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1)(
Understanding the Importance of Visual Merchandising on Store
Image and Shopper Behaviours in Home Furnishings Retail Setting
*oo-+,oung Seo-.
1/
*oung Eun 0ee
1

1
1epartment of 2e3tiles' Mer-4andising and Interiors' 24e 5ni6ersit, of 7eorgia' 8t4ens' 7eorgia $0902' 5S8
/ E-mail of t4e -orresponding aut4or: ,seo-.;f-s.uga.edu

Abstract
24e present stud, attempts to identif, t4e important 6isual mer-4andising fa-tors and e3amine t4e relations4ips
of t4ose fa-tors wit4 store images and s4opper <e4a6iours in t4e -onte3t of 4ome furnis4ings retail setting.
=a-tor anal,sis was emplo,ed to identif, dimensions of t4e importan-e of 6isual mer-4andising and -orrelation
anal,ses were implemented to e3amine t4e relations4ips among t4e 6aria<les in t4is stud,. %f four store image
dimensions' Store Environment was signifi-antl, related to Layout/Organization and Creative/Inspirational
Coordination fa-tors of 6isual mer-4andising. New Style/Trend Information aspe-t of store image was
signifi-antl, related to Window/Mer!andise "isplay and Creative/Inspirational Coordination of 6isual
mer-4andising fa-tors. Mer!andise #ssortment -onstru-t of store image was signifi-antl, related to
Layout/Organization and Creative/Inspirational Coordination aspe-ts of 6isual mer-4andising. 8ppealing
E$!i%ition dimension of store image was signifi-antl, related to Layout/Organization and
Creative/Inspirational Coordination aspe-ts of 6isual mer-4andising. 8mong fi6e -onstru-ts'
-reati6e>inspirational -oordination of t4e store was signifi-antl, and positi6el, related to 6isit fre?uen-,.
@owe6er' none of t4e importan-e of 6isual mer-4andising -onstru-ts was -orrelated to eit4er amount of time
spent s4opping or t4e num<er of items pur-4ased at one time s4opping at 4ome furnis4ings store. Based on t4e
findings of t4e stud,' dis-ussions and impli-ations were pro6ided.
Ke !ords: 4ome furnis4ings retail store' 6isual mer-4andising' store image' s4opper <e4a6iours.

"# Introduction
%6er t4e past few de-ades' t4e retail store en6ironment en-ountered <, -ustomers w4ile s4opping 4as <een
prominent in mar.eting 7il<oa and =afaeli' 200$" and 4as gained a growing amount of attention from <ot4
industr, and a-ademia. Bot4 pra-titioners and a-ademi-s parti-ularl, 4a6e long -onsidered 6isual stimulation
and -ommuni-ation as important aspe-ts of retail store en6ironment +erfoot et al.' 200$". 8--ording to
0ea-7reenwood 199#"' retailers 4a6e -ommonl,A and often effe-ti6el,A responded to t4e in-reased
-ompetition wit4 a strategi- re6iew of 4ow t4e offer is -ommuni-ated 6isuall,. 0ea-7reenwood again asserted
t4at 6isual mer-4andising is not merel, one part of t4e total design and mer-4andising -on-ept' <ut an
e3tremel, important element as t4e first 6isual -ue t4at affe-ts a -onsumerBs de-ision to enter or not enter t4e
retail store. Swanson and E6erret 2000" also noted t4at 6isual mer-4andising is <e-oming one of t4e prominent
a6enues to o<tain differential ad6antage o6er t4eir -ompetitors.
In 2002' Bell and 2ernus proposed t4at effe-ti6e 6isual mer-4andising te-4ni?ues esta<lis4 and maintain t4e
store image in t4e -ustomerBs mind and pro6ide support for t4e rest of t4e storeBs selling effort. 24at is'
mer-4andise at t4e store -an sell itself wit4 effe-ti6e displa, and signage e6en wit4out t4e assistan-e of a sales
asso-iate and t4us' 6isual mer-4andising -an aid retailers in lowering t4eir operating -osts. Similarl,' 0e6, and
CeitD 200(" maintained t4at 6isual -ommuni-ations in t4e store -an pro6ide ne-essar, produ-t information
and suggest items or spe-ial pur-4ases' and t4ere<, 4elp <oost retail sales. C4ereas t4e displa, department was
on-e -4arged wit4 simpl, ma.ing prett,' t4e 6isual mer-4andising department is now -onfronted wit4 t4e
-4allenge of ma.ing sales Bell and 2ernus' 2002". 24erefore' it is not surprising t4at t4e wor. of t4e 6isual
mer-4andiser 4as <e-ome far more demanding t4an t4at of a window trimmer in t4e past. 0i.ewise' t4eir
responsi<ilit, 4as <e-ome more and more important in a time of e3treme -ompetition. In t4is 6ein' it is -riti-al
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t4at mar.eters understand -onsumersB e6aluation of 6isual mer-4andising aspe-ts and its relations4ip wit4 t4eir
s4opping <e4a6iours.

Eonsumers toda, tend to pla-e -onsidera<le importan-e on t4e 4ome as a pla-e to li6e' rela3' and enFo, life
wit4 t4eir families G a refle-tion of t4e -urrent lifest,le trend toward -asual e3pression in fas4iona<le 4ome
furnis4ings as well as in apparel Sloan' 200)". 2oda, t4e in6entor, of 4ome furnis4ings a6aila<le to t4e
-onsumer seems almost endless' wit4 well-designed 4ome produ-ts in-luding e6er,t4ing from .it-4en items'
su-4 as pots' pans' and pepper mills' to items for t4e <edroom' su-4 as <edding and <lan.ets Bell and 2ernus'
2002". @owe6er' t4e <oundaries of <ot4 4ome furnis4ings and furniture retail industries 4a6e re-entl, <lurred
as t4e 4ome furnis4ings stores 4a6e -arried furniture as well. =or instan-e' t4e 4ome furnis4ing stores su-4 as
!otter, Barn' Erate and Barrel' Cest elm' Hestoration @ardware' et-. 4a6e -arried furniture as one of t4e maFor
mer-4andise. @ere<,' -onsumers 4a6e <een a<le to pur-4ase furniture in t4e 4ome furnis4ings stores. 8s
-onsumers 4a6e pla-ed more and more importan-e on t4eir 4ome =orne, et al.' 2005"' more attention 4as
<een gi6en to 4ome furnis4ings retail setting' espe-iall, in industr, literatureI 4owe6er' far too little attention
4as <een paid to 4ome furnis4ings retail setting in t4e a-ademi- literature stream. 24us' t4e -urrent stud,
attempts to -ontri<ute to t4e a-ademi- literature <, fo-using spe-ifi-all, on e3amining t4e importan-e of 6isual
mer-4andising in 4ome furnis4ings retail setting. 24e purpose of t4e present stud, is to identif, t4e important
6isual mer-4andising fa-tors and e3amine t4e relations4ips of t4ose fa-tors wit4 store images and s4opper
<e4a6iours in t4e -onte3t of 4ome furnis4ings retail setting. 24is stud, will pro6ide 4ome furnis4ings store
e3e-uti6es and managers in determining t4e ultimate 6isual mer-4andising -omponents to -reate effe-ti6e store
en6ironments t4at affe-t positi6e s4opper <e4a6iours at 4ome furnis4ings stores.

$# %iterature Revie!
&'( )isual Mer!andising *)M"+ and Store Image
&isual mer-4andising is t4e presentation of a store and its mer-4andise to t4e -ustomer t4roug4 t4e teamwor.
of t4e storeBs ad6ertising' displa,' spe-ial e6ents' fas4ion -oordination' and mer-4andising departments in order
to sell t4e goods and ser6i-es offered <, t4e store Mills et al.' 1995' p.1". In 199#' !egler argued' &isual
mer-4andising is no longer Fust a matter of ma.ing mer-4andise loo. attra-ti6e for t4e -ustomer. It is t4e a-tual
selling of mer-4andise t4roug4 a 6isual medium p.1" . In addition' Bell and 2ernus 2002" asserted t4at
6isual mer-4andising, on-e -alled Jdispla,'B 4as e6ol6ed from its origins as a storeBs de-orati6e arts department
to its -urrent status as a sales-supporti6e entit,' w4i-4 impa-ts store design' store signing' departmental
mer-4andise pla-ement and displa,' store atmosp4eri-s' and store image p.1#". &isual mer-4andising is
t4erefore -on-erned wit4 <ot4 4ow t4e produ-t and>or <rand is 6isuall, -ommuni-ated to t4e -ustomer and also
w4et4er t4is message is de-oded appropriatel, in t4e -onte3t affe-ting a positi6e ps,-4ologi-al or <e4a6ioural
out-ome' ultimatel, leading to pur-4ase +erfoot et al.' 200$". 8--ording to Crig4t et al. 2009"' atmosp4eri-
stimuli please t4e a-tual and emotional needs of -onsumers and en4an-e t4e degree of -onsumer parti-ipation
in a store' leading to fa6oura<le pur-4asing <e4a6iours. More re-entl,' 0aw et al. 2010" also asserted t4at
6isual mer-4andising t4at -o6ers t4e store e3terior and interior t4at are in6ol6ed in -reating a fa6oura<le
s4opping atmosp4ere -an en4an-es -onsumersB per-ei6ed image of t4e store. 24e term visual mer!andising
tends to <e inter-4angea<l, used wit4 t4e term display. Ne6ert4eless' 6isual mer-4andising in6ol6es mu-4
more in terms of pra-ti-es and responsi<ilities t4an simpl, displa,ing mer-4andise Swanson and E6erett'
2000".
8--ording to !egler 199#"' 6isual mer-4andising in6ol6es a num<er of te-4ni-al and artisti- -omponents:
-olour' te3ture' lig4ting' manne?uins' fi3ture' grap4i-s' signage and so on. %t4er resear-4ers asserted t4at of all
t4e atmosp4eri- -ues' -olour is t4e strongest moti6ator for s4opping Mills et al.' 1995". +erfoot et al. 200$"
suggested t4at t4e use of a wide 6ariet, of -olours is deemed to produ-e attra-ti6e and appealing displa, and
4ad t4e potential to positi6el, impa-t on a respondentBs propensit, to <rowse. Man, resear-4ers also 4a6e
-onsidered lig4ting as one of t4e maFor -ontri<uting fa-tors of 6isual mer-4andising in t4e retail setting Bell
and 2ernus' 2002I Berman and E6ans' 200(I 0e6, and CeitD' 200(". More re-entl,' !ar. and =arrBs resear-4
200)" re6ealed t4at t4e -olour ?ualit, of lig4ting in a retail store en6ironment su-4 as -olour temperature and
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-olour appearan-e affe-ts -onsumersB emotional states and t4e <e4a6ioural intention of approa-4-a6oidan-e.
Bell and 2ernus 2002" furt4er des-ri<ed t4e range of 6isual mer-4andising' su-4 as window and interior
displa,' promotional signing' store la,outs and interior dK-or' fi3ture la,outs' displa,ing mer-4andise on walls
and fi3tures. Cindow displa,' a--ording to t4e findings of 0ea-7reenwood 199#"' is a 6itall, important 6isual
-ommuni-ation tool used in retailing. Edwards and S4a-.le, 1992" reported t4at sales in-rease w4en window
displa,s are used' parti-ularl, for new produ-ts' and well- .nown <rands need effe-ti6e elements of a window
displa,. Similar to t4e pre6ious resear-4' %mar 1999" asserted t4at t4e -areful sele-tion of mer-4andise for t4e
displa, items t4at are distin-ti6e' timel,' st,lis4' or parti-ularl, good 6alueA -ontri<utes to t4e su--essful sale
of t4ose items. 8t t4e same time' t4e use of appropriate mer-4andise' -areful -4oi-e of t4e rig4t fi3tures' and
tastes and imagination in designing and e3e-uting t4e displa, -ontri<utes greatl, to t4e o6erall store image.
Signs are silent sales asso-iates and are often t4e first -onta-t t4at -ustomers 4a6e wit4 a store' a
department' and t4e mer-4andise Eol<orne' 19#2". Signs pro6ide important information w4i-4 t4e -ustomer
-an use in ma.ing pur-4ase de-isions Mills et al.' 1995"I for e3ample' effe-ti6e signs identif, departments'
des-ri<e t4e mer-4andise and its pri-e' inform -ustomers of spe-ial sales e6ents' alert -ustomers to ad6ertised
mer-4andise' and determine t4e t4eme of spe-ial window and interior displa,s Eol<orne' 19#2". 8s furt4er
e6iden-e of signage effe-ts' 0e6, and CeitD 200(" -laimed t4at sings as one of t4e 6isual -ommuni-ation
media 4elp <oost sales <, pro6iding information on produ-ts and suggesting items or spe-ial pur-4ases. More
re-entl,' Eant' M.E. and @efer' *. 2012" also asserted t4at 6isual mer-4andising en4an-es store image and
-onsumer s4opping e3perien-e at t4e store' adding 6alue to t4e store -4ara-ter. 24e, found' in parti-ular' t4at
spatial orientation wit4in t4e store and well-designed 6isual mer-4andising displa, affe-ts -onsumersL per-eption
on t4e retail store. =urt4ermore' results of t4eir stud, indi-ated t4at -onsumers per-ei6e 6isual mer-4andising as
a promotional tool.
8s store en6ironmental -ues represent t4e most imperati6e -4annel t4roug4 w4i-4 retailers -an -ommuni-ate
t4eir images wit4 -onsumers' it is -riti-al to understand 4ow -onsumers infer images from su-4 en6ironmental
-ues. 8--ording to 1i-.son and Ma-0a-4lan 1990"' -onsumers emplo, store image to determine 4ow suita<le
t4e, are as -ustomers for a parti-ular store. Bell and 2ernus 2002" suggested t4at effe-ti6e 6isual
mer-4andising esta<lis4es and maintains t4e storeBs p4,si-al and mental image in t4e -onsumersB mind. 8
num<er of pre6ious studies indi-ated t4at store atmosp4eri- -ues -reate t4e o6erall -onte3t wit4in w4i-4
s4oppers ma.e pur-4ase de-isions and are li.el, to signifi-antl, impa-t s4aping store image. @owe6er'
surprisingl,' t4ere 4as <een a la-. of studies on 4ow 6isual mer-4andising is related to t4e per-eption of store
image' w4ereas man, resear-4ers 4a6e -onsidered t4e 6isual aspe-ts of store en6ironment as one of t4e
-omponents of store image. 24erefore' t4e -urrent stud, will address 6isual mer-4andising as a separate
6aria<le in relation to t4e per-eption of store image.

&'& )isual Mer!andising *)M"+ and S!opper -e!aviours
Hetail store atmosp4eri-s ma, impa-t s4opper <e4a6iour. 8--ording to C!ain Store #ge 200("' t4e maForit, of
-onsumers 9$M" remem<er o--asions w4en t4e store atmosp4ere -aused t4em to <u, more or spend more time
at a store. Moreo6er' among t4ose influen-ed <, store atmosp4ere' almost 4alf (5M" report t4at t4e, spent not
onl, more mone, in t4e store <ut' more time. 8s noted in 2urle, and MillimanBs 2000" re6iew on t4e effe-t of
atmosp4eri-s on -onsumer <e4a6iour' t4e influen-e of store atmosp4ere on time spent in t4e store 4as re-ei6ed
attention from resear-4ers and' t4erefore' merits furt4er dis-ussion. 2ime spent in t4e store is related to t4e
desire to sta, in or to get out of t4e store en6ironment and is also related to t4e de-ision to s4op or not to s4op
at t4e store +ellaris and 8ltse-4' 1992". In t4eir landmar. arti-le introdu-ing t4e Me4ra<ian-Hussell M-H"
en6ironmental ps,-4olog, model to t4e stud, of store en6ironment' 1ono6an and Hossiter 19#2" suggested
t4at store-indu-ed pleasure pla,s a signifi-ant role as a determinant of approa-4-a6oidan-e <e4a6iour wit4in
t4e store' in-luding spending <e4a6iour' and t4at store-indu-ed feelings of alertness and e3-itement -ould result
in in-reased time spent in t4e store. More t4an a de-ade later' 1ono6an et al. 199(" repli-ated and e3tended t4e
1ono6an and HossiterBs stud,' -onfirming t4at pleasure engendered <, store atmosp4ere -ontri<utes to e3tra
time spent in t4e store and unplanned spending. In 200$' Ba<in et al. found t4at t4e -om<ination of -olours and
lig4ting pla,s a -riti-al role in influen-ing t4e pur-4ase intention of -onsumersB store patronage. +ou-4e.ian
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and 74ari<poor 2012" found t4at store la,out' -olor' lig4ting' store design' -leanliness and 4eig4t of s4el6es
are t4e signifi-ant determinants of -onsumer <u,ing de-ision at a gro-er, store.
8s su-4' despite t4e important role of 6isual mer-4andising in s4aping s4opper <e4a6iours in t4e store' t4ere
4as <een little dis-ussion a<out 6isual store atmosp4eri- -ues relating to s4opper <e4a6iours in a-ademi-
resear-4. Hat4er' most of t4e resear-4 in6estigating t4e effe-ts of store en6ironment on time spent in t4e store
fo-used on musi-al atmosp4eri- -ues' su-4 as t,pes of musi- *al-4 and Spangen<erg' 1990"' loudness or
6olume Smit4 N Eurnow' 1999" and tempo Milliman' 19#2"' w4ile a few of t4em fo-used on t4e olfa-tor,
-ues of store atmosp4ere Spangen<erg et al.' 1999". @en-e' t4e -urrent stud, will parti-ularl, identif, t4e
dimensionalit, of 6isual mer-4andising in terms of its relati6e importan-e e6aluated <, -onsumers in t4e 4ome
furnis4ings retail setting and in6estigate its o6erall relations4ips wit4 per-eption of store image and s4opping
<e4a6iours in t4e 4ome furnis4ing retail setting. =rom t4e pre6ious literature on importan-e of 6isual
mer-4andising' store image' -onsumer s4opping <e4a6iours' t4e following resear-4 4,pot4eses were
formulated for t4e stud,.
@1: 24ere are multi-dimensions of t4e importan-e of 6isual mer-4andising in t4e 4ome furnis4ings retail
setting.
@2: 24ere are multi-dimensions of t4e per-eption of store image in t4e 4ome furnis4ings retail setting.
@$: 24e importan-e of 6isual mer-4andising will <e signifi-antl, related to t4e per-eption of store image in t4e
4ome furnis4ings retail setting.
@(: 24e importan-e of 6isual mer-4andising will <e signifi-antl, related to time spent s4opping in t4e 4ome
furnis4ings retail stores.
@5: 24e importan-e of 6isual mer-4andising will <e signifi-antl, related to store 6isit fre?uen-, in t4e 4ome
furnis4ings retail stores.
@9: 24e importan-e of 6isual mer-4andising will <e signifi-antl, related to t4e num<er of items pur-4ased in
t4e 4ome furnis4ings retail stores.

&# Research Methods
.'( Sample and "ata Colletion
8 stru-tured ?uestionnaire was de6eloped to -olle-t data and distri<uted to a -on6enien-e sample of 900
females' w4ose ages range from 25 to 55' residing in a Sout4-eastern state of t4e 5nited States. 8 -on6enien-e
sample in-luded female -onsumers w4o 4a6e s4opped in one or more 4ome furnis4ings stores at least on-e
o6er t4e past ,ear. In order to -olle-t data' t4e resear-4ers -onta-ted 6arious lo-al organiDations su-4 as offi-es
at a uni6ersit, -ampus' -ommunit, organiDations' -4ur-4es' retail stores' and so fort4. %f t4e si3 4undreds of
?uestionnaires' 29$ sur6e,s were returned' indi-ating a return rate of ($.#$ per-ent. 8fter s-rutiniDing t4e
returned ?uestionnaires' )0 among 29$ ?uestionnaires were dis-arded: $ respondents did not pro6ide t4e
demograp4i- information' 2 were male respondents' 22 respondents 4a6e not s4opped in 4ome furnis4ings
stores" wit4in t4e past ,ear' and ($ parti-ipants returned in-ompletel, answered ?uestionnaires. 8s a result'
onl, 19$ ?uestionnaires were usa<le and in-luded in t4e data anal,sis' ,ielding a usage rate of $2.1) per-ent.
Slig4tl, o6er 4alf of respondents were <etween t4e ages of 25 to $0 50.#0 M" and t4is age group en-ompassed
t4e largest proportion of t4e respondents' followed <, t4e $1-(0 age group 19.90 M". 24e ne3t largest age
group was t4e (1 to 50 group 1$.00 M" and t4e o6er-50 age group was at 9.$ M. More t4an 4alf )1.00 M" of
t4e respondents were Eau-asian' followed <, 8sian>!a-ifi- islanders 19.10 M" and t4e rest of t4e ra-e group
a--ounted for less t4an 5 M. 24e in-ome fre?uen-, re6ealed t4at 29.$ per-ent of t4e respondents reported
annual 4ouse4old in-omes of less t4an O20'000 <efore ta3es' w4ile 2$ per-ent reported annual 4ouse4old
in-omes o6er O#0'000.
.'& Measurement
24e ?uestionnaire -onsisted of t4ree se-tions. 24e first se-tion -onsisted of two parts. 24e purpose of t4e first
part was to s-reen out un?ualified respondents w4o 4a6e not s4opped in a 4ome furnis4ings store o6er t4e past
,ear. 24e se-ond part -omprising 25 items was designed to identif, multi-dimensions of t4e importan-e of
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6isual mer-4andising. 24e statements were adopted and modified from Spies' @esse' and 0oes-4Bs resear-4
199)" -ondu-ted in two I+E8 4ome furnis4ings stores. 24is part spe-ifi-all, -on-erned an e6aluation of t4e
relati6e importan-e of 6isual mer-4andising <ased on respondentsB s4opping e3perien-es in t4e 4ome
furnis4ings stores. He?uiring respondents to re-all t4eir s4opping e3perien-es in t4e 4ome furnis4ings stores
w4ile t4e, are parti-ipating in t4is sur6e,' respondents were as.ed to assess t4e importan-e of 6isual
mer-4andising on a 5-point 0i.ert-t,pe s-ale' wit4 1 not important at all" to 5 6er, important".

24e se-ond se-tion was di6ided into t4ree parts. 24e first part was to o<tain information on t4e respondentsB
fa6ourite 4ome furnis4ings stores. Eig4t 4ome furnis4ings stores were -4osen in t4e area. Hespondents -ould
sele-t one or more 4ome furnis4ings stores as t4eir fa6ourite stores"I in addition' t4e, 4ad an opportunit, to
name t4eir ot4er fa6ourite stores" ot4er t4an t4e presented 4ome furnis4ings stores" wit4 anot4er option'
%t4ers. 24e se-ond part -onsisted of 1$ statements was stru-tured to eli-it t4e per-eption of store image of
t4e fa6ourite 4ome furnis4ings stores. 24e statements were adopted and modified from t4e pre6ious resear-4
Ba.er et al.' 199(I MarDurs., and Ja-o<,' 19#9". Hespondents were re?uired to respond as to w4et4er or not
t4e, agree wit4 ea-4 statement on t4eir fa6ourite stores. 8 5-point 0i.ert s-ale wit4 1 -orresponding to
strongl, disagree to 5 strongl, agree ' was used to measure responses to ea-4 statement in t4e ?uestionnaire.
24e last part of t4e se-ond se-tion of t4e sur6e, -on-erned -onsumer s4opping <e4a6iours at t4eir fa6ourite
4ome furnis4ings stores. Hespondents were first as.ed 4ow mu-4 time t4e, sta,ed in t4e 4ome furnis4ings
store' w4ile s4opping in t4e 4ome furnis4ings store in order to estimate t4e appro3imate a-tual s4opping time.
=i6e options are gi6en wit4 an inter6al of $0 minutes: less t4an $0 minutes' $0 minutes to less t4an 1 4our' 1
4our to less t4an 1 and 4alf 4ours' 1 and 4alf 4ours to less t4an 2 4ours' and 2 4ours and more. Hespondents
were also as.ed a<out store 6isit fre?uen-, and t4e num<er of items pur-4ased at one time s4opping at t4eir
fa6ourite store. 0astl,' in t4e t4ird se-tion of t4e sur6e,' respondentsB demograp4i- data was -olle-ted' su-4 as
age' gender' ra-e' annual 4ouse4old in-ome' and t4e num<er of people in 4ouse4old.
8 pilot test of t4e measurement instrument was re?uisite to 6alidate t4e items and s-ales in t4e ?uestionnaire.
=or t4e -urrent stud,' t4e pilot test was <ased on $5 respondents. 24e $5 respondents were female -onsumers'
w4ose ages range from 25 to 55 and were as.ed to not onl, -omplete t4e ?uestionnaire <ut also point out an,
wording pro<lems' un-lear statements' and -onfusing instru-tions. 8s a result of t4e pilot test' two statements
were deleted in t4e first se-tion <e-ause of -onfusing wording resulting in 25 items on t4e importan-e of 6isual
mer-4andising. Eron<a-4Bs alp4a 6alue for t4e internal -onsisten-, aspe-t of relia<ilit, of t4e 6isual
mer-4andising measure was 0.#(.

'# (ata Analsis and Results
1ata gat4ered from t4e sur6e, was anal,Ded using t4e Statisti-al !a-.age for So-ial S-ien-e S!SS" program.

/'( 0ator #nalysis of )isual Mer!andising and Store Image
8 prin-iple -omponent of fa-tor anal,sis wit4 6arima3 rotation was used to identif, t4e underl,ing dimensions
of t4e importan-e of 6isual mer-4andising. !rior to -ondu-ting fa-tor anal,sis' BartlettBs test of sp4eri-it, and
t4e +aiser-Me,er-%l.in +M%" measure of sampling ade?ua-, MS8" was performed to determine w4et4er
t4e E=8 was an appropriate statisti-al te-4ni?ue for t4is stud,. %nl, -omponents wit4 eigen6alues greater t4an
1.0 and items wit4 rotated fa-tor loadings of 0.50 or greater were retained <e-ause fa-tor loadings of 0.50 or
greater are -onsidered statisti-all, and pra-ti-all, signifi-ant @air et al.' 199#". =urt4ermore' an, item loading
on more t4an one fa-tor wit4 a loading s-ore e?ual to or greater t4an 0.(0 on ea-4 fa-tor was dis-arded to
-onfirm t4at ea-4 fa-tor would 4a6e onl, one dimension and t4at ea-4 attri<ute would load on onl, one fa-tor
E4en and @su' 2001". &aria<les wit4 -ommunalities less t4an 0.(0 were also omitted from t4e furt4er anal,sis
as t4e -ommunalit, of a 6aria<le refers to t4e amount of 6arian-e a--ounted for <, t4e 6aria<le in t4e fa-tor
solution: 0ow -ommunalities ma, mean insuffi-ient -ontri<ution to e3plaining t4e 6arian-e. 0astl,' fa-tors
-onsisting of onl, a single item were dis-arded as well.
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24e +aiser-Me,er-%l.in measure of sampling ade?ua-, was 0.)) and t4e BartlettBs test of sp4eri-it, was
signifi-ant 1P Q 19#2.($' (99' p Q 0.000"' indi-ating t4e appropriateness of t4e fa-tor anal,sis for t4e data on
t4e importan-e of 6isual mer-4andising. 8--ording to t4e aforementioned -riteria for t4e fa-tor anal,sis' 10 out
of 25 items in t4e importan-e of 6isual mer-4andising s-ale did not meet t4e -riteria as mentioned a<o6e and
were dropped for furt4er anal,sis. 8fter deleting t4ose 10 items' t4e Eron<a-4Bs alp4a 6alue was 0.))'
indi-ating suffi-ient relia<ilit,. 24e results of t4e prin-ipal -omponent anal,sis wit4 6arima3 rotation ,ielded
four underl,ing fa-tors' a--ounting for 5#.29 M of t4e total 6arian-e See 2a<le 1".

8 prin-iple -omponent of fa-tor anal,sis wit4 6arima3 rotation was used to identif, t4e underl,ing dimensions
of t4e per-eption of store image in t4e 4ome furnis4ings retail setting. 24e +aiser-Me,er-%l.in measure of
sampling ade?ua-, was 0.)9 and t4e BartlettBs test of sp4eri-it, was signifi-ant 1P Q )(9.1$' 105' p Q 0.000"'
indi-ating t4e appropriateness of t4e fa-tor anal,sis for t4e data on t4e importan-e of 6isual mer-4andising. 24e
same -riteria wit4 t4e fa-tor anal,sis for t4e importan-e of 6isual mer-4andising were set. 8--ording to t4e
-riteria for t4e fa-tor anal,sis' 1 out of 12 items in t4e per-eption of store image s-ale was dropped and four
underl,ing -onstru-ts emerged: Store Environment, New Style/ Trend Information, Mer!andise #ssortment,
and #ppealing E$!i%ition' e3plaining 9#.1( M of t4e total 6arian-e see 2a<le 2". Eron<a-4Bs alp4a 6alue for
t4e s-ale was 0.#0.

/'& Correlations %etween Importane of )isual Mer!andising and Store Image Construts in t!e 2ome
0urnis!ings Stores
Eorrelation anal,ses were -ondu-ted to e3amine t4e relations4ip <etween four -onstru-ts of importan-e of
6isual mer-4andising and four store images dimensions see 2a<le $". %f four store image dimensions' Store
Environment was signifi-antl, related to Layout/Organization r Q .21' p R .01" and Creative/Inspirational
Coordination r Q .25' p R .01" fa-tors of importan-e of 6isual mer-4andisingI t4ose w4o appre-iated store
en6ironment at t4eir fa6ourite 4ome furnis4ings store pla-ed signifi-antl, greater importan-e on
la,out>organiDation and -reati6e>inspirational -oordination of t4e store t4an ot4er fa-tors of 6isual
mer-4andising. New Style/Trend Information aspe-t of store image was signifi-antl, related to
Window/Mer!andise "isplay r Q .$$' p R .001" and Creative/Inspirational Coordination r Q .$1' p R .001" of
6isual mer-4andising fa-torsI t4ose w4o 6alued new st,le and trend information of t4eir fa6ourite store pla-ed
signifi-antl, greater importan-e on window>mer-4andise displa, and -reati6e>inspirational -oordination of
6isual mer-4andising fa-tors. Mer!andise #ssortment -onstru-t of store image was signifi-antl, related to
Layout/Organization r Q .1)' p R .05" and Creative/Inspirational Coordination r Q .19' p R .05" aspe-ts of
6isual mer-4andisingI t4ose w4o e6aluated t4eir fa6ourite 4ome furnis4ings stores offer good 6ariet, of
mer-4andise assortment <elie6ed window>mer-4andise displa, and -reati6e>inspirational -oordination of 6isual
mer-4andising aspe-ts are signifi-antl, more important t4an ot4er aspe-ts of 6isual mer-4andising. #ppealing
E$!i%ition dimension of store image was signifi-antl, related to Layout/Organization r Q .1)' p R .05" and
Creative/Inspirational Coordination r Q .2$' p R .01" aspe-ts of 6isual mer-4andisingI t4ose w4o appre-iate
appealing e34i<ition of t4eir fa6ourite 4ome furnis4ings store <elie6ed store la,out>organiDation and -reati6e
and inspirational -oordination of 6isual mer-4andising aspe-ts are signifi-antl, more important t4an ot4er
6isual mer-4andising fa-tors.

/'. Correlations %etween Importane of )isual Mer!andising and S!opper -e!aviours in t!e 2ome
0urnis!ings Stores
Eorrelation anal,ses were -ondu-ted to e3amine t4e relations4ip <etween four -onstru-ts of importan-e of
6isual mer-4andising and -onsumer s4opping <e4a6iours in 4ome furnis4ings retail setting see 2a<le (".
Eonsumer s4opping <e4a6iours in t4is stud, in-luded t4e amount of time spent s4opping in t4e store' 6isit
fre?uen-, and t4e num<er of items pur-4ased at one time s4opping at t4e store. None of t4e importan-e of
6isual mer-4andising -onstru-ts was -orrelated wit4 time spent s4opping in 4ome furnis4ings stores. 8mong
fi6e -onstru-ts' -reati6e>inspirational -oordination of t4e store was signifi-antl, and positi6el, related to 6isit
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fre?uen-,I t4ose w4o 6isited t4e store more fre?uentl, pla-ed greater importan-e of -reati6e>inspirational
-oordination of t4e store r Q .1)' p R .05". @owe6er' ot4er -onstru-ts of t4e importan-e of 6isual
mer-4andising were not related to 6isit fre?uen-,. In addition' none of t4e importan-e of 6isual mer-4andising
-onstru-ts was related to t4e num<er of items pur-4ased at one time s4opping at 4ome furnis4ings store.

)# (iscussion and Implications
24e maFor t4rust of t4e -urrent stud, is to <etter understand t4e relations4ip of t4e importan-e of 6isual
mer-4andising and -onsumer s4opping <e4a6iours' spe-ifi-all, in t4e 4ome furnis4ings retail setting. 2wo
-4ara-teristi-s distinguis4 t4e -urrent stud, from prior resear-4 on store en6ironment-related topi-s. =irst'
per4aps most important' is t4at t4is stud, addresses t4e importan-e of 6isual mer-4andising as t4e most -ru-ial
6aria<le for t4is stud,. 8lt4oug4 mar.eting literature is replete wit4 resear-4 on store en6ironment in t4is area'
6isual mer-4andising was 6irtuall, une3plored in t4e e3tant literature. Se-ond' t4e 4ome furnis4ings retail
setting is of -riti-al -on-ern in t4e -urrent stud,. 8s a result of t4e -onsumersB e6er-in-reasing interest in t4eir
4omes as rela3ed pla-es' t4e 4ome furnis4ings setting 4as <een <e-oming one of t4e most fo-used areas in <ot4
mar.eting and retailing fields =orne, et al.' 2005". @owe6er' t4e 4ome furnis4ing retailing setting is still an
undis-o6ered frontier in <ot4 fields. 8--ordingl,' ta-.ling <ot4 attri<utes of t4is stud,A t4e 6isual
mer-4andising and t4e 4ome furnis4ings retailing settingA mig4t <e not onl, -riti-al <ut painsta.ing tas. to
a--omplis4 in t4is stud,I ne6ert4eless' t4roug4 6arious -onse-uti6e pro-esses' t4e -urrent stud, -ame to t4e
-on-lusions t4at will <e addressed in detail later.
E3plorator, fa-tor anal,sis was -ondu-ted to identif, t4e underl,ing dimensions of t4e importan-e of 6isual
mer-4andising in t4e 4ome furnis4ings retail stores. E6en t4oug4 t4ere were assertions <, some s-4olars Bell
and 2ernus' 2002I !egler' 199#" on t4e dimensions of t4e 6isual mer-4andising' t4e, all were not empiri-all,
supported ones and were from a pra-ti-al perspe-ti6e rat4er t4an an a-ademi- point of 6iew. 24e fa-tor anal,sis
of t4e importan-e of 6isual mer-4andising dis-o6ered four importan-e of 6isual mer-4andising -onstru-ts:
Window/Mer!andise "isplay, Layout/Organization, Creative/Inspirational Coordination, and 3rie Signage.
24ese four -onstru-ts a--ounted for 5#.29M of t4e total 6arian-e. 7i6en t4e s-ar-it, of resear-4 addressing t4is
topi-' t4ose four -onstru-ts mig4t pro6ide a relati6el, -ompre4ensi6e and -omplete pi-ture of t4e relati6e
importan-e of 6isual mer-4andising. In t4e 4ome furnis4ings setting' -onsumers e6aluated t4e four dimensions
as t4e most prominent among all t4e 6isual mer-4andising attri<utes presented in t4is stud,. Mean 6alues and
standard de6iations of four importan-e of 6isual mer-4andising -onstru-ts identified t4roug4 t4e fa-tor anal,sis
indi-ated t4e relati6e importan-e of 6isual mer-4andising to -onsumers in t4e 4ome furnis4ings store.
8--ording to t4e mean 6alues' -onsumers assessed t4e pri-e-related -ues M Q (.11" as t4e most important
among t4e four .e, attri<utes of t4e importan-e of 6isual mer-4andising' followed <, la,out>organiDation M Q
$.92" and -oordination pro6iding -reati6e and inspiration idea M Q $.##". 24erefore' t4e ran.ed e6aluations of
t4e importan-e of 6isual mer-4andising ma, <e wort4, of t4e attention of managers in t4e 4ome furnis4ings
store as it ma, impart t4em w4at aspe-ts of 6isual mer-4andising s4ould <e emp4asiDed more in t4e 4ome
furnis4ings setting. @owe6er' all t4e four fa-tors ma, <e alread, wort4w4ile in operating 6isual mer-4andising
in t4e 4ome furnis4ings store due to t4e fa-t t4at t4e importan-e of t4ose 6isual mer-4andising fa-tors were
identified and gi6en priorities as .e, diagnosti- guidelines to impro6e t4e -ompetiti6e edge of t4e retail store.
In fa-t' despite t4e importan-e of 6isual mer-4andising' t4e t4eoreti-al dimensions of 6isual mer-4andising
4a6e not ,et <een firml, delineated in t4e 4ome furnis4ings setting. =rom t4e managerial perspe-ti6e' t4e
dimensions of t4e 6isual mer-4andising presented in t4is stud, allow managers to determine' wit4 some
pre-ision' e3a-tl, w4at 6isual attri<utes of t4e store are per-ei6ed as appealing to -ustomers in t4e 4ome
furnis4ings setting.
2o identif, t4e dimensions of t4e per-eption of store image in t4e 4ome furnis4ing setting' fa-tor anal,sis was
also performed. =our underl,ing -onstru-ts emerged: Store Environment, New Style/ Trend Information,
Mer!andise #ssortment, and #ppealing E$!i%ition' e3plaining 9#.1( M of t4e total 6arian-e. Eonsumers
per-ei6ed t4ose four dimensions as .e, determinants of store image' w4ile s4opping in t4eir fa6ourite 4ome
furnis4ings stores". 8lso reported were t4e mean 6alues and standard de6iations for t4e per-eption of store
image -onstru-ts. 8s t4e store image des-riptors e3pressed -onsumersB per-eptions of t4eir fa6ourite 4ome
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furnis4ings stores"' t4e results ma, e34i<it t4e reasons for t4eir sele-tion of priorit, stores o6er ot4er 4ome
furnis4ings stores. Based on t4e mean 6alues' it was found t4at appealing e34i<ition M Q (.1(" fa-ilitating
-onsumersB <rowsing and e3ploring t4e store was t4e maFor reason for t4eir predile-tion toward t4eir fa6ourite
stores' followed <, good 6ariet, and assortment of mer-4andise M Q (.10" and o6erall store en6ironment M Q
(.09" for s4opping. *et' t4e rest of t4e dimensions A namel,' imparting new st,les and -urrent trendsA
s4ould not <e negle-ted. 24e reason is t4at not onl, t4e differen-e in t4e mean 6alues was -omparati6el,
marginal <ut also t4e, all were 6alua<le findings' -onsidering a defi-ien-, of attention to t4e 4ome furnis4ings
retailing setting from retail a-ademi-s. In fa-t' despite t4e importan-e of <eing a<le to esta<lis4 t4e store image'
t4e t4eoreti-al dimensions of store image 4as not ,et <een firml, delineated in t4e 4ome furnis4ings setting.
=rom t4e managerial perspe-ti6e' t4e dimensions of t4e per-eption of store image presented in t4is stud, allow
managers to determine' wit4 some pre-ision' e3a-tl, w4at attri<utes of t4e store are per-ei6ed as appealing to
-ustomers in t4e 4ome furnis4ings setting. 24e relations4ips <etween t4e four fa-tors of importan-e of 6isual
mer-4andising and ea-4 dimension of t4e per-eption of store image were e3amined. 24e results demonstrated
t4at Creative/Inspirational Coordination of 6isual mer-4andising fa-tors was positi6el, related to ea-4 of t4e
four per-eptions of store image dimensions. Layout/Organization of 6isual mer-4andising fa-tors was
positi6el, related to t4e Store Environment, Mer!andise #ssortment and #ppealing E$!i%ition dimensions of
store image. %f t4e four fa-tors of t4e importan-e of 6isual mer-4andising' Window/Mer!andise "isplay of
6isual mer-4andising -onstru-ts was related onl, to New Style/Trend Information. @owe6er' Sale 3rie Signage
4ad no relations4ips wit4 per-eption of store image. 24e importan-e of 6isual mer-4andising was refle-ted in
t4e aforementioned findings of t4is stud,' w4i-4 suggested t4at -onsumers -ount on different sets of t4e
importan-e of 6isual mer-4andising -ues to infer different image aspe-ts. =or instan-e' managers in t4e 4ome
furnis4ings setting ma, 4a6e to fo-us on t4e Store Layout/Organization and Creative/Inspirational
Coordination 6isual mer-4andising -ues in order to -reate an enFo,a<le and pleasant store atmosp4ere
impression. Eonsidering t4e -4ara-teristi-s of ea-4 dimension' most of t4e findings were logi-al and -onsistent
wit4 t4ose of pre6ious studies' suggesting t4at some of store en6ironmentBs 6isual -ues 4a6e an impa-t on t4e
formation of store image Bell and 2ernus' 2002I Smit4 and Burns' 1999". Eontrar, to pre6ious resear-4
Spansen<erg et al.' 1999I 2ule, and Milliman' 2000" and t4e -ommon <elief of managers in t4e retail setting'
t4e -urrent stud, suggested t4at t4ere was no signifi-ant relations4ip <etween t4e importan-e of 6isual
mer-4andising and t4e amount of time spent s4opping in t4e 4ome furnis4ings store. 24ere mig4t <e ot4er
attri<utes of t4e importan-e of 6isual mer-4andising t4at ma, e3plain t4e in-onsistent findings wit4 pre6ious
resear-4' and t4e findings ma, <e attri<uta<le to t4e uni?ue -onditions of t4e 4ome furnis4ings setting different
from ot4er retailing settings' su-4 as -onsumers more tas.-oriented or sensiti6e to su-4 ot4er en6ironmental
-ues as s-ent' musi-' personnel ser6i-es' et-. @en-e' e3amining w4i-4 6isual mer-4andising attri<utes affe-t t4e
amount of time spent s4opping in t4e 4ome furnis4ings store deser6es attention in t4e future resear-4. %ut of
all four 6isual mer-4andising fa-tors' onl, Creative/Inspirational Coordination was signifi-antl, related to
store 6isit fre?uen-,. None of t4e importan-e of 6isual mer-4andising fa-tors were signifi-antl, related to t4e
num<er of items pur-4ased at one time s4opping at -onsumersB fa6ourite stores. 5ne3pe-tedl,' ,et interestingl,'
Sale 3rie Signage 6isual mer-4andising -ue was not signifi-antl, related to an, of s4opping <e4a6iours at t4e
4ome furnis4ings retail settings. %ne appli-ation of t4e findings to managers in t4e 4ome furnis4ings setting is
t4at pri-e signage ma, not <e t4e 6ital -omponent t4at s4oppers in 4ome furnis4ing stores -onsider important.
Hat4er' t4e, ma, <e more 4edoni--oriented and more sensiti6e to idea or trend s4opping. Su-4 une3pe-ted
findings ma, <e attri<uta<le to t4e uni?ue nature of t4e 4ome furnis4ings retail setting different from ot4er
retail settings.
In -on-lusion' t4e -urrent stud, 4as <ot4 managerial and resear-4 impli-ations. =rom a resear-4 perspe-ti6e'
t4e findings emanating from t4e multidimensional s-aling anal,sis empiri-all, supported t4e assertions <,
some s-4olars t4at t4e importan-e of 6isual mer-4andising -an <e -4ara-teriDed as se6eral -ore fa-ets. 2a.ing
into a--ount t4at t4e -urrent stud, is onl, t4e <eginning of e3amining t4e relations4ips <etween importan-e of
6isual mer-4andising fa-tors and store image per-eptions and s4opping <e4a6iours in t4e 4ome furnis4ings
retail setting' t4e findings pro6ide initial e6iden-e of t4e relations4ip <etween t4e 6aria<les of t4e stud, and a
<asis for t4e furt4er stud, on 6isual mer-4andising in t4e 4ome furnis4ings retail settings. 24is stud, also
pro6ides -ru-ial impli-ations for retail management in t4e 4ome furnis4ings retail setting. Eonfronting t4e
present e6er-d,nami- 4ome furnis4ings retailing atmosp4ere' it gi6es managers in t4e 4ome furnis4ings stores a
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<etter understanding of t4e 6isual mer-4andising attri<utes affe-ting s4opper <e4a6iours. Based on t4e findings
of t4e present stud,' management will 4en-e <e a<le to <en-4mar. t4e -ues of t4e importan-e of 6isual
mer-4andising t4at are <est to emp4asiDe in reinfor-ing t4eir retail strategies. =or e3ample' management in t4e
4ome furnis4ings setting -an stimulate -ustomers to a-ti6el, <rowse and e3plore t4eir stores <, -reati6e'
inspiration and uni?ue presentation of mer-4andise wit4 appealing -olours. Hetailers in t4e 4ome furnis4ings
setting need to understand t4at t4e importan-e of 6isual mer-4andising reported 4ere ma, <e different from t4at
suggested in ot4er retailing settings. In addition' regretta<l,' little resear-4 4as <een -ondu-ted in t4e 4ome
furnis4ings setting in a-ademi- and pra-ti-al resear-4. 24erefore' t4e findings ma, en-ourage pra-titioners and
s-4olars to fo-us more attention on t4e 4ome furnis4ings retailing setting. 24is stud, in-luded se6eral
limitations. C4ile some of t4em are general limitations a--ompan,ing most of studies -ondu-ted <, indi6idual
resear-4ers' ot4ers s4ould <e addressed in t4e future resear-4. =irst of all' t4e -urrent stud, was -ondu-ted in
a sout4-eastern part of t4e 5nited States using -on6enien-e sample. 24us' t4e result presented in t4is stud, is
?uite limited and far awa, from <eing generaliDa<le to t4e population a-ross t4e 5nited State. 8lt4oug4 t4e
-urrent stud, -on-luded t4at some of t4e importan-e of 6isual mer-4andising elements is related to store image
and s4opping <e4a6iours' t4ere must <e un-ontrolla<le -ontaminators affe-ting t4e results' su-4 as ot4er store
en6ironmental attri<utes: musi-' s-ent' -rowding' et-.

R*F*R*+,*S
Ba<in' B.J.' @ardest,' 1.M. and Suter' 2.8. 200$". Eolour and s4opping intentions: 24e inter6ening effe-t of
pri-e fairness and per-ei6ed affe-t. 4ournal of -usiness 5esear!, 59)"' 5(1-551.
Ba.er' J.' 7rewal' 1. and !arasuraman' 8. 199(". 24e influen-e of store en6ironment on ?ualit, inferen-es and
store image ' 4ournal of t!e #ademy of Mar6eting Siene, 22("' $2#-$$9.
Bell' J. and 2ernus' +. 2002". Silent Selling7 -est 3ratie and Effetive Strategies in )isual Mer!andising'
=air-4ild !u<li-ations' New *or.' N*.
Berman' B. and E6ans' J.H. 200(". 5etail Management7 # Strategi #pproa!' !renti-e-@all' 5pper Saddle
Hi6er' NJ.
Eant' M.E. and @efer' *. 2012". &isual mer-4andising displa,s: Casted efforts or Strategi- Mo6eS 24e
dilemma fa-ed <, apparel retail stores. T!e 4ournal of #pplied -usiness 5esear!' 2#9"' 1(#9-1(99.
E4ain Store 8ge. 200("' Store 8tmosp4eri-s: 24ose C4o In6est See Hesults.
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E4e<at' J.' Sirg,' M.J. and James' &. 2009" 5ps-ale image transfer from malls to stores: 8 self-image
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1#(
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-oo.Koung Seoc/0 1h# (#0 is 8sso-iate !rofessor of Mer-4andising in 2e3tiles' Mer-4andising and Interiors
at 24e 5ni6ersit, of 7eorgia. @er resear-4 interests in-lude retailing and -onsumer s4opping <e4a6ior wit4in
6arious retail 6enues. @er resear-4 4as <een pu<lis4ed in t4e International Journal of Hetail and 1istri<ution
Management' Journal of Hetailing and Eonsumer Ser6i-es' International Journal of Eonsumer Studies' Journal
of =as4ion Mar.eting and Management' =amil, and Eonsumer S-ien-es Hesear-4 Journal' and 2ourism
Management' and 4as <een presented at 6arious international -onferen-es.
-oung *un %ee0 M#S#0 -ompleted 4er Masters 1egree in t4e 1epartment of 2e3tiles' Mer-4andising and
Interiors at t4e 5ni6ersit, of 7eorgia. @er resear-4 interest is on 6isual mer-4andising aspe-ts of retail stores
and -onsumer <e4a6iours.

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1#5
2a<le 1. =a-tor 8nal,sis Hesults: 24e Importan-e of &isual Mer-4andising Eonstru-ts
=a-tor Statement Mean
Eigen
6alue
=a-tor
loading
&arian-e
e3plained
Eron<a-4Ls
alp4a
2otal 59.9) M

=a-tor 1
Window/
Mer!andise
"isplay
24e store offers a seasonal window
displa,.
2.9) 2.5#
0.#2
1#.(0 0.#0
24e store offers an e,e--at-4ing
window displa,.
0.)9
New items are presented noti-ea<l, to
draw t4e -ustomersL attention.
0.)9
24ere are man, stri.ing signs in
different -olors.
0.)2

=a-tor 2
Layout/
Organization
8isles are un-rowded.
$.92 2.21
0.))
15.)5 0.)1
Mer-4andise displa, is not -ramped or
Fum<led.
0.))
24e route t4roug4 t4e store is
well-stru-tured so t4at -onsumers 4a6e
no diffi-ult, finding t4eir wa,.
0.)2
S4elf spa-e is appropriatel, o--upied
proportionatel, arranged".
0.92

=a-tor $
Creative/
Inspirational
Coordination
24e presentation of mer-4andise gi6es
me inspiration on 4ow to furnis4 m,
own 4ome.
$.## 2.09
0.)9
1(.)$ 0.9#
Ereati6e -om<inations of -olors gi6e
me new design ideas for 4ome.
0.)(
Eolor -oordination -reates an appealing
store atmosp4ere.
0.95
24e presentation of mer-4andise is
-reati6e and uni?ue.
0.90

=a-tor (
Sales 3rie
Signage
1is-ount or -learan-e items are
displa,ed toget4er in a spe-ifi- area of
t4e store.
(.11 1.51
0.#5
10.)9 0.59
Signs -learl, identif, items on sale. 0.)9



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1#9
2a<le 2. =a-tor 8nal,sis Hesults: Store Image Eonstru-ts
=a-tor Statement Mean
Eigen
6alue
=a-tor
loading
&arian-e
e3plained
Eron<a-4Ls
alp4a
2otal 9#.1(M

=a-tor 1
Store
Environment
24e store offers -omforta<le
s4opping en6ironment.
(.09 2.$1
0.)9
20.95 0.)9
24e store offers an enFo,a<le
s4opping en6ironment.
0.)$
24e store offers s4opping ease. 0.)2
24e store offers a pleasant s4opping
en6ironment
0.)0

=a-tor 2
New Style/Trend
Information
24e store displa,s newest st,les of
4ome furnis4ings.
$.99 1.9$
0.#(
1).52 0.)1
24e store offers useful and a--urate
information a<out -urrent trends
and items.
0.)9
24e store offers new idea for m,
4ome de-oration or furnis4ings
0.9)

=a-tor $
Mer!andise
#ssortment

24e store offers good 6ariet, of
mer-4andise.
(.10 1.95
0.#9
1(.99 0.)5
24e store offers good assortment of
mer-4andise.
0.#(

=a-tor (
#ppealing
E$!i%ition

24e store ma.es me a-ti6e in
<rowsing and e3ploring t4e store.
(.1( 1.92
0.#5
1(.)1 0.95
24e store offers an appealing
e34i<ition.
0.)1


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1#)
2a<le $. Eorrelations among Importan-e of &isual Mer-4andising and Store Image =a-tors

Store
En6ironment
New St,le>2rend
Information
Mer-4andise
8ssortment
8ppealing
E34i<ition
Cindow>Mer-4andise 1ispla, 0.11 0.$$
///
0.01 0.1(
0a,out> %rganiDation 0.21
//
0.1$ 0.1)
/
0.1)
/
Ereati6e>Inspirational Eoordination 0.25
//
0.$1
///
0.19
/
0.2$
//
Sales !ri-e Signage 0.00 0.09 0.0) 0.00
Note7 /! R .05' //p R .01' ///p R .001

2a<le (. Eorrelations <etween Importan-e of &isual Mer-4andising =a-tors and S4opper Be4a6iors at @ome
=urnis4ings Hetail Stores
Mean
2ime Spent
S4opping
&isit
=re?uen-,
Num<er of Items
pur-4ased

Cindow>Mer-4andise 1ispla, 2.99 0.11 0.0( 0.01
0a,out> %rganiDation $.92 0.00 -0.1 0.02
Ereati6e>Inspirational Eoordination $.## -0.00 0.1)
/
0.0$
Sales !ri-e Signage (.11 -0.05 -0.11 -0.0(
Note7 /! R .05' //p R .01' ///p R .001