This paper proposes a technique of intelligent control to track the maximum power point (MPPT) of a photovoltaic system . The PV system is non-linear and it is exposed to external perturbations like temperature and solar irradiation. Fuzzy logic control is known for its stability and robustness. FLC is adopted in this work for the improvement and optimization of control performance of a photovoltaic system. Another technique called perturb and observe (P & O) is studied and compared with the FLC technique. The PV system is constituted of a photovoltaic panel (PV), a DC-DC converter (Boost) and a battery like a load. The simulation results are developed in MATLAB / Simulink software. The results show that the controller based on fuzzy logic is better and faster than the conventional controller perturb and observe (P & O) and gives a good maximum power of a photovoltaic generator under different changes of weather conditions.

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32 tayangan

This paper proposes a technique of intelligent control to track the maximum power point (MPPT) of a photovoltaic system . The PV system is non-linear and it is exposed to external perturbations like temperature and solar irradiation. Fuzzy logic control is known for its stability and robustness. FLC is adopted in this work for the improvement and optimization of control performance of a photovoltaic system. Another technique called perturb and observe (P & O) is studied and compared with the FLC technique. The PV system is constituted of a photovoltaic panel (PV), a DC-DC converter (Boost) and a battery like a load. The simulation results are developed in MATLAB / Simulink software. The results show that the controller based on fuzzy logic is better and faster than the conventional controller perturb and observe (P & O) and gives a good maximum power of a photovoltaic generator under different changes of weather conditions.

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117

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Photovoltaic System

OULD CHERCHALI Noureddine1, MORSLI Abdelkader2, BOUCHERIT Mohamed-Seghir2,

BARAZANE Linda3

1

University of Medea

Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computing Sciences

Research Laboratory in Electrical Engineering and Automatic (LREA)

Ain D heb, Medea, Algeria nocherchali@yahoo.fr

2

Process Control Laboratory (LPC)

Algiers, Algeria

Industrial and Electrical Systems Laboratory (IESL)

Bab - Ezzouar. Algiers, Algeria,

intelligent control to track the maximum power point

(MPPT) of a photovoltaic system . The PV system is

non-linear and it is exposed to external perturbations

like temperature and solar irradiation. Fuzzy logic

control is known for its stability and robustness. FLC

is adopted in this work for the improvement and

optimization of control performance of a photovoltaic

system. Another technique called perturb and observe

(P & O) is studied and compared with the FLC

technique. The PV system is constituted of a

photovoltaic panel (PV), a DC-DC converter (Boost)

and a battery like a load.

The simulation results are developed in MATLAB /

Simulink software. The results show that the controller

based on fuzzy logic is better and faster than the

conventional controller perturb and observe (P & O)

and gives a good maximum power of a photovoltaic

generator under different changes of weather

conditions.

MPPT;

Fuzzy logic controller ;

Keywords:

Photovoltaic system; P&O.

I. INTRODUCTION

The demand in electricity is increasing in recent

years and the constraints related to its production, such

as the effects of pollution and global climatic warming,

direct searches toward the development of renewable

energy sources. In this context, photovoltaic (PV)

systems offer a very competitive solution and free solar

power.

Photovoltaic power is considered in several regions

and countries with a high solar power density like

Sahara, Mediterranean countries and other regions as a

prime candidate of energy. Stand-alone and grid-

greatly and increased considerably in recent decades.

These applications include PV power plants [1], hybrid

systems with other sources, electric vehicles, air

conditioning, refrigeration, traffic light application [2],

water pumping, spacecraft, satellite and military

applications [3]. But there is some inconvenient for the

PV systems. They have a very high manufacture cost

and photovoltaic (PV) modules still have relatively low

energy conversion efficiency. And more, they have

nonlinear characteristics (V-I) depending on the

temperature and insolation. Their maximum power point

changes nonlinearly with solar irradiation, temperature

and load current.

It is observed that the variation of the voltage and

output current with the temperature of the solar cell is

nonlinear. it is the same observation for level variation

of solar radiation. Those two points (nonlinear) plus the

aging of solar cells and load current are the main reasons

for the low electrical efficiency of photovoltaic systems.

To overcome these problems, the maximum power point

of the PV system (at a given condition) is tracked using

online or offline algorithm or technique and the

operating point of the system is forced toward this

optimal condition. This technique is called the

maximum power point tracking (MPPT) technique. The

MPPT is used to extract the maximum power produced

by an array of Photovoltaic cells.

In the literature, lot of maximum power point

tracking (MPPT) techniques is proposed, studied [4,5]

and implemented [6,7]. These techniques include

conventional perturb and observe (P&O) techniques,

The Incremental Conductance (Ind-Cond) [4,5] and

others methods.

Another kind of methods is computational intelligent

methods [5-10] like MPPT technique by using Artificial

118

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

method which has proved fine performances under

different irradiation and temperature is the fuzzy MPPT

technique [4,5,11-16].

This paper presents the application of Fuzzy Logic

Control (FLC) to the MPPT control.

TECHNIQUES

The model of solar cell can be categorized as p-n

semiconductor junction like a Diode ; when exposed to

light, the DC current is generated. the solar cell is in fact

a special diode with a higher junction area than

anordinary diode. As known, the current generated by

the solar cell depends on the solar irradiance,

temperature and laod current. The figure.1 shows the

typical equivalent electrical circuit of solar cell [13, 17].

The PV output current, pv, is describe by

I PV = N p .I ph

( q.V pv + I pv . Rs )

N p .I 0 .e N s AKT 1

(1)

Eg

q.

3

1 1

T A. K .( Tr T )

I 0 = .I rs . .e

Tr

(2)

the PV reverse saturation current rs is describe by

I rs =

e

scr

Voc

q.

N s .k . A.T

RS Cell series resistance (ohms).

Rsh Cell shunt resistance (ohms).

: Number of cells connected in series

: Number of cells connected in parallel

oc: Open Circuit Voltage.

power point in the PV system to generate the maximum

possible power. The performance of MPPT depends on

both the MPPT control algorithm and the MPPT circuit.

The MPPT control algorithm is usually applied in the

DC-DC converter (Buck, Boost or others) [11]. The

DC/DC converter is normally used as the MPPT circuit.

Classic diagram of the connection of MPPT in a PV

system is shown in Fig. 2.

Fig.3 and fig.4 show the behavior of a photovoltaic

panel simulation in accordance with irradiation and

temperature variations under respectively constant

temperature and irradiation. In fact, a photovoltaic

generator connected to a load can operate in a large

range of voltage and current depending on

environmental operating conditions.

So, the MPPT controller must also track the new

modified maximum power point (MPP) in its

corresponding curve whenever irradiation and/or

temperature variation occurs.

Storage

Battery

(3)

S

+ K i .(T Tr )].

1000

Where:

: The module operating temperature (K)

Iph Light generated current (A).

VPV Cell voltage (V).

q Electron charge = -1.6 10 19 C

Iscr Short Circuit Current

: Temperature Coefficient of Isc

: Band gap for silicon = 1.1 eV

V: Temperature Coefficient of Voc

IPV Cell current (A).

Iload

ID

Rs

Iph

DC

Rsh

Load

VD

DC-DC

Boost

Converter

(4)

IPV

PV Module

VPV

MPPT Control

70

1000 W/m

60

900 W/m

50

700 W/m

PV Power (W)

I ph = [I scr

DC

Load

40

500 W/m

30

20

200 W/m

10

10

15

PV Voltage (V)

20

25

30

(25 C)

119

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Membership function

70

0 C

60

25 C

NB

NS

ZE

PS

PB

PV power (W)

50

30 C

40

35 C

30

45 C

20

-0.016

-0.008

10

0

0.008

0.016

PS

PB

(a)

Membership function

0

10

15

PV Voltege (V)

20

25

30

NB

NS

ZE

irradiation (1000 W/m)

A.

MPPT)

( Fuzzy

Zadeh. Fuzzy logic is involved in the handling and

imperfect knowledge it occurred as an effective

alternative.

The fuzzy logic controllers have been introduced in

the tracking of the maximum power point (MPP) in PV

systems [19-21] where Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC) gains

several advantages of better performance, robust and

simple design. The FLC MPPT technique does not need

the knowledge of the exact model but this technique do

prerequisite in the other hand the complete knowledge

of the operation of the Photovoltaic system by the

designer.

Fig. 5 illustrates the structure of a FLC.

The proposed Fuzzy Logic MPPT Controller, shown

in Fig.5, has two inputs and one output.

The two FLC input variables are the error E and

change of error CE at sampled times k defined by:

Pph ( k ) Pph ( k 1)

V ph ( k ) V ph ( k 1)

CE ( k ) = E ( k ) E ( k 1)

E (k ) =

(5)

(6)

Where Pph(k) is the instant power of the photovoltaic

generator.

The input E(k) shows if the load operation point at

the instant k is located on the right or on the left of the

MPP on the P-V characteristic, while the input CE(k)

expresses the moving direction of load operation point.

Fig.6 shows the antecedent and consequent

membership functions.

d

D

Rule Base

Defuzzifie

r

Fuzzifier

Inference

-1

C

E

D

Z

Z 1

CE

-80

-40

40

80

(b)

Membership function

NB

NS

ZE

-0.008

PS

PB

0.008

0.016

dD

-0.016

(c)

Fig. 6. Membership function of (a) error E (b) change error

CE

(c) duty ratio D

(the error E) is divided into five Fuzzy sets: NB

(Negative Big), NS (Negative Small), ZE (Zero), PS

(Positive Small), and PB (Positive Big).

The universe of discourse for the second input

variable (change of error CE) is divided into five Fuzzy

sets: NB, NS, ZE, PS, and PB.

The universe of discourse for (the output the duty

cycle dD) is divided into five Fuzzy sets: NB, NS, ZE,

PS, and PB.

Assume that there are M rules in the Fuzzy system,

where the ith rule has the following form:

i

R i : if E is FEi and CE is FCE

THEN dD is U i (7)

with i= 1,..,M

Where

i

FEi and FCE

are antecedent linguistic terms

output and the consequent term Ui is an interval of

control actions of the consequent part .

The fuzzy inference is carried out by using

Mamdanis method, and the output (the duty cycle dD)

is calculated by using the Defuzzifier block

(equation(8)) .

E

CE

NB

NS

ZE

PS

PB

PB

PB

NB

ZE

ZE

PB

NS

ZE

ZE

PS

PS

PS

ZE

PS

ZE

ZE

ZE

NS

PS

NS

NS

NS

ZE

ZE

PB

NB

NB

NB

ZE

ZE

120

compute the output of this FLC. The output is the duty

cycle which uses the rule base of TABLE I. The output

(dD) is given to the DC-DC converter.

n

(D ) D

j

dD0 =

(8)

j =1

n

(D )

j

j =1

B.

FLC, an additional MPPT technique will be studied and

used the Flow chart of this method is described in Fig. 7

One of the most popular MPPT techniques and

simple to use is the Perturb and Observe (P&O)

technique. The main concept of this method is to drive

the Photovoltaic system to operate at the direction which

the output power obtained from the Photovoltaic system

rises. Equation (9) describes the change of power which

defines the strategy of the P&O technique.

(9)

P = P ( k ) P ( k 1)

If the change of power P is positive, the system will

keep the direction of the incremental duty cycle (D)

(increase or decrease the PV voltage) as the same

direction, and if the change is negative, the system will

change the direction of incremental duty cycle command

to the opposite direction. This method works well when

the radiation and temperature conditions change slowly.

But, the P&O method fails to track MPP when the

environmental operating condition is rapidly changed.

The DC-DC converter is the boost chopper. Figure 8

shows the boost chopper structure.

Figure 9 shows our developed Simulink model of PV

generator , FLC MPPT and the Boost chopper.

The proposed fuzzy logic control based MPPT has

been modeled, simulated using MATLAB/Simulink

(Fig. 9) and compared with the conventional P&O

technique (Fig. 10) [11,22].

Applying Kirchhoffs, the ideal mathematical model of

the circuit in figure.8 is describe by

dI PVG

= U PVG VBattery (1 S S 1 ) RL I PVG (10)

dt

dVBattery

VBarrery

= I PVG (1 S S 1 )

C

dt

R

(12)

S S 2 = S S1

Where:

IPVG : Current across the inductor,

VBattery :Voltage in the battery Parameters.

SS1 : Switch position

UPVG :Voltage supplied by PV photovoltaic

array

The main equation associated with duty cycle and

input output voltage of boost converter is given below as

follows:

VBattrey

U PVG

UPVG

PVG

(12)

S2

IPVG

Begin

P&O Algorithm

1

1 D

Battrey

S1

Load

P(K) =P(K) -P(K-1)

D(K+1)=D(K)+

D

P(K)>0

D(K+1)=D(K) - D

D(K+1)=D(K) - D

D(K+1)=D(K)+

D

Update History

V(K-1)=V(K)

P(K-1)=P(K)

FLC MPPT and the Boost chopper in MATLAB/Simulink

121

in s o la t io n (W / m )

C o n ro l S ig n e l D P a n a l P o w e r (W )

1000

500

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

10

20

30

40

time (s)

100

P&O technique and the Boost chopper in MATLAB/Simulink

50

0

1

0.5

P&O Controller

0

100

50

61.92

61.9199

61.9199

61.9198

10

61.9198

15

20

25

30

35

40

25

30

35

40

Conrol Signel D

61.9197

1000

61.9197

61.9196

61.9196

61.9195

500

61.9195

31.05 31.1 31.15 31.2 31.25 31.3 31.35 31.4 31.45 31.5

10

15

20

0.5

P&O Controller

FLC Controller

0

10

15

20

time (s)

25

30

35

Fig. 11. Variation of the panel power, battery power and the

duty ratio D, under standard conditions: temperature (25 C)

and solar irradiation (1000 W/m2)

40

FLC Controller

60

70

80

T em perature (C)

320

P anal P ower (W )

P&O algorithms under fast changing of

100

Conrol S ignel D

are simulated with the matlab / simulink to control the

photovoltaic system, where are used under changing

climate conditions. The photovoltaic system has 14

panel. In this case, the two controls are applied to a

boost chopper which feeds a battery and resistive load.

The simulated photovoltaic system is shown in Figure.2.

The DC-DC converter is the boost chopper (Fig.8) .

The previous MPPT controllers Fuzzy Logic and P&O

were simulated under the following tests:

1. Temperature and the irradiation are kept constant:

the temperature at 25 C and the irradiation equal

1000W/m2

2. Under fast changing of irradiation and constant

temperature (25 C)

3. Under fast changing of temperature and constant

irradiation (1000W/m2)

To reduce the ripple current [15,17] a sampling

frequency equal to 100Hz is applied , Fig.11 shows the

variation of the power of just one panel, battery power

and the duty ratio D.

Fig.12 shows the performance of the PV system

using FLC and P&O algorithms under fast changing of

irradiance and Fig.13 shows the performance under fast

changing of temperature.

50

300

280

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

10

20

30

40

time (s)

50

0

0.5

P&O Controller

0

50

60

FLC Contoller

70

80

P&O algorithms under fast changing of Temperature

performance under varying environmental operating

conditions, by considering the duty cycle in the FLC

output.

In the proposed FLC, the triangular membership

functions, as shown in Fig.6 , are selected for the input

E(k),CE(k) variables and output variable D(k) The peak

values of each fuzzy set in the membership functions

will influence the overshoot, stability, and steady-state

error of system step responses. If the peak values of NS

and PS in the membership function of E(k) are moved

toward the center point, the overshoot and oscillation of

the step responses will increase, while the rise time will

decrease.

In Fig.11 a similar comparison among the

performance of the tow techniques is given. To validate

the robustness of the proposed technique, the

comparisons between the FLC and the P&O with

different temperature and irradiation are presented in

Fig.12 and Fig.13. The effect of temperature and

irradiation change can be seen clearly on the power

panal signal. FLC MPPT technique provide a good

tracking speed and less variation around the MPP. It is

122

system, we have a significant energy gain.

These results show that the poor instantaneous

efficiencies corresponding to the traditional P&O

method are considerably improved by the proposed

MPPT technique. The MPPT using fuzzy logic

controller gives the results better than the perturb and

observe method in several areas of the tracking curve.

The fuzzy logic controller reduces the ripple of panel

power compared with P&O controller Fig.11 (Zoom of

panel power curve). and more, the fuzzy logic controller

is faster than the P&O controller in the transitional state

Fig.11, Fig.12 and Fig.13.

VI. CONCLUSION

These last years a lot of controllers and MPPT

strategies have been used and showed some flaws, it was

necessary to find and try other methods to optimize the

performance, the FL controller seemed like a good idea

This paper presents two MPPT strategies for PV

system. The first is a robust and intelligent control

(FLC) and the second is a conventional strategy (P&O).

Both strategies are applied to the PV system and don't

need an external sensors for detecting solar irradiation

and temperature.

The simulation results in different variations of

temperature or irradiation show that the first proposed

MPPT can follow the MPP fast compared to the

conventional P&O method. Some advantages of the

proposed fuzzy MPP tracker are:

The FLC is working with imprecise inputs.

Accurate mathematical model isn't needed.

Robustness to environmental conditions.

Reduces the ripple of panel power

To conclude, the proposed MPPT using fuzzy logic

can improve the performance of any nonlinear system

where the PV system is one of them.

In prospective the strategy MPPT of fuzzy logic

controller (FLC) is well be implemented on a dsPIC

APPENDIX

TABLE 2. PV PANEL PARAMETERS

t

Rated currant

IMPP

s

s

Serie resitance Rs

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