its throat). To be
conservative, assume no penetration at the thmat. The full force of a unit Iength of pipe wdi
in the Qrcumferential diredon must be b e d by a unit lmgth of fdtt weld thmat aiso
measured in the circumferential direction. Cal this unit length 2.
STEEL PIPE
The weld metal is as strong as the parent metal, so consider the aiiowable stress to be 15 000
psi (% yield) in the pipe 4.
thens, = 15 000 psi
for AT = 40F
S, = 75% psi
Ieg size then is:
NOTE: In meas where a vdve anchor b l d or other pipeline appumnanccs can
introduce tension into the h, the tmsion due to &e appurtenances should be checked to
determine if it established the minimum fillet size. Thae d stresses can never ex& balf
the hoop stress caused by internd pressure. That tension and the thermal tension are m
additive because the tension can only exist if &e pipe is not restrained, and the thermal
can only exist if it is mmhed. The greater tension applies for d e s e purpmes. See
13.14 SUBMAWNE PlPEliNES
The type of constnicti& used has a great influcnce on design and on total costs of a systwn,
A britf discussion of different available construction tdmiques wiii illusuatc their effcct,
Thm are basicaiiy two systems for coastructing submarine pipelints: pipe-laying systems
and pipt-pulling systems.
Pipe Laying
In a pipe-laying system, the pipe is mansported by water to the laying platform,
barge equipped primady with a heavy crane and horse. The horse is a
moving on skid beams in two directions with cables extending vert i dy downwar
water. On arrival at the job site, the crane picks up the pipe segment and
horse is centered above it. The pipe, once attached to the horse, is Iowered t
Divers report the position of the segment in rehtion to the completed section
the horse is moved up and down, forward and badward, md sideways
lines up with the beil end of the completed section.
. - '
..
2:-{---.., . , . , -
Rpe Pulling
,- ,
Pipe puliing has been evolved by the oii industry through rivers, bays, md open
pipe-pulling method requires pipe apable of withstandhg the tensile stresses
during the puiiing operation. The method is usually used with steel pipe b u s
high tensiie stresses.
A steel-pipe pulling operation begins on assembly ways established ashore, o
the pipe is coated and wrapped. To p t n t fioating, the pipe may be allowed
, "-a
7 -
water as it leaves the assembly way. Alternatively, the pipe may be apped to exclude water,
- *-% -.
. ..
- 72-
- - 5
then concrete weighted or coated to overcome its bouyancy. The pipe ltagths are welded in
. - ,
>: !,.
__1
aontinuous strings. The mmpleted pipe string is transferred to launchways (Figure 13-34),
- . 9 -. 1
. -
i
which lead to the sea. Once shore sssembly is complete, the reinforced head of the pipe
strhg is attached to a pull barge by wire rope and pukd along ttie bortom by a winch until it
is in position ( F i i 13-35).
A variation of the bortom-puU method is the flmting-string method of pipe
instalhtion. The line is initially assembkd in long segments and transferred to the
Iaunchways. It is then pulled off the launchweiy by a tug, floated out to locoition, and sunk
(Figure 13-36). Individual strings are connected by divers, as in the pipe hying method, or
strings are joikd by picking up the end of the iast piece installed and putting it on a deck of a
special tie-in phtorm, where the connection to the beginaiag of the mxt string is made.
- -
- - - - - m-
-------
LAUNCHWAY
TIE-IN STATION
CONTROL HOUSE
Pl PE SUPPORTS
172 STEEL PIPE . .- + - . ,
PONTOONS SYSTEMATICALLY
RELEASED TO LOWER PIPE
Pyden, W.M.
fngenieursi
8 Piaseckyj, P.J. Wnornicand Omr Design Conside
ver publisher). Aniwerp, Belgium (f9741.
Submarine Rpeline- Hoating Strlng Posloning
; . ... P. < A,
h. me ; _ . ..
~ma t l e r ~~i pe f i t a e s a r e s o me t i nm
b w- b mr d ~ f o r we i d i n g p i p e
ofthcbargeasis-barge movesaiong~-mmeofrhepi@me, taddiagpiptasitgcits. he
pipe mdggcxx b d i n g stresses as it is kid, so the barge should include quality-srpl -
faciiitits fur checaing the somdness of.the cipcumferential wdds.
Referentes
l. ASME UdUed Pressure Vessel Cede. 9. Repwt on Fmt (1
2. SWANSON, H.S. ET a. Dwign of Wyc
Bmh e s for Steel Pipc. Qwir. A WWA,
47:6:581 Uune 1955). 10. MdedUm No. 1,
3. Spccificatiws for Alioy-Swei and S&- Fmt PmetfatiOfl
less Stel Bolting Matcriais for High-
Temperatufe Sewice. ASTM S m W
A193-80. ASTM, FWadeIphia, Pa. (1980). 11. RIDDICK, T.M.; LINDSAY,
4. S-m for Carbon and Aiioy Steel
Nuts for Bolts for Hi gh- hure and
Higb-T~mmturt Sm?a. ASTM Stand-
ard Al-. ASTM, Phhdelphih, h.
(1=).
The fol2uwing refmmes are nat
th texr.
5. S@ications for Iiw and Intermediate
Tcnsilc S e Gt dm Stacl Platcs,
Shapes and M. ASTM Standard A285
79. ASTM, FWaddphia, Fa. (1 979).
6. Spcufmtion for Sm& Steel. ASTM
S m h d A3&77. ASTM, Phihddphia,
Pa. (ign).
7. -E-, RF. & CaAwom, C.B. Si l
Tcmptratum in Water Works Pmaiot.
Jm A WWA, 44: 103923 (Oct. 1952).
8. Heating, Ventilating ami Ai rMt i oni ng
Guidc, Amer. Soc. Heating and Air Con-
ditioning Engrs., New York.
lndex , , ,
. .
-. .. : .
.- .,... . . , .
, ,: . . I . .
- . >
- ,- ..
- .-<.
Air-and-vacuum valves, 98-99 requirements of, 115
Air entrainment and release, 33
selection of, 1 15-1 7
Air-release valves, 98-99
Cold working, 10, 12-13
Air venting, 129
Collapse-resistance of steei pipe, 39
Amerian Water Works Association standards for Coliars, 134-35
coatings and linings, 1 17- 19 - collar plate, 136-40
Anchor rings, 96,15 1
design, 136-38
Anchors, 127 Compaction
Appurtenanm See Mechanical compaction
See Firtings and appurtenances Concrete footings, 80
Aqueducts Connections
economical diameter of pipe, 32-33 blowoff, 97
Assembly of pipe, 125-26
hnged, 97
Atrnospheric corrosion, 11 1 special, 151
. .. to other pipe material, %
BacEu , -' ?y Gmosion
. .>..
. .f
See Pipe-zone bedding and backfill allowance, 38-39 . '- ' ' - -
Bedding atmospheric, 111 q '
See Pipe-zone bedding and backfill bimhemical, 108 ,
Bell-and-spigot joints, 86, 126 bonding of joints, 112
Bending stress of steel, 8 cathodic protection, 11 1-12
Biochemid corrosion, 108
control methods, 11 1
Blowoff connecrions, 97 aevice, 109
Bolt hole pi t i on, 95 , electrolytic, 107 ! - -'
Bouquet Canyon pipeline, 4 " galvanic, 102, lk"
Boussinesq equation, 62-63 internal. of steel pipe, I 11
Brittie fracrure, 12- 13
overview, 101
Brittle material, 4 severity of, 109
Buckling, 6 1 -62 mil investigations, 109- 1 10
Bulkheads, 129 s t r a s and fatigue, 108
. -
:.
survey, 1 13
Calculations theory, 101
angle of fabrimted pipe bend, 132-33 Couplings
collar design, 136-38 grooved-and-S houldered, 89-90
definition of symhls, 33,35 sleeve, 88-89
entrance head l as , 26 Crevice corrosioi?, 109
flow through fittings, 27-28,32 Densification, 128
" -
flow through pipe, 26 Design . ., ....
freezing in exposed pipes, 167 See Pipe design "'1'" ;
loss of head duough friction, 26 Distribution system -' '"
losses due to-elbows, fittings, and valves, 26-27 economical diameter of pipe, 32-33
nomograph, 141,14447 Dude material, 3
pressure rise, 55-56 Ductility of steel, 3-4
. -4 . . ..-. ..:. .
velocity he& loss, 26 ductility in design, 10 - .
wrapper design, 138-40 effects of aold working on, 10, 12
-. ' .
Cathodic protection, 1 1 1 - 13
.--
,' .:.
Charpy V-notch impact test, 13-14 Economical diameter of pipe, 32-33
. . . r3. . - .. .
Check analysis, 20
. , - -
Elastic-plastic range of steel, 6-7
--. -.., .- ..: .
.e<-, - '.
Coatings and linings Ehsticity
--
application of, 1 19 See Mduius of elasticity of sieei
.. .
A W W A standards, 1 17-19
overview, 115
.. - - > - -
recommendations, 119
-.. .
. -.
- ---< .. :.. :. :. : .
. . . o .
. . >= , -:
- 7 . . - . , .- i
. - - 2>cL.. .
- - : . ? - - S , - - . - ; . .*-Y . . -
-:,2 ?-. ,T. . - - =--s. -i
-- .- --- . .,-
. .:..
- -
.. - ::s._- . _ .
. +
- :.<.y-;*-++: -. :-: >d~: ;:; . - ,.-.. ,-
. - -
- . . . .
.? L... =: -
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174 STEEL PIPE
Electric resistance welding, 16
Electrolytic corrosion, 107
Entrance head loss, 26
Expansion joints, 80
Exterior prism, 57
External load
buckling, 61-62
computer programs, 63
deflection determination, 58-61
extreme conditions, 62-63
load determination, 57-58
normal pipe installations, 62
External pressure
applied calculations, 39-40
atmosphere or fluid environments, 39
Fatigue corrosion
See Stress and fatigue corrosion
Field-welded joints, 126
Fillet welds, 168-70
Fittings and appurtenances, 95-99
designation, 93, 95
overview, 93
recommendations, 99
reinforcement, 134-35
testing, 95
Flanged connections, 97
Flanges, 89
Flow through fittings, 27-28, 32
Flow through pipe, 26
Fracture mechanics, 12-13
Freezing in pipelines
exposed pipes, 164, 167
overview, 162
underground pipes, 163
Frictional resistance
soil-pipe, 96
Galvanic corrosion, 102, 104
Gaskets, 86, 89
Hazen-Williams formula, 21-22
Head loss through friction, 26
See a/so Calculations
Herman Schorer design, 71-72
Hoop stress, 66
Hydraulics
air entrainment and release, 33
calculations, 26-28, 32
definition of symbols, 33, 35
economical diameter of pipe, 32-33
formulas, 21-22
overview, 21
recommendations, 33
Hydrostatic field test
air venting, 129
allowable leakage, 129-30
bulkheads, 129
field testing cement-mortar-lined pipe, 129
overview, 129
\.
Installation
anchors and thrust blocks, 127
assembly of pipe, 125-26
bell-and-spigot rubber-gasket joints, 126
field coating of joints, 127
field-welded joints, 126
handling and laying, 123, 125
hydrostatic field test, 129-30
overview, 121
pipe-zone bedding and backfill, 127-29
Insulating joints, 98
Interior prism, 57
Iowa deflection formula, 58-62
Joints
abovegrouml conditions, 91
bell-and-spigot, 86, 126
bonding of, 112
expansion and contraction, 90-91
field coating, 127
field-welded, 126
ground friction and line tension, 91-92
insulating, 98
overview, 86
recommendations, 92
slip, 87
stuffing-box expansion, 91
underground conditions, 90
welded, 87-88
Ladle analysis, 19-20
Lay barge, 172
Linings
See Coatings and linings
Live-load effect, 60
Load
See External load
Lock-Bar pipe, 1-2
Manholes, 97-98
Manning formula, 22
Manufacture of steel pipe
electric fusion welding, 16, 19
electric resistance welding, 16
Marston theory, 57-58
Mechanical compaction, 128
Modulus of elasticity of steel, 6
Modulus of soil reaction, 60-61
Nozzle outlets, 96
Penstocks, 37
economical diameter of pipe, 32-33
Pipe deflection as beam, 70
calculation methods, 70-71
Pipe design
anchor rings, 151
angle of fabricated pipe bend, 132-33
circumferential fillet welds, 168-70
crotch-plate, f 40-41
fittings reinforcement, 134-35
freezing in pipeiines, 162-64,167-68
joint harnesscs, 15 1
nomogmph, 141,14447
pipeline layout, 131-32
S@ connections, 151
submarine pipelines, 170-72
thrust restraint, 147-49
Pipe joints
See Joints
Pipe wall thickness
corrosion allowance, 38-39
extenid prcssure, 39-40
i nmd pressure, 36-37
minimum, 40
overview, 36
pressure limits, 38
recommendations, 40
vs. stiffening rings, 67-68
worlcing tension stress in steel, 37-38
Pipe-zone bedding and backfill
densifiation, 128
hydraulic consolidation, 128
interior braang of pipc, 129
mechanical compaction, f 28
o v e ~ e w, 127-28
trench b d ~ i i &ve pipe mne, 12&29
Pocketing, 71
Pressure lirnh, 38
Ressure surge
See Water hamrner
Fressure wave veldty, 53
jng-girder construction
assembiing pipe, 80
concrete footings, 80
continuous pipelines, 76-77
design factors, 74
expmsion joints, 80
Hermau Schorer design, 71-72
nstaIlation of spans, 78
low-prwsure pipe, 77
pipe hal full, 74,76
stress in-pipe skll, 72-73
smess in ring girder, 73-74
Riveted pipe, 1
Rubber gaskets, 86,89
Saddle supports
equal l d , 67
hmp suess, 66
maxirnum saddlc, 68-69
spans, 66
4 1 thickness vs. stiffening rings, 67-68
Scobey formula, 22
Shear stress, 12-13
SIeeve couplings, 88
pipe layout, 88-89
Slip joints, 87
Soil-pipe frictional resistance, %
SteeI pipe
design stresses, 1
ductility and yield saength, 3-4, 1412
history, 1-2
interna1 wmi o n of, 1 1 1
Lwk-Bar, 1-2
physi d charamristics, 3
reuimmendatiofls, 15
riveted, 1
stecl sciection, 14-15
saength, 14 12
s m s and srran, 4-9
structud design, 12- 15
tension strcss and yield srrength, 37-38
-, 2
welded, 2
S t e m formuia, 39
Strength of steel
effeas of coid working on, 10, 12
Stress and fatigue corrosion, 108
Stress and strain of steel, 4-7
analysis based on smin, 8-9
bending stress, 8
. hoop stress, 66
. pipe shefl, 72-73
.. ,
-, .
ring girder, 73-74 .. , - 2~i : t
shear stress, 12-13 - -
strain in design, 7-8
tension stress, 37-38
Stringing of steel pipe, 122
Stuffing-box expansion joint, 91
Submarine pipelines
lay barge, 172
overview, 170
pipe laying, 170
pipe pulIing, 170-71 . .- '
. Supprts
girtdiait to prevent pocketing, 7 1
overview, 66
pipe deflection as beam, 70
ring-girder construction, 7 1-74,7&7&, 80
saddle, 66-69
Surge-wave theory, 5 1-54
Tension stress of steel pipc, 37-38
Testhg of steel pipe
check amlycis, 20
chemimI properties, 19-20
dimensional properties, 20
hydrostatic test, 20
ladle analpis, 19-20
physi d properties, 20
Thrust blocks, 127
176 STEEL PIPE
Thrust forces
soil resistance 10, 127
unbdanced, 95-96
Thnist restraint, 147-49
Transpomtion
air, 122
handling, 122
loading and unloading, 122
modes, 121-22
overview, 121
rail, 121-22
st l i l l ghq, 122
tnick, 122
water, 122
Trenching
bottom preparation, 123
depth, 122
werexcavation, 123
regdationc, 123
width, 122-23
Wdl thickness
See Pipe wall thickness
Warming water in ex@ pipelines, 168
Water hamrner
aUowance for, 55
checldist for purnping &,54
effect of conduit, 53
effect of friction, 53
overview, 51
pressure rise calcuiations, 55-56
sudies for, 54-55
surge-wave theory relationships, 5 1-54
Welded joints, 87-88, 126
Welded pipe, 2
Wrappcrs, 134-35
design, 1 3 8 4
Wye branch design, 95, 140-4 1
nomograph use in, 14 1, 14447
one-phte, 145-46
three-phtt, 147
two-pIate, 146-47
Yield strength of steel, 3-4, 37-38
Young's rnodulus, 54
2 August f ssS for
AWWA Mll-88
Third Edition
June 1988
SUPERSEDING
AWWA M1 1 -87
Semnd Edition
14 JuIy 1988
Department of Defense Acceptance Notice
AMWA Mll-88, Thiri
use by the D m e n t
E. .
has furnished the c l a mc e required by exhking mguktims, Copies of this
- .
- .
&--- domment are gbcked by the W Single S k k Faw, NawI P&Iic
Center, 5801 Tahr Ave., Philadelphia, FA 19l20= for isme ta OrD a&viti&-apiy,-v
L=;is
An other requestors mvst obtain documenb fmoi AWWA, 6666 Weat Wncy Ak,-.--*?g
> -. - Denver, CO 80235.
merican Water Works
, Guide for Design and
A d o e Third Editio
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