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Bhubaneswar 751 002 and P C Naik is with the Rural Institute of

Science and Education, Kendrapada 754 250.

This paper was received on March 18, 2008. Written discussion on this

paper will be entertained upto December 31, 2008.

Archaeometry : A Glimpse into History of Ancient Indian

Engineering Science

D Bhattacharya, Non-member

P C Naik, Non-member

Elevation measurements of curvilinear spires require trigonometry or theodolite . The Orissan curvilinear

spire have in-built elements that allow application of a combination of linear arithmetic and geometry for

elevation measurement. They also offer surfaces for application of equations pertaining to smooth

mobious curves of various pitches. Khapuri anla ( Ka ) and bhumi anla ( Ba ) are two such elements which

are exclusive to the kalingiya school. Using this elements the height can be estimated in any units at day

or night without physically measuring any elevation, without using any instrument. Curvilinear spire

celebrates ancient science and may have been used as a model for instruction of computational subjects

pertaining to elevation, altitude, etc. The study articulates theme specific archaeometry.

Keywords : Elevation; Bakrakara; Cordant methodology; Inbuilt Elements; Archaeometry

INTRODUCTION

Elevation calculation has drawn the attention of human

mind since ancient times. In India, ancient mathematician

and astronomers have done pioneering work

1,2

.

Mahamahopadhyya Samanta Chandrasekhar

3

(1835-1904)

of Orissa used embryonic theodolite (proto theodolite) to

measure heights of mountains and hills from very wide

distances. He even measured elevation of astral bodies

4

.

Samanta's exploits are house hold legend in Orissa

5

, who

was the last great exponent of the school of naked eye

astronomy. Orissa is also home to a tome of well preserved

palm leaf manuscripts relating to mathematics and

astronomy

6

. Kalinga is a historical entity with present

Bhubaneswar (Ekamra), asits the then proven capital

7

.

Adherence to curvilinear type of architecture having

prominent vertical lines in such historical geography, makes

it as the home grown school, herein after called as the

kalingiya bakrakar rekha deula (KBRD) (Kalingan curvilinear

line temples). Within earstwhile Kalinga, KBRDs are

concentrated in and around Bhubaneswar within 100 km

radius. In present day, Orissa KBRDs are noted from

historical period when no other term other than Kalinga is

encountered in local epigraphs

8-9

. Although KBRDs are

noted in few other sites outside Orissa, they are either of

Kalingan historical process or of later period. Hence the

term Kalinga is adopted. The earliest cognate group of

temples in Orissa are ancient structure and 90% temples

belonging to this group are KBRDs. In Orissa, all high rise

structures of all historical periods are KBRD.

M M Ganguly

10

had opined that KBRD was a learned

exercise in engineering. While discussing on architectural

and engineering aspects of ancient hindu edifices, A K

Coomarswami

11

has opined that they are well developed

concepts, which encouraged to enquire into the so called

erstwhile 'learned exercise' and 'well developed concepts',

which all have remained unexplored and unexplained so far.

Elevation measurement and architechtural outline (surface

angulation) are an important and interesting exercise in

modern engineering, that are synonymous with

computation

12

.

In the domain of Hindu mathematics, geometric progression

was discussed by Mahavira

13

. Further, N K Basu

14

refered

extensively to locally sourced palm leaf manuscripts and

books etched in Nagari and Oriya script and has provided for

the first time similar arithmetic fractals which concurrently

allowed geometric progression as are employed by

sthapatis of KBRDs. Citing other palm leaf manuscripts, V

Dehejia

15

was the first to indicate schematically geometric

fractals in the base plan of KBRDs. By applying pure

mathematics, fractals have been studied in natural cycles,

in pyramidal forms and in mechanical engineering

16

. K

Trivedi

17

reported fractals from among major Hindu schools

of temple architecture. Currently, elaborate use of

instruments are noted in all elevation measurement and

computational exercises. The KBRDs are denoted as steep

structures sans stair case, which results negligible data

about elevation and measures of KBRDs, that is

encountered in published literature.

Neither it has been tried to explain the applied meaning of

various abstract inbuilt elements as are noted on a KBRD,

nor any attempt has been made so far to explain as to why

the treaties, the canons, the often quoted shilpasastras (the

term Shilpasastras reveals tenets of industry, where editions

of various dates from many regions of Orissa have been

reported. At past, structural erection was considered as a

10 IE(I) Journal-AR

shilpa, and the master craftsmen always refer to anguli

(1.04166 cm) of the siddhanta system

18

as the unit of

measure for all radian, horizontal, vertical fractions and in

iconometry, Siddhanta implies ancient Hindu school of

Astronomy and Mathematics

1,2,6,19 and 20

. As per this

school. 1 angula is the breadth of middle finger at mid level.

Therefore, possibility of a inbuilt scheme, scope of

application of the in-built elements and inter-relation

between in-built elements and angula or any unit of measure

remained unrevealed. This study address all these aspects.

Applying first time the interdisciplinary approach for this

exploratory study, two methodologies are used, by which

the ancient kalingiya sthapati (kalingan builder) could have

accurately measured the height of a KBRD using any unit,

without using any instrument, neither by climbing the spire

nor by using any parallel structure or shadow projection

methodology. Relevance of anguli as the unit of measure

has also been dealt upon. Moreover few mobius surface

related aspects have also been touched fleetingly.

SHADOW PROJECTION METHODOLOGY

It involves marking the length of any given measure (control)

on ground, holding the control in vertical position to

ground and observe the length of the shadow as cast by

a rising or setting sun. When shadow length equals the

measure of the control, at that very moment the length

of the shadow as cast by the object of interest (spire) has

to be marked on the ground. The measure of the shadow

from its tip to the base of the object of interest (monument)

along the line of inclination would also be equal to the

elevation of the object of interest. This method was known

to Indian astronomers and mathematicians since very

ancient times

19, 20

. The principle involved in this method is

that when the object is vertical to the base, the sun (light

source from infinity) forms 45

o

angle to the ground. At this

moment all shadows measure equal of its object. Projection

method has inherent short comings, as two teams would

be needed for tall structures and readings can only be taken

twice a day. Such window is only of few seconds duration.

Clear sky condition is a must, that means no such

exercise is possible during monsoon. This method does not

open any new window into history of science. However, this

method can be applied for any structure anywhere with any

unit of measurement.

CORDANT FORMULA

It is necessary to acquaint with the terms, morphology,

position of placement of the relevant in-built elements of a

KBRD on which rests the formula herein enunciated.

These include ayudha, khapuri anla, dikpal, sesa bhumi

anla and raha paga. Ayudha means 'pinnacle signature \

insignia'. Ayudha (Ay) is noted on temple's top, Khapuri anal

(Ka) which is just below Ayudha, means 'cranium rib',

succeded by dikpala which means 'maintainer of direction',

also known as jodisingha which means 'jointed lion', which

are placed at four corners below the Ka, the lions look out

into the horizon. Jodisingha (jointed lion) alias dikpala

(maintainer of direction) have common head and a pair of

body stretched at 90

o

to each other. They look out at

Aisanya, Nairitya, Agni & Vayu corners of the siddhanta

school, which indeed are direction markers. A series of five

bhumi anla are noted along the vertical plane on the koni

paga which means elevation rib and corner arrangement

respectively. Sesa bhumi anla means the last zone of

elevation. Khapuri & bhumi (zone/elevation) refers to wholly

abstract devices, haveing no religious , social or sovereign

related connotation, consists of some art and aesthetic

value, which relates wholly to engineering and

computational sciences, not noted in other schools of built

heritage. The ribbed pattern on Khapuri and bhumi is called

anla as it is a look like of the medicinal fruit emblica

merabolum. The raha paga projects out of the spire's side

wall tapering at top, which means buttress arrangement, it is

a engineering item that counters the horizontal component

of the thrust. Figure 1 shows the front elevation of Sri

Parasurameswar temple (650 AD), which also is the best

KBRD example of the earliest cognate group on sub-

Figure 1 Parasurameswar temple

Figure 2 Siddheswara (Mukteswar) temple

Vol 89, October 2008 11

continental basis. This study is limited to only the vimana,

ie, the deula (spire). Figure 2 shows the view of the koni

bhumi anla (corner elevation rose) in the neighbouring

Siddheswara (Mukteswar) temple (9

th

AD). The

Parasurameswar, Siddheswar, Lingaraj and Jagannath are

Raj dutta kirtis and also state sponsored structures.

CF1a

Field study reveals that KBRD in situ presents unique

angular positions to the beholder when the pinnacle is

visualised by naked eye from base. This allows plotting of

four exclusive reference points on base off each corner

when the line of vision runs from base to top along the

central rib of any one of the sesa bhumi anla - the nose tip

of dikpala - one rib of the Ka into the Ay, ie, A1, S1, D1,

K1, Y and B1, S2, K2, Y are cordant as shown in Figure 3.

In spires of post 9

th

AD, only three of the four elements are

apparent to the beholder. Since S and D series are available

only at the corners of any KBRD, four corner positions are

arrived and on base located diagonal to koni paga in KBRDs.

The separation between any two such position is the

measure of the deula's elevation. This methodology holds

good for any KBRD of any historical period including Sri

Lingaraj temple and Sri Jagannath Temple. It is termed as

cordant formula CF1a.

CF1b

When viewers position is tangent and centrally located to

any of the raha paga, a position C is obtained on base

when Ay is visualized along the top curvature of the khapuri

in line with the paired rib of the Ka. In any KBRD, the paired

ribs on any side also marks the vertical mid line of the side

wall, which is also the mid line of the raha paga. The position

where such vertical mid line touches the base is marked as

E. The measure between E and C equals deula's elevation

and is identical to the measure obtained as per CF1a which

is shown in Figure 3 and Figure 4. Since this scheme holds

good for KBRDs during all the historical periods, it is termed

as CF1b. The base of the KBRD is inscribed within the

square of CF1a which is in turn inscribed within the

planispheric outline of CF1b, having different geometric and

spatial ratios. Furthermore, CF1a and CF1b are not noted in

non KBRDs.

THEMATIC ARCHAEOMETRY

By using in-built elements of built archaeology to determine

the elevation of the same archaeological member,

geometric patterns are obtained as shown in Figures 3 and

4. If the theme is changed based on viewer's position based

perspective, entirely different set of geometric patterns are

generated, which precludes that alternative themes are

possible. Since in-built elements of built archaeology are

useable on thematic basis to generate a wide spectrum of

metrical geometry, such new area is termed as

archaeometry, ie, geometry fuzzed from archaeology.

Figure 3 and Figure 4 are schematic presentation of such

thematic archaeometry, when Y and H are Ya. K1 and K2

are two designate ribs of the Ka. D1 and D2 are the nose

tips of the dikpala. S1 and S2 are the central ribs of the

sesa bhumi. C-A-R-B denotes the base. A and B mark

viewer's position off any corner as per CF1a. C marks

viewer's position tangent to the mid point of the raha paga off

base R as per CF1b, when C1, A1 and B1 are 376 mm which

reveals average Indian height. As shown in Figure 3, CH is

the gross elevation of 13.4 m and AB is also determined by

pole and tape method as determined by pole and tape

method from Figure 3 and Figure 4 are 13.4 m each. The

Kalingiya cordant formula ( KCF ) then is CH = AB = CR .

ELEVATION VALIDATION

The elevation of Parasurameswar spire was physically

measured using tape along a erect pole that is the central

line as shown in Figure 5. Curvilinear outline was calculated

using standard mathematical formula and also physically

along the spire's curvature. The results conform findings as

in CF1a and CF1b, as shown in Table 1.

FRACTRAL ASPECT

Ka being a circular device offers to the beholder 360

o

front

view. In case of Parasurameswar and Lingaraj temple, Ka

have 88 and 64 ribs respectively. If each rib be taken as the

point of reference for aligning the line of vision, a circle of

Figure 3 Schematic representation of Parasurameswar

temple Bhubaneswar c 650 AD

H

C

C1

A

B R E R

A1 B1

S1

D1

K1

Y

K1

D2

S2

H

Figure 4 Geometric pattern of Parasurameswar temple

H

R

E

C

12 IE(I) Journal-AR

360

o

radian is arrived at a radial distance where the

hypotenuse (line of vision) meets the base (ground). Each

such point on the radial outline marks the horizontal

extension of the vertical line measured from spire's outer

base 'R' forming a right angled triangle, the vertical projection

of which coincides with the bindu (center point) of the

enshrined lingam which is positioned at the centre of the

garbha gruha (womb room) and the crowning ayudha (on

temple top). This makes a imaginary vertical EY or EH.

Infinite number of right angled triangles can be drawn with

one common vertical coinciding with central EY\EH line.

This is quiet well known that a pair of opposite triangles form

a cone. Hence imaginary cones having differing grids can

then be schematically drawn with the KBRD enmeshed at

its centre. Similarly infinite number of triangles can be drawn

enmeshed within each triangle that are aligned in a circular

format. The enmeshed triangles individually and in groups

describe elevations of various strata of the deula, apart

generating fractals that are different from Sierpinski

fractrals

21

. KBRD presents a unique concept of fractal

hitherto unreported in built archaeology world wide. It also

makes an imaginary wheel with innumerable spokes with

the (KBRD) spire as its ornate axel. Since the structure is

curvilinear, the measure along the curvature equals the

measure of the hypotenuse. Therefore the hypotenuse,

AY,BY and CY in Figure 3 and CH in Figure 4 is also the

relative height/measure of the outline of the spire. Such

methodology simultaneously allows application of any unit

of measure. Figure 3 and Figure 4 schematically presents

such thematic archaeometry which holds good for all

KBRDs including Jagannath deula and in Kalingan rekha

type temples that are else where outside Orissa.

MOBIOUS SURFACE

In the domain of pure mathematics, mobious surface

studies are a mathematician's tool

22

. Mobious architecture

is much sought after application of CAD in high speed

surface, water, marine and aero vehicles. Interestingly, the

candidate structures in the present study are also known as

Vimana (aero vehicle). Architectural outlines of KBRDs and

archaeometry generated from it jointly offer wide range of

smooth curves of various pitches as shown in Figure 6.

Curvilinear outline and Ay offer surfaces for non cyclic plain

arcs of finite and infinitesimal type

23

. Ribs of the Ka and Ba

offer repetitive arcs. KBRDs are therefore ideal ancient

models for mobious surface related studies in which Ka, Ba

and Ay once again exclusively come into full play. It is

interesting to note that the east-west curvature of the earth

at local latitude (20

o

) is approximately 15

o

which is a natural

selection. The curvilinear spire also have a identical

angulation. The ribs of the bhumi anlas also have a

separation of the order 15

o

. This results in least resistance

to wind and more importantly allows free play of breeze,

which results better moisture transpiration from and into the

stones, which thwarts erosion and instills longevity.

ANGULI AS COMMON UNIT OF MEASURE

Maharana and Maharana who are the hereditary head

sthapatis of Sri Lingaraj temple and Sri Jagannath temple,

apply the unit of measure called kathi, that is equal to 40.64

cm. Further, the chariots are constructed till date as per the

model of Bhaskareswar (Bhubaneswar) using the same unit

of measure called kathi. Ownership of the kathi marked

them as sardar maharana (head master craftsman).

Experimentally it is found that 1 kathi is equal to 24 angulas.

1

6

5

o

5

6

o

5

5

o

5

2

o

4

6

o

4

2

o

9

9

o

Figure 5 Marked central line of the temple

Table 1 Validation of elevation

Name of Y height X distance tan , , , , ,

el ement f rom f rom = Y/X degrees

ground, m centre, m

Bada 51.2064 36.576 1.4 54.46

1

st

Bhumi 71.3232 " 1.95 62.85

2

nd

Bhumi 88.0872 " 2.4 67.45

3

rd

Bhumi 103.9368 " 2.84 70.61

4

th

Bhumi 117.9576 " 3.23 72.77

5

th

Bhumi 130.7592 " 3.57 74.37

Elevation upto fifth bhumi [A] = 130.759 m; Fifth bhumi upto Ayudha [B] =

29.2608 m, so A + B = 130.759 m + 29.2608 m = 160.02 m. The gross

angulation of the curvature is of the order 20

o

, which is also the value of

the local latitude.

Vol 89, October 2008 13

Using CF1a and CF1b, the spire of Parasurameswar works

out to 32 kathis (32 x 24 ) or 768 angulas. Lingaraj's spire

measures 136 kathis (136 x 24) or 3264 angulas.Kalpa

means 62 and radians are better calculable with angula as

it is a non rigid frame with a error component of a fraction

of 1 cm.

DISCUSSION

The in-built elements, ie, Ka and Ba are entirely abstract in

nature. They do not have any religious or sovereign related

connotation. Ka and Ba are exclusive elements of KBRD

school. If the theme is altered, archaeometry accordingly

produces corresponding set of valid results, which is not

possible without inbuilt abstract elements, their special

architecture and placement. This indeed is a marvelous and

intelligent concept. The term Kalinga means 'intelligent \

clever'

24

.

CONCLUSION

Kalinga Cordant Formula is Ka and Ba dependent. Elevation

of any KBRD can be calculated by using this formula. It

allows readings at any time in day or dark, using any unit.

This study indicates that use of applied mathematics and

Figure 6 Schematic presentation of Lingaraja temple's

Cranium

geometry is possible with KBRDs as models. The deula as

a whole can be expressed as a field model in durable plastic

for large scale application of archaeometry. KBRDs

celebrates computational and related field science as

achieved in past. The KBRD is not a mere load structure. It

celebrates science and is a almanac of history of Indian

construction mathematics, geometry and engineering.

Angula as the common unit of measure appears pragmatic

as it would have allowed greater flexibility to workers of all

strata on any plastic. Strong prevalence of use of angula

in treaties and among practicing craftsmen is vindicated.

Such findings are new and provides a window into the

history of science in ancient India on the bed rock of dated

archaeology.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The authors are thankful to Late Shankar Maharana,

Somnath Maharana, Deula sevaits (servitors) namely Shri T

K Samantaray, Shri D Samantaray, M K Batu, B K Batu,

B Samartha, et al, for preparing this study. Dr S Maiti,

Superintendent, Mr P K Mahapatra, A.S.I. and their work

men helped in validating the measure of vertical elevation at

Parasurameswar and Mukteswar. The authors are also

thankful to Shri S P Gantayat, Engineer-in-Chief cum

Secretary, Govt. of Orissa and Prof S K Misra, Architecture

dept, University College of Engineering and Technology-

BPUT for technical review and field validation. The authors

are also thankful to Shri T Sahu for generating the line

graphs. Research grant received from Shri A B Goswamy

(PE), Texas, USA is most gratefully acknowledged. The

authors are also thankful to Ms M Bhattacharya.

REFERENCE

1. K S Shukla. 'Aryabhatiya of Aryabhata'. Indian National Science

Academy, (INSA) ND 1976.

2. D Arkasomayaji. 'Commentary to Siddhanta Siromani of

Bhaskaracharya'. Kendriya Sanskrit-Vidyapeetha, Tirupati, 1980.

3. P C Naik. 'Indian Journal of History of Science'. vol 35, no 2, 2000,

p 149.

4. C S Samanta. 'Siddhanata Darpana'. Indian Depository, Calcutta,

1899.

5. P C Naik. 'Pathani Samantankara Jyoti Yantra (Oriya), Chayapatha'.

Rural Research Centre, Kendrapada, Orissa, 2002.

6. D Bhattacharya. 'Astronomy and Mathematics: Selet Palm Leaf

Manuscripts of India'. Indian Journal of History of Sciences, INSA,

March, 2008.

7. K C Panigrahi. 'Archaeological Remains at Bhubaneswar'. Kitab

Mahal, 1

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Ed, 1961.

8. R D Banerjee. 'Ipigraphica Indica'. ASI -1982, vol 13, 1915 -16.

9. 'Memoirs Asiatic Society of Bengal. The Paleography of

Hatigumpha & Nanaghat Inscriptions'. Baptist Mission Press, Calcutta,

vol 11, no 3, 1930, p 131.

10. M M Ganguly. 'Orissa and Her Remains Ancient and Medieval'.

(Dist. Puri) 1912.

11. A K Coomarswamy'. 'Early Indian Architecture'. Eastern Art, 1930,

vol 2, no 3.

14 IE(I) Journal-AR

12. R Agor. 'Text Book of Surveying and Leveling'. Khanna, New Delhi,

3rdEd, 1984.

13. 'Mahavira'. Ganita Sara Sangraha.

14. N K Bose. 'Cannons of Orissan Architecture'. Cosmo, 1932, Delhi .

15. V Dehejia. 'Early Stone Temples of Orissa'. Vikash Publishing,

1979, p 25.

16. 'Math Governs Natural Cycles Popular Article'. The New Ind

Express, 2000, p 3.

17. K Trivedi. 'Hindu Temples : Models of a Fractal Universe'. The

Visual Computer, 1989, vol 5, p 243.

18. Op. cit. no 4; Ch 18, Sloka (canto), p 169.

19. G Thibout. 'The Panchasiddhantika'. Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series,

Varanasi, 1968.

20. S Diwedi. 'Brahmasphuta Siddhanta'. Banaras, 1902.

21. Op. cit. no 16.

22. C E Cullis. 'On The Equations of the Mobious Surface of All Pitches'.

Bulletin of the Calcutta Mathematical Society, vol I, 1922, p 163.

23. S Mukherji. Journal of The Asiatic Society of Bengal (New Series)

vol 4, no 8, 1908.

24. V S Apte's. 'The Practical Sanskrit English Dictionary, Ed. by Gode

& Karve'. Prasad Prakashan, vol I, Poona - 1957, p 547.

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