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Telencephalon 端脑

Ⅰ.External Features
Ⅱ.Functional localization of the
cerebral cortex 大脑皮质功能定位
Ⅲ.Basal nuclei 基底核
Ⅳ.Medullary center or white matter
Ⅴ.lateral ventricles 侧脑室
External features

The lobes of the hemisphere ( 大脑半

球 的分叶 ) :
Frontal lobe 额叶
Parietal lobe 顶叶
Occipital lobe 枕叶
Temporal lobe 颞叶
Insular lobe 岛叶
External features

The superolateral
surface of cerebral

The medial surface

of cerebral

Brodmann is responsible for

establishing the basis upon which the
present day science of comparative
cytoarchitectonics of the mammalian
cortex rests. All confusion of brain
area nomenclature disappeared with
Brodmann contribution. Brodmann’s map or Brodmann’s 52 areas
Functional localization of the cerebral cortex

The cortex of cerebral

hemisphere is simply
considered as consisting of
three main parts: 1) parietal
and temporal lobe for
reception and conceptual
elaboration of sensory data;
2) frontal lobe for motor
responses, judgement,
foresight and mood; 3)
limbic lobe for visceral
Sensory area: somatosensory,
vision and hearing areas
Motor area: somatomotor area
Visceral control center:
visceral responses to mood
Association cortex:
remainder of the neocortex
Functional localization
Functional localization

Primary moter A.

Primary somesthetic A.

Auditory language A.
Visual language
Visual A.

Moter speech Auditory A.

A. Broca’s area Writing A.

g center

Olfactory A.
Functional localization
Three features of the primary motor area:
1) The axons of pyramidal cells form the pyramidal tract
to the opposite side of the brain and spinal cord to
control voluntary movenets – crossover of the axons
2) The body is represented upside down – inverted
3) Represented parts of the body are disproportional in
size to corresponding parts of the body
disproportional representation
The same features are also found on
the primary somatosensory area
All ascending tracts cross to the opposite
side before reaching the ventral posterior N.,
so the somatic sensation relayed in ventral
posterior N. comes from the other side of the
The amount of cortex devoted to a body
region is related to the sensitivity of that
region, but not to the size of the region;
From his presentation and from
other ongoing observations he
concluded that the integrity of the
left frontal convolution was
responsible and necessary for
articular speech. David Ferrier
(1843-1928) is responsible for
naming this region "Broca
convolution- the motor speech


Wilder penfield: mapping the moter cortex

Wilder Penfield, a pioneering brain surgeon,

mapped the motor cortex using mild electric
In the 1940s. while operating on epileptic
patients, Penfield applied electric currents to the
surface of patients' brains in order to find
problem areas. Since the patients were awake
during the operations, they could tell Penfield
what they were experiencing. Probing some
areas triggered whole memory sequences. For
one patient, Penfield triggered a familiar song
that sounded so clear, the patient thought it was
being played in the operating room.
During these operations, Penfield
watched for any movement of the
patients' bodies. From this information,
he was able to map the motor cortex, the
very part of the brain you can map in this
feature's activity.
Basal nuclei 基底核

Corpus striatum 纹状体

Basal nuclei Claustrum 屏状核

Amygdaloid body 杏仁体

Caudate N.
Dorsal thalamus

Lentiform N.
Amygdaloid body
Basal nuclei

Caudate nucleus
Corpus 尾状核
striatum Putamen
纹状体 壳
Lentiform nucleus
豆状核 Globus pallidus

Neostriatum: caudate nucleus and putamen

Paleostriatum: globus pallidus
Basal nuclei
About the function of
basal nuclei:
1) Work as a neural
N. calculators to
cooperate with the
Dorsal thalamus cerebral cortex in
Internal movements
2) To be important in
Lentiform N. starting and stopping
the voluntary
movements ordered
and executed by the
3) Regulate the intensity
of the voluntary
Cerebral white matter commissural fibers 连合纤维 association fibers
联络纤维 projection fibers 投射纤维

Commissural fibers the fibers running

between the two hemispheres, and
interconnect the same gray areas of
the two hemispheres Forceps
1) Corpus callosum 胼胝体 broad band
lying superior to the lateral ventricles deep
Trunk of
within the longitudinal fissure / rostrum
genu trunk splenium on cross section callosum

Genu Rostrum Trunk Splenium


Anterior 2) Anterior commissure 前连合 a

commissure small bundle of fibers crossing the midline
in the lamina terminalis
3) Fornix 穹窿 fornical commissure 穹

Fornix: myelinated fibers originating from

the hippocampus that passes to the
mammillary body;
Fornical commissure: consists of
transverse fibers that cross the midline
from the posterior column of the fornix to
another before the formation of the body
of fornix

Fornix Fornical commissure

Mammillary body
commissure Hippocampus
Dentate gyrus
Association fiber 联络纤维 :

Uncinate fasciculus 钩束 superior longitudinal fasciculus 上纵束

inferior longitudinal fasciculus 下纵束
Uncinate fasciculuc: connects Short association Superior logitudinal
the gyri on the frontal lobe with fibers fasciculus
cortex of the pole of temporal lobe
Superior longitudinal fasciculus:
connects the anterior part of frontal
lobe to the occipital and temporal
Inferior longitudianl fasciculus:
connects occipital lobe to temporal


Inferior logitudinal
Projection fibers 投射纤维 internal capsule
Internal capsule: formed by the afferent and efferent fibers passing to and
from brainstem to the entire cerebral cortex / flanked medially by the caudate
nucleus and thalamus, laterally by the lentiform nucleus

The portions on horizontal section: anterior limb

posterior limb and genu

Corona radiata: the band of fibers which

radiate in all directions to the cerebral cortex
after they emerged superiorly from between the
nuclear masses of thalamus, caudate nucleus
and lentiform nucleus
Fibrous tracts within the internal
capsule: Anterior thalamic
Coticonuclear radiation

Anterior Anterior thalamic radiation fibers
Dorsal thalamus
limb Frotopontine fibers

Genu Coticonuclear tract
CoticospinalT. Temporopontine
Coticospinal tract
Central thalamic
Corticorubral tract radiation

Posterio Central thalamic radiation

r limb Optic radiation
Acoustic radiation
Temporopontine fibers
Lateral ventricle 侧脑室

The lateral ventricle is

divided into three
1) Anterior horn
2) Central part
3) Posterior horn
4) Inferior horn

Anterior horn

Central part

Inferior horn Posterior horn

Highlights of the central nervous system (1)
Spinal cord: 1) spinal cord extends from the foramen magnum to the level of
1st lumbar vertebra in adult 2) the position of the segments of spinal cord in
relation to vertebral bodise is important for diagnosis of trauma on spinal cord
3) spinal cord is enlarged in its cervical and lumbar regions, reflecting the
innervation of limbs 4) anterior horn of grey matter is somatic motor region,
and posterior horn is somatic and visceral sensory region, and lateral horn is
visceral motor region 5) some laminae of grey matter are important for
relaying sensory and motor fibers from fiberous pathways 6) white matter is
divided into posterior, lateral and anterior funiculi, and FG and FC in posterior
funiculus, STT in lateral and anterior funiculi, and CST in lateral and anterior
funiculi 7) origin, course, decussation, termination and function of FG FC
STT CST are important for understanding of whole pathways in CNS
Brain stem: 1) brain stem consists of midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata
2) midbrain contains motor nucleus and accessory nucleus of cranial nerve
Ⅲ, Ⅳ, red nucleus and substantia nigra participating in motor functions, and
also contains superior and inferior colliculi mediate visual and auditory
reflexes 3) in pons nuclei of cranial nerves Ⅴ Ⅶ lie near the fourth
ventricle, and in ventral region lie the pyramidal tracts, plus pontine nuclei
projecting to cerebellum 4) medulla oblongata contains nuclei of cranial
verves Ⅷ Ⅻ near the fourth ventricle and two decussations of pyramidal
tracts and internal lemniscus
Highlights of the central nervous system (2)
Cerebellum: 1) it smoothes and coordinates body movements and maintain
posture and equilibrium 2) from superficial to deep, it is divided into cortex, white
matter and cerebellar nuclei including dentate, emboliform, globose and fastigial
N. 3) on basis of evolutional processes and function it is divided into three lobes:
flocculonodular, anterior and posterior lobes, each of which has its own fiberous
connections and spicific functions 4) superior, middle and inferior peduncles
connect it to midbrain, pons and medulla oblongata respectively
Diecephalon: 1) consists mainly of thalamus, hypothalamus and epithalamus 2)
thalamus, an egg-shaped group of nuclei, among which ventral posterolateral N.
and ventral posteromedial N. lateral geniculate N. and medial geniculate N. are
specific thalamic nuclei relaying some sensory tracts of general somatic sensation,
visual and auditory sensation 3) hypothalamus, a series of nuclei, is an important
visceral control center and regulate directly secretion of posterior lobe and
indirectly secretion of anterior lobe of pituitary gland, and control daily rhythm,
body temperature
Telencephalon : 1) five lobes of each hemisphere are frontal, parietal, temporal,
occipital and insula lobes 2) functional areas of cortex include following: a) motor
areas in frontal lobe primary motor cortex, premotor cortex and Brocca”s area; b)
sensory areas in parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes primary somatosensory
cortex, primary visual cortex, peimary auditory cortex; c) language areas in frontal,
parietal lobes 3) each hemisphere receives sensory signals from, (continuously)
Highlights of the central nervous system (3)

and sends motor instructions to , the opposite side of the body. Body is mapped in
an upside-down image in primary motor area and primary somatosensory areas
4) left hemisphere is specialized for language and math skills, right hemisphere is
more concerned with visual-spatial and creative abilities 5) in white matter the
types of fibers include commissural fibers, association fibers, and projection fibers
6) basal nuclei, embedded deep within the cerebral white mater, include the
caudate N., lantiform N., amyglaloid body and claustrum, which work functionally
with the motor cortex to control complex movements