Anda di halaman 1dari 36

Site

VELIZY
Originators
A. FREULON
D. POULET

EVOLIUM SAS
SFD: GPRS through satellite connection on Abis or Ater interface

System
Sub-system
Document Category

:
:
:

ALCATEL 900/BSS
SYS-TLA
PRODUCT DEFINITION

ABSTRACT
This SFD describes the "GPRS through satellite connection on Abis or Ater interface feature.

Name
App.

J. ACHARD
SYT CCM

Approvals
A. WAZANA

J.-P. GRUAU

PL

PM

REVIEW
Ed. 01 Proposal 01
Ed. 01 Proposal 02
Ed. 01 Proposal 03

<2001/04/26>
Evolium/R&D/SYT/AFR/0234.2001
<2003/04/07>
Evolium/R&D/SYT/AFR/0118.2003
<2003/May/12th> Evolium/R&D/SYT/AFR/0136.2003

HISTORY
Ed. 01 Proposal 01

<2001/03/26>

Ed. 01 Proposal 02

<2003/03/21>

This proposal was written in the very beginning of B8; then


work on this subject was suspended.
Two years after proposal 1, the feature is required again,
and work is resumed, with a simpler technical solution than
the one envisaged in proposal 1 for the tuning of
parameters. This proposal describes the feature impact for
B7.2 and B8 implementation (feature implemented on top
of B7.2).
NO REVISION MARK IN P2 (Too many changes).

Ed. 01 Proposal 03

<2003/04/07>

Update according review report of edition 1P2

Ed. 01 Released

<2003-May15th>

Update according review report of edition 1P3 (ref


Evolium/R&D/SYT/AFR/0136.2003)

ED
EVOLIUM

01

RELEASED

GPRS through satellite connection on Abis or Ater interface


SFD_0538_01(GPRS
ABIS&ATER SATELLITE).DOC
16/05/2003

3BK 10204 0538 ZZA

1/36

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1 INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................................... 5
1.1 Scope .................................................................................................................................. 5
1.2 Document Structure ........................................................................................................... 5
1.3 Definitions and Pre-requisite ............................................................................................. 5
1.3.1 Definitions................................................................................................................... 5
1.3.2 Pre-requisite: Industrialisation of satellite feature for CS services ............................. 7
1.3.3 Pre-requisite: signalling routes through Abis and Ater for PS services......................... 8
2 FEATURE DESCRIPTION........................................................................................................... 9
2.1 Functional Requirements................................................................................................... 9
2.2 Compliance to the Marketing Requirements................................................................... 10
2.3 Working Assumptions...................................................................................................... 10
2.4 Dependencies ................................................................................................................... 11
2.5 HW Coverage .................................................................................................................... 12
2.6 Rationale ........................................................................................................................... 13
3 SYSTEM IMPACTS ................................................................................................................... 14
3.1 Telecom............................................................................................................................. 14
3.1.1 Functional changes................................................................................................... 14
3.1.2 Specification impacts ................................................................................................ 14
3.1.3 Interfaces.................................................................................................................. 14
3.2 Operation and maintenance............................................................................................. 15
3.2.1 O&M functional level description............................................................................... 15
3.2.2 Parameter types and tuning policy. ........................................................................... 15
3.2.3 Parameter modification for B7.2................................................................................ 16
3.2.4 Additional tuning rules for parameters....................................................................... 17
3.2.5 Additional CST Parameter modification for B8 .......................................................... 20
3.2.6 Additional CAE Parameter tuning for B8 ................................................................... 22
3.2.7 PM counters.............................................................................................................. 22
3.2.8 PM indicators............................................................................................................ 22
3.2.9 Migration................................................................................................................... 23
3.2.10 GPRS through satellite activation.............................................................................. 23
3.3 Validation .......................................................................................................................... 24
3.3.1 Validation for telecom aspects .................................................................................. 24
3.3.2 Validation for O&M aspects....................................................................................... 25
3.3.3 Testing tools ............................................................................................................. 25
3.3.4 Test strategy ............................................................................................................. 25
3.4 Methods............................................................................................................................. 25
3.5 GCDs ................................................................................................................................. 25
3.6 Engineering rules ............................................................................................................. 25
3.6.1 Fault Management .................................................................................................... 25
4 SUBSYSTEM IMPACTS............................................................................................................ 26
4.1 BTS.................................................................................................................................... 26
4.2 BSC.................................................................................................................................... 26
4.3 Transcoder........................................................................................................................ 26
4.4 MFS.................................................................................................................................... 26
4.5 OMC_R .............................................................................................................................. 26
4.6 OEF/POLO......................................................................................................................... 26
5 PERFORMANCE & SYSTEM DIMENSIONING ......................................................................... 26
5.1 Traffic model ..................................................................................................................... 26
5.2 Performance...................................................................................................................... 27
5.2.1 Maximum Data Throughput....................................................................................... 27
5.2.2 Service access time. ................................................................................................. 27
5.3 System dimensionning..................................................................................................... 28
ED
EVOLIUM

01

RELEASED

GPRS through satellite connection on Abis or Ater interface


SFD_0538_01(GPRS
ABIS&ATER SATELLITE).DOC
16/05/2003

3BK 10204 0538 ZZA

2/36

5.3.1 Impact of satellite delay on RSL throughput. ............................................................. 28


5.3.2 Impact of satellite delay on GSL throughput. ............................................................. 28
5.4 Load constraints............................................................................................................... 28
6 OPEN POINTS .......................................................................................................................... 29
7 IMPACTS SUMMARY................................................................................................................ 30
8 GLOSSARY............................................................................................................................... 31
8.1 Abbreviations.................................................................................................................... 31
8.2 Terminology...................................................................................................................... 31

Figure 1: terrestrial and satellite roundtrip delay ............................................................................... 6


Figure 2: Signalling routes through the BSS ....................................................................................... 8

ED
EVOLIUM

01

RELEASED

GPRS through satellite connection on Abis or Ater interface


SFD_0538_01(GPRS
ABIS&ATER SATELLITE).DOC
16/05/2003

3BK 10204 0538 ZZA

3/36

INTERNAL REFERENCED DOCUMENTS


Not applicable

REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
Alcatel references
[1]
3BKA55CBR120754

RFD: GPRS on Abis & Ater Satellite Links

3GPP references

RELATED DOCUMENTS
Alcatel documents
[A1]
3BK 10204 0514 DTZZA:
[A2]
3BKA20CBR123988

SFD Industrialisation of satellite feature.


Impacts of the feature GPRS through satellite links
on Abis/Ater interface on BSS Telecom parameters
catalogue (B7.2 ).

[A3

RCD/MR/TD/SYT/SBO/200242_1

[A4]

ETSI SMG2, Tdoc SMG2 EDGE


165/99

3GPP CRs
3GPP TS CR nb

Re
v

RLC ARQ and reassembling procedures in uplink


acknowledged mode.
Evaluation of EGPRS ARQ throughput efficiency.
This document was presented to SMG2 by Alcatel.

Title

Author

Accepted?
(Y/N)

PREFACE
This document is the input paper for the feature GPRS through satellite connection on Abis or Ater
interface inside TD. It will further on be used as reference for the development of that feature in
each subsystem.

RESTRICTIONS
This SFD is only related to PS services. For CS services, refer to document ref [A1]

ED
EVOLIUM

01

RELEASED

GPRS through satellite connection on Abis or Ater interface


SFD_0538_01(GPRS
ABIS&ATER SATELLITE).DOC
16/05/2003

3BK 10204 0538 ZZA

4/36

INTRODUCTION

1.1

Scope

The present document aims to be the basis for decision of a proposed change to be made on the
BSS system. Then it provides all necessary information related to functional description, gains,
description of the system impacts and subsystem impacts.

1.2

Document Structure

The section 2 of this document presents the functional requirements, the HW coverage and the
rationale of the feature addressed by the present SFD.
The section 3 identifies the system impacts: it gives the principles and presents the functional split of
the feature between subsystems. Impact on Step2 specifications is also given in this section.
The section 4 contains the description of impacts for each subsystem.
The section 5 addresses the performance and system dimensioning concerns.
The section 6 identifies and describes the open points.
The section 7 is a sum up of the system impacts.
The section 8 contains the glossary of the present document.

1.3

Definitions and Pre-requisite

The text in italics is informative. It typically consists of:


- background information eg standardisation information.
- references to future BSS enhancements to guide design choices.
- references to NSS functionalities.

1.3.1

Definitions

Satellite connection:
Throughout this document the term satellite connection is used as a synonym of satellite hop. A
satellite hop between two terrestrial equipments A and B is in reality made of two connections: one
equipment A<->satellite connection and one satellite<->equipment B connection.
Round-trip-delay:
The round trip delay between two equipments refers to the time taken for a message to go to the
peer equipment, plus the time taken from the response from the peer equipment to come back. The
round trip delay has three components:

the propagation delay which depends on medium propagation speed and on the signal frequency
(negligible in case of terrestrial connection)
- The transmission delay which depends on the available throughput and the message length
(negligible in case of satellite connection)
- The processing time in network elements.
In this document, we are interrested in the MS-to-MFS round trip delay, and on its increased value
when a satellite connection is introduced on the Abis or on the Ater interface.
-

ED
EVOLIUM

No satellite .connection: The MS-MFS round trip delay is a BSS system parameter, which is
estimated to about 160ms, including transmission delay, MS reaction time and processing delays
in the MFS.
Satellite connection: The additional delay induced by the satellite connection, is twice the
single trip delay, computed as:
propagation delay: 240ms (cf ref [A1] for detailed calculation

01

RELEASED

GPRS through satellite connection on Abis or Ater interface


SFD_0538_01(GPRS
ABIS&ATER SATELLITE).DOC
16/05/2003

3BK 10204 0538 ZZA

5/36

delay in the earth station modems: 30ms1


delay in the satellite: negligible (no processing, only amplification of received signal)
delay due to additional equipment: none2.
This results in a total satellite round-trip delay equal to 2x(240+30) = 540ms.
-

The corresponding MS-MFS round-trip delay with a satellite connection on the Abis or on
the Ater interface is equal to 540+160ms = 700ms. To take provision for delays induced by future
additional equipements, it is recommended to consider a maximum value of at least 900ms.
The following figure illustrates the previous definitions in case of Abis interface through satellite link.

satellite
terrestrial round-trip delay

satellite round-trip delay

MS

MFS
BTS

BSC

Abis

Figure 1: terrestrial and satellite roundtrip delay

Anticipation window:

Many protocols for data or signalling transport are acknowledged protocols, and are using the notion
of anticipation window (LAPD, RLC). The anticipation window is the maximum number of protocol
data units (PDU) which can be transmitted by the transmitter, while the first of these PDU have not yet
been acknowldeged by the receiver.

stalled anticipation window:

When the transmitter has sent the maximum number of messages, and is waiting for acknowldgement
from the peer, the window is stalled. This can occur when messages are lost due to tranmission
errors, but also in case of a large round trip delay, when this round trip delay is larger than the time
taken to transmit the full antiticipation window. A stalled widow will induce a loss of throughput
between the network elements, because the transmission is suspended while the window is stalled.
1

Information provided by Alcatel Space specialist.


In case some compressing/decompressing equipment is introduced to diminish the bandwidth
needed from the satellite operator, the additional delay introduced by this equipment will have to be
taken into account. Depending on the equipment the delay may vary to a few ms to about 100ms for a
single trip. More information can be obtained from Alcatel space.
2

ED
EVOLIUM

01

RELEASED

GPRS through satellite connection on Abis or Ater interface


SFD_0538_01(GPRS
ABIS&ATER SATELLITE).DOC
16/05/2003

3BK 10204 0538 ZZA

6/36

1.3.2

Pre-requisite: Industrialisation of satellite feature for CS services

The feature Industrialisation of satellite feature is supported from B7.2 onwards and it concerns CS
(circuit-switched) service only. This feature only concerns the tuning of parameters needed for CS
calls. A brief summary of used mechanisms is provided below, see ref [A1] for details.
3
This feature impacts the handling of BSC parameters which values depend on Abis connection type
or Ater connection type in the following way.

For a system parameter (CST):


The parameter does not become modifiable from the OMC-R. At the OMC-R, the operator only
defines the connection type (satellite/terrestrial) of the Abis or Ater link, which is sent to the BSC.
The BSC will then send to the BTSs connected to this link the value of the system parameter
matching with the connection type. For such parameters, the DLS stores one value for terrestrial
connection and one value for satellite connection. The modification of transmission timers lead to
a telecom outage on CS service (restart of TREs).

For a parameter changeable from OMC-R:


4

Such a parameter is instanced on a per cell basis to allow the operator, in case of modification
of Abis or Ater link connection type, to tune accordingly such a parameter for all the cells
supported on this link. This tuning is neither automatic nor assisted by a tool. The operator has to
tune manually the parameter value for each cell supported on the link. There is no additional
default value for such a parameter. The default value is always the recommended value for
terrestrial connection.
3

These parameters were already defined before introduction of the feature (there is no new parameter except
the flag per Abis or Ater link indicating the connection type)
4
Indeed, for CS, only two changeable parameters were potentially impacted (Max-retrans, TX-integer) for which
the default value was suitable for satellite links. So the tuning effort of the operator was nearly null.

ED
EVOLIUM

01

RELEASED

GPRS through satellite connection on Abis or Ater interface


SFD_0538_01(GPRS
ABIS&ATER SATELLITE).DOC
16/05/2003

3BK 10204 0538 ZZA

7/36

1.3.3

Pre-requisite: signalling routes through Abis and Ater for PS services.

The following figure shows why the impact is different in case of Abis or Ater throught satellite link

Abis interface

BTS

RRM signalling
through RSL

Ater interface

BSC

BSCGP signalling
+RRM signalling
through GSL

MFS

GCH, RLC and RRM signalling through MPDCH

Figure 2: Signalling routes through the BSS


In both cases RLC signalling, and data transfer are delayed through the GCH interface. It should be
noted that the presence of absence of a MPDCH does not modify the delay induced for the transfer of
RRM signalling information from the MFS to the MS (through the BTS).
With MPDCH: RRM signalling is delayed through the GCH interface
Without MPDCH: RMM signalling is delayed
through the RSL for the Abis through satellite case
or through the GSL for the Ater through satellite case
But in case of Ater through satellite link, the BSCGP signalling will be delayed. This is not the case for
the Abis through satellite link. Hence the Ater through satellite link implies more performance
degradation and additional parameter tuning related to the BSCGP protocol.

ED
EVOLIUM

01

RELEASED

GPRS through satellite connection on Abis or Ater interface


SFD_0538_01(GPRS
ABIS&ATER SATELLITE).DOC
16/05/2003

3BK 10204 0538 ZZA

8/36

FEATURE DESCRIPTION

No MFD is available for this feature. Only the RFD 3BKA55CBR120754 is available, the text of which
is copied below for the conveniency of the reader.
Note that this RFD has been written for B7.2. With B8, the compatibility with HSDS is also requested.

SHORT DESCRIPTION GPRS on Abis & Ater Satellite Links


The usage of satellite links growths rapidely in Business Regions like AMEI and APAC, thanks to :
* Cost optimized satellite links,
* Needed communications services in remote areas where long distance terrestrial links installation is
economicaly not possible.
As it is expected that the need for data services will also growth in such areas, and considering the
fact that Alcatel/MND strategy is not to develop HSCSD services, MND requires to evaluate and test
GPRS services via Abis & Ater satellite links. This has been agreed by MND management and
committed to SPD management (meeting held on 16th October 2002).
Thus it is required :
* To update the TD/SYT/AFR/927.2002 analysis,
* To launch detailed system analysis, in particular for the parameters adaptations/tuning
corresponding to satellite links characteristics,
* To perform corresponding tests,
* To support first-off if needed,
* To issue methods and customer documentation to permit easy and large roll-out of the feature.
FOLLOW UP Alcatel Severity : G1 / Major

2.1

Functional Requirements

The physical path between the BTS and the MFS where are located the GPRS functions, uses the
Abis and Ater interfaces, which can be routed via satellite links. The object of the present feature is to
offer GPRS and EDGE services in the cells for which the BTS-MFS physical connection uses one
satellite hop (Abis or Ater).
-

Abis through satellite or Ater through satellite is possible but not both simultaneously.
If Abis or Ater interface is through satellite, then Gb through satellite is forbidden.
The case of an MS-to-MS connection where both Ms are using cell connected should be
supported, but this can be guarantied only by end-to-end tests. No specific requirement seems
needed to cover this case.

Due to the very large round trip delay introduced by satellite connections, compared to terrestrial one,
it is necessary to adapt some parameters in our BSS with specific value for the satellite connections.
This adaption shall enable to provide the required services, but in the present state of the GSM
standard the loss of performances induced by the satellite connection cannot be completely
compensated by parameter tuning.
Hence this SFD is meant to:
- define the best possible tuning of parameters to allow GPRS/EDGE connection,
- define the O&M mechanism to set the parameters to the correct values,
- estimate the limitation of the performances (throughput, service access time) which are
unavoidable, and also possible restrictions to the provided standard configurations.

ED
EVOLIUM

01

RELEASED

GPRS through satellite connection on Abis or Ater interface


SFD_0538_01(GPRS
ABIS&ATER SATELLITE).DOC
16/05/2003

3BK 10204 0538 ZZA

9/36

2.2

Compliance to the Marketing Requirements

Feature Item
Abis through satellite with GPRS
Abis through satellite with EDGE

Compliance
Yes
Yes

Ater through satellite with GPRS

Yes

Ater through satellite with EDGE

Yes

Master PDCH

Yes

maximum number of cells per GPU

restriction

activation of feature by O&M

No

2.3

Comments
with limited performances (see 5.2)
with limited performances (see 5.2)
EDGE degradation not as bad as GPRS.
with limited performances (see 5.2), worst
than the Abis case for access time.
with limited performances (see 5.2), worst
than the Abis case for access time. EDGE
degradation not as bad as GPRS.
But not recommended (one GCH allocated
for MPDCH and not used for traffic=> high
cost for little bandwidth usage)
In case of Ater through satellite, the
maximum number of cell per GPU is limited.
See 5.4 for details.
The feature cannot be inhibited, if the
industrialisation of satellite is enabled.
The feature GPRS through satellite has to be
planned at network level before migration to
customise correctly CDE and BUL files.
Satellite CDE parameters shall be
changeable apart from the migration
process.

Working Assumptions

1. Satellite performances: Transmission of 2Mbit/s is already defined for satellite links and is out of
the scope of this study. Error rates are assumed to be compliant with ITU-TG.826. This implies
that the performances in term of errors due to the satellite connections do not decrease on the
Ater and Abis interfaces because of a satellite link, and that these performances remain far better
than those expected on the Um interface. As a consequence the BLER between the MS and MFS
is not expected to be degraded by the use of a satellite connection on the Abis or Ater interface.
Other problems specific to satellite connections (jitter, wander) are assumed to be corrected by
specific equipments provided together with the satellite connection
2. Abis through satellite or Ater through satellite is possible but not both simultaneously.
3. If Abis or Ater interface is through satellite, then Gb through satellite is forbidden.
4. The case of an MS-to-MS connection where both Ms are using cell connected should be
supported, but this can be guarantied only by end-to-end tests. No specific requirement seems
needed to cover this case.
5. The maximum multislot capability implemented in the MFS is (5 TS DL +2 TS UL)

ED
EVOLIUM

01

RELEASED

GPRS through satellite connection on Abis or Ater interface


SFD_0538_01(GPRS
ABIS&ATER SATELLITE).DOC
16/05/2003

3BK 10204 0538 ZZA

10/36

2.4

Dependencies

The Feature "GPRS through satellite links


requires
Feature
industrialisation
satellite links

of

A cell which supports CS + PS services cannot have one


service through satellite and not the other. This feature also
enables to adapt parameters for BTS SW downloading.

is enhanced by
None
is incompatible with
See below
will be enhanced by the following future evolutions.
Se below

Compression/decompression.
The introduction of compression/decompression equipments, in order to optimise the bandwidth
usage through a satellite connection, may be used for CS services. These equipments are not part of
the Alcatel BSS but can be proposed within the scope of an Alcatel end-to-end solution. Such
equipments are currently not compatible with GPRS, but compatibility may be provided in the future.

If compatibility with GPRS is not provided: They cannot be used for CS on a cell where GPRS
is enabled, since Abis and Ater nibbles are not dedicated to CS or PS services, but can do both.

If compatibility with GPRS is provided: Such an equipment can be considered as an


enhancement, because it enables to limit the bandwidth usage of the GCH interface (Abis or
Ater), and the corresponding high cost through a satellite connection. However, the additional
delay introduced by such an equipment has to be taken into account into the total satellite roundtrip delay, and the additional degradation of performances has to be balanced with the economic
gain, to decide whether it really is an enhancement.

ED
EVOLIUM

01

RELEASED

GPRS through satellite connection on Abis or Ater interface


SFD_0538_01(GPRS
ABIS&ATER SATELLITE).DOC
16/05/2003

3BK 10204 0538 ZZA

11/36

2.5

HW Coverage

This section defines the HW coverage of the feature. A synthetic and exhaustive table shall be
provided where the different HW generation of each subsystem is listed.
The HW coverage of the feature shall be given on a per implementation step basis where needed.
System:
GSM 900
DCS 1800 / DCS1900
GSM 850

Y
Y
Y

Network element:
In following tables, indicate :
Xsw if feature supported by the NE with software impact,
Xhw if feature supported by the NE with hardware impact
Xsw+hw if feature supported by the NE with software and hardware impact.
X : The feature is supported on the NE without hardware or software impacts.
- : The feature is not supported by the NE or the NE is not concerned by the feature
BTS
X
BSC
Xsw
MFS
Xsw
Transmission
X
Transcoder
X
MSC
SGSN
Data IWF
HLR
OMC
Xsw
/SMC/NMC
(OMC)
Tools (NPA, RNO, RNP,
Xsw
Laser)
MSTS

ED
EVOLIUM

BTS Generation:

BTS G2 with FUMO


BTS G2 with DRFU
BTS MK2 with DRFU
A9100 (Evolium standard)
A910 (micro Evolium (M4M))
A910-E (micro Evolium M5M)
M1M, M2M

BSC Generation:

BSC G2

Xsw

MFS:

MFS

Xsw

Transmission:

Alcatel TSC

Transcoder:

TRAU G2 with DT16


TRAU G2 with MT120
TRAU G2.5 (with MT120)

01

RELEASED

Open point 5
X
X
X
-

GPRS through satellite connection on Abis or Ater interface


SFD_0538_01(GPRS
ABIS&ATER SATELLITE).DOC
16/05/2003

3BK 10204 0538 ZZA

12/36

OMC-R
POLO/OEF
NMC
Tools (NPA,
Laser)

O&M:

2.6

RNO,

RNP,

Xsw
Xsw (POLO)
Xsw5

Rationale
Competition: Some competitors (Erikson) have GPRS through satellite in their portfolio.
Operational gains : the NW Operator will be able to provide basic GPRS and HSDS services in
cells already connected through satellite.

See RFD text above.


5

Impact is only on RNO for B7.2. See section 4.5.

ED
EVOLIUM

01

RELEASED

GPRS through satellite connection on Abis or Ater interface


SFD_0538_01(GPRS
ABIS&ATER SATELLITE).DOC
16/05/2003

3BK 10204 0538 ZZA

13/36

SYSTEM IMPACTS

3.1

Telecom

3.1.1

Functional changes

With B7.2, the implementation of this feature consists only in parameter changes, which is detailed in
the O&M section. There is no functional change in the telecom part
With release B8, six new parameters (see table Table 2) are introduced to optimise the performances
of GPRS and EGPRS by allowing more frequent polling during RLC data transfer in order to avoid
window stalling. Those new parameters are in the MFS DLS and shall be transferred to the RLC layer,
which will choose to apply either the terrestrial or the satellite values depending on the round trip delay
associated to the TRX on which the TBF is running

3.1.2

3.1.2.1

Specification impacts

Step 2 BSS Telecom parameter

See section3.2.3 and 3.2.4 for the B7.2 changes to BSS Telecom parameters.
See section 3.2.5 and 3.2.6 for the B8 changes to BSS Telecom parameters (on top of B7.2
modifications).
3.1.2.2

Step 2 GPRS traffic model and performances document.

See section 5.2.

3.1.2.3

Step 2 : FBS GPRS radio interface, RLC MAC sublayer

Impacted only for B8. See section 3.2.5.

3.1.3

Interfaces

No change on the signalling interfaces.

ED
EVOLIUM

01

RELEASED

GPRS through satellite connection on Abis or Ater interface


SFD_0538_01(GPRS
ABIS&ATER SATELLITE).DOC
16/05/2003

3BK 10204 0538 ZZA

14/36

3.2

Operation and maintenance

3.2.1
3.2.1.1

O&M functional level description


Overview

In the BSS B7.2, without the implementation of the feature, the GPRS on satellite cannot work due
To internal system timers, not changeable, which are not adapted to satellite time
constraints.
To the range of the round trip delay parameter, which is too small compared to satellite time
constraints.
From an O&M point of view, the implementation of the GPRS through a satellite connection consists
of:
The transformation of these system parameters into CDE parameters (cf 3.2.3).
The definition of two sets of values for these CDE parameters, one compromise adapted to
satellite and terrestrial connection and another one adapted to terrestrial connection. The
satellite set is applied at migration time if GPRS through satellite is envisaged in the
network.
The extension of the range for the parameter round trip delay adapted to the satellite time
constraints.
From an operator point of view, the activation of the feature consists of:
Planning the usage of GPRS on satellite in the netwok, to customise the CDE table and the
BUL files with the correct set of values.
Tuning of CAE parameters to activate or deactivate the GPRS through a satellite link.
BSS B8: The same principles as B7.2 apply. Some new CST parameters are introduced in the MFS
to improve the performances with satellite links.

3.2.1.2

OMC Model:

No new parameter

3.2.2

Parameter types and tuning policy.

The mechanisms described below apply to B7.2 and B8 software releases, unless otherwise stated.
Four types of parameters are considered:

OMC-changeable cell parameters (CAE/cell): When the recommended value for satellite link
6
differs from terrestrial links, the operator can enter manually the recommended value for the
cells which are connected to MFS through a satellite link (Abis or Ater). In one case (round trip
delay) the range of the parameter must be extended, compared to what had been foreseen
without satellite connections.

OMC-changeable BSS parameters (CAE/BSS): When the recommended value for satellite
links differs from terrestrial links:

In case of satellite link on Ater: the operator can enter manually the recommended value for
the BSSs, which are connected to the MFS through a satellite link on Ater.

In case of satellite links on Abis, a compromise value is found which should apply to any cells
of the BSS, whatever their connection type for GPRS. The possible consequences or
restrictions due to this compromise are explained.

Constant parameters (CST):


Using facilities already offered by OMC-R/RNUSM (e.g. multiple cell selection).

ED
EVOLIUM

01

RELEASED

GPRS through satellite connection on Abis or Ater interface


SFD_0538_01(GPRS
ABIS&ATER SATELLITE).DOC
16/05/2003

3BK 10204 0538 ZZA

15/36

B7.2: A compromise value is found which should will to any cells of the network, whatever the
connection type for GPRS. But it is not acceptable to change CST parameters for all
customers (would be too risky when the release is already at customer sites). Hence the CST
parameters, for which the compromise value differs from the default value (defined for
terrestrial links), are changed into CDE parameters in order to allow their tuning on a per
network basis.
B8: The same principle as B7.2 is kept, but some new CST parameters are introduced in the
MFS, so as to improve the throughput at RLC layer by adapting the value to the satellite or
terrestrial case. The MFS chooses to apply the terrestrial parameter or the satellite one
depending on the value of the round trip delay parameter. This is further detailed in section
3.2.5.

Virtually Changeable cell parameters (CAE/VT): These parameters may take different values
and are computed by the OMC. The current computed values do not take into account satellite
links. It is not possible to propose a compromise value because it would affect the QoS for
customers who are not interested in satellite connections. Since there are only a few of these
parameters, we propose that the OMC computes two set of values, one for a cell with satellite
connection, one for a cell with terrestrial connection. In order to simplify the OMC development,
the value of the round_trip_delay parameter may be used instead of Abis connection type to
7
determine if a satellite link is used for a given cell (round_trip_delay > 500ms => satellite).

3.2.3

Parameter modification for B7.2

The following table provides the list all the parameters, which have to be tuned for Abis or Ater
through satellite connections for B7.2. The parameters, which are highlighted in bold, are relevant for
the Ater through satellite case only. In other words:

For the Abis through satellite case: the parameters, which are NOT in bold, are
considered.
For the Ater through satellite case: the full parameter list is considered.

Other formatting conventions (MPDCH,etc.. ) are indicated below the table.


In most cases for timers, the satellite value is just an increase of the terrestrial value by about 500ms
so as to cope with the added round-trip-time. When the parameter is not instanciated per cell (for the
Abis case) or by BSS (for the Ater case), then the satellite value is chosen as a compromise value.
Consequently if a procedure fails, the BSS reaction time will be a bit increased and some resources
will be kept busy a bit longer than necessary for terrestrial links. This may result in a small loss of
capacity for PS services. When other consequences are expected, they are detailed as notes below
the table (see note number in second column).
For some CAE/cell parameter, it is not easy to recommend a value for satellite links, because a
compromise has to be made between resource usage and performances. In this case the influence of
such a parameter has to be explained to the operator who can tune the value according to his own
priority. When needed, some comments are provided after the table to explain the reason of the
change or to provide guidelines for tuning.
When a parameter is duplicated in BSC and MFS, the duplication is indicated only if different subsystem are impacted (i.e. for CST or CDE parameters). For duplicated parameters, which are
accessible from the OMC, only one parameter is indicated, since both instances are copied from the
OMC unique parameter.
7

500ms is lower than the current default value for satellite (700ms), but it is considered that the effect
of a round trip delay higher than 500ms due to any reason justifies specific tuning.

ED
EVOLIUM

01

RELEASED

GPRS through satellite connection on Abis or Ater interface


SFD_0538_01(GPRS
ABIS&ATER SATELLITE).DOC
16/05/2003

3BK 10204 0538 ZZA

16/36

parameter name
Round_trip_delay
T_ul_assign_CCCH

protocol
layer
RLC
RRM PCC

T_dl_assign_CCCH

RRM PCC

T_one_Block
Trelease

RRM-PRH
GCH

T_ul_access_max

RRM-PCC

T_ACK_WAIT
RRM-PRH
T_ack_wait_DRX_PCCCH RRM-PRH

K_GSL(BSC)
K_GSL(MFS)
T_GPRS_resume

T_delayed_DL_TBF_rel_
radio
Tcorr
Testab
BS_CV_MAX
T3192

T3168

LAPD
LAPD
RRM PCC
RRM-PCC
GCH
GCH
RLC
RRM(MS)

RRM(MS)

change of
MPDCH instance category OMC
Default satellite category
only
value
value
cell
CAE
chgbl
160ms 700ms
cell
CAE
No (VT) table new
table
cell
CAE
No (VT) table new
table
MFS
CST
No
1s
2s =>CDE
MFS
CST
No
500ms 1000ms =>CDE

YES

MFS
MFS

BSC
MFS
BSC
MFS
cell
cell
cell
cell

cell

CST

No

1.4s

1.9s =>CDE

CST
CST
CST

No
No
No

7
7
1

16 =>CDE
16 =>CDE
1.5 =>CDE

CST
CST

CST
CAE
CAE
CAE
CAE

CAE

No
No

1.2s
2.5s

No

1.7s =>CDE
3s =>CDE

1200ms 2200ms =>CDE

chgbl
chgbl
chgbl
chgbl

chgbl

200ms 700ms
200ms 700ms
8
15
0.5s see rules

1s

EN_MPDCH
RRM_PRH
cell
CAE
chgbl
0
N_TBF_per_SPDCH
RRM_PRH
cell
CAE
chgbl
1
EN_Delayed_DL_TBF_Rel RRM-PRH
BSS
CAE
chgbl
0
T_ul_assign_pccch
RRM PCC
YES cell
CAE
chgbl
0.4s
S
RRM (MS)
YES cell
CAE
chgbl
30
TX_INT
RRM(MS)
YES cell
CAE
chgbl
8
Tx_integer
PAGCH
cell
CAE
chgbl
T_PDCH_inactivity
RRM-PRH
BSS
CAE
chbl
10
T_PDCH_inactivity_last RRM-PRH
BSS
CAE
chbl
10
Table 1: parameter list for Abis or Ater satellite connection,

1.5s

see rule
see rule
see rule
0.7s
see rule
see rule
see rule
see rule
see rule

Formatting meaning :
Red => OMC impact
Blue=> CST becomes CDE
black=> operator tuning, with (if possible) recommended value for satellite links.
Bold: additional parameters modified if Ater is through satellite (not applicable to Abis
case).
italics: parameters used for MDCH only.
Method : Essential parameters to activate the feature
3.2.4

Additional tuning rules for parameters

The parameters which are not listed below (Tcorr, Testab,


T_ul_assign_pcch) do not require specific additional rule or comment.
3.2.4.1

BS_CV_max,

T3168,

EN_MPDCH.

The Master PDCH requires the establishment of a GCH (Abis and Ater) which does not
carry traffic. In case of Abis or Ater through satellite, the usage of the MPDCH must
consider the following criteria:

Higher cost of transmission resources through the satellite

ED
EVOLIUM

01

RELEASED

GPRS through satellite connection on Abis or Ater interface


SFD_0538_01(GPRS
ABIS&ATER SATELLITE).DOC
16/05/2003

3BK 10204 0538 ZZA

17/36


Limited throughput of the RSL in case of Abis through satellite to about 8 Kbitps
because of round trip delay effect on acknowledged protocol (see section 5.3.1 and ref [A1]
for detailed explanations). In case of important CS signalling load, the RSL may not be able
to transport the additional signalling load due toTBF establishments when no MPDCH is
established. Hence the recommendation in the GPRS through satellite case is:

For a cell connected with Abis through satellite and with non negligible signalling load
(CS+PS), MPDCH is recommended.

For a cell connected with Ater through satellite, MPDCH is not recommended.

3.2.4.2

Round_trip_delay:

See section 1.3.1 for definiton and computation of round trip delay with a satellite link. The OMC and
the GPU ranges must be extended for this parameter to at least 900ms, to cope for potential increase
of the round-trip delay due to the possible future introduction of compression/decompression
equipment. The OMC-R also uses this parameter to determine whether or not GPRS traffic is carried
through Abis or Ater satellite links as follows:

If round_trip_delay < 500 ms, the OMC-R considers that GPRS traffic is carried through Abis
andAter terrestrial links,

If round_trip_delay >= 500 ms, the OMC-R considers that GPRS traffic is carried either through
Abis satellite links or Ater satellite

3.2.4.3

T_ul_assign_CCCH, T_dl_assign_CCCH:

See explanation about Virtual Changeable parameters in section 3.2.2. An offset of about 500ms
must be added compared to the value for terrestrial links. As the timer accuracy in the MFS is 50 ms,
it is recommended to set values so that other timers derived from the above timers are a multiple of
9
50 ms. Hence the added offset may not be exactly 500ms .

3.2.4.4

T_ul_ access_max:

The two following rules are recommended:


i) The Time T_ul_access_max shall be longer than the duration of a radio allocation requested
towards the BSC.
ii) A too long value of T_ul_access_max may lead to reserve unnecessarily radio resources. It is
recommended to set T_ul_access_max = T_repeat + 240 ms Round_Trip_Delay, where the
T_Repeat is the maximum time between two successive packet channel requests, 240 ms is a given
margin. The value of T_Repeat depends on the parameters S, TX_INT, and TX_INTEGER.
It is recommended to set this parameter as follows depending whether or not GPRS traffic is carried
through Ater satellite links:

IT_ul_access_max = 1400 ms if GPRS traffic is carried through Ater terrestrial links in all the cells
of the MFS,

IT_ul_access_max = 1900 ms if GPRS traffic is carried through Ater satellite links in at least one
cell of the MFS.

3.2.4.5

K_GSL

The Abis RSL throughput should be estimated with knowledge of the cell traffic and signalling
load.For safety, if at least 4 Kbitps for CS services is needed on the downlink, then a MPDCH shall be
configured.
9

As the SFD has been written after the B.2 CR, the exact coding can be found in CR
3BKA20CBR123988
ED
EVOLIUM

01

RELEASED

GPRS through satellite connection on Abis or Ater interface


SFD_0538_01(GPRS
ABIS&ATER SATELLITE).DOC
16/05/2003

3BK 10204 0538 ZZA

18/36

The parameter K_GSL is the anticipation window size for the LapD protocol. It conditions the
available bandwidth per GSL link,
K_GSL (BSC) for the BSC-to-MFS direction,
K_GSL (MFS) for the MFS-to-BSC direction.
The value 7 is enough for GSL through terrestrial link, and the value 16 is the maximum possible
considered in the BSS, because of available buffer space in the BSC. The value 16 improves the
GSL bandwidth but will not provide 100% of 64 Kbit/s (see Annex B for details).
Using the satellite value with Ater through a terrestrial link will increase the number of message
10
repetition in case of poor transmission quality on the Ater interface, which increases the risk of
congestion on the GSL. With good transmission on the Ater interface, the change will not be
noticeable.
This is important especially if the operator uses the Gs interface with no MPDCH in most cells (flow of
CS paging on the GSL from the MFS to the BSC.
Depending on the K_GSL value, and on the operator choice for Gs interface, MPDCH, Location area
size, the number of cells supported by a GPU will be more or less limited (see Annex 3). The smaller
the value, the lower the number of cells which can be mapped per GPU in case of satellite link.
Note that for other non-listed GSL parameters (T200_GSL, T_GSL_ACK, etc..) default values are
already compatible with satellite links.

3.2.4.6

T_GPRS_Resume

A longer value (1.5s instead of 1s) is not a problem for terrestrial (radio resources are kept 500ms
longer in case of SGSN failure to reply. It is possible that the terrestrial value (1s) may be enough to
operate with satellite links, but it may depend on SGSN performances, on which we have no data.
3.2.4.7

T _delayed_DL_TBF_rel_radio

It is advised to increase this parameter by 1s compared to terrestrial link to avoid degradation of


service access time with satellite round trip delay.
Note that this parameter does not exist any longer with B8 software.
3.2.4.8

T3192

It is recommended to set this parameter as follows depending whether or not GPRS traffic is carried
through Abis or Ater satellite links:
- Case GPRS traffic is carried through Abis and Ater terrestrial links in the serving cell:
i) T3192 = 1000 ms if the non-DRX mode is not activated and the delayed DL TBF release mode is
not activated in the cell (i.e. if DRX_TIMER_MAX = 0 and EN_DELAYED_DL_TBF_REL = 0)
ii) T3192 = 500 ms if the non-DRX mode is activated or the delayed DL TBF release mode is
activated in the cell (i.e. if DRX_TIMER_MAX > 0 or EN_DELAYED_DL_TBF_REL = 1)
- Case GPRS traffic is carried either through Abis satellite links or Ater satellite links in the serving
cell:
i) T3192 = 1500 ms if the non-DRX mode is not activated and the delayed DL TBF release mode is
not activated in the cell (i.e. if DRX_TIMER_MAX = 0 and EN_DELAYED_DL_TBF_REL = 0)
ii) T3192 = 1000 ms if the non-DRX mode is activated or the delayed DL TBF release mode is
activated in the cell (i.e. if DRX_TIMER_MAX > 0 or EN_DELAYED_DL_TBF_REL = 1)

10

It must be noted that it is quite possible to have very good quality with some satellite links and mediocre quality
with some terrestrial links. A value of K_GSL =16 will not cause any problems with links which comply with ITU-T
recommendation G.826.

ED
EVOLIUM

01

RELEASED

GPRS through satellite connection on Abis or Ater interface


SFD_0538_01(GPRS
ABIS&ATER SATELLITE).DOC
16/05/2003

3BK 10204 0538 ZZA

19/36

3.2.4.9

N_TBF_per_SPDCH

When GPRS traffic is carried through Abis/Ater satellite links, the repetition of (Packet) Channel
Request messages is faster than the network response. Then, it is likely to have double and even
triple PDCH allocation for one single TBF if there is no PDCH established to serve the MS request. In
order to avoid requesting too many PDCHs and GCHs to the BSC (which would not be used)
N_TBF_PER_SPDCH can be increased to optimise the target number of TBFs to be multiplexed on
one PDCH.

3.2.4.10 EN_Delayed_DL_TBF_Rel
To obtain better Telecom performance, it is recommended to set EN_DELAYED_DL_TBF_REL to 1.
3.2.4.11 S and TX_INT
The recommended value of S and TX_INT depends on the value of BS_PRACH_BLKS. These
parameters need to be tuned only if a MPDCH is configured in the cell.
When the GPRS traffic is carried through Abis or Ater satellite links, it is recommended to set S so
that the time between two successive Packet Channel Request messages is longer than 1400 ms.
It is recommended to set TX_INT so that the corresponding spreading time is about 240 ms.

3.2.4.12 Tx_integer
When the GPRS is supported through Abis or Ater satellite links, it is recommended to set:
TX_INTEGER = 32 whatever the configuration of the CCCH.

3.2.4.13 T_PDCH_inactivity
The setting of the T_PDCH_Inactivity timer comes to make a trade-off between the GCH resource
usage and the Telecom performance:
- The higher is the T_PDCH_Inactivity timer, the higher is the GCH resource usage on the Ater
interface. This may imply additional bandwidth usage on the satellite link.
- The higher is the T_PDCH_Inactivity timer, the lower is the average duration of TBF establishments
on (P)CCCH. This will improve the service access time with satellite links.

3.2.4.14 T_PDCH_inactivity_last
The setting of the T_PDCH_Inactivity_Last timer comes to make a trade-off between the GCH
resource usage and the Telecom performance:
- The higher is the T_PDCH_Inactivity_Last timer, the higher is the GCH resource usage on the Ater
interface. This may imply additional bandwidth usage on the satellite link.
- The higher is the T_PDCH_Inactivity_Last timer, the lower is the average duration of TBF
establishments on (P)CCCH. This will improve the service access time with satellite links.
This parameter may also be used to ensure that the BSS reserves at least one GCH resource in the
serving cell while the MS is engaged in a Web browsing session

3.2.5
ED
EVOLIUM

Additional CST Parameter modification for B8


01

RELEASED

GPRS through satellite connection on Abis or Ater interface


SFD_0538_01(GPRS
ABIS&ATER SATELLITE).DOC
16/05/2003

3BK 10204 0538 ZZA

20/36

Six RLC parameters have been identified as needing specific modification in the scope of B8. Four of
them are only related to EGPRS. The two GPRS parameters were not adapted in the scope of B7.2,
for budget and planning reason. These parameters shall be optimised for B8, so as to improve RLC
performance with satellite links.
These parameters are duplicated in the MFS data-base. For each parameter a one new one is
created for satellite link, the old one is used for terrestrial link. These parameters remain CST type
parameters, which implies that they are not accessible at the OMC operator interface. The choice, of
which parameter (satellite or terrestrial) has to be used for a given TBF, is perfomed in the MFS
depending on the value of the round trip delay parameter in the considered cell.

If round_trip_delay < 500 ms, the MFS considers that GPRS traffic is carried through Abis and
Ater terrestrial links,

If round_trip_delay >= 500 ms, the MFS considers that GPRS traffic is carried either through Abis
or Ater satellite links,

The table below provides the list of the new B8 RLC parameters.

new parameter name

protocol
layer
GPRS_DL_Ack_Period_satellite RLC
GPRS_UL_Ack_Period_satellite RLC
EGPRS_DL_ack_factor_satellite RLC
E_GPRS_UL_ack_factor_satellite RLC
N3105_limit_satellite
RLC
EGPRS_N3105_limit_satellite RLC

instance category
MFS
MFS
MFS
MFS
MFS
MFS

CST
CST
CST
CST
CST
CST

OMC

Default value

No
No
No
No
No
No

tbd
tbd
tbd
tbd
tbd
tbd

Table 2: New CSTparameter (RLC) for satellite link in B8.

The choice of the four first parameters (GPRS_DL_Ack_Period, GPRS_UL_Ack_Period,


EGPRS_DL_ack_factor, E_GPRS_UL_ack_factor) is the result of a compromise bewteen two
aspects:

With a high value of the above parameters, it will take more time for the transmiter to be
informed of an uncorrectly received block in the receiver. Consequently the risk of stalling the
RLC window is increased. Hence, in case of high BLER on the radio path, the loss of throughput
in the direction of the transfer will be minimised by a low value. For a satellite link, the loss of
throughput in case of errors on the radio path will be higher than with terrestrial links because of a
higher risk of window stalling.. Applying a lower value than with a terrestrial link will enable to
compensate partly this additional loss of throughput.

The Acknowledgments are taking some throughput on the PDCH in the direction opposite to the
transfer. It another TBF is established (for the same MS or another one) in the opposite direction,
then this results in a throughput degradation for the latter TBF.

It is not simple to determine the best compromise to tune the above parameters. Some preliminary
study with a BLER of 30% is presented in Annex A. More accurate results will be obtained from
simulations from R&I. The default value for satellite links shall be set according to simulation results.

According to BSS telecom parameters, the N3105_limit parameter and EGPRS_N3105_limit are
related to the four other parameters. EGPRS_N3105_limit and N3105_limit parameters shall have
specific values for satellite links, the default value shall also be set according to simulation results.

ED
EVOLIUM

01

RELEASED

GPRS through satellite connection on Abis or Ater interface


SFD_0538_01(GPRS
ABIS&ATER SATELLITE).DOC
16/05/2003

3BK 10204 0538 ZZA

21/36

3.2.6

Additional CAE Parameter tuning for B8

The tuning of the following parameters (CAE) may be impacted by the satellite link:

parameter name

protocol
layer

EN_fast_initial_gprs_ac
cess

RRM-PRH

cell

CAE

NB_TS_MPDCH

RRM-PRH

cell

CAE

instance

category

OMC

Default
value

satellite
value

chgbl

0
(disabled)

chgbl

see
comment
below
see
comment
below

Table 3: Additional CAE parameter tuning defined in B8.


The following external comments may be added to help the operator set these parameters
in the satellite case.
EN_FAST_INITIAL_GPRS_ACCESS: Better performances for service access time will be
obtained when this parameter is set to enabled, but one PDCH will always be established in
the cell. A compromise has to be made by the operator between performance gain and the
cost of radio and terrestrial resources. This compromise becomes of higher importance in
case of a cell connected through a satellite link due to the higher GPRS access time with
satellite links and also the higher cost of transmission. This parameter being set by BSS, it
may be useful to tune it in the specific case of Ater through satellite links. In the case of
Abis through satellite, the parameter should be set to the value recommended with
terrestrial links, as not to degrade desired performances for the cells connected with a
terrestrial link; even though the value may not be optimal for the satellite case.
NB_TS_MPDCH: The Master PDCH requires the establishment of a GCH (Abis and Ater)
which does not carry traffic. In case of Abis or Ater through satellite, the usage of the
MPDCH must consider the following criteria:

Higher cost of transmission resources through the satellite

Limited throughput of the RSL in case of Abis through satellite to about 8 Kbitps
because of round trip delay effect on acknowledged protocol (see section 5.3.1 and ref [A1]
for detailed explanations). In case of important CS signalling load, the RSL may not be able
to transport the additional signalling load due toTBF establishments when no MPDCH is
established. Hence the recommendation in the GPRS through satellite case is:

11

For a cell connected with Abis through satellite and with non negligible signalling load
(CS+PS), MPDCH is recommended.

For a cell connected with Ater through satellite, MPDCH is not recommended.
Note that this parameter corresponds to B7.2 parameter EN_MPDCH.

3.2.7

PM counters

At this stage no PM counters specific for GPRS through satellite links have been identified.

3.2.8

PM indicators

At this stage no PM counters specific for GPRS through satellite links have been identified.
11

The Abis RSL throughput should be estimated with knowledge of the cell traffic and signalling
load.For safety, if at least 4 Kbitps for CS services is needed on the downlink, then a MPDCH shall be
configured.
ED
EVOLIUM

01

RELEASED

GPRS through satellite connection on Abis or Ater interface


SFD_0538_01(GPRS
ABIS&ATER SATELLITE).DOC
16/05/2003

3BK 10204 0538 ZZA

22/36

3.2.9

Migration

It is recommended to the operator to plan the feature GPRS through satellite at migration time.
Indeed some CDE parameters have to be customized to allow the activation of the feature.
As the system migration method includes the customization of CDE parameters through CDE table
for BSC CDE parameters and CDE BUL files for MFS CDE parameters, migration is the good place
to customize these parameters.
As described in chapter 3.2.3 (for B7.2) and 3.2.5 (for B8), the following parameters have to be
customized before GPRS through satellite:
GPRS through satellite on Abis:
T_one_Block (MFS CDE)
Trelease (MFS CDE)
T_ACK_WAIT (MFS CDE)
T_delayed_DL_TBF_rel_radio (MFS CDE)
T_ack_wait_DRX_PCCCH
GPRS through satellite on Ater:
Same list as Abis + the following additional parameters
T_ul_access_max (MFS CDE)
K_GSL(BSC) (BSC CDE)
K_GSL(MFS) (MFS CDE)
T_GPRS_resume (BSC CDE)
Note: the reason why Ater requires extra parameter tuning compared to Abis is explained in section
1.3.3.
Nevertheless, Satellite CDE parameters shall be changeable apart from the migration process.

3.2.10 GPRS through satellite activation.


This chapter takes as prerequisite the customization to satellite values of needed CDE parameters.
Rules and explanations about parameter tuning can be found in sections 3.2.3 (for B7.2) and section
3.2.6 (for B8).

3.2.10.1.1 Activation of the feature GPRS through Abis satellite:

BSS parameters:
EN_Delayed_DL_TBF_Rel
T_PDCH_inactivity
T_PDCH_inactivity_last
For all the BSS parameters, the feature can be activated with default values

Cell

parameters:
Round_trip_delay
Tcorr
Testab
BS_CV_MAX
T3192

The cell parameters listed above shall be set to specific values to enable the GPRS through satellite
on Abis connection.
The following parameters can remain with default values.
N_TBF_per_SPDCH
Tx_integer
ED
EVOLIUM

01

RELEASED

GPRS through satellite connection on Abis or Ater interface


SFD_0538_01(GPRS
ABIS&ATER SATELLITE).DOC
16/05/2003

3BK 10204 0538 ZZA

23/36

EN_MPDCH (B7.2 only)


EN_fast_initial_gprs_access (B8 only)
NB_TS_MPDCH (B8 only)

The 3 last one are relevant for Master PDCH only:


T_ul_assign_pccch
S
TX_INT

ACTION

# persons / Lead
site
time
Set Cell parameters (using MF- Set 1/OMC-R 2
GPRS/UMTS Common Cell
Parameters) with edit multiple cells:
Round_trip_delay
Tcorr
Testab
BS_CV_MAX
T3192

Traffic
impact

M O&M
Synchro
Impact impact

3.2.10.1.2 Activation of the feature GPRS through Ater by satellite:


The following actions have to be done additionally to those listed for the Abis through satellite case.
BSS parameters:
none
Cell parameters:
T3168
ACTION

# persons / Lead
site
time
Set Cell parameters (using MF- Set 1/OMC-R 30
GPRS/UMTS Common Cell
Parameters) with edit multiple cells:
T3168

3.3

Traffic
impact

M O&M
Synchro
Impact impact

Validation

3.3.1

Validation for telecom aspects

The validation has several goals:

Check the possibility to establish GPRS transaction in a cell connected through satellite

Check if the feature works with MS-to-MS transactions.

Check that the new values of the CDE parameters, which are modified also for terrestrial links,
has no detectable impact on PS performances for the cells connected through terrestrial links

ED
EVOLIUM

01

RELEASED

GPRS through satellite connection on Abis or Ater interface


SFD_0538_01(GPRS
ABIS&ATER SATELLITE).DOC
16/05/2003

3BK 10204 0538 ZZA

24/36

Evaluate the performances with a few typical applications (WAP, FTP, WEB-browsing, SMS)

For the Abis case, for which the RSL throughput may be a problem, the correct functioning of
PS+CS services, on one cell with a few TRE shall be checked. The RSL load on the TRE carrying
following configuration shall be estimated, and LAPD congestion assessed with possible
consequences (dropped calls, paging lost, etc..).

1CCCH combined + 4 SDCCH + 7 TCH. (TCH used for CS or as PDCH)


1 CCCH not combined + 8 SDCCH + 6 TCH. (TCH used for CS or as PDCH)

Some calls shall be made so as to load at least such a TRE, with the Alcatel call mix (maybe with
a reduced cell paging rate). The paging rate may be lowered down to one cell = one location area
=> Paging rate = MT-call rate + SMS-MT rate.

3.3.2

Validation for O&M aspects

Check the modification of CDE parameters out of the migration.


Check the activation of the feature.

3.3.3

Testing tools

Delay line needed. No other specific tool.

3.3.4

3.4

Test strategy

Methods

Method shall be delivered to modified BUL files apart from the migration
The impact of such a method is a GPRS outage due to GPUs reset.
Method shall be delivered to modify CDE parameters apart from migration.
The method consists in a pseudo software replacement with the same BSS software than the
running one and with the application of CDE table. This CDE table shall be customized with correct
values for GPRS through satellite feature.
Impact on existing method: Satellite feature activation.
Add in the existing method describing the satellite feature activation, the tuning of CAE parameters
essential for GPRS through satellite (CF chapter 3.2.10)

3.5

GCDs

3.6

Engineering rules

Engineering rules may be impacted by the system dimensioning constraints (see section 5.3).

3.6.1

ED
EVOLIUM

Fault Management

01

RELEASED

GPRS through satellite connection on Abis or Ater interface


SFD_0538_01(GPRS
ABIS&ATER SATELLITE).DOC
16/05/2003

3BK 10204 0538 ZZA

25/36

4.1

SUBSYSTEM IMPACTS

BTS

No impact

4.2

BSC

No Software impacts. Impacts on data management.

4.3

Transcoder

No impact

4.4

MFS

B7.2 impacts: Increase of the range of round trip delay parameter.


B8 impacts: Impacts of RLC parameter choice depending on round trip delay (impact Data and
software). See section 3.2.5 for details. The new parameters are passed down to PTU and a specific
handling is needed in RLC layer to assess whether terrestrial or satellite parameter is to be used.

4.5

OMC_R

B7.2 impacts: Evolution of round_trip_delay parameter shall be taken into account (See section 3.2.
) and virtual changeable parameter modification.
RNO is impacted by Round trip delay parameter range modification.
B8 impacts: No impact

4.6

OEF/POLO

There is no impact on OEF tool.


Impact on POLO tool:
The check that "if BSS.AterConnectionType = VIA_SATELLITE, there must be FULL_GSM in
AterMux table shall be removed.

5
5.1

PERFORMANCE & SYSTEM DIMENSIONING


Traffic model

We have no specific traffic model for satellite connection.

ED
EVOLIUM

01

RELEASED

GPRS through satellite connection on Abis or Ater interface


SFD_0538_01(GPRS
ABIS&ATER SATELLITE).DOC
16/05/2003

3BK 10204 0538 ZZA

26/36

5.2

Performance

5.2.1

Maximum Data Throughput.

GPRS case: The maximum throughput is defined by the proportion of time during which the
window is not stalled. In the best case (no repetition due to transmission errors), it is equal to the
time taken to transmit the full window divided by the round-trip-time. For GPRS the window size
is equal to 64 blocks. The total round-trip-time with a satellite link is equal to 700ms. So the
maximum throughput expressed in RLC blocks/s is 64/0.7 = 91 RLC block/s. The normal
throughput per PDCH with terrestrial links is 50 RLC blocks/s per PDCH. So whatever the coding
scheme used (i.e. CS1 to CS4), the maximum throughput at RLC level with a satellite link is
about 90% of the maximum obtained with 2 PDCH when Abis or Ater interface are using
terrestrial link.

EDGE case: That the large value of WS enables to reach the maximum EDGE throughput (MC8,
MCS9 not taken into account) with no Error on the radio path. This however does not take into
account the sensitivity to radio condition in the cell.

Sensitivity to radio conditions in the cell: In case of poor radio condition in a cell, the
throughput degradation will be more dramatic with a satellite link than with a terrestrial link, due to
the addition of satellite delay with each repeated RLC block. This can be attenuated by the tuning
of some RLC parameters, as proposed in section 3.2.5. Some estimation of additional the loss of
throughput with a BLER =30% has been performed within SYT and is reported in Annex X.
However such a high BLER does not seem very realistic and more simulation results is awaited to
conclude on this subject.

cell reselection:The traffic interruption due to cell reselection will be increased (not quantified).

5.2.2

Service access time.

The user applications (especially WAP and WEB browsing) are slowed down due to
slower TBF establishments. This effect is diminished by the Delayed downlink TBF release
feature and by the PDCH inactivity timer. It should be noted that the delay induced by the satellite
through Ater is higher than with Abis through satellite, because more signalling is involved on this
interface for resource allocation. This is illustrated with the expected Ping round trip delay
(rough estimation), based on B7.2 expected performances. (B8 further optimisation not taken into
account, but the gain should be only for the Ater case).

Repetitive pings (less than 2s interval)


12
with Delayed DL TBF release enabled
Repetitive pings (more than 5s
interval), with radio and terrestrial
resources already established.
Single pings (about 15s between
pings), with no resources established.

Abis and Ater


Terrestrial links

Abis through
satellite

Ater through
satellite

800ms

1500ms

1500ms

1100ms

2000ms

2000ms

1600ms

3000ms

3500ms

Table 4: estimation of ping time through the BSS with and w/o a satellite link.
12

Except for the first ping, which behaves like a single ping

ED
EVOLIUM

01

RELEASED

GPRS through satellite connection on Abis or Ater interface


SFD_0538_01(GPRS
ABIS&ATER SATELLITE).DOC
16/05/2003

3BK 10204 0538 ZZA

27/36

For WAP or for other applications, which transmit a small amount of data with relatively
long interruptions (more than 10s), the degradation will be very strong in term of access time.

For TCP based applications (FTP, WEB browsing), the degradation will vary depending
on the type of server used (some have specific behaviour to cope with satellite delays), and
depending on the amount of data to transfer. For small data transfer (less than 50Kbytes), the
loss of throughput at user level is more significant due to the slow start mechanism.

5.3

System dimensionning

The system dimensioning must take into account the two following constraints:
If Abis through satellite, limited throughput on the RSL
If Ater through satellite, limited throughput on the GSL

5.3.1

Impact of satellite delay on RSL throughput.

This is already studied in reference [A1]. The throughput available per RSL, when considering GSM
CS signalling with a window size of 15 (maximum allowed), is about 8 Kbit/s. This is already tight for
the nominal load with CS traffic. In case of important signalling load due to TBF establishments, the
increased RSL load due to PS signalling on the CCCH may not be compatible with the RSL available
throughput. In this case configuring a MPDCH would help decreasing the RSL throughput.

5.3.2

Impact of satellite delay on GSL throughput.

The throughput available on the GSL, when considering GSM CS signalling with a window size of 16
(maximum allowed), is about 12 Kbit/s. The consequence is that a lower number of cells per GPU
should be configured. See details in Annex B.

5.4

Load constraints

There is no specific load constraints in term of CPU.

ED
EVOLIUM

01

RELEASED

GPRS through satellite connection on Abis or Ater interface


SFD_0538_01(GPRS
ABIS&ATER SATELLITE).DOC
16/05/2003

3BK 10204 0538 ZZA

28/36

OPEN POINTS

The following open points have been raised during the ellaboration of this SFD. The conclusions are
provided herebelow. When the open points are closed, the discussions have been removed from the
other parts of the SFD so as not to confuse the reader.
OPEN POINT 1: Can the feature GPRS through satellite links be inhibited by O&M?
Status: closed.
The feature cannot be inhibited, if the industrialisation of satellite is enabled.
The feature GPRS through satellite has to be planned at network level before migration to customise
correctly CDE and BUL files. Satellite CDE parameters are not changeable apart from the migration
process.
OPEN POINT 2: It is not clear how to find the best compromise for the tuning of RLC parameters
from Table 2.
.
Some preliminary study with a BLER of 30% is presented in Annex A. More accurate results will be
obtained from simulations from R&I.
Status: closed.
The default value for the satellite instance of the parameters will be set according to simulation
results. An update of this SFD will be provided with result summary.
OPEN POINT 3: The tuning of the RLC parameters (presented in Table 2) for satellite connections can
be envisaged in two waysor not at all:
1. either parameters instanciated at Cell level: => OMC-R and MIB impact
2. or Duplication of the parameters in the MFS DLS , one value for satellite, one value for terrestrial.
The choice of the value is made in the MFS depending on the value of the round trip delay
parameter.
Status: closed.
The second option is the chosen one so as to limit Software impacts.
OPEN POINT 4: According to BSS telecome parameters, the N3105_limit parameter and
EGPRS_N3105_limit are related to the four other RLC parameters (presented in Table 2).
Status: closed
Recommended values for the satellite case will be provided by simulation results.
An update of this SFD will be provided with result summary.
OPEN POINT 5: Can the BTS G2 support the GPRS through satellite connection?
The point is under investigation. Current status is NOT SUPPORTED.

ED
EVOLIUM

01

RELEASED

GPRS through satellite connection on Abis or Ater interface


SFD_0538_01(GPRS
ABIS&ATER SATELLITE).DOC
16/05/2003

3BK 10204 0538 ZZA

29/36

IMPACTS SUMMARY

Equipments:
BTS

BSC
X

MFS
x

TC

OMC-R
X

Ater

BTS-TC

Interfaces:
Telecom
Radio
Abis

O&M
Abis-O&M

BSC-O&M

TC-O&M

MFS-O&M
x

MFS-BTS

MFS-BSC

Gb

Q3

To be filled in by O&M experts.


List of Impacted Step2:
List the Step2 documents which are impacted by the present feature.
BSS telecom parameter
GPRS Traffic Model and Performances
RLC functional specification
BSS O&M parameter
Network Modification Process and Performance (NMPP)
Migration

ED
EVOLIUM

01

RELEASED

GPRS through satellite connection on Abis or Ater interface


SFD_0538_01(GPRS
ABIS&ATER SATELLITE).DOC
16/05/2003

3BK 10204 0538 ZZA

30/36

GLOSSARY

8.1

Abbreviations

8.2

Terminology

ED
EVOLIUM

01

RELEASED

GPRS through satellite connection on Abis or Ater interface


SFD_0538_01(GPRS
ABIS&ATER SATELLITE).DOC
16/05/2003

3BK 10204 0538 ZZA

31/36

A. ANNEX: EDGE THROUGHPUT IN CASE OF HIGH BLER


The calculation done for GPRS cannot be applied to EGPRS, because the much higher window size
does not allow to acknowledge the full ARQ window with a single Packet ACK/NACK message. In
document ref [A3, the ACK/NACK bit-map is supposed to have an infinite length, but in reality the
ACK/NACK bit-map is segmented into several messages, which increases the risk of protocol stalling.
13
The following shows the results of simulations run with a simulator develop in SYT , to estimate the
possible loss of performances with satellite links (total round-trip delay is 620ms), depending on the
possible optimisation of the ARQ parameters (polling period, bit map compression). The total bit-map
length is set to be 128 bits for most cases (exceptions in bold). The simulations are run with multislot
14
capability 1,2, 4.

The output of the simulator is the RLC normalized throughput with a constant BLER of 30%. The
normalized RLC throughput is the ratio: Actual throughput/maximum throughput. With BLER =30%
the maximum reachable normalized throughput is 0.7. The normalized throughput is indicated in bold
when 0.60.

window
size (WS)
192
192
192
192
192
192
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
256
512
512
512
512
512
512
512

bit-map
length

INPUTS

Nb Time
slots
MCS 7

128
128
128
128
128
128
128
128
128
128

256
128
128
128
128
128
128
128

256
512
128

1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

yes
yes
yes
Yes
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
no
no
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
no

Ack
period
32
16
8
16
8
32
32
8
16
8
32
32
16
16
32
32
16
8
64
64
32

OUTPUT

Dl_Ack_facto
Bit-map
normalised
r
compression throughput
(= WS/
(max =0.7)
Ack_period)
0.17
No
0.36
0.08
No
0.45
0.04
No
0.52
0.08
yes
0.63
0.04
yes
0.63
0.17
No
0.68
0.13
No
0.46
0.03
No
0.50
0.06
yes
0.52
0.03
yes
0.52
0.03
yes
0.53
0.13
No
0.60
0.06
No
0.64
0.06
yes
0.67
0.06
No
0.35
0.06
yes
0.41
0.03
yes
0.42
0.02
yes
0.41
0.13
yes
0.47
0.13
yes
0.52
0.06
No
0.46

13

I have used the simulator that P.J.P. developped to make some contributions in standardisation. This simulator
is not documented, so there is some uncertainty on the way to choose the inputs, especially it seems that the
segmentation of the bit-map is not taken into account (only compression). I hope we will have simulation results
from the CRC for comparison.
14

Time slot capability = 3 is not implemented in the simulator, and time slot capabilty = 4 performances are
already not very satisfactory.

ED
EVOLIUM

01

RELEASED

GPRS through satellite connection on Abis or Ater interface


SFD_0538_01(GPRS
ABIS&ATER SATELLITE).DOC
16/05/2003

3BK 10204 0538 ZZA

32/36

512
512
512
512
512

128
128

256
512
256

4
4
4
4
4

no
no
no
no
no

16
16
32
32
128

0.03
0.03
0.06
0.06
0.25

No
yes
yes
yes
yes

0.50
0.56

0.63
0.66
0.60

Table 5: simulation of EGPRS normalized throughput with satellite round-trip-delay.


We see that we can only approach

15

the maximum normalized throughput with

1 time slot: all MCSs

2,4 time slots: only MCS-1 to 6 (1 Data block/radio block)

The throughput is improved by diminishing the polling period. It should be studied if this is in conflict
with the measurement reporting period for DL TBF.
The results of these simulations are however pessimistic, because they do not take into account the
fact that the BTS may autonomously perform the repetition of previously stored data blocks, in which
case the round-trip delay due to satellite is cancelled after the first repetition. This will improve the
throughput, but we are not able to quantify it.
These simulation were run assuming that only one TBF is using the assigned time slots. When
several TBF are multiplexed, then the fact that several TBF share the resources may diminishes the
waste of radio resources, but the maximum reachable throughput per user does not improve.
15

Approach <=> Normalized throughput 0.60

ED
EVOLIUM

01

RELEASED

GPRS through satellite connection on Abis or Ater interface


SFD_0538_01(GPRS
ABIS&ATER SATELLITE).DOC
16/05/2003

3BK 10204 0538 ZZA

33/36

B. ANNEX: GSL bandwidth and Maximum cells per GPU.


This annex is only applicable to the case of Ater connection through satellite links.
Parameters
GSL link speed
GSL I frame average length
RR (Ack at Lapd level)
Satellite round trip delay
process time (MFS +BSC)

value unit
64 Kbit/s
45 bytes
8 bytes
500 ms
10 ms

The available bandwidth on the GSL is computed as:


GSL link speed x K_val

I-frame transmission time + RR transmission time + Round trip delay + Processing time
K_VAL is the anticipation window for the LapD protocol
The frame transmission time is equal to the frame length (in bits) divided by the link speed (in bit/s)/

LinK speed

I trans time(ms)

64
64
64

5.6
5.6
5.6

RR trans
time
1.0
1.0
1.0

K_val
7
16
91

satellite GSL bandwidth


%GSL used
(Kbit/s)
8%
18%
100%

4.9
11.3
64.0

The needed bandwidth per cell on the GSL mainly depends on the number of TBF establishment on
the CCCH, the paging load, the number of suspend /resume. (For details see document 3BK 11203
0077 DSZZA GPRS Traffic Model and Performances). Depending on the traffic hypothesis and the
value of the K_GSL parameter in the MFS, the maximum number of cells, which can be mapped per
GPU, will vary. Some examples are given below but a detailed dimensioning should be conducted on
16
a per customer basis .
Traffic Hypothesis

Erlang/cell

CS call/s
TBF estb on CCCH per PS call
PS Paging/s
CS paging/s
Master PDCH
suspend / resume feature
16

20

(5 TRX cell)
0.4 (50s holding time)
2
0.1 (low)
15 (medium paging load)
none
yes

LCS traffic on the GSL has not been considered.

ED
EVOLIUM

01

RELEASED

GPRS through satellite connection on Abis or Ater interface


SFD_0538_01(GPRS
ABIS&ATER SATELLITE).DOC
16/05/2003

3BK 10204 0538 ZZA

34/36

GSL traffic load depending on PS max cells per GPU with 2 GSL
penetration and Gs interface
Kbit/s per cell K_VAL=7
K_VAL=16
33% PS penetration
GSL Kbit/s per cell if Gs
GSL Kbit/s per cell NO Gs

2.4
0.4

4
22

9
50

GSL Kbit/s per cell if Gs


GSL Kbit/s per cell NO Gs

1.5
0.3

6
30

14
68

GSL Kbit/s per cell if Gs


GSL Kbit/s per cell NO Gs

0.8
0.2

11
41

26
94

20% PS penetration
10% PS penetration

ED
EVOLIUM

01

RELEASED

GPRS through satellite connection on Abis or Ater interface


SFD_0538_01(GPRS
ABIS&ATER SATELLITE).DOC
16/05/2003

3BK 10204 0538 ZZA

35/36

C. ANNEX : parameters to be modified for Gb.


through satellite links.
The GB interface through satellite is not within the scope of this document.
Gb could be located on the Ater interface in the case where the MFS is collocated with the BSC. This
case is however quite rare and would rather corresponds to a large BSC in a dense urban area.
Hence it is not considered in the scope of Ater interface through satellite which is expected to apply to
small BSCs in remote area.
However, as a reminder, the following parameters need to be tuned in case of Gb through satellite
T4_BSS_GP
T3_BSSGP
T_delayed_PUAN
T_NETWORK_RESPONSE_TIME

END OF DOCUMENT

ED
EVOLIUM

01

RELEASED

GPRS through satellite connection on Abis or Ater interface


SFD_0538_01(GPRS
ABIS&ATER SATELLITE).DOC
16/05/2003

3BK 10204 0538 ZZA

36/36