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As per the common syllabus prescribed by






S no Date Name of the Experiment

Signature of HOD Signature of Faculty



Products made through the sheet metal processing include automobile bodies, cabinets
appliances, electronic components, electrical parts, aerospace parts, refrigeration and air
conditioning parts etc. Sheet metal is generally considered to be a plate with thickness less than
about 5 mm.

The following metals are generally used in sheet metal work:
1. Black Iron Sheet
It is probably the cheapest of all the metal used for sheet metal work. It is bluish black in
appearance and is used generally in form of uncoated sheet. It can be easily rolled into the desired
thickness. Since it is uncoated it corrodes rapidly. Hence to increase its life it can be painted or
enameled. This metal is generally used in the making or roofs, food containers, stove pipes, furnace
fittings, dairy equipments, tanks, cans and pans, etc.
2. Galvanized Iron (G.I.)
It is popularly known as G.I. sheets. It is soft steel coated with molten zinc. This coating
resists rust formation on surface and improves appearance and water resistance. Articles such as
pans, furnaces, buckets, cabinets etc. are made from GI sheets.
3. Stainless Steel
It is an alloy of steel with nickel, chromium and small percentages of other metals. It has
good corrosion resistance. It is costlier but tougher than GI sheets. 1t is used in kitchenware, food
processing equipments, food handling articles, tools and instruments for surgery work in hospitals
and components of chemical plants etc.
Other metal sheets used for sheet metal work are made up of copper, aluminum, tin, and lead.

The following tools are commonly used for sheet-metal work:
(i) Hand shears or snips
(ii) Hammers
(iii) Stakes and stake holder
(iv) Cutting tools
(v) Measuring tools
(vi) Miscellaneous hand tools such as chisels, grooves, seamers, rivet sets and hand
They resemble with pair of scissors and are used like them to cut thin soft metal sheets of 20 gauge
or thinner. They are required to size and shape the sheets. They can make straight or circular cuts.
Different types of hand shears are:

(1) Straight hand shear: It is used for general purpose cutting, making straight cuts and
trimming away extra metal.
(2) Universal shear: Its blades are designed for universal cutting straight line or internal and
external cutting of
Contours. It may be of right hand or left hand type, easily identifiable, as the top blade is
either on the right of on the left.
(3) Curved hand shear: It is used for cutting circular or irregular curved shapes ranging from 20
to 35 cm.


The various types of hammers used in sheet metal work for forming shapes are

a) Smoothing hammer. Smoothing hammer is used for leveling and smoothing a sheet metal joint.
(b) Stretching hammer. Stretching hammer is used for stretching sheet.
(c) Creasing hammer. Creasing hammer is used to close down joint edges of sheets metal part.
(d) Hollowing hammer. Hollowing hammer is used for hollowing sheet metal part. It is used for
generating sharp radii also.
(e) Riveting hammer. Riveting hammer is used for forming riveted heads.
(f) Planishing hammer. Planishing hammer is used for removing small marks or indentations from
the sheet metal job surface and to true the shape of the work. It smoothens off the finished sheet
metal work.
(g) Soft hammer or Mallets. Mallets used during working with soft metal sheets. They may be of
wood, rubber or raw hide. A mallet strikes a blow with the minimum damage to the surface.
3) Stakes
Stakes are used to form the metal sheets into various shapes. It is a sort of anvil, which
supports the sheet for sheet metal work. It consists of a shank and a head or horn. The shank of
stake is designed to fit into a tapered bench socket. The head or horn of stake is available in a
number of varieties of sizes and shapes. Their working faces of stakes are machined or ground to
needed shape. With the help of a hammer, operations such as bending, seaming or forming can be
easily performed on these stakes.


1. Beak horn stake.
Beak horn is basically used for forming, riveting and seaming articles made of sheet metal
part. It is not much suitable like blow horn stake. It has a thick tapered horn at one end and a
rectangular shaped Horne at the other.
2. Funnel stake.
Funnel stake is commonly used for Planishing tapered work and hand forming of funnels and
similar conical shapes of sheet metal.
3. Half moon stake.
Half moon stake is basically used for throwing up edges of curved sheet metal work and for
preliminary stages of wiring curved edges.
4. Round bottom stake.
Round bottom stake is commonly used for squaring up edges and setting up the bottom of
cylindrical jobs made up of sheets.
5. Bick iron.
Bick iron stake is mainly used for forming taper handles, spouts and tubular work in general.
The narrow flat anvil end of bick iron is very useful on rectangular work.
6. Hatchet stake.
Hatchet stake is generally used for making sharp bends, bending edges and forming boxes
and pans of sheet metal by hand. This stake has a sharp straight edge beveled along one
7. Creasing with horn stake.
Creasing horn stake has a round horn used for forming conical shaped pieces in sheets. The
other end has a tapering square horn with grooved slots for wiring and beading.
8. Needle case stake.
Needle case stake is generally used for bending of sheets. It has a round slender horn for
forming wire rings and tubes.
9. Candle mold stake.
Candle mold stake has two horns for different tapers when forming, seaming and riveting
long flaring articles made up of sheet metal.
10. Blow horn stake.
Blow horn stake is generally used in forming, riveting and seaming tapered articles such as
11. Conductor stake.
Conductor stake has two cylindrical horns of different diameters. It is used for forming,
riveting, and seaming small sized pipes and tubes.
12. Double seaming stake.
Double seaming stake consists of two cylindrical horns of different diameters and it is
commonly used for riveting forming, and seaming tubes and small pipes.


4) Cutting Tools
Sheet metal shop uses cutting tools for pertaining to fitting work along with relevant
diagrams. Commonly used cutting tools involve types of files, chisels, scraper and
hacksaws. Some of the commonly used cutting tools are discussed as under.
1. Files. These are flat, square, round, triangular, knife, pillar, needle and mill types.
2. Chisels. The flat chisel and round nose chisel are most widely used in sheet metal
3. Scrapers. These are flat, hook; triangular, half round types.
4. Hacksaws. Hacksaw used in sheet metal shop may be hand hacksaw or power
5) Measuring Tools
There are a fairly large number of measuring tools used in sheet metal shop. The most
commonly used measuring tools are given as under.
1. Folding rule
2. Circumference rule
3. Steel rule
4. Vernier caliper
5. Micrometer
6. Thickness gauge

6) Miscellaneous Hand Tools
1. Steel square
2. Straight edge
3. Divider
4. Scriber
5. Trammel points
6. Soldering iron
7. Pliers

a) Folding rule.
It is used in measuring and laying out on sheets larger work with accuracy of 0.5 mm.
a) Steel rule.
It is useful in measuring and laying out small work on sheets. It can also measure up to
accuracy of 0.5 mm.
b) Tinmans mandrel.
The body of tinmans mandrel consists of a flat part and circular parts and serves as a base
for carrying out several operations on sheets. The flat part carries a tapered square hole for
accommodating the shanks of other stacks. The circular part is required for seaming of pipes
and riveting.

c) Trammel.
It is long rod called a beam on which are mounted two sliding heads used to hold scribing
points for scribing work on sheets. The points are adjustable in nature and can be replaced
by pencils, caliper legs or ballpoints. It is a layout generally required to measure between
two points or to scribe large circles or arc too long for divider.


e) Semi-circular protector.
The semicircular protractor whose head is circular and back is flat. It is generally
used to for setting bevels, transferring angles and other classes of work on metal sheets.

f) Pliers
Flat nose and round nose type pliers are commonly used for holding the sheet work
and forming different shapes respectively
g) Scribers
Scribers which are made of hardened steel of 3-5 mm. diameters and 20 cm. long. Its
one end is pointed as sharp as possible for making scribing lines on metal sheets.

1) Edge
The edges on part need to be folded to increase the strength and to eliminate the sharp
edges of sheet metal component.
Types of folded edges. The common types of folded edges are:
(i) single hem,
(ii) double hem and
(iii) wired edge
I) Single hem.
It is made by folding the edge over. To layout such a hem, a line is drawn at a distance equal
to the desired hem width.


ii) Double hem.
It is a single hem with its end bent under. To layout such a hem, draw two parallel lines each
equal to the width of the hem.

iii) Wired edge.
It consists of an edge, which has been wrapped around a piece of wire. This edge is used where
more strength is needed. To layout wired edge the diameter of wire is to be determined. The steel
metal will be needed to roll around the wire.

2) Seam
A seam is the section where pieces of sheet metal are joined together. Most common types of
seams are:
(a) Single seam,
(b) Double seam,
(c) Grooved seam,
(d) Lap seam,
(e) Dovetail seam, and
(f) Burred bottom seam
a) Single seam
It is used to join a bottom to vertical bodies of various shapes. To layout such a seam, draw
a line parallel to one edge of the sheet metal body stretch out at a distance equal to the width of the
seam. Now draw two lines parallel to the edges of the bottom stretch out. The first line should be
drawn at the distance from the edge of sheet metal equal to the width of the seam minus 1 mm.
approx. Second line should be drawn at a distance from the first equal to the width to the seam on
sheet metal plus 1 mm approx. The plus and minus dimensions of 1 mm is used to prevent the
folded bottom edge of sheet metal from interfering with the bodys folded bottom edge. If the bottom
is round, then mark the lines on sheet metal part.
b) Double seam
The layout process for this seam on sheet metal part is similar to that used for a single seam
on sheet metal part. It differs from single seam in a manner that its formed edge is bent upward
against the body.
a. Grooved seam
It is made by booking two folded edges of sheet metal part together and then off-setting the
seam. On one piece draw one line equal to half the width of the seam from outer edge.
Then draw second line at a distance equal to the width of the seam from the first line. Same
way draw two lines on the other piece of sheet metal part.
b. Lap seam
It is the simplest type of seam made on sheet metal part because one edge laps over
another and is soldered or riveted. To layout lap seam on sheet metal part, draw line on the
edge of piece at a distance equal to the width of the required seam.
c) Dovetail seam
It is used to join a flat plate to a cylindrical piece. To layout such a seam, draw a line parallel to
one edge of sheet metal component at a distance of 6 to 20 mm. depending upon the size of the
hole of sheet metal part. Then draw lines to indicate where the sheet metal part is to be slit. The
width of the piece between slits ranges from 6 to 26 mm.

d) Flanged or burred bottom seam
It is used to fasten the bottom of a container made of sheet metal to its body in which upper part
is the sheet metal body and lower bottom of a container. To layout such a seam on sheet metal part,


draw a circle, which represents the outline of the bottom on sheet metal part. If it is square or
rectangular component, draw the bottom shape on the sheet metal part.

Folded Sheet Metal Joints
As per requirements, various types of sheet metal joints are used in sheet metal work. Such
joints are commonly
Used to fasten bottoms to cylinders, square or rectangular containers.
1. Lap joint.
It is very frequently used in sheet metal work and can be prepared by means of soldering or

2. Seam joint.
This joint is a very generally used in sheet metal work. It is locked, as shown in the diagram,
so as to ensure a positive grip and also to make the joint flush with the surface.

3. Locked seam joint.
This joint is used for locking seam joints in sheet metal work.

4. Hem (single and double), wired edge, cup and angular joints.
These enable the edges sheet metal part to join the pieces along them.

5. Flanged joint.
It is commonly used in sheet metal work frequently in making pipe connections.

6. Cap joint.
It provides another useful form of locked seam joint on sheet metal component with good
appearance and strength. It is generally used for assembling cross seam of ducts made up
of in sheet metal part.



To make a rectangular tray from the given sheet metal.
Work piece
Material: Galvanized Iron (GI) sheet
Dimensions: 90 X 90 mm
Tools Required
1. Steel rule
2. Mallet Scriber
3. Divider
4. Protractor
5. Snips stakes
6. Rivet set
7. Scriber
8. Ball peen hammer
Sequence of operations
1. Mark and cut the sheet to z size of 90 X 90 mm after checking and leveling of the sheet
2. Mark s square of 150 X 150 mm on the center of the sheet to indicate the bend lines for
the bottom portion of the sheet.
3. Mark bending lines for hemming 5mm around the square sheet.
4. The sheet is cut as per the marked dimensions by straight snips. Then single hemming
is made on the four sides of the tray.
5. These four sides of the tray are bent to 90
using stake anvil.

Thus the desired square tray was made from the given sheet metal.



To make a funnel from the given sheet metal.
Work piece
Material: GI sheet (22 gauges)
Dimensions: 90 X 90 mm

Tools required
1. Steel rule
2. Mallet Scriber
3. Divider
4. Protractor
5. Snips stakes
6. Rivet set
7. Scriber
8. Ball peen hammer
9. Grover
10. White paper
Sequence of operations
1. Checking
2. Marking on paper
3. Marking on sheet metal
4. Cutting
5. Folding
6. Seaming

Working steps
1. The given metal sheet is checked for its dimensions using a steel rule.
2. The required shape is first produced in a paper which is used for reproducing the exact
size on the sheet metal.
3. The slanting angle of the sector is calculated by using the formula (360
X (R/L)). Where
R = Base circle radius
L = Slant height
4. The required shape is cut from the paper
5. The exact shape of the paper cut is placed on the GI sheet, so that the same size can be
reproduced on the sheet metal using scriber
6. The sheet is folded using funnel stake to make cone shape.
Then edges of the folded portion are joined together by seaming process using groover.


Thus the cone funnel of the required dimensions was made from the given sheet metal.


Machining, by definition, is the process of removing materials from excess and unwanted
stock by use of machine tools and converting them into usable parts. Different processes like
turning, milling, drilling and grinding are used to remove and modify a metal or a plastic into a
machine usable part. Machines have brought a revolution in the industrial world in the last few
decades. Earlier, people used to manually extract metals and transform them. But, with the
entry of machines in the industry and the invention of first steam engine by James Watt, the
whole scenario changed. Today, machines are used in different industries for multiple purposes.
The upcoming technology and software have also added to the use of machines. Internet has
added to the usefulness especially to machining services and availability of spares via the
virtual world. All the manufacturing industries use variety of machines to meet specific
manufacturing requirements and choose the right machining vehicles. Those manufacturing
machines comprise of diverse materials like aluminum, steel, stainless steel, copper,
polycarbonate, plastic, fiberglass and acrylic among others.
To achieve a perfect and finished piece of material, different methods are applied on the
piece depending on its final usage. Most commonly used methods for removing and modifying a
raw piece are blending, blanking, boring, drawing, polishing, anodizing, grinding, honing,
knurling, laser cutting, milling, plasma cutting, reaming, welding, thermoforming, gear cutting,
shearing, sawing and the list goes on.. These methods are responsible for providing
dimensional accuracy and perfect surface finish to a particular piece of metal. Machining has
various advantages. The process has resulted in greatest efficiency, low cost production and
faster delivery. It also gives room to manufacture extensive pieces with more design flexibility,
closer tolerance and consistent component properties. Lower residual component stresses and
faster turnaround time are also the major benefits of machining. Machining as a process is
widely used in large industries for producing an extensive and outstanding piece. The process is
used in industries like transportation, construction, packaging, electrical, automotive, aircraft,
hospitals and medical applications among various others.

Lathe is one of the most versatile and widely used machine tools all over the world. It is
commonly known as the mother of all other machine tool. The main function of a lathe is to
remove metal from a job to give it the required shape and size. The job is secure1y and rigid1y
held in the chuck or in between centers on the lathe machine and then turn it against a single
point cutting tool which wi1l remove meta1 from the job in the form of chips. Fig. 21.1 shows the
working principle of lathe. An engine lathe is the most basic and simplest form of the lathe. It
derives its name from the early lathes, which obtained their power from engines. Besides the
simple turning operation as described above, lathe can be used to carry out other operations
also, such as drilling, reaming, boring, taper turning, knurling, screw thread cutting, grinding etc.


Lathes are manufactured in a variety of types and sizes, from very small bench lathes
used for precision work to huge lathes used for turning large steel shafts. But the principle of
operation and function of all types of lathes is same. The different types of lathes are:
1. Speed lathe
(a) Wood working
(b) Spinning
(c) Centering
(d) Po1ishing

2. Centre or engine lathe
(a) Be1t drive
(b) Individual motor drive
(c) Gear head lathe
3. Bench lathe
4. Tool room Lathe
5. Capstan and Turret 1athe
6. Special purpose lathe
(a) Whee1 lathe
(b) Gap bed lathe
(c) Dup1icating lathe
(d) T-lathe
7. Automatic lathe


A simple lathe comprises of a bed made of grey cast iron on which headstock, tailstock,
carriage and other components of lathe are mounted. Fig. 21.3 shows the different parts of
engine lathe or central lathe. The major parts of lathe machine are given as under:
1. Bed
2. Head stock
3. Tailstock
4. Carriage
5. Feed mechanism
6. Thread cutting mechanism
The bed of a lathe machine is the base on which all other parts of lathe are mounted. It
is massive and rigid single piece casting made to support other active parts of lathe. On left end
of the bed, headstock of lathe machine is located while on right side tailstock is located. The
carriage of the machine rests over the bed and slides on it. On the top of the bed there are two
sets of guide ways-inner ways and outer ways. The inner ways provide sliding surfaces for the
tailstock and the outer ways for the carriage. The guide ways of the lathe bed
May be flat and inverted V shape. Generally cast iron alloyed with nickel and chromium material
is used for manufacturing of the lathe bed.


Head Stock
The main function of headstock is to transmit power to the different parts of a lathe. It
comprises of the headstock casting to accommodate all the parts within it including gear train
arrangement. The main spindle is adjusted in it, which possesses live centre to which the work
can be attached. It supports the work and revolves with the work, fitted into the main spindle of
the headstock. The cone pulley is also attached with this arrangement, which is used to get
various spindle speed through electric motor. The back gear arrangement is used for obtaining
a wide range of slower speeds. Some gears called change wheels are used to produce different
velocity ratio required for thread cutting.

Tail Stock
Tail stock of central lathe, which is commonly used for the objective of primarily giving an
outer bearing and support the circular job being turned on centers. Tail stock can be easily set
or adjusted for alignment or non-alignment with respect to the spindle centre and carries a
centre called dead centre for supporting one end of the work. Both live and dead centers have
60 conical points to fit centre holes in the circular job, the other end tapering to allow for good
fitting into the spindles. The dead centre can be mounted in ball bearing so that it rotates with
the job avoiding friction of the job with dead centre as it important to hold heavy jobs.

Carriage is mounted on the outer guide ways of lathe bed and it can move in a direction
parallel to the spindle axis. It comprises of important parts such as apron, cross-slide, saddle,
compound rest, and tool post. The lower part of the carriage is termed the apron in which there
are gears to constitute apron mechanism for adjusting the direction of the feed using clutch


mechanism and the split half nut for automatic feed. The cross-slide is basically mounted on the
carriage, which generally travels at right angles to the spindle axis. On the cross-slide, a saddle
is mounted in which the compound rest is adjusted which can rotate and fix to any desired
angle. The compound rest slide is actuated by a screw, which rotates in a nut fixed to the
saddle. The tool post is an important part of carriage, which fits in a tee-slot in the compound
rest and holds the tool holder in place by the tool post screw.

There are many lathe accessories provided by the lathe manufacturer along with the
lathe, which support the lathe operations. The important lathe accessories include centers,
catch plates and carriers, chucks, collets, face plates, angle plates, mandrels, and rests. These
are used either for holding and supporting the work or for holding the tool. Attachments are
additional equipments provided by the lathe manufacturer along with the lathe, which can be
used for specific operations. The lathe attachment include stops, ball turning rests, thread
chasing dials, milling attachment, grinding attachment, gear cutting attachment, turret
attachment and crank pin turning attachments and taper turning attachment.

Lathe centers
The most common method of holding the job in a lathe is between the two centers
generally known as live centre (head stock centre) and dead centre (tailstock centre). They are
made of very hard materials to resist deflection and wear and they are used to hold and support
the cylindrical jobs.

Carriers or driving dog and catch plates
These are used to drive a job when it is held between two centers. Carriers or driving
dogs are attached to the end of the job by a setscrew. A use of lathe dog for holding and
supporting the job is shown in Fig. 21.6. Catch plates are either screwed or bolted to the nose of
the headstock spindle. A projecting pin from the catch plate or carrier fits into the slot provided
in either of them. This imparts a positive drive between the lathe spindle and job.

Chuck is one of the most important devices for holding and rotating a job in a lathe. It is
basically attached to the headstock spindle of the lathe. The internal threads in the chuck fit on
to the external threads on the spindle nose. Short, cylindrical, hollow objects or those of
irregular shapes, which cannot be conveniently mounted between centers, are easily and rigidly
held in a chuck. Jobs of short length and large diameter or of irregular shape, which cannot be
conveniently mounted between centers, are held quickly and rigidly in a chuck.
There are a number of types of lathe chucks, e.g.
(1) Three jaws or universal
(2) Four jaw independent chuck
(3) Magnetic chuck
(4) Colet chuck
(5) Air or hydraulic chuck operated
(6) Combination chuck
(7) Drill chuck.


The size of a lathe is generally specified by the following means:
(a) Swing or maximum diameter that can be rotated over the bed ways
(b) Maximum length of the job that can be held between head stock and tail stock centres
(c) Bed length, which may include head stock length also
(d) Maximum diameter of the bar that can pass through spindle or collect chuck of capstan
(i) Maximum swing over bed
(ii) Maximum swing over carriage
(iii) Height of centers over bed
(iv) Maximum distance between centers
(v) Length of bed
(vi) Width of bed
(vii) Morse taper of center
(viii) Diameter of hole through spindle
(ix) Face plate diameter
(x) Size of tool post
(xi) Number of spindle speeds
(xii) Lead screw diameter and number of threads per cm.
(xiii) Size of electrical motor
(xiv) Pitch range of metric and inch threads etc.

For performing the various machining operations in a lathe, the job is being supported
and driven by anyone of the following methods.
1. Job is held and driven by chuck with the other end supported on the tail stock centre.
2. Job is held between centers and driven by carriers and catch plates.
3. Job is held on a mandrel, which is supported between centers and driven by carriers and
catch plates.
4. Job is held and driven by a chuck or a faceplate or an angle plate.

1. Straight turning 2. Shoulder turning
3. Taper turning 4. Chamfering
5. Eccentric turning 6. Thread cutting
7. Facing 8. Forming
9. Filing 10. Polishing
11. Grooving 12. Knurling
13. Spinning 14. Spring winding

A taper is defined as a uniform increase or decrease in diameter of a piece of work
measured along its length. In a lathe machine, taper turning means to produce a conical surface
by gradual reduction in diameter from a cylindrical job. Taper in the British System is expressed
in taper per foot or taper per inch.


= tan

D = is the diameter of the large end of cylindrical job,
d = is the diameter of the small end of cylindrical job, and
L = is the length of the taper of cylindrical job, all expressed in inches,
When the taper is expressed in taper per foot, the length of the taper l is expressed in
foot, but the diameters are expressed in inches.

A taper is generally turned in a lathe by feeding the tool at an angle to the axis of rotation of the
work piece. The angle formed by the path of the tool with the axis of the work piece should
correspond to the half taper angle. A taper can be turned by anyone of the following methods:
1. By swiveling the compound rest,
2. By setting over the tailstock centre,
3. By a broad nose form tool,
4. By a taper turning attachment,
5. By combining longitudinal and cross feed in a special lathe and
6. By using numerical control lathe

Lathe Safety Guidelines
1. Make sure that the chuck, drive plate, or, faceplate is securely tightened onto the lathe
2. When removing the chuck, drive plate, or faceplate do not use machine power.
3. When installing the chuck, drive plate, or faceplate do not use machine power.
4. Move the tool bit a safe distance from the collet or chuck when inserting or removing work.
5. Don't run the machine faster than the proper cutting speed consult a speed and feed table
To determine the best speed.
6. In setting up the tool holder place it to the left side of the compound slide to prevent the
Compound slide from running into the chuck or spindle attachments.
7. Always clamp the tool bit as short as possible in the tool holder to prevent it from breaking or
8. Always make sure that the tool bit is sharp and has the proper clearance. Ask for assistance
making adjustments.
9. If any filing is done on work revolving in the lathe, file left handed to prevent slipping into the
chuck. Never use a file without a handle.
10. If work is turned between centers, make sure that proper adjustment is made between
centers and that the tailstock is locked in place.
11. If work is being turned between centers and expands due to heat generated from cutting,
readjust centers to avoid excessive friction.
12. Do not grasp or touch chips or turnings with your fingers, but get rid of them using a blunt
instrument. It is safer to turn off the lathe before clearing chips then to leave it running.
13. Set the tool bit on the centerline of your work to prevent work from climbing over tool or
cutting above center and dragging.


14. Don't cut work completely through when turning between centers.
15. Remove chuck key from chuck immediately after using.
16. Turn chuck or faceplate through by hand before turning on the power to be sure there is
no binding or clearance problem.
17. Stop the machine before taking measurements.
18. Before cleaning the lathe remove tools from the tool post and tailstock.



To perform the facing, plain turning and step turning operation on the given work piece
as per the given dimensions.

Material Required:
Mild steel rod

Tools Required:
Lathe machine
Cutting tool
Chuck key
Steel rule
Tool post key
Vernier caliper
Turning tool


1. The dimension of the given work pieces are checked by Vernier caliper.

2. The work piece is held in the lathe chuck properly and it is tightened by chuck key.

3. The single point cutting tool is held in the tool post and it is tightened by tool post key.

4. Facing is done with cutting tool moving from the centre of work piece towards outside. It is
done until the required length of the job is obtained.

5. The turning operation is done with cutting tool to reduce the diameter up to the required
dimension for the two steps of various diameters.

6. The work piece from the chuck is removed and the dimensions are checked for the



Thus the required size and shape of the given work piece is obtained.




To perform taper turning operation on the given work piece as per the given dimensions.

Material Required:
Mild steel rod

Tools Required:
Steel rule
Vernier caliper
Cutting tool
Chuck key
Tool post key


1. The dimension of the given work piece are checked by vernier caliper.

2. The work piece is held in the lathe chuck properly and it is tightened by chuck key.

3. The single point cutting tool is held in the tool post and it is tightened by tool post key.

4. Facing is done with cutting tool moving from the centre of work piece towards outside. It is
done until the required length of the job is obtained.

5. Turning is done to reduce the diameter of the job. Sufficient depth of cut is given and it is
done until the required diameter of the job is obtained.

6. The tapper turning operation is done on work piece according to the tapper angle calculated.
Taper angle is calculated by using the formula is given below. Taper angle, = tan-1{(D-d) / 2L}

7. The compound rest is set at the calculated taper angle, for this the tool is moved by 450 to
the lathe axis. The taper turning is carried out using compound rest.

8. Finally, the finished job is inspected and unloaded from the chuck.




Thus the required size and shape of the given work piece is obtained.



To perform the single start V-Thread and knurling operations on the given work piece as
per the given dimensions.

Material Required:
Mild steel rod

Tools Required:
Steel rule
Vernier caliper
Cutting tool
Chuck key
Tool post key
Single start V-thread cutting tool
Knurling tool


1. The dimension of the given work piece are checked by Vernier caliper.

2. The work piece is held in the lathe chuck properly and it is tightened by chuck key.

3. The cutting tool is set in a tool post such that the point of the cutting tool coincides with the
lathe axis.

4. The machine is switched ON to remove the work piece at the selected speed.

5. By the giving cross feed and longitudinal feed to the cutting tool the facing and turning
operations are done respectively.

6. The speed of the work piece is reduced.

7. The knurling operation is done by using knurling tool.

8. The work piece is removed from the chuck and all the dimensions are measured and




Result: Thus the required size and shape of the given work piece is obtained.



To perform the multi start V-Thread cutting operations on the given work piece as per
the given dimensions.

Material Required:
Mild steel rod

Tools Required:
Steel rule
Vernier caliper
Cutting tool
Chuck key
Tool post key
Multi start V- thread cutting tool


1. The dimension of the given work piece are checked by Vernier caliper.

2. The work piece is held in the lathe chuck properly and it is tightened by chuck key.

3. The cutting tool is set in a tool post such that the point of the cutting tool coincides with the
lathe axis.

4. The machine is switched ON to remove the work piece at the selected speed.

5. By the giving cross feed and longitudinal feed to the cutting tool the facing and turning
operations are done respectively.

6. The speed of the work piece is reduced.

7. The external thread cutting operation is done using external V-thread cutting tool by engaging
thread mechanism.

8. The work piece is removed from the chuck and all the dimensions are measured and




Result: Thus the required size and shape of the given work piece is obtained.



To perform the boring and internal thread cutting operations on the given work piece as
per the given dimensions.

Material Required:
Mild steel rod

Tools Required:
Steel rule
Vernier caliper
Cutting tool
Chuck key
Tool post key
Internal thread cutting tool


1. The dimension of the given work piece are checked by vernier caliper.

2. The work piece is held in the lathe chuck properly and it is tightened by chuck key.

3. The cutting tool is set in a tool post such that the point of the cutting tool coincides with the
lathe axis.

4. The machine is switched ON to remove the work piece at the selected speed.

5. By the giving cross feed and longitudinal feed to the cutting tool the facing and turning
operations are done respectively.

6. The speed of the work piece is reduced.

7. The external thread cutting operation is done by using external V thread cutting tool by
engaging thread cutting mechanism.

8. The work piece is removed from the chuck and all the dimensions are measured and



Result: Thus the required size and shape of the given work piece is obtained.



Welding is a process for joining two similar or dissimilar metals by fusion. It joins different
metals/alloys, with or without the application of pressure and with or without the use of filler
metal. The fusion of metal takes place by means of heat. The heat may be generated either
from combustion of gases, electric arc, electric resistance or by chemical reaction. During
some type of welding processes, pressure may also be employed, but this is not an essential
requirement for all welding processes. Welding provides a permanent joint but it normally
affects the metallurgy of the components.


Edge preparations
For welding the edges of joining surfaces of metals are prepared first. Different edge
preparations may be used for welding butt joints, which are shown in figure.

Welding Joints
Some common welding joints are shown in Welding joints are of generally of two major
kinds namely lap joint and butt joint. The main types are described as under.

Lap wel d joint

Single-Lap Joint
This joint, made by overlapping the edges of the plate, is not recommended for most
work. The single lap has very little resistance to bending. It can be used satisfactorily for joining
two cylinders that fit inside one another.


Double-Lap Joint
This is stronger than the single-lap joint but has the disadvantage that it requires twice as
much welding.
Tee Fillet Weld
This t ype of joint, al t hough widely used, should not be employed if an alternative
design is possible.

Types of Welding Joints


Butt weld joint
Single-Vee Butt Wel d
It is used for plates up to 15.8 mm thick. The angle of the vee depends upon the
technique being used, the plates being spaced approximately 3.2 mm.
Double-Vee Butt Weld
It is used for plates over 13 mm thick when the welding can be performed on both sides
of the plate. The top vee angle is either 60 or 80, while the bottom angle is 80, depending
on the technique being used.
Welding Positions
There are four types of welding positions, which are given as:
1. Flat or down hand position
2. Horizontal position
3. Vertical position
4. Overhead position

Kinds of Welding Positions
Flat or down hand We l di ng Position
The flat position or down hand position is one in which the welding is performed from the
upper side of the joint and the face of the weld is approximately horizontal. This is the simplest
and the most convenient position for welding. Using this technique, excellent welded joints at
a fast speed with minimum risk of fatigue to the welders can be obtained.

Horizontal Welding Position
In horizontal position, the plane of the work piece is vertical and the deposited weld head
is horizontal. The metal deposition rate in horizontal welding is next to that achieved in flat or
down hand welding position. This position of welding is most commonly used in welding
vessels and reservoirs.

Veritical Welding Position
In vertical position, the plane of the work piece is vertical and the weld is deposited upon a
vertical surface. It is difficult to produce satisfactory welds in this position due to the effect of
the force of gravity on the molten metal. The welder must constantly control the metal so that it
does not run or drop from the weld. Vertical welding may be of two types viz., vertical-up and
vertical-down. Vertical-up welding is preferred when strength is the major consideration. The
vertical-down welding is used for a sealing operation and for welding sheet metal.


Overhead Welding Position
The overhead position is probably even more difficult to weld than the vertical position.
Here the pull of gravity against the molten metal is much greater. The force of the flame
against the weld serves to counteract the pull of gravity. In overhead position, the plane of the
work piece is horizontal. But the welding is carried out from the underside. The electrode is
held with its welding end upward. It is a good practice to use very short arc and basic coated
electrodes for overhead welding.


There is different welding; brazing and soldering methods are being used in industries
today. There are various ways of classifying the welding and allied processes. For example,
they may be classified on the basis of source of heat, i.e., blacksmith fire, flame, arc, etc. and
the type of interaction i.e., liquid / liquid (fusion welding) or solid/solid (solid state welding).
Welding processes may also be classified in two categories namely plastic (forge) and fusion.
However, the general classification of welding and allied processes is given as under

(A) Welding Processes

1. Oxy-Fuel Gas Welding Processes
1 Air-acetylene welding
2 Oxy-acetylene welding
3 Oxy-hydrogen welding
4 Pressure gas welding
2. Ar c We l d i n g Pr o c e s s e s
1. Carbon Arc Welding
2. Shielded Metal Arc Welding
3. Submerged Arc Welding
4. Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
5. Gas Metal Arc Welding
6. Plasma Arc Welding
7. Atomic Hydrogen Welding
8. Electro-slag Welding
9. Stud Arc Welding
10. Electro-gas Welding
3. Resistance Welding
1. Spot Welding
2. Seam Welding
3. Projection Welding


4. Resistance Butt Welding
5. Flash Butt Welding
6. Percussion Welding
7. High Frequency Resistance Welding
8. High Frequency Induction Welding

4. Solid-State Welding Processes
1. Forge Welding
2. Cold Pressure Welding
3. Friction Welding
4. Explosive Welding
5. Diffusion Welding
6. Cold Pressure Welding
7. Thermo-compression Welding

5. Thermit Welding Processes
1. Thermit Welding
2. Pressure Thermit Welding

6. Radiant Energy Welding Processes
1. Laser Welding
2. Electron Beam Welding

(B) Allied Processes

1. Metal Joining or Metal Depositing Processes
1. Soldering
2. Brazing
3. Braze Welding
4. Adhesive Bonding
5. Metal Spraying
6. Surfacing

2. Thermal Cutting Processes
1. Gas Cutting
2. Arc Cutting


Some of the important and wi del y used welding processes are discussed in the
rest of this chapter.


The process, in which an electric arc between an electrode and a work piece
or between two electrodes is utilized to weld base metals, is called an arc welding
process. The basic pri nci pl e of arc wel di ng is shown in Fig. However the basic
elements involved in arc welding process are shown in Fig. Most of these processes
use some shielding gas while others employ coatings or fluxes to prevent the weld
pool from the surrounding atmosphere. The various arc welding processes are:

1. Carbon Arc Welding
2. Shielded Metal Arc Welding
3. Flux Cored Arc Welding
4. Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
5. Gas Metal Arc Welding
6. Plasma Arc Welding
7. Atomic Hydrogen Welding
8. Electro slag Welding
9. Stud Arc Welding
10. Electro gas Welding

Arc Welding Equipment
Arc wel di ng equipment, setup and related tools and accessories are
shown in Fig. However some common tools of arc welding are shown separately
through Fig. Few of the important components of arc welding setup are described as


1. Arc welding power source
Both direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC) are used for electric arc
welding, each having its particular applications. DC welding supply is usually
obtained from generators driven by electric motor or if no electricity is available by
internal combustion engines. For AC welding supply, transformers are
predominantly used for almost all arcs welding where mains electricity supply is
available. They have to step down the usual supply voltage (200- 400 volts) to the
normal open circuit welding voltage (50-90 v o l t s ). The following factors influence
the selection of a power source:
1. Type of electrodes to be used and metals to be welded
2. Available power source (AC or DC)
3. Required output
4. Duty cycle
5. Efficiency
6. Initial costs and running costs
7. Available floor space

Electrode Holder Earth Clamp

Hand screen Chipping Hammer

Wire Brush C-clamp


Welding cables
Welding cables are required for conduction of current from the power
source through the electrode holder, the arc, the work piece and back to the
welding power source. These are insulated copper or aluminium cables.

Electrode holder
Electrode holder is used for holding the electrode manually and conducting
current to it. These are usually matched to the size of the lead, which in turn
matched to the amperage output of the arc welder. Electrode holders are available
in sizes t hat range from 150 to 500 Amps.

4. Welding Electrodes
An electrode is a piece of wire or a rod of a metal or alloy, with or without
coatings. An arc is set up between electrode and work piece. Welding electrodes are
classified into following types-
(1) Consumable Electrodes
(a) Bare Electrodes
(b) Coated Electrodes
(2) Non-consumable Electrodes
(a) Carbon or Graphite Electrodes
(b) Tungsten Electrodes
Consumable electrode is made of different metals and their alloys. The end
of this electrode starts mel t i ng when arc is st r uck between the electrode
and work piece. Thus consumable electrode itself a c t s a s a filler met al . Bare
electrodes consist of a metal or alloy wire without any flux c oat i ng on t hem.
Coated electrodes have flux c oat i ng which starts melting as soon as an electric
arc is struck. This coat i ng on melting performs many functions like pr e v e nt i on of
joint f r o m at mos pher i c contamination, arc s t abi l i z er s etc.
Non-consumable electrodes are made up of high melting point materials
like c a r b o n , pure tungsten or alloy t ungst en etc. These electrodes do not mel t
away during welding. But practically, the electrode length goes on decr easi ng
with the passage of time, because of oxidation and v a p o r i z a t i o n of the
e l e c t r o d e material during welding. The mat er i al s of non- consumable
electrodes are usual l y copper coat ed carbon or graphite, pure tungsten,
thoriated or zirconiated tungsten.

5. Hand Screen
Hand screen used for protection of eyes and s u p e r v i s i o n of weld bead.
6. Chipping hammer
Chipping Hammer is used to remove the s l a g b y s


7. Wire brush
Wire br us h i s used to clean the s u r f a c e to be weld.

8. Protective clothing
Operator wears the protecti ve clothing such as apron to keep away the
exposure of direct heat to the b o d y .

Functions of Electrode Coating Ingredients
The covering coating on t he core wi r e consists of many materials which
perform a number of functions as l i st ed below:
1. Welding electrodes are used to join various similar and dissimilar metals
as plain carbon steels, cast iron, copper, aluminium, magnesium and
their alloys, stainless steels and other alloy steels.
2. Slag forming ingredients, like silicates of magnesium, aluminium, sodium,
potassium, iron oxide, china clay, mica etc., produce a slag which
because of its light weight forms a layer on the molten metal and
protects the same from atmospheric contamination.
3. Arc stabilizing constituents like calcium carbonate, potassium silicate,
titanates, magnesium silicates, etc.; add to arc stability and ease of striking
the same.
4. Gas shielding ingredients, like cellulose, wood, wood flour, starch, calcium
carbonate etc. form a protective gas shi el d around the electrode end, arc
and weld pool
5. Deoxidizing elements l i ke ferro-manganese, and ferro-silicon, refine the
molten metal.
6. It limits spatter, produces a quiet arc and e a s i l y removable slag.
7. Alloying elements like ferro alloys of manganese, molybdenum etc., may
be added to impart suitable properties and strength to the weld metal
and to make good the loss of some of the elements, which vaporize
while welding.
8. Iron powder in the coat i ng improves arc behavior, bead appear ance helps
increase metal deposition rate and a r c t r avel speed.
9. The c over i ng improves penetration and s u r f a c e finish.
10. Core wire melts faster than the covering, thus forming a sleeve of the
coating which constricts and produces an arc with high concentrated
11. Coating saves the welder from the radiations otherwise emitted from a bare
electrode while t h e c u r r e n t flows t hrough it during welding.
12. Proper coating ingredients produce weld met al s resistant to hot and
Cold cracking.


Safety Recommendations for ARC Welding
The beginner in the field of arc welding must go through and become familiar with
these general safety recommendations which are given as under.
1. The body or the frame of the welding machine shall be efficiently earthed. Pipe lines
containing gases or inflammable liquids or conduits carrying electrical conductors
shall not be used for a ground return circuit All earth connections shall be
mechanically strong and electrically adequate for the required current.
2. Welding arc in addition to being very is a source of infra-red and ultra-violet light
also; consequently the operator must use either helmet or a hand-shield fitted with
a special filter glass to protect eyes
3. Excess ultra-violet light can cause an effect similar to sunburn on the skin of
The welder
4. The welders body and clothing are protected from radiation and burns caused by
sparks and flying globules of molten metal with the help of the following:
5. Gloves protect the hands of a welder.
6. Leather or asbestos apron is very useful to protect welders clothes and his trunk
and thighs while seated he is doing welding.
7. For overhead welding, some form of protection for the head is required
8. Leather skull cap or peaked cap will do the needful.
9. Leather jackets and 1ather leggings are also available as clothes for body Protection.
10. Welding equipment shall be inspected periodically and maintained in safe working
order at all times.
11. Arc welding machines should be of suitable quality.
12. All parts of welding set shall be suitably enclosed and protected to meet the usual
service conditions.
13. Welders and workers need to be protected from welding rays, f1ying sparks, metal
globules and metal spatter, hot slag particles, hot stubs, fumes and gases when
welding in confined spaces, e.g., rail tank wagon, falling when welding at a height
from the ground.
14. In AC arc welding machines, in transformers, the secondary circuit shall be
thoroughly insulated from the primary. Input terminal shall be completely enclosed
and accessible only by means of tools.
15. The primary side of the transformer shall be provided with suitable wire terminals
inside the machine case.
16. Welding (secondary) terminals shall be so arranged that current carrying parts are not
exposed to accidental contact.
17. In a transformer, the welding circuit should be quite separate from power circuit,
so that there is no risk of the welder suffering serious shock or burns through
power voltage appearing across the electric holder.


18. At or near each welding machine, a disconnecting switch shall provide.
19. Control apparatus provided with the welding machine shall enclose except for the
operating wheels, levers, etc.
20. Transformer windings are suction or compressed-air cleaned periodically.
21. Before undertaking any maintenance work on welding machine disconnects them
from the main supply.
22. As regards other arc welding equipments, electrode holders should be soundly
connected to the welding lead
23. They should be of adequate rating for the maximum welding current to prevent them
from heating up and be coming too hot to handle.
24. Electrode holder sha1l be provided with discs or shields to protect the hands of the
welder from heat of the arc. Installation of all metallic of current carrying parts,
including the jaws which grip the electrodes, is recommended.
25. Hot electrode holders shall not be permitted to dip in water because the retained
moisture may cause an electric shock.
26. Welding cables shall be of completely insulated, flexible type. They should be
capable of handling the maximum current requirements of the work in progress,
taking into account the duty cycle under which the welder is working in case the
cable insulation is damaged, do not operate the equipment.
27. The welding cable should be free from repair or splices up to a minimum distance of
three metres from the electrode holder.
28. Fully insulated cable connectors of capacity at least equivalent to that of the cable
shall be used to connect two cables together.
29. Welding cables shall be kept dry and free from grease and oil to avoid premature
breakdown of insulation.
30. Arc welding machines should be properly ground (earthed).
31. Construction of arc welding machines should be such that they can operate
satisfactorily even under conditions of satisfy or moist air as in coastal areas, dust,
smoke, fumes and gases, excessive shock or vibrations, steam and corrosive
atmosphere, etc.


A fusion welding process which joins metals, using the heat of combustion of an oxygen
/air and fuel gas (i.e. Acetylene, hydrogen propane or butane) mixture is usually referred as
gas welding. The intense heat (flame) thus produced melts and fuses together the edges of
the parts to be welded, generally with the addition of a filler metal. Operation of gas welding is
shown in Fig. The fuel gas generally employed is acetylene; however gases other than
acetylene can also be used though with lower flame temperature. Oxy-acetylene flame is the
most versatile and hottest of all the flames produced by the combination of oxygen and other
fuel gases. Other gases such as Hydrogen, Propane, Butane, Natural gas etc., may be used
for some welding and brazing applications.

Oxy-Acetylene Welding
In this process, acetylene is mixed with
oxygen in correct proportions in the
welding torch and ignited. The flame
resulting at the tip of the torch is
sufficiently hot to melt and join the parent
metal. The oxy-acetylene flame reaches a
temperature of about 3300C and thus
can melt most of the ferrous and non-
ferrous metals in common use. A filler
metal rod or welding rod is generally
added to the molten metal pool to build up the seam slightly for greater strength.

Types of Wel di ng Fl ames
I n oxy- acet yl ene wel di ng, f l ame i s t he most i mpor t ant means t o cont r ol
t he wel di ng j oi nt and t he wel di ng pr ocess. The corr ect t ype of f l ame i s
essent i al f or t he product i on of sat i sf act or y wel ds. The f l ame must be of t he
pr oper si ze, shape and condi t i on i n or der t o oper at e wi t h maxi mum ef f i ci ency.
Ther e ar e t hr ee basi c t ypes of oxy- acet yl ene f l ames.
1. Neut r al wel di ng f l ame ( Acet yl ene and oxygen i n equal pr opor t i ons) .
2. Car bur i zi ng wel di ng f l ame or r educi ng ( excess of acet yl ene) .
3. Oxi di zi ng wel di ng f l ame ( excess of oxygen) .
The gas wel di ng f l ames ar e shown i n Fi g


Gas Welding Flames

Neutral Welding Flame
A neutral flame results when approximately equal volumes of oxygen and acetylene are
mixed in the welding torch and burnt at the torch tip. The temperature of the neutral flame is
of the order of about 5900F (3260C). It has a clear, well defined inner cone, indicating that
the combustion is complete. The inner cone is light blue in color. It is surrounded by an outer
flame envelope, produced by the combination of oxygen in the air and superheated carbon
monoxide and hydrogen gases from the inner cone. This envelope is usually a much darker
blue than the inner cone. A neutral flame is named so because it affects no chemical change
on the molten metal and, therefore will not oxidize or carburize the metal. The neutral flame is
commonly used for the welding of mild steel, stainless steel, cast Iron, copper, and aluminium.

Carburizing or Reducing Welding Flame
The carburizing or reducing flame has excess of acetylene and can be recognized by
acetylene feather, which exists between the inner cone and the outer envelope. The outer
flame envelope is longer than that of the neutral flame and is usually much brighter in color.
With iron and steel, carburizing flame produces very hard, brittle substance known as iron
carbide. A reducing flame may be distinguished from carburizing flame by the fact that a
carburizing flame contains more acetylene than a reducing flame. A reducing flame has an
approximate temperature of 3038C. A carburizing-flame is used in the welding of lead and for
carburizing (surface hardening) purpose. A reducing flame, on the other hand, does not
carburize the metal; rather it ensures the absence of the oxidizing condition. It is used for
welding with low alloy steel rods and for welding those metals, (e.g., non-ferrous) that do not
tend to absorb carbon. This flame is very well used for welding high carbon steel.


Oxidizing Welding flame
The oxidizing flame has an excess of oxygen over the acetylene. An oxidizing flame can
be recognized by the small cone, which is shorter, much bluer in color and more pointed than
that of the neutral flame. The outer flame envelope is much shorter and tends to fan out at the
end. Such a flame makes a loud roaring sound. It is the hottest flame (temperature as high as
6300F) produced by any oxy-fuel gas source. But the excess oxygen especially at high
temperatures tends to combine with many metals to form hard, brittle, low strength oxides.
Moreover, an excess of oxygen causes the weld bead and the surrounding area to have a
scummy or dirty appearance. For these reasons, an oxidizing flame is of limited use in welding.
It is not used in the welding of steel. A slightly oxidizing flame is helpful when welding (i)
Copper-base metals (ii) Zinc-base metals and (iii) A few types of ferrous metals such as
manganese steel and cast iron. The oxidizing atmosphere in these cases, create a base- metal
oxide that protects the base metal.
Gas Welding Equipments
An arrangement of oxy acetylene welding set up is shown in Fig. The basic tools and
equipments used for oxy-acetylene welding are following:

Acetylene and oxygen gas is stored in compressed gas cylinders. These gas cylinders
differ widely in capacity, design and colour code. However, in most of the countries, the
standard size of these cylinders is 6 to 7 m3 and is painted black for oxygen and maroon for
acetylene. An acetylene cylinder is filled with some absorptive material, which is saturated with


a chemical solvent acetone. Acetone has the ability to absorb a large volume of acetylene and
release it as the pressure falls. If large quantities of acetylene gas are being consumed, it is
much cheaper to generate the gas at the place of use with the help of acetylene gas generators.
Acetylene gas is generated by carbide-to-water method.
Oxygen gas cylinders are usually equipped with about 40 liters of oxygen at a pressure
of about 154 Kef/cm2 at 21C. To provide against dangerously excessive pressure, such as
could occur if the cylinders were exposed to fire, every valve has a safety device to release the
oxygen before there is any danger of rupturing the cylinders. Fragile discs and fusible plugs are
usually provided in the cylinders valves in case it is subjected to danger.
Gas pressure regulators
Gas pressure regulators are employed for regulating the supply of acetylene and oxygen
gas from cylinders. A pressure regulator is connected between the cylinder and hose leading to
welding torch. The cylinder and hose connections have left-handed threads on the acetylene
regulator while these are right handed on the oxygen regulator. A pressure regulator is fitted
with two pressure gauges, one for indication of the gas pressure in the cylinder and the other for
indication of the reduced pressure at which the gas is going out.
Welding torch
The construction of the welding torch. It is a tool for mixing oxygen and
acetylene in correct proportion and burning the mixture at the end of a tip. Gas
flow to the torch is controlled with the help of two needle valves in the handle of
the torch. There are two basic types of gas welding torches:
(1) Positive pressure (also known as medium or equal pressure), and
(2) Low pressure or injector type
The positive pressure type welding torch is the more common of the two types
of oxy- acetylene torches.

Torch tips
It is the portion of the welding apparatus through which the gases pass just prior to
their ignition and burning. A great variety of interchangeable welding tips differing in
size, shape and construction are available commercially. The tip sizes are identified
by the diameter of the opening. The diameter of the tip opening used for welding
depends upon the type of metal to be welded.


Hose pipes
The hose pipes are used for the supply of gases from the pressure regulators. The
most common method of hose pipe fitting both oxygen and acetylene gas is
the reinforced rubber hose pipe. Green is the standard color for oxygen hose,
red for acetylene, and black hose for other industrially available welding gases.
These are fitted with colored lenses and are used to protect the eyes from harmful
heat and ultraviolet and infrared rays.
These are required to protect the hands from any injury due to the heat of
welding process.
It is used for frequent igniting the welding torch.
Filler rods
Gas welding can be done with or without using filler rod. When welding with the filler rod,
it should be held at approximately 900 to the welding tip. Filler rods have the same or nearly
the same chemical composition as the base metal. Metallurgical properties of the weld deposit
can be controlled by the optimum choice of filler rod. Most of the filler rods for gas welding
also contain deoxidizers to control the oxygen content of weld pool.

Fluxes are used in gas welding to remove the oxi de film and t o maintain a clean
surface. These are usual l y employed for gas welding of aluminium, stainless steel,
cast i ron, brass and silicon b r o n z e . They ar e av ai l ab l e in the mar k et in the f or m
of dry powder , paste, or thick solutions.
Safety Recommendations for Gas Welding
Welding and cutting of metals involve the a p p l i c a t i o n of intense heat to
the o b j e c t s being welded or cut. This i nt ens e heat in welding is obtained from
t he us e of inflammable gases, (e.g. Acetylene, hydrogen, etc.) Or el ec t r i c i t y.
The intense welding heat and the sources employed to pr oduce it can be
pot ent i al l y hazardous. Therefore, to protect persons from injury and to protect
building and equipment against fire, etc., a set of recommendations concerning
safety and health measures for the welders and those concerned with the
safety of the equipments etc., have been published by BIS and many other
similar but International organizations. By keeping in mind these
recommendations or precautions, the risks associated with welding can be largely
reduced. Therefore, it is suggested that the beginner in the field of gas
welding must go through and become familiar with these general safety
recommendations, which are given below.
1. Never hang a torch with its hos e o n regulators or cylinder valves.
2. During working, if the welding tip becomes overheated it may be cooled by
plunging the torch into water; close the acetylene valve but leave a little
oxygen flowing.


3. Always use t he c or r ec t pressure regulators for a gas. Acetylene
pressure regulator should never be used with any o t h e r gas.
4. Do not move the cylinder by holding the pressure regulator and also handle
pressure regulators carefully.
5. Use pr es sur e regulator only at pressures for which i t is intended.
6. Open cyl i nder valves slowly to avoid strai ning the mechani sm of pressure
7. Never use o i l , grease or l ubricant of any k i n d on regul ator connections.
8. For repai rs, calibrations and adj us t ment s purposes, the pr essur e
regulators should be sent to the s u p p l i e r .
9. Do cracking before connecting pressure regulator to the g a s c y l i n d e r .
10. Inspect union nuts and connections on regulators before use to detect
faulty seats which ma y cause leakage of gas when the regulators are
Attached to the cyl i nder valves.
11. Those connections hall be well fittings and clamped properly otherwise
securely fastened to these connections in such a manner as to
withstand without leakage a pressure twice as great as the maximum
delivery pressure of the pressure regulators provided on the system.
12. Protect the hose from flying sparks, hot slag, hot work piece and open flame.
If dirt goes i nto hos e, bl ow through (with oxygen, n o t acet yl ene) before
Co u p l i n g to torch or r egul at or .
13. Store hose o n a reel ( an aut omobi l e wheel) when not i n use.
14. Never allow t he hose t o come into cont act with oil or grease; these
deteriorate the rubber and c o n s t i t u t e a hazard with oxygen.
15. Use the correct color hose for oxygen (green/black) and acetylene (red)
and never use oxygen hose for acetylene or vice versa.\
16. Always p r o t e c t hose f r om bei ng t r a mp l e d on or run over. Avoid tangle
and k i n k s . Never leave t h e h o s e s o that it can be tripped over.



Defects in welding joints are g i v en i n the figure


1. Lack of Penetration
It is the f a i l u r e of the f i l l e r me t a l to penetrate into t h e j o i n t . It is due t o
(a) Inadequate de-slogging
(b) Incorrfvhbect edge p e n e t r a t i o n
(c) Incorrect welding technique.

2. Lack of Fusion
Lack o f fusion is the f a i l u r e of the f i l l e r me t a l to fuse wi t h the p a r e n t metal. It
is duo t o
(a) Too fast a travel
(b) Incorrect welding technique
(c) Insufficient heat

3. Porosity
It is a group of small holes t h r o u g h o u t the we l d met al . It is caused by the
t r a p p i n g of gas during the we l d i n g process, due t o
(a) Chemicals in the me t a l
(b) Dampness
(c) Too rapid cooling of the we l d .


4. Slag Inclusion
It is the e n t r a p me n t of slag or other impurities in the we l d . It is caused by
(a) Slag f r o m pr evi ous runs not bei ng c l e a n e d away,
(b) Insufficient cleaning and pr epar at i on of the base met al before wel di ng

5. Undercuts
These are g r o o v e s o r slots a l o n g t h e e d g e s of the we l d c aus ed by
(a) Too fast a travel
(b) Bad wel di ng technique
(c) Too great a heat build-up.

6. Cracking
It is the f o r ma t i o n of cracks either in t he we l d met al or in the p a r e n t metal.
It is due t o
(a) Unsuitable parent metals used in the we l d
(b) Bad wel di ng technique.

7. Poor We l d Bead Appearance
If the wi dt h of weld bead deposi t ed is not uni f orm or straight, then the wel d
bead i s termed as p o o r . It is due t o i mpr oper arc l e n g t h , improper welding
technique, damaged electrode coating and poor e l e c t r o d e and earthing
connections. It can be r educ ed by t ak i ng into considerations the a b o v e
f a c t o r s .

8. Distortion
Distortion is due t o high c ool i ng r at e, small diameter electrode, poor
cl ampi ng and s l o w arc travel speed

9. Overlays
These consist of metal that has f l o we d on to the p a r e n t metal without
fusing with it. The defect i s due t o
(a) Contamination of the s u r f a c e of the p a r e n t metal
(b) Insufficient heat


10. Blowholes
These are l a r g e holes i n t he we l d
caused by
(a) Gas bei ng t r a p p e d , due t o moisture.
(b) Contamination of either the f i l l e r o r parent metals.

11. Burn Through
It is the collapse of the weld pool due to
(a) Too great a heat concentration
(b) Poor edge preparation.

12. Excessive Penetration
It is where the we l d met al protrudes through the r o o t of the we l d . It is
caused by
(a) Incorrect edge pr epar at i on
(b) Too big a heat concentration
(c) Too slow a travel .


Ex. No: Butt Joint Horizontal Position


To join the given two work pieces as a butt joint by arc welding.

Material used

Mild Steel plates.

Tools required

Welding power supply Flat file

Welding rod Chipping hammer

Electrode holder Wire brush

Gloves and apron Earthing clamps

Shield and goggles


1. The given work pieces are thoroughly cleaned, i.e. rust, scales are removed
and the edges are filed.
2. The electrode is held in an electrode holder and ground clamp is clamped
to the welding plates and the power is supplied.
3. The work pieces are positioned on the table to form a Butt joint Horizontal
4. The tag weld is done on the both the ends of joining plates to avoid the
movement of work pieces during welding.
5. The welding is carried throughout the length of the work pieces on both
sides by maintaining 3mm gap between plates and the welding rod.
6. The welded plates are allowed for air cooling after the slogs are removed.
7. The weld joint portions are cleaned by wire brush.



Thus the required Butt joint is made by arc welding process.


Ex. No: Butt Joint Vertical Position


To join the given two work pieces as a butt joint by arc welding.

Material used

Mild Steel plates.

Tools required

Welding power supply Flat file

Welding rod Chipping hammer

Electrode holder Wire brush

Gloves and apron Earthing clamps

Shield and goggles


1. The given work pieces are thoroughly cleaned, i.e. rust, scales are removed
and the edges are filed.
2. The electrode is held in an electrode holder and ground clamp is clamped to
the welding plates and the power is supplied.
3. The work pieces are positioned on the table to form a Butt joint Vertical
4. The tag weld is done on the both the ends of joining plates to avoid the
movement of work pieces during welding.
5. The welding is carried throughout the length of the work pieces on both sides
by maintaining 3mm gap between plates and the welding rod.
6. The welded plates are allowed for air cooling after the slags are removed.
7. The weld joint portions are cleaned by wire brush.



Thus the required Butt joint Vertical position is made by arc welding process.


Ex. No: Butt Joint Over Head Position


To join the given two work pieces as a butt joint by arc welding.

Material used

Mild Steel plates.

Tools required

Welding power supply Flat file

Welding rod Chipping hammer

Electrode holder Wire brush

Gloves and apron Earthing clamps

Shield and goggles


1. The given work pieces are thoroughly cleaned, i.e. rust, scales are removed
and the edges are filed.
2. The electrode is held in an electrode holder and ground clamp is clamped to
the welding plates and the power is supplied.
3. The work pieces are positioned on the table to form a Butt joint Over Head
4. The tag weld is done on the both the ends of joining plates to avoid the
movement of work pieces during welding.
5. The welding is carried throughout the length of the work pieces on both
sides by maintaining 3mm gap between plates and the welding rod.
6. The welded plates are allowed for air cooling after the slags are removed.
7. The weld joint portions are cleaned by wire brush.



Thus the required Butt joint Over Head position is made by arc welding process.



There are large number of tools and equipments used in f oun dr y shop
for car r yi ng out different operations such a s sand preparation, molding, melting,
pouring and c a s t i n g . They can be broadly classified as hand tools, sand
conditioning tool, flasks, power operated equipments, metal melting equipments and
fettling and finishing equipments. Different kinds of hand tools are used by molder in
mold making operations. Sand conditioning tools are basi cal l y used for preparing
the var i ous types of molding sands and c or e sand. Flasks are c ommonl y used
for preparing sand moulds and keepi ng molten metal and al so for handling the
same from place to place. Power operated equipments are us ed for mechanizing
processes in foundries. They include various types of molding machines, power
riddles, sand mixers and conveyors, grinders etc. Metal melting equipment includes
various types of melting furnaces such as cupola, pit furnace, crucible furnaces etc.
Fettling and finishing equipments are also u s e d in f oundr y work for cleaning and
fi nishi ng the casting. General tools and equipment used in foundry are discussed as
under .

The common hand tools used in foundry shop ar e f ai r l y numerous. A brief
descr i pt i on of the following foundry tools used frequently by molder is given a s
under .

Hand riddle
It consists of a screen of standard circular wire mesh equipped with circular wooden
frame. It is generally used for cleaning the sand for removing foreign material such as nails, shot
metal, splinters of wood etc. from it. Even power operated riddles are available for riddling large
volume of sand.

It consists of a steel pan fitted with a long wooden handle. It is used in mixing, tempering
and conditioning the foundry sand by hand. It is also used for moving and transforming the
molding sand to the container and molding box or flask. It should always be kept clean.


These are required for striking the molding sand mass in the molding box to pack or compact
it uniformly all around the pattern. The common forms of rammers used in ramming are hand
rammer, peen rammer, floor rammer and pneumatic rammer which are briefly described as

(i)Hand rammer
It is generally made of wood or metal. It is small and one end of which carries a wedge
type construction, called peen and the other end possesses a solid cylindrical shape known as
butt. It is used for ramming the sand in bench molding work.
(ii) Peen rammer
It has a wedge-shaped construction formed at the bottom of a metallic rod. It is generally
used in packing the molding sand in pockets and comers.
(iii) Floor rammer
It consists of a long steel bar carrying a peen at one end and a flat portion on the other.
It is a heavier and larger in comparison to hand rammer. Its specific use is in floor molding for
ramming the sand for larger molds. Due to its large length, the molder can operate it in standing
(iv) Pneumatic rammers
They save considerable time and labor and are used for making large molds.

Strike off bar
Strike off bar is a flat bar having straight edge and is made of wood or iron. It is used to
strike off or remove the excess sand from the top of a molding box after completion of ramming
thereby making its surface plane and smooth. Its one edge is made beveled and the other end
is kept perfectly smooth and plane.
Mallet is similar to a wooden hammer and is generally as used in carpentry or sheet
metal shops. In molding shop, it is used for driving the draw spike into the pattern and then


rapping it for separation from the mould surfaces so that pattern can be easily withdrawn leaving
the mold cavity without damaging the mold surfaces.
Draw spike
Draw spike is shown Fig. It is a tapered steel rod having a loop or ring at its one end and
a sharp point at the other. It may have screw threads on the end to engage metal pattern for it
withdrawal from the mold. It is used for driven into pattern which is embedded in the molding
sand and raps the pattern to get separated from the pattern and finally draws out it from the
mold cavity.

Vent rod
Vent rod is shown in Fig. 11.1(g). It is a thin spiked steel rod or wire carrying a pointed
edge at one end and a wooden handle or a bent loop at the other. After ramming and striking off
the excess sand it is utilized to pierce series of small holes in the molding sand in the cope
portion. The series of pierced small holes are called vents holes which allow the exit or escape
of steam and gases during pouring mold and solidifying of the molten metal for getting a sound

Lifters are shown in Fig. They are also known as cleaners or finishing tool which are
made of thin sections of steel of various length and width with one end bent at right angle. They
are used for cleaning, repairing and finishing the bottom and sides of deep and narrow openings
in mold cavity after withdrawal of pattern. They are also used for removing loose sand from
mold cavity.


Trowels are shown in Fig. 11.1(l, m and n). They are utilized for finishing flat surfaces
and joints and partings lines of the mold. They consist of metal blade made of iron and are
equipped with a wooden handle. The common metal blade shapes of trowels may be pointed or
contoured or rectangular oriented. The trowels are basically employed for smoothing or slicking
the surfaces of molds. They may also be used to cut in-gates and repair the mold surfaces.

Slicks are shown in fig... They are also recognized as small double ended mold finishing
tool which are generally used for repairing and finishing the mold surfaces and their edges after
withdrawal of the pattern. The commonly used slicks are of the types of heart and leaf, square
and heart, spoon and bead and heart and spoon. The nomenclatures of the slicks are largely
due to their shapes.

According to their use and shape they are given different names. They are also known
as finishing tools which are commonly used for repairing and finishing flat and round surfaces,
round or square corners and edges of molds.
It is a small hemp fiber brush used for moistening the edges of sand mould, which are in
contact with the pattern. Surface before withdrawing the pattern. It is used for sweeping away
the molding sand from the mold surface and pattern. It is also used for coating the liquid
blacking on the mold faces in dry sand molds.

Spirit level
Spirit level is used by molder to check whether the sand bed or molding box is horizontal
or not.


Gate cutter
Gate cutter is a small shaped piece of sheet metal commonly used to cut runners and
feeding gates for connecting spree hole with the mold cavity.

Spray gun is mainly used to spray coating of facing materials etc. on a mold or core
Nails and wire pieces
They are basically used to reinforce thin projections of sand in the mold or cores.
Wire pieces, spring and nails
They are commonly used to reinforce thin projections of sand in molds or cores. They
are also used to fasten cores in molds and reinforce sand in front of an in-gate.
Bellows gun is shown in Fig. It is hand operated leather made device equipped with
compressed air jet to blow or pump air when operated. It is used to blow away the loose or
unwanted sand from the surfaces of mold cavities.

The common flasks are also called as containers which are used in foundry shop as
mold boxes, crucibles and ladles.
1. Moulding Boxes
Mold boxes are also known as molding flasks. Boxes used in sand molding are of two types:
(a) Open molding boxes. Open molding boxes are shown in Fig. They are made with the hinge
at one corner and a lock on the opposite corner. They are also known as snap molding boxes
which are generally used for making sand molds. A snap molding is made of wood and is
hinged at one corner. It has special applications in bench molding in green sand. Work for small
nonferrous castings. The mold is first made in the snap flask and then it is removed and
replaced by a steel jacket. Thus, a number of molds can be prepared using the same set of
boxes. As an alternative to the wooden snap boxes the cast-aluminum tapered closed boxes
are finding favor in modern foundries. They carry a tapered inside surface which is accurately


ground and finished. A solid structure of this box gives more rigidity and strength than the open
type. These boxes are also removed after assembling the mould. Large molding boxes are
equipped with reinforcing cross bars and ribs to hold the heavy mass of sand and support
gaggers. The size, material and construction of the molding box depend upon the size of the

(B) Closed molding boxes.
Closed molding boxes are shown in Fig. 11.3 which may be made of wood, cast-iron or
steel and consist of two or more parts. The lower part is called the drag, the upper part the cope
and all the intermediate parts, if used, cheeks. All the parts are individually equipped with
suitable means for clamping arrangements during pouring. Wooden Boxes are generally used in
green-sand molding. Dry sand moulds always require metallic boxes because they are heated
for drying. Large and heavy boxes are made from cast iron or steel and carry handles and grips
as they are manipulated by Cranes or hoists, etc. Closed metallic molding boxes may be called
as a closed rectangular molding box or a closed round molding box.

A pattern is a model or the replica of the object (to be casted). It is embedded in molding
sand and suitable ramming of molding sand around the pattern is made. The pattern is then
withdrawn for generating cavity (known as mold) in molding sand. Thus it is a mould forming
tool. Pattern can be said as a model or the replica of the object to be cast except for the various
al1owances a pattern exactly resembles the casting to be made. It may be defined as a model
or form around which sand is packed to give rise to a cavity known as mold cavity in which
when molten metal is poured, the result is the cast object. When this mould/cavity is filled with
molten metal, molten metal solidifies and produces a casting (product). So the pattern is the
replica of the casting. A pattern prepares a mold cavity for the purpose of making a casting. It
may also possess projections known as core prints for producing extra recess in the mould for
placement of core to produce hol1owness in casting. It may help in establishing seat for
placement of core at locating points on the mould in form of extra recess. It establishes the
parting line and parting surfaces in the mold. It may help to position a core in case a part of
mold cavity is made with cores, before the molding sand is rammed. It should have finished and


smooth surfaces for reducing casting defects. Runner, gates and risers used for introducing and
feeding molten metal to the mold cavity may sometimes form the parts of the pattern. The first
step in casting is pattern making. The pattern is a made of suitable material and is used for
making cavity called mould in molding sand or other suitable mould materials. When this mould
is filled with molten metal and it is allowed to solidify, it forms a reproduction of the, pattern
which is known as casting. There are some objectives of a pattern which are given as under.

The common materials used for making patterns are wood, metal, plastic, plaster, wax
or mercury. The some important pattern materials are discussed as under.
1. Wood
Wood is the most popular and commonly used material for pattern making. It is cheap,
easily available in abundance, repairable and easily fabricated in various forms using resin and
glues. It is very light and can produce highly smooth surface. Wood can preserve its surface by
application of a shellac coating for longer life of the pattern. But, in spite of its above qualities, it
is susceptible to shrinkage and warpage and its life is short because of the reasons that it is
highly affected by moisture of the molding sand. After some use it warps and wears out quickly
as it is having less resistance to sand abrasion. It cannot withstand rough handily and is weak in
comparison to metal. In the light of above qualities, wooden patterns are preferred only when
the numbers of castings to be produced are less. The main varieties of woods used in pattern-
making are shisham, kail, deodar, teak and mahogany.
Shish am
It is dark brown in color having golden and dark brown stripes. It is very hard to work and
blunts the cutting tool very soon during cutting. It is very strong and durable. Besides making
pattern, it is also used for making good variety of furniture, tool handles, beds, cabinets, bridge
piles, plywood etc.
It has too many knots. It is available in Himalayas and yields a close grained, moderately
hard and durable wood. It can be very well painted. Besides making pattern, it is also utilized for
making wooden doors, packing case, cheap furniture etc.
It is white in color when soft but when hard, its color turns toward light yellow. It is strong
and durable. It gives fragrance when smelled. It has some quantity of oil and therefore it is not
easily attacked by insects. It is available in Himalayas at a height from 1500 to 3000 meters. It is
used for making pattern, manufacturing of doors, furniture, patterns, railway sleepers etc. It is a
soft wood having a close grain structure unlikely to warp. It is easily workable and its cost is also
low. It is preferred for making pattern for production of small size castings in small quantities.
Teak Wood
It is hard, very costly and available in golden yellow or dark brown color. Special stripes
on it add to its beauty. In India, it is found in M.P. It is very strong and durable and has wide
applications. It can maintain good polish. Besides making pattern, it is used for making good
quality furniture, plywood, ships etc. It is a straight-grained light wood. It is easily workable and
has little tendency to warp. Its cost is moderate.


This is a hard and strong wood. Patterns made of this wood are more durable than those
of above mentioned woods and they are less likely to warp. It has got a uniform straight grain
structure and it can be easily fabricated in various shapes. It is costlier than teak and pine wood,
It is generally not preferred for high accuracy for making complicated pattern. It is also preferred
for production of small size castings in small quantities. The other Indian woods which may also
be used for pattern making are deodar, wallet, kail, maple, birch, cherry and shisham.

Metallic patterns are preferred when the number of castings required is large enough to
justify their use. These patterns are not much affected by moisture as wooden pattern. The wear
and tear of this pattern is very less and hence posses longer life. Moreover, metal is easier to
shape the pattern with good precision, surface finish and intricacy in shapes. It can withstand
against corrosion and handling for longer period. It possesses excellent strength to weight ratio.
The Main disadvantages of metallic patterns are higher cost, higher weight and tendency of
rusting. It is preferred for production of castings in large quantities with same pattern. The
metals commonly used for pattern making are cast iron, brass and bronzes and aluminum
Cast Iron
It is cheaper, stronger, tough, and durable and can produce a smooth surface finish. It
also possesses good resistance to sand abrasion. The drawbacks of cast iron patterns are that
they are hard, heavy, and brittle and get rusted easily in presence of moisture.

Brasses and Bronzes
These are heavier and expensive than cast iron and hence are preferred for
manufacturing small castings. They possess good strength, mach inability and resistance to
corrosion and wear. They can produce a better surface finish. Brass and bronze pattern is
finding application in making match plate pattern
Aluminum Alloys
Aluminum alloy patterns are more popular and best among all the metallic patterns
because of their high light ness, good surface finish, low melting point and good strength. They
also possess good resistance to corrosion and abrasion by sand and thereby enhancing longer
life of pattern. These materials do not withstand against rough handling. These have
Poor repair ability and are preferred for making large castings.
Plastics are getting more popularity now a days because the patterns made of these
materials are lighter, stronger, moisture and wear resistant, non sticky to molding sand, durable
and they are not affected by the moisture of the molding sand. Moreover they impart very
smooth surface finish on the pattern surface. These materials are somewhat fragile, less
resistant to sudden loading and their section may need metal reinforcement. The plastics used
for this purpose are thermosetting resins. Phenol resin plastics are commonly used. These are
originally in liquid form and get solidified when heated to a specified temperature. To prepare a
plastic pattern, a mould in two halves is prepared in plaster of Paris with the help of a wooden
pattern known as a master pattern. The phenol resin is poured into the mould and the mould is


subjected to heat. The resin solidifies giving the plastic pattern. Recently a new material has
stepped into the field of plastic which is known as foam plastic. Foam plastic is now being
produced in several forms and the most common is the expandable polystyrene plastic
category. It is made from benzene and ethyl benzene.

Patterns made from wax are excellent for investment casting process. The materials
used are blends of several types of waxes, and other additives which act as polymerizing
agents, stabilizers, etc. The commonly used waxes are paraffin wax, shellac wax, bees-wax,
ceresin wax, and micro-crystalline wax. The properties desired in a good wax pattern include
low ash content up to 0.05 per cent, resistant to the primary coat material used for investment,
high tensile strength and hardness, and substantial weld strength. The general practice of
making wax pattern is to inject liquid or semi-liquid wax into a split die. Solid injection is also
used to avoid shrinkage and for better strength. Waxes use helps in imparting a high degree of
surface finish and dimensional accuracy castings. Wax patterns are prepared by pouring heated
wax into split moulds or a pair of dies. The dies after having been cooled down are parted off.
Now the wax pattern is taken out and used for molding. Such patterns need not to be drawn out
solid from the mould. After the mould is ready, the wax is poured out by heating the mould and
keeping it upside down. Such patterns are generally used in the process of investment casting
where accuracy is linked with intricacy of the cast object.

The types of the pattern and the description of each are given as under.

1. One piece or solid pattern
2. Two piece or split pattern
3. Cope and drag pattern
4. Three-piece or multi- piece pattern
5. Loose piece pattern
6. Match plate pattern
7. Follow board pattern
8. Gated pattern
9. Sweep pattern
10. Skeleton pattern
11. Segmental or part pattern

Single-piece or solid pattern

Solid pattern is made of single piece without joints, partings lines or loose pieces. It is the
simplest form of the pattern.

Two-piece or split pattern
When solid pattern is difficult for withdrawal from the mold cavity, then solid pattern is
spited in two parts. Split Pattern is made in two pieces which are joined at the parting line by


means of dowel pins. The splitting at the parting line is done to facilitate the withdrawal of the

Cope and drag pattern
In this case, cope and drag part of the mould are prepared separately. This is done
when the complete mould is too heavy to be handled by one operator. The pattern is made up
of two halves, which are mounted on different plates.

Loose-piece Pattern
Loose piece pattern is used when pattern is difficult for withdrawl from the mould. Loose
pieces are provided on the pattern and they are the part of pattern. The main pattern is removed
first leaving the loose piece portion of the pattern in the mould. Finally the loose piece is
withdrawal separately leaving the intricate mould.

Match plate pattern
This pattern is made in two halves and is on mounted on the opposite sides of a wooden
or metallic plate, known as match plate. The gates and runners are also attached to the plate.
This pattern is used in machine molding.


Gated pattern
In the mass production of casings, multi cavity moulds are used. Such moulds are
formed by joining a number of patterns and gates and providing a common runner for the
molten metal, as shown in Fig. These patterns are made of metals, and metallic pieces to form
gates and runners are attached to the pattern.

Sweep pattern
Sweep patterns are used for forming large circular moulds of symmetric kind by
revolving a sweep attached to a spindle as shown in Fig. Actually a sweep is a template of wood
or metal and is attached to the spindle at one edge and the other edge has a contour depending
upon the desired shape of the mould. The pivot end is attached to a stake of metal in the center
of the mould.

Pattern may be made from wood or metal and its color may not be same as that of the
casting. The material of the pattern is not necessarily same as that of the casting. Pattern
carries an additional allowance to compensate for metal shrinkage. It carries additional
allowance for machining. It carries the necessary draft to enable its easy removal from the sand
mass. It carries distortions allowance also. Due to distortion allowance, the shape of casting is
opposite to pattern. Pattern may carry additional projections, called core prints to produce seats
or extra recess in mold for setting or adjustment or location for cores in mold cavity. It may be in


pieces (more than one piece) whereas casting is in one piece. Sharp changes are not provided
on the patterns. These are provided on the casting with the help of machining. Surface finish
may not be same as that of casting. The size of a pattern is never kept the same as that of the
desired casting because of
The fact that during cooling the casting is subjected to various effects and hence to compensate
for these effects, corresponding allowances are given in the pattern. These various allowances
given to pattern can be enumerated as, allowance for shrinkage, allowance for machining,
allowance for draft, allowance for rapping or shake, allowance for distortion and allowance for
mould wall movement. These allowances are discussed as under.

Shrinkage Allowance
In practice it is found that all common cast metals shrink a significant amount when they
are cooled from the molten state. The total contraction in volume is divided into the following
1. Liquid contraction, i.e. the contraction during the period in which the temperature of the liquid
metal or alloy falls from the pouring temperature to the liquids temperature.
2. Contraction on cooling from the liquids to the solidus temperature, i.e. solidifying contraction.
3. Contraction that results thereafter until the temperature reaches the room temperature. This
is known as solid contraction.
The first two of the above are taken care of by proper gating and rise ring. Only the last one, i.e.
the solid contraction is taken care by the pattern makers by giving a positive shrinkage
allowance. This contraction allowance is different for different metals. The contraction
allowances for different metals and alloys such as Cast Iron 10 mm/tm... Brass 16 mm/tm.,
Aluminium Alloys. 15 mm/mt., Steel 21 mm/mt., Lead 24 mm/mt. In fact, there is a special rule
known as the pattern marks contraction rule in which the shrinkage of the casting metals is
added. It is similar in shape as that of a common rule but is slightly bigger than the latter
depending upon the metal for which it is intended.
Machining Allowance
It is a positive allowance given to compensate for the amount of material that is lost in
machining or finishing the casting. If this allowance is not given, the casting will become
undersize after machining. The amount of this allowance depends on the size of casting,
methods of machining and the degree of finish. In general, however, the value varies from 3
mm. to 18 mm.

Draft or Taper Allowance
Taper allowance is also a positive allowance and is given on all the vertical surfaces of
pattern so that its withdrawal becomes easier. The normal amount of taper on the external
surfaces varies from 10 mm to 20 mm/mt. On interior holes and recesses which are smaller in
size, the taper should be around 60 mm/mt. These values are greatly affected by the size of the
pattern and the molding method. In machine molding its, value varies from 10 mm to 50 mm/mt.

Rapping or Shake Allowance
Before withdrawing the pattern it is rapped and thereby the size of the mould cavity
increases. Actually by rapping, the external sections move outwards increasing the size and


internal sections move inwards decreasing the size. This movement may be insignificant in the
case of small and medium size castings, but it is significant in the case of large castings. This
allowance is kept negative and hence the pattern is made slightly smaller in dimensions 0.5-1.0

Distortion Allowance
This allowance is applied to the castings which have the tendency to distort during
cooling due to thermal stresses developed. For example a casting in the form of U shape will
contract at the closed end on cooling, while the open end will remain fixed in position.
Therefore, to avoid the distortion, the legs of U pattern must converge slightly so that the sides
will remain parallel after cooling.
Mold wall Movement Allowance
Mold wall movement in sand moulds occurs as a result of heat and static pressure on
the surface layer of sand at the mold metal interface. In ferrous castings, it is also due to
expansion due to graphitization. This enlargement in the mold cavity depends upon the mold
density and mould composition. This effect becomes more pronounced with increase in
moisture Content and temperature.

The general sources of receiving molding sands are the beds of sea, rivers, lakes,
granulular elements of rocks, and deserts.

The main constituents of molding sand involve silica sand, binder, moisture content and

Silica sand
Silica sand in form of granular quarts is the main constituent of molding sand having
enough refractoriness which can impart strength, stability and permeability to molding and core
sand. But along with silica small amounts of iron oxide, alumina, lime stone, magnesia, soda
and potash are present as impurities. The chemical composition of silica sand gives an idea of
the impurities like lime, magnesia, alkalis etc. present. The presence of excessive amounts of
iron oxide, alkali oxides and lime can lower the fusion point to a considerable extent which is
undesirable. The silica sand can be specified according to the size (small, medium and large
silica sand grain) and the shape (angular, sub-angular and rounded).

In general, the binders can be either inorganic or organic substance. The inorganic
group includes clay sodium silicate and port land cement etc. In foundry shop, the clay acts as
binder which may be Kaolonite, Ball Clay, Fire Clay, limonite, Fullers earth and Bentonite.
Binders included in the organic group are dextrin, molasses, cereal binders, linseed oil and
resins like phenol formaldehyde, urea formaldehyde etc. Organic binders are mostly used for
core making. Among all the above binders, the betonies variety of clay is the most common.


However, this clay alone can not develop bonds among sand grins without the presence of
moisture in molding sand and core sand.

The amount of moisture content in the molding sand varies generally between 2 to 8
percent. This amount is added to the mixture of clay and silica sand for developing bonds. This
is the amount of water required to fill the pores between the particles of clay without separating
them. This amount of water is held rigidly by the clay and is mainly responsible for developing
the strength in the sand. The effect of clay and water decreases permeability with increasing
clay and moisture content. The green compressive strength first increases with the increase in
clay content, but after a certain value, it starts decreasing. For increasing the molding sand
characteristics some other additional materials besides basic constituents are added which are
known as additives.

Additives are the materials generally added to the molding and core sand mixture to
develop some special property in the sand. Some common used additives for enhancing the
properties of molding and core sands are discussed as under.

Coal dust
Coal dust is added mainly for producing a reducing atmosphere during casting. This
reducing atmosphere results in any oxygen in the poles becoming chemically bound so that it
cannot oxidize the metal. It is usually added in the molding sands for making molds for
production of grey iron and malleable cast iron castings.

Corn flour
It belongs to the starch family of carbohydrates and is used to increase the collapsibility
of the molding and core sand. It is completely volatilized by heat in the mould, thereby leaving
space between the sand grains. This allows free movement of sand grains, which finally gives
rise to mould wall movement and decreases the mold expansion and hence defects in castings.
Corn sand if added to molding sand and core sand improves significantly strength of the mold
and core.

Dextrin belongs to starch family of carbohydrates that behaves also in a manner similar
to that of the corn flour. It increases dry strength of the molds.

Sea coal
Sea coal is the fine powdered bituminous coal which positions its place among the pores
of the silica sand grains in molding sand and core sand. When heated, it changes to coke which
fills the pores and is unaffected by water: Because to this, the sand grains become restricted
and cannot move into a dense packing pattern. Thus, sea coal reduces the mould Wall
movement and the permeability in mold and core sand and hence makes the mold and core
surface clean and smooth.


It is distilled form of soft coal. It can be added from 0.02 % to 2% in mold and core sand.
It enhances hot strengths, surface finish on mold surfaces and behaves exactly in a manner
similar to that of sea coal.

Wood flour
This is a fibrous material mixed with a granular material like sand; its relatively long thin
fibers prevent the sand grains from making contact with one another. It can be added from 0.05
% to 2% in mold and core sand. It volatilizes when heated, thus allowing the sand grains room
to expand. It will increase mould wall movement and decrease expansion defects. It also
increases collapsibility of both of mold and core.

Silica flour
It is called as pulverized silica and it can be easily added up to 3% which increases the
hot strength and finish on the surfaces of the molds and cores. It also reduces metal penetration
in the walls of the molds and cores.

Molding sands can also be classified according to their use into number of varieties
which are described below.

Green sand
Green sand is also known as tempered or natural sand which is a just prepared mixture
of silica sand with 18 to 30 percent clay, having moisture content from 6 to 8%. The clay and
water furnish the bond for green sand. It is fine, soft, light, and porous. Green sand is damp,
when squeezed in the hand and it retains the shape and the impression to give to it under
pressure. Molds prepared by this sand are not requiring backing and hence are known as green
sand molds. This sand is easily available and it possesses low cost. It is commonly employed
for production of ferrous and non-ferrous castings.

Dry sand
Green sand that has been dried or baked in suitable oven after the making mold and
cores, is called dry sand. It possesses more strength, rigidity and thermal stability. It is mainly
suitable for larger castings. Mold prepared in this sand are known as dry sand molds.

Loam sand
Loam is mixture of sand and clay with water to a thin plastic paste. Loam sand
possesses high clay as much as 30-50% and 18% water. Patterns are not used for loam
molding and shape is given to mold by sweeps. This is particularly employed for loam molding
used for large grey iron castings.


Facing sand
Facing sand is just prepared and forms the face of the mould. It is directly next to the
surface of the pattern and it comes into contact molten metal when the mould is poured. Initial
coating around the pattern and hence for mold surface is given by this sand. This sand is
subjected severest conditions and must possess, therefore, high strength refractoriness. It is
made of silica sand and clay, without the use of used sand. Different forms of carbon are used
to prevent the metal burning into the sand. A facing sand mixture for green sand of cast iron
may consist of 25% fresh and specially prepared and 5% sea coal. They are sometimes mixed
with 6-15 times as much fine molding sand to make facings. The layer of facing sand in a mold
usually ranges from 22-28 mm. From 10 to 15% of the whole amount of molding sand is the
Facing sand.

Backing sand
Backing sand or floor sand is used to back up the facing sand and is used to fill the
whole volume of the molding flask. Used molding sand is mainly employed for this purpose. The
backing sand is sometimes called black sand because that old, repeatedly used molding sand is
black in color due to addition of coal dust and burning on coming in contact with the molten

System sand
In mechanized foundries where machine molding is employed. A so-called system sand
is used to fill the whole molding flask. In mechanical sand preparation and handling units, no
facing sand is used. The used sand is cleaned and re-activated by the addition of water and
special additives. This is known as system sand. Since the whole mold is made of this system
sand, the properties such as strength, permeability and refractoriness of the molding sand must
be higher than those of backing sand.

Parting sand
Parting sand without binder and moisture is used to keep the green sand not to stick to
the pattern and also to allow the sand on the parting surface the cope and drag to separate
without clinging. This is clean clay-free silica sand which serves the same purpose as parting

Core sand
Core sand is used for making cores and it is sometimes also known as oil sand. This is
highly rich silica sand mixed with oil binders such as core oil which composed of linseed oil,
resin, light mineral oil and other bind materials. Pitch or flours and water may also be used in
large cores for the sake of economy.


1. Initially a suitable size of molding box for creating suitable wall thickness is selected for a two
piece pattern. Sufficient care should also be taken in such that sense that the molding box must
adjust mold cavity, riser and the gating system (sprue, runner and gates etc.).
2. Next, place the drag portion of the pattern with the parting surface down on the bottom (ram-
up) board as shown in
3. The facing sand is then sprinkled carefully all around the pattern so that the pattern does not
stick with molding sand during withdrawn of the pattern.
4. The drag is then filled with loose prepared molding sand and ramming of the molding sand is
done uniformly in the molding box around the pattern. Fill the molding sand once again and then
perform ramming. Repeat the process three four times,
5. The excess amount of sand is then removed using strike off bar to bring molding sand at the
same level of the molding flask height to completes the drag.
6. The drag is then rolled over and the parting sand is sprinkled over on the top of the drag
7. Now the cope pattern is placed on the drag pattern and alignment is done using dowel pins.
8. Then cope (flask) is placed over the rammed drag and the parting sand is sprinkled all around
the cope pattern.
9. Sprue and riser pins are placed in vertically position at suitable locations using support of
molding sand. It will help to form suitable sized cavities for pouring molten metal etc.
10. The gaggers in the cope are set at suitable locations if necessary. They should not be
located too close to the pattern or mold cavity otherwise they may chill the casting and fill the
cope with molding sand and ram uniformly.
11. Strike off the excess sand from the top of the cope.
12. Remove sprue and riser pins and create vent holes in the cope with a vent wire. The basic
purpose of vent creating vent holes in cope is to permit the escape of gases generated during
pouring and solidification of the casting.
13. Sprinkle parting sand over the top of the cope surface and roll over the cope on the bottom
14. Rap and remove both the cope and drag patterns and repair the mold suitably if needed and
dressing is applied
15. The gate is then cut connecting the lower base of sprue basin with runner and then the mold
16. Apply mold coating with a swab and bake the mold in case of a dry sand mold.
17. Set the cores in the mold, if needed and close the mold by inverting cope over drag.
18. The cope is then clamped with drag and the mold is ready for pouring,





To prepare a sand mould using a Gear Pattern.
Materials Required:

Moulding sand
Parting sand
Facing sand
Gear wheel Pattern

Tools Required:

Strike off bar
Gate cutter
Vent wire
Draw spike
Sprue pin
Moulding box


1. Place the moulding board on a horizontal surface.

2. The mould box, pattern, tools and the table / floor are cleaned.

3. A suitable core is prepared with core box or with pattern.

4. The drag is placed over the moulding board and one half of the pattern is placed centrally in
the drag.

5. The thin layer of parting sand is filled around the pattern, to prevent the mould sand to stick to
the board surface.

6. Green sand is filled around the pattern with a trowel and ramming is done uniformly using a
hand rammer.

7. The process of adding the green sand and ramming is continued until the sand completely
fills the drag box.

8. The excess sand is leveled off with a strike-off bar and vent holes are provided using vent


9. The drag box is now placed over exposing the pattern.

10. The surface of the sand is first smoothened with a trowel and then covered with dry parting
11. The cope is placed exactly over the drag using the dowel pins. The other half of the pattern
is placed over the first half with dowel pins. The sprue and the riser pins are placed in position.

12. Filling the green sand, uniform ramming and leveling is done similar to that in the drag

13. The sprue and riser pins are withdrawn and the cope is rolled over to horizontal position

14. Any loose sand is brushed and water from swab is sprinkled on the sand around the pattern.

15. A draw spike is driven into both the halves and rapped lightly to loosen the patterns. Now
the patterns are withdrawn by lifting the draw spike

16. Gate is cut in the drag using gate cutter and the cope is placed in correct position

17. The green sand mould of the split pattern is ready for pouring the molten me


Thus the gear mould is prepared and ready for casting.



To prepare a sand mould using a split pattern.
Materials Required:
Moulding sand
Parting sand
Facing sand
Thumbles pattern

Tools Required:
Strike off bar
Gate cutter
Vent wire
Draw spike
Sprue pin
Moulding box


1. Place the moulding board on a horizontal surface.

2. The mould box, pattern, tools and the table / floor are cleaned.

3. The drag is placed above the moulding board. Now the pattern is kept at center of the drag.

4. Now the parting sand is sprinkled before placing the pattern.

5. Facing sand is sprinkled over the pattern and then green sand filled over it.

6. Proper ramming is done on the green sand to get a air tight packing and excess sand is
removed by strike off bar.

7. The drag box is inverted upside down, and the cope box is placed over the drag box and

8. The riser pin and sprue pin placed at right position and green sand is filled over the pattern.

9. Proper ramming is done on the green sand to get air tight packing with strike off bar leveling
is done.

10. Now riser pin and sprue pin get removed from the green sand mould.

11. The pattern is removed by draw spike tool.


12. Gate is prepared using gate cutter and core is placed vertically inside the cavity.

13. The vent holes are made with vent wire on the cope.


Thus the mould cavity of the given split pattern is obtained.



To prepare the sand mould using loose piece pattern.
Materials Required:
Moulding sand
Parting sand
Facing sand
Dove Tail pattern

Tools Required:
Strike off bar
Gate cutter
Vent wire
Draw spike
Sprue pin
Moulding box


1. The mould box, pattern, tools and the table/floor are cleaned.

2. One half of the split pattern is placed on the moulding board. The drag is placed with the
dowel pins down.

3. The drag is filled with green sand after positioning the pattern on the table.

4. The drag is completely filled with green sand and rammed by the peen end of the rammer.

5. The excess sand is leveled by the strike off bar.

6. Small vent holes are made through the sand using vent wire.

7. The drag is tilted upside down.

8. The top half of the spilt pattern is then placed correctly in position over the first half.

9. The cope is positioned on top of the drag.

10. The sprue pin and riser pin are positioned, then the cope is filled with sand, ramming is done
and the excess sand is struck off.

11. The sprue pin and the riser pin are removed


12. The cope is lifted, turned over and placed on the work table.

13. The pattern pieces are carefully removed with the help of draw spike.

14. Gate is prepared using gate cutter and the core is placed on the mould cavity.

15. The vent holes are made with vent wire on the cope.

Thus the mould of the given flange pattern is obtained.



To make the mould for the given core pattern.
Materials Required:
Moulding sand
Parting sand
Facing sand
Pulley pattern

Tools Required:
Strike off bar
Gate cutter
Vent wire
Draw spike
Sprue pin
Moulding box


1. The mould box, pattern, tools and the table / floor are cleaned.

2. The moulding box is selected and the drag part is placed upside down on the moulding

3. The pattern for this mould is the V-Grooved pulley which is a spilt pattern. So keep one part
of the pattern on the board inside the box in such a way that ample space is lift for sprue and
getting and is filled with sand.

4. The excess sand is removed using strike off bar. Then the drag is rolled over sprinkle the
parting sand over the drag and keeps the core box and fixes it using dowel pins.

5. Fix the other half of the pattern, sprue pin and the core box is filled with the sand and rammed
without affecting the set up. After that the sprue pin and riser pins are withdrawn using draw
spike and vent holes are made in the moulding using vent wire.

6. The cope is removed and the pattern is removed carefully using draw spike and mallet. The
sprue basin and the getting are made using tools for the flow of molten metal into the cavity.

7. The cavity is cleaned and sprayed with the parting sand for easy removal of the object after
casting. The cope is again placed over the drag correctly and is locked using dowel pins.

8. Now the mould is ready for casting.



Thus the mould of the given core pattern is obtained.