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Results and discussion

A. Ferric Chloride Test


A B C D E F
Figure. Results of Ferric Chloride test for the
presence of Salicylic Acid
Table. Results of Ferric Chloride test for the
presence of Salicylic Acid
A. Benzyl Alcohol Immiscible, yellow
solution
(-)
B. Commercially
available ASA
Light yellow
solution with
precipitate
(-)

C. Control
(Pure Aspirin)

Clear solution
with precipitate
(-)
D. Salicylic Acid Violet solution
with precipitate
(+)
E. Benzoic acid Light yellow
solution with
precipitate
(-)

F. Prepared ASA

Violet solution
with precipitate
(+)



Figure. Reaction of FeCl
3
with phenol
Treatment of a 1% solution of FeCl3 in
chloroform with a phenol yields a triaryloxy
complex. This reagent is useful for detecting the
presence of a hydroxyl group attached directly
to an aromatic nucleus; alcohols do not
undergo this reaction. Most phenols yield
intense red, blue, purple or green colorations in
the ferric chloride test. Other functional groups
produce color changes with ferric chloride:
aliphatic acids give a yellow solution; aromatic
acids give a tan precipitate. All phenols do not
produce color with this reagent. Highly
hindered phenols (such as 2,6-di-
tertbutyphenol) fail to give positive tests.
Enols give a distinctive yellow color when
treated with FeCl3/CHCl3/pyridine.
[1]


Ferric Chloride test is used to check the purity
of the prepared aspirin. Because the salicylic
acid contains phenol, it is suspected to form a
violet solution for its OH group will be reacting
with the ferric chloride solution.

Figure. Reaction of FeCl3 with Salicylic acid
[2]

The salicylic acid together with the prepared
ASA yields a positive result with a violet
solution. This shows that the prepared ASA
contains impurities by the presence of salicylic
acid.
Benzyl alcohol, benzoic acid, pure aspirin
(control), and the commercially available ASA
yield a negative result. This means that the
compounds do not contain phenols. And also
the commercially available ASA does not have
any salicylic acid content.

B. Starch Test


A. B. C.
Figure. Starch Test Result

Table. Results for Starch Test/ Iodine Test
A. Prepared ASA Light yellow
precipitate
(-)
B. Control (pure
ASA)
Dark violet solution
(+)
C. Commercially
available ASA
Violet precipitate
(+)

The iodine test for starch is used to determine
the presence of starch in the prepared aspirin,
commercially available ASA, and the control.
Starch is a polysaccharide consisting of glucose
units joined together by glycosidic bonds. The
chains formed during the condensation reaction
are either linear or highly branched molecules.

Iodine on its own (small non-polar molecule) is
insoluble in water. Therefore Potassium
triiodide solution or Iodine dissolved in
potassium iodide solution is used as a reagent
in the test
The starch-iodide complex is formed as charge -
recall electrons are charged particles - is
transferred between the starch and iodide ion.
The transfer of charge between the starch and
the iodide ion changes the spacing between the
energy levels/ orbitals. This changes results in
the starch-iodide complex absorbing light at a
different wavelength than any other species
aforementioned resulting in an intense purple
color.
[3]


The prepared ASA yields a negative result,
which means it doesnt contain starch. While
the commercially available ASA and the control
yields a positive result which implies the
presence of starch. The control should have not
resulted with a positive result because it
contains pure aspirin. This may mean that
starch was added to the control (pure aspirin).
The commercially available ASA yields a positive
result because in the pharmaceutical industry,
starch is oftenly used as a binder and
surfactant.

References
[1] Chem 4563 Organic Qualitative Analysis
Phenols, Enols and Carboxylic Acids-Functional
Group Tests. Retrieved August 9, 2014, from
http://faculty.swosu.edu/william.kelly/pdf/qo8.
pdf
[2] Methodical Instruction for Students of the 1
Course Medical Faculty. Retrieved August 9,
2014, from
http://intranet.tdmu.edu.ua/data/kafedra/inter
nal/zag_him/metod_rozrobky/en/med/lik/ptn/
biological%20and%20bioorganic%20chemistry/
1%20course/02.%20Carboxylic%20acids.%20Lip
ids.Heterofunctional%20compounds.htm
[3] Iodine Test for Starch. Retrieved August 9,
2014, from
http://brilliantbiologystudent.weebly.com/iodin
e-test-for-starch.html