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1.

0 ACADEMIC WRITING
As we know, our country, Malaysia has faced numerous types of challenges in ourder
to ensure that Malaysia can become one of the best countries in education system.
Eventhough Malaysia has state the name in the eye of the world by winning first place in
Mathematical Olympiad 2011, overall champion in World Robot Olympiad 2012 and first place
in English Speaking Union International Public Speaking Competition 2012, however, there are
still plenty of things that our country have to do so our country, Malaysia will be well-known in
terms of its education system. Malaysia still in the bottom group in 74 countries that has been
assessed in 2009+ Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) for the
Mathematics, Science and reading. Furthermore, the percentage of students that could not
achieve the standard benchmark has increasing steadily from year to year started from 1991
until 2001. There is a big gap between rural and urban area students, low and high social
economy status (SES), and also between boys and girls in term of academic performance.
Rural area students perform badly in academic compared to the urban area students, students
with lower SES cannot perform as good as the students with higher SES and girls are usually
better than boys. Thus, in order to overcome this situation, Malaysia Education Blueprint (MEB)
has been constructed and being used on 2013 so that our education system will be better for
the future needs. One of the aims of MEB is to reinforce the vision and aspiration of our
education system until 2025. MEB is also one of the education plan that is in line with Malaysia
aim to transform this country into high-income country. It is constructed as the result of the
Ministry of Education (MOE) awareness on Malaysian education system that need to be
transformed into holistic and systematic if our country wanted to create person that can
develop steadily and compete globally.
MEB are developed with three specific objectives, which is to understand the current
challenges and performance, establish a clear vision and aspirations and outlines a
comprehensive transformation of the education system including significant change in the
Ministry. The first objective is to understand the performance and challenges of the Malaysian
education system, which is more focused on improving access to education, improve the
standards (quality), to close the achievement gap (equity), to promote unity among students
and to maximize the effectiveness of the system. For the second objective, it is to create a
clear vision and aspirations and more focused on the education system and every student for
the next 13 years starting in 2013 until the year 2025. Then, for the third objective, outlining a
comprehensive transformation of the education system including significant changes in the
Ministry so that these systems can meet the new demands and expectations.
To ensure that the main objectives of the MEB reached, the Ministry of Education has
set 5 aspiration systems in MEB including access, quality, equity, solidarity and efficiency.

1.1 Analysis of aspiration in Malaysia education system

1.1.1 Access
First aspiration of access is 100% enrollment across all levels of education from pre-
school to upper secondary education in 2020, meaning all students in Malaysia will get a place
in any school, and children who are not in school will be approached proactively so that they
can enrolled in any school. Moreover, it is also to ensure that all students meet the minimum
standard of education, for example pass the core subjects of English, English Language,
Mathematics, Science, History, and Islamic Studies or Moral Education by the end of Form 5. It
means that teachers and schools that are involved must take drastic measures to ensure that all
students can pass all the subjects involved because it is not an easy task to accomplish. Every
child in Malaysia regardless of social economic status, ethnicity or background, rural or urban
areas are eligible to equal educational opportunities and equal access to quality education in
order to let them reach their full potential. Children who live in rural areas may have the same
knowledge as the students in the city and the country may loss talented students that live in
rural areas. The government also needs to take steps in giving financial help to ensure that all
family backgrounds of students can go to school. For example, a total of 179, 227 poor students
received an allocation fund for Poor Students Trust Fund (KWAPM) amounting to RM 21.4
million. If the aspirations of access can be achieved, there will be an increase percentage of
students who participate in a variety of post-secondary education routes such as universities,
colleges, polytechnics, vocational institution or structured training program and will put Malaysia
on par with other developed countries. This will make the majority of Malaysian consist of the
intelligent and consistent citizens with the dream of making high-income countries according to
the qualifications especially by the citizens.

1.1.2 Quality
The second aspiration is quality. Quality is defined as all children will have the
opportunity to get excellent education based on the uniqueness of the education system in
Malaysia and on par with the other country education system. Malaysia currently belong to the
third lowest among the 74 countries assessed in 2009+ Programme for International Student
Assessment (PISA) in Mathematics, Science and Reading. If this aspiration can be fulfilled, the
dream becomes the top one-third in 15 years for the PISA may be achieved successfully. All
students have the opportunity to acquire quality education that is unique to Malaysia and
comparable to other high-performing education. The lesson will be based on technology and
student-centered. Budget 2013 has provided a great education for the field of RM 1 Billion under
the Special Fund for the Construction, Maintenance and Improvements School. This allocation
is for repairing school buildings, maintenance, and purchase of equipment and construction of
additional blocks. With the provision that has been given, the teaching and learning session will
be more comfortable and efficient and maximum student participation in teaching can also
occur. Maximum student participation will make the lesson becomes more effective and improve
student understanding. Towards the end, Malaysian education system will provide greater
performance improvement, based on benchmarks on other national education system in
accordance with international standards. These improvements include a standard for the field
such as Mathematics, Science and English, as well as higher-order thinking skills (HOTS) like
application, reasoning, and problem solving. Trainee teachers must also obtain a degree in
teaching to ensure that the lesson is much better and the aspirations and goals can be
achieved. The Ministry has taken drastic measures to improve the quality of the practicum
experience so that it will be consistent in terms of time allocated involving experienced teachers
who have skills in mentoring supervising trainee teachers. These measures enable teachers to
improve the effectiveness of teaching and learning in the classroom. In just a few decades,
some of the best performing education systems in the world, such as Singapore and South
Korea, have shown that an education system can change from poor to high performance.
Similarly, the best education system in the world, such as in Boston (USA), in Ontario (Canada),
and in Armenia, shows that large improvements in student outcomes can be achieved within a
short span of six years. MEB showed the Ministry aims to make Malaysia among one of the high
performance country. If we can prove that we can change in 15 years, then Malaysia will be
among the countries with fastest growing education system in the world.

1.1.3 Equity
The third aspiration is equity. Equity is an equal ownership in an organization. Equity in
the education system is intended to eliminate the gulf and open opportunities to the people
especially students who differed in terms of needs and skill in order to gain skills, knowledge
and experience through education equally. High-achieving education quality system provides
education to every child without socioeconomic status. The Ministry intends to bond the
achievement gap between urban and rural students, the socio-economic and gender
achievement up to 50% by the year 2020, meaning rural and urban students will receive the
same educational opportunities despite different backgrounds, ethnicity or socioeconomic
status. Education system that was planned for Malaysia is all children, regardless of whom their
parents are, or where they learn, will come with the need to open all their future opportunities.
Malaysia's education system aims to bridge half the socioeconomic gap, between rural and
urban areas, and gender in student achievement by 2020 reduction and socio-economic gap
between rural and urban areas and likely to have an impact of the achievement gap between
the state and the type of school. Achievement of boys and girls are expected to be narrowed so
that the goal of this ministry can be achieved. Thus, the lessons should be more focused on the
weak pupils and teachers should be wise in handling this matter so that the poor can also
performed well. The next learning achievement gap in education can be bridged between male
and female. An education system that will be implemented will actively support social mobility by
providing additional support to those who are less fortunate pupils with difficult family
background, and thus ensure the socio-economic background of students is no longer a
determinant of the success of his performance. The education system also aims to provide
access to an attractive alternative route, such as vocational education, providing opportunities to
students who have diverse interests and abilities to develop their talents. The provision of
vocational education can help poor pupils in lessons and least interest strive to succeed in their
sport which is based on their interests and abilities. It is understood that there are groups of
students who have special needs that require more support. To achieve this, Ministry will
provide more support and programs for students with special needs, indigenous peoples and
other minorities, as well as gifted and talented pupils, to enable them to reach their full potential.
To enable program successful, the Ministry requires the cooperation of the school and the
teachers to be more committed to the tasks given.

1.1.4 Unity
One of the aspiration systems to be achieved by the Ministry is unity. Children between
the ages of 7 to 17 years spend more than a quarter of their time at school. Schools will
normally be attended by students of different races such as Malays, Chinese and Indians,
especially boarding schools. The school's role is to take the initiative in order to strengthen the
unity among the students. Through interaction with other students from different socio-economic
background, religion and ethnicity, we need to learn to understand, accept and appreciate
differences, and sharing of experiences and aspirations can be formed. To achieve this unity,
the school must provide a platform or program that can ensure these aspirations can be
achieved. The Ministry intends to generate an education system that provides opportunities for
students to share experiences and aspirations in order to develop and strengthen the foundation
of unity among Malaysians. International research by the OECD shows that a strong unity has
to do with the population of healthy, safe communities, and the employment rate is higher. As
students spend more than a quarter of their time at school when they are 7 to 17 years (Exhibit
2-2), then the school is to foster unity. Through experience, the national identity and the
establishment of national unity can be formed. School should provide a safe environment for all
people and racism to be eliminated entirely in the school. To realize the attitude of solidarity that
is embedded within, the Government has implemented the Student Integration Plan for Unity
(RIMUP). The purpose of this integration plan is to encourage the teachers and pupils of
different races together to participate in the activities specified. In addition, it is also to
encourage pupils from three types of race to interact and to establish and foster an
understanding and goodwill between them. The blend will be established within these students.
However, for monitoring the progress of this unity, the Ministry will launch an annual survey to
assess indicators including general belief in the unity among different ethnic groups, racial and
religious tolerance, and social interaction between pupils from different ethnic groups.

1.1.5 Efficiency
The last aspiration system to be achieved by the Ministry is efficiency. Malaysia
education system received high allocation, but the increase in student success is still not
comparable to the resources that have been channeled into the system. Various programs have
been implemented by the government for students in school, but the achievement level is still
not satisfactory. While the government continues to maintain the current level of investment, the
Ministry intends to maximize the success of students in accordance with the provisions of the
current level. Each year, Malaysian Government showed strong commitment to education by
giving large expenses in the federal budget for education. Despite this high level of spending,
almost universal access to primary education and lower secondary and upper secondary
education is relatively high, but there is still room for improvement in other dimensions such as
quality, equity, and solidarity. Therefore, the returns (in terms of student outcomes) should be
maximized for every dollar spent. In order to achieve the aspirations of the Ministry of education
system, its implementation will be carried out in a more responsible and will emphasize on the
use of the budget allocated to be more efficient and effective in order to maximize student
success. The Government is also committed to maintain the level of investment in the existing
education system, which is approximately 16% of the annual budget of the Federation. By 2021,
all elements of the New Career Package will hopefully being implemented. The teaching
profession will change when teachers can enjoy a variety of different career paths in which
rewards are based on performance, not tenure. This shows a teacher should always be moving
forward and constantly develops themselves and carry out their duties efficiently because the
future reward is based on performance rather than seniority.

1.2 Teachers challenges
To realize this goal of MEB, there are several challenges that need to be overcome and
controlled by the teacher to realize the aspirations of the goals of the system mentioned above.
Among the challenges faced by teachers in order to achieve the aspirations of the
system is that teachers should be evaluated in advance whether a particular specification
exactly qualified to educate our children. 410,000 teachers will be judged by what he described
as an integrated instrument, and 61,000 English teachers are assessed on the level of language
proficiency in accordance with international standards including English proficiency test (BI)
under the Cambridge Placement Test (CPT). Teacher is a person who is assigned and is
responsible for educating and teaching students according to their expertise and knowledge
possessed by teachers. To prove their teaching based on good sources and can be adopted,
the Ministry has taken the initiative to evaluate teachers involved in this. This is to some extent
interfere with emotions of teachers involved in the evaluation will be done. Assessments done a
bit of pressure on teachers to be better prepared and avoid the failure of the assessment. If the
teacher has failed in the assessment, these things will cause more stress in their lives need to
think how to prepare us to not fail the assessment done in the future.
In addition, teachers also need to prepare the students under their guidance with the
knowledge, values and skills that will enable them to compete globally through world-class
education so as to produce a first-class capital. The assignment of responsibility is very heavy
with a high expectation from the Ministry. Each individual student is different and the level of
development of their thinking is different. There are students who are weak in class and also
gifted students in the school. Teachers cannot use only one teaching method to produce first
class human capital. A teacher must have strong commitment and also ensure that creative and
innovative teaching methods are used effectively and can have an impact on the achievement
of students who are under their tutelage. Demand imposed on teachers will be very high and
burdensome. A teacher always needs to think in order to ensure that what has been achieved in
the aspirations of the MEB system can be achieved. However, the Ministry can reduce the
pressure exerted on teachers by providing Continuing Professional Development program
(CPD) to help teachers reach its full potential. CPD program includes core and elective
components of training according to the needs of self-development that will be given individual
training from their supervisors. With this program, the teachers would have some idea how to
make sure the lessons they can have a favorable impact in terms of students' achievements.
Besides that, teachers will not only play a major role as a presenter of knowledge and
skills to students, but also responsible for nourishing interests, develop their talents and abilities
of students. Teachers is also a basis for building analytical thinking, critical and creative thinking
to develop individuals who can adapt to the changes happening around them in line with the
direction of the educational system. In the present era, a person who worked as a teacher
needs to have a very broad knowledge and be able to influence the thinking of students. A
teacher should always be aware of the current state of knowledge and that is not far behind
compared to students who are in school. Some teachers also need to know how to use
computer technology available at the school so that the lessons more interesting and effective.
The Ministry will ensure that 100 percent of the school to meet the needs of basic infrastructure
by 2015, starting with Sabah and Sarawak to create a learning environment that is safe, clean
and conducive. This is a bit much to reduce the burden on teachers in order to implement the
lesson plan effectively.
Furthermore, student discipline is also a challenge that needs to be dealt by the
teachers. In heading towards Vision 2020, the student discipline worsens and put about as a
result rather than the development rather than mass media. Limited power of teachers also led
the difficulty to guard the student's behavior. Teachers who have no power to impose treatment
as a result of actions lead teachers increasingly depressed. As the consequence, most of the
teachers decided to ignore the students with discipline problems. The discipline is also a
growing concern because of their parents. In the past, students may be given up and beaten by
teachers with the intent to teach them. At that time, the parents are very supportive and that
teacher action is to teach their children. But now everything is different when parents behave
differently to protect their children thus 'blocking' efforts to develop their child. In the past, if we
ask students to clean toilets, it is seen from the positive side to keep clean, but now it is seen
from a different context that wants to torture. This resulted in a number of teachers who are
pressured to manage pupils with this problem and had to give the punishment to discipline
teacher or headmaster. Problematic students will repeat the same offense against the same
teacher because there is no respect for the teacher. This is an impact on one of the tasks of
teachers to develop individual polite and disciplined so high that there are teachers who are
forced to isolate problematic because students cannot perform any action that may invite the
anger of parents. There are also teachers who take no attention towards students who are
troubled in class. This will cause the pupil unable to properly learning performance of students
at once will cause the decline.
Each student must be inculcated with patriotism by way understanding the history of the
country and share the same aspirations for the future of the country because national identity
can be achieved not only learn to understand and accept diversity, but also to appreciate
diversity. Malaysia's multi-ethnic and race consists of 3 main races, Malay, Chinese, Indian and
ethnic groups in Sabah and Sarawak. With mass media exposure currently prevalent in the
"You Tube" contains various negative attitudes like racism, it somehow influence the minds of
young children. Teachers need to be smart to explain and rectify the existing situation so that no
element of self-hatred in children. Teachers also need to be wise to apply the patriotism in the
student to implement programs that will provide a better understanding for the students to
understand and accept diversity in Malaysia. The emotional aspect of teacher to achieve this
unity, teachers do not face any problem because of subjects History is introduced to pupils in
primary schools starting in Year 4. With the introduction of this subject, it is easier to achieve
national goals in order to achieve unity.
Finally, the challenge to be faced by a teacher is a teacher must be knowledgeable,
flexible and easy to adapt to reform, innovation and change in education with study skills. As we
know, MEB was started last year in 2013 and this represents a paradigm shift that must be
taken by each teacher to ensure that the government's intention is to become the top third
among the 74 countries that were assessed in 2009+ Programme for International Student
Assessment (PISA) in Mathematics, Science and Reading for 15 years. A teacher shall be
flexible and able to adapt according to the requirements set forth in the MEB. A teacher is also
required to meet the demand for teachers in order to achieve the aspirations of the five systems
that have been set by the Ministry. Although MEB provides high pressure to the teachers,
Education Development Plan 2013-2025 will also introduce a new Teacher Career Package in
order to elevate the profession of teaching as a rewarding option including methods during his
career as a teacher. This package provides some inspired teachers to implement this MEB.
Teachers hope that they are not burdened with the work of preparing the questions, checking
answers and summing the results. A new method has been carried out by the Ministry of
Education to reduce the burden and the task of a teacher. Regarding the situation, the Minister
of Education II, Datuk Seri Idris Jusoh said he would try to reduce the burden of teachers in the
implementation of this SBE. In fact, the introduction of SBE with emphasis on assessment for
learning and assessment of learning is a critical step in determining the share of pupils more
systematically at each stage of Teaching and Learning (T & L).