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Tests re20rted bl

Krefeld and Thurston


Un
on reinforced concrete T-beams.
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)
Vc VTEST-Vc
H
TEST
Pvfy
Level of
Hember V
l10 Huo
tan !l I K
Kactual
prestress
1D (kips) (psi)

26-1 12.5 0.44 0.91 79 0.27 1.09 1.0 1.0
0.0
29a-1 16.9 0.31 0.71 53 0.23 0.82
29b-1 16.4 0.32 0.71 53 0.23 0.83
213.5-1 18.4 0.29 0.65 35 0.17 0.76
29a-2 9.6 0.58 0.97 62 0.20 1.24
213.5a-2 16.0 0.36 0.71 42 0.18 0.86
318-1 10.7 0.48 0.99 93 0.29 1.18
321-1 16.4 0.27 0.73 79 0.33 0.82
313.5-2 8.8 0.56 1.04 65 0.25 1.37
318-2 14.9 0.37 0.79 64 0.25 0.93
321-2 15.5 0.36 0.75 55 0.22 0.89
218-2 15.8 0.44 0.73 31 0.13 0.94
39-3 9.6 0.53 1.06 55 0.28 1.28
313.5-2 12.6 0.52 0.95 65 0.21 1.17
318-3 17.8 0.36 0.77 48 0.19 0.91
321-3 21.2 0.19 0.63 42 0.20 0.69
x = 0.99 N 16
s = 0.21
Tests re20rted by Palaskas. 't,tioabe Darwin
!321
on reinforced concrete T-beams.
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)
Vc VTEST-V
c
H
TEST
PVfy
Level of
Hember
Vuo Muo
tan 0- I K
Kactual
prestress
1D (kips) (psi) (a/f
A25 11.4 0.22 0.46 32 0.17 0.58 1.0 1.0 0.0
A25a 10.6 0.29 0.50 32 0.15 0.67
A50 6.0 0.39 0.62 74 0.29 0.84
A50a 7.3 0.33 0.58 75 0.31 0.77
A75 5.2 0.45 0.75 97 0.31 1.00
825 11.9 0.20 0.55 32 0.19 0.65
650 8.3 0.35 0.76 76 0.32 0.94
C25 10.2 0.21 0.31 32 0.18 0.43
C50 5.1 0.40 0.50 76 0.26 0.75
x = 0.74 N=9
s = 0.18
Overall for Tabh 2:q x = 0.90 N=25
s = 0.23
Table 2.4 Evaluation of reinforced concrete members with light
amounts of web reinforcement under bending and shear
failing in the transition state
57
58
However, on close examination of these specimens, it was found that poor
detailing of the reinforcement was the cause for these premature
failures.
In the case of the specimens from Ref. 31 all but 26-1 had
stirrup spacings in the longitudinal direction in excess of d/2 and in
some instances larger than d. As previously explained in Sec. 2.4.2 of
Report 248-3, large stirrup spacings do not allow the formation of a
uniform diagonal compression field. Instead, those large spacings cause
the excessive concentration of diagonal compression forces in the joints
of the truss formed by the longitudinal and transverse reinforcement
which then produced premature failures by pushing out of the
longitudinal corner bars. Furthermore, when the stirrup spacing is even
larger than d, the first diagonal crack which opens at 45 degrees in
reinforced concrete members will run untouched by a single stirrup
producing a sudden failure of the member.
For those members from Ref. 32 the cause of failure was the
inadequate detailing of the longitudinal reinforcement. The
longitudinal reinforcement consisted of ASTM A416 Grade 270 seven-wire
stress-reI ieved strand. The yield strength of this type of strand is
usually defined as the value of stress corresponding to a strain of 0.01
and is usually about 240-250 ksi. The transverse reinforcement used in
these specimens was made out of low carbon, smooth wires. These wires
were annealed and the yield stress obtained was between 60 and 70 ksi.
The long i tud inal rein forcement was left unstressed, thus creating an
enormous difference between the yield strengths of both reinforcements
59
which then led to an excessive redistribution of forces causing very
large strains in transverse reinforcement and in the diagonal
compression strut leading to a premature failure.
This problem does not exist in prestressed concrete members
because the initial tensioning of the strand eliminates the difference
between the strain required to produce yield in the transverse
reinforcement which is usually made out of deformed reinforcing bars
(40-60 ksi) and that required to yield the longitudinal prestressed
reinforcement (Grades 250-270).
The excessive redistribution of forces required in these members
from Ref. 32 is illustrated by the very low values of the angle of
inclination of the diagonal strut required at failure in those members.
The values of tana for each member are shown in column (6) of Table
2.4. As can be seen they differ considerably from the tam= 1.0
equivalent to the 45 degree angle corresponding to initial diagonal
cracking of the concrete member. Of even more importance they fall well
below the lower limit of tana) 0.5 introduced into the design
provisions. These specimens violate that limit severely.
Finally, it must be noted that for the case of prestressed
concrete members subjected to bending and shear, the current AASHTO/ACI
Specifications (1,2) require that the concrete contribution shall be
given by the smaller of the two values vcw and vci where vcw represents
the shear required to produce first inclined cracking in the web of the
member, and vci is the shear stress required to produce first flexure
60
cracking and then cause this flexural crack to become inclined. These
two shear mechanisms have been previously explained in Report 248-2.
The web shear cracking mechanism, v
cw
' is the shear stress in a
nonflexurally cracked member at the time that diagonal cracking occurs
in the web. The design for web shear cracking in prestressed concrete
members is based on the computation of the principal diagonal tension
stress in the web and the limitation of that stress to a certain
specified value. The ACI/AASHTO Specifications indicate that a value
3.5.fii should be used as the limit value of this principal diagonal
tension stress. As seen in Fig. 2.11 from a Mohr's circle it can be
shown that the value of the shear stress at the centroid of the web of a
prestressed concrete beam prior to cracking, vcr' is given by
(2.49)
where f
t
is the principal diagonal tension stress and fps is the
compressive stress due to prestress. In the current AASHTO/ACI
recommendation, f
t
is substituted by the limiting value 3.5.ffJ. and for
simplification the expression is reduced to the generally equivalent
(see Fig. 2.10 of Report 248-2) straight line function
vcw = vcr = 3.5.fFc + 0.3 fps
(2.50)
In the derivation of the proposed concrete contribution for
prestressed concrete members the same approach was followed (see Fig.
2.11) to obtain the value of the shear stress required to produce
initial diagonal cracking in the web of a member uncracked in flexure