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PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF

BUILDING MATERIALS
Prof. P. K. Bhuyan
Department of Civil Engineering
NIT Rourkela
CONCRETE
Ingredient cement, water, small
stones
Strength cheap, fireproof &
weatherproof, molds any shape,
strong in compression
Weaknesses cracks with
temperature changes, weak in
tension
Applications early arch bridges &
domes
REINFORCED CONCRETE
Type fine-grained concrete with
high-strength steel
Ingredient steel bars hidden in
concrete
Strength low-cost, fireproof &
weatherproof, molds any shape,
strong in compression & tension
Weaknesses can crack as it cools
& hardens
Applications bridges, dams,
domes, buildings
BRICK
Type ordinary brick
Ingredient burned clay
Strength cheap, strong in
compression
Weaknesses heavy, weak in
tension
Applications walls of early
skyscrapers and tunnels,
domes
CAST IRON
Type cast iron
Ingredient iron with lots of carbon
Strength molds to any shape,
strong in compression
Weaknesses weaker than steel in
tension, breaks without warning
Applications arch bridges,
cannons, domes
STEEL
Type high-strength steel
Ingredient iron with a touch of
carbon
Strength one of the strongest
materials used in construction,
strong in compression & tension
Weaknesses rusts, loses strength
in extremely high temperature
Applications cables in
suspension bridges, buildings
ALUMINUM
Type aluminum alloy
Ingredients aluminum w/
magnesium & copper
Strength lightweight,
doesnt rust, strong in
compression & tension
Weaknesses expensive
Applications airplane wings,
boats, skyscrapers skin
WOOD
Strength cheap,
lightweight, moderately
strong in compression &
tension
Weaknesses rots, swells
and burn easily
Applications bridges,
houses, 2 or 3-story
bldgs
PLASTIC
Type high-strength plastic
fabric
Ingredients long chain of
molecules
Strength flexible, lightweight,
long lasting, strong in
compression & tension
Weaknesses expensive
Applications tent structures,
inflatable roofs
Introduction to Concrete
Prof. P. K. Bhuyan
Department of Civil Engineering
NIT Rourkela
Concrete As A Material
Concrete, literally, forms the basis of our
modern life:
Roadways/transportation systems
Infrastructure (bridges, dams, buildings)
Harbor protection (breakwalls)
Water distribution (pipes & conduit)
Concrete has deep roots in history:
Wall at Palestrina, Italy, 1st Century BC
Roman Aqueduct & Pantheon
Grand Coulee Dam
Concrete
The word concrete originates from the
Latin verb concretus, which means to
grow together.
Concrete
is a mixture of portland cement, water,
aggregates, and in some cases, admixtures.
The cement and water form a paste that
hardens and bonds the aggregates together.
Concrete is often looked upon as man
made rock.
REASONS WHY CONCRETE IS THE MOST
WIDELY USED MATERIAL:
Concrete is one of the
cheapest and most
readily available
materials
Concrete can be formed
into a variety of shapes
and sizes
Concrete possesses
excellent resistance to
water
Advantage of Concrete
We have the ability to cast desired shapes
Arches, piers, columns, shells
Properties can be tailored according to need (strength, durability, etc.)
Ability to resist high temperatures
Will maintain structural integrity far longer than structural steel
Does not require protective coatings
Can be an architectural & structural member at the same time
Concrete Structural
Frame
City of Arts and Sciences,
Valencia, Spain
Properties of Quality Concrete
Workability (ease of placement; resistance
to segregation; homogenous mass)
Consistency (ability to flow)
Durability
Strength
Chloride Penetration Resistance
Abrasion Resistance
Workability is the property that determines the ease with
which freshly mixed concrete can be placed and finished
without segregation.
Workability is difficult to measure but redi-mix
companies usually have experience in determining the
proper mix.
Therefore, it is important to accurately describe what the
concrete is to be used for, and how it will be placed.
Workability
If acceptable materials are used, the properties of
concrete, such as durability, freeze/thaw
resistance, wear resistance, and strength depend on
the cement mixture.
A mixture with a sufficiently low ratio of water to
cement plus entrained air, if specified, is the most
desirable.
These properties--and thus the desired concrete
quality--can only be fully achieved through proper
placement and finishing, followed by prompt and
effective curing.
Durability
The Nature of Concrete
It is a composite material
Aggregates are 65%- 80% of the volume
Fine aggregate: sand
Coarse aggregate: stone
Cement: General term & applies to any binder
Portland cement
fly ash
ground slag
silica fume
Water
Concrete Microstructure
The Purpose Of The Aggregates
Large aggregates:
provide density (fill space: cheap filler)
provide strength (hard material)
Fine aggregates:
fill small voids between large
aggregates (reduce volume changes)
Increases strength of the cement binder
The Cement Matrix
Cement:
produces a crystalline structure
binds aggregates together
Water
Uses for cement:
Mortar = cement + sand + water
Plaster = cement + lime + sand + water
Grout = cement + sand + considerable amount of water
Paste = cement + water
Water
needed for two purposes:
chemical reaction with cement
workability
only 1/3 of the water is needed for chemical reaction
extra water remains in pores and holes
results in porosity
Good for preventing plastic shrinkage cracking and
workability
Bad for permeability, strength, durability.
Portland Cement
Portland cement was named for the Isle of
Portland, a peninsula in the English Channel
where it was first produced in the 1800's.
Since that time, a number of developments
and improvements have been made in the
production process and cement properties.
What is Portland Cement?
Raw limestone, clay & gypsum minerals are
ground into powder & heated in kiln
(1600 C)
Minerals interact at that temperature to form
calcium silicates (clinker)
Available in five types, each with varying
performance characteristics and uses
Portland Cement Manufacturing
Process
Clinker
Hydration
Portland cement becomes cementitious when
mixed with water
This reaction is referred to as hydration.
During hydration, a crystalline structure grows
to form bonds
Hydration begins as soon as water meets
cement
Rate of hydration increases with increased
cement fineness
In Fact.
Concrete does not gain strength by drying
out
Concrete must have continuous free access
to water to achieve its ultimate strength!!
Admixtures:
Admixtures
Admixtures are ingredients other than port-
land cement, water, and aggregates.
Admixtures are added to the concrete
mixture immediately before or during
mixing.
Admixtures
chemical
set retarders
set accelerators
water reducing
air entraining
mineral
fly ash
silica fume
slags
Admixtures:
Coloring Agent are pigments or dyes mixed into topping to
render/alter color evenly to concrete surface
Surface Sealing Agents liquid waxes sprayed over the
surface that is easily removed after curing. Prevents
evaporation of water into a new concrete allowing hydration
and seal the pores of concrete surface after it has hardened
Dispersal Agents- prevents bleeding of concrete from
concrete.
Admixtures:
Bonding Agent either metallic aggregate or synthetic latex
to improve the bond between old and new concrete.
Gas Forming Agent develops the potential strength of a
concrete
Non-Skid Surfaces - use abrasive material in topping to
produced un-slippery surface for pavement construction
Hardener chemical/fine metallic aggregate improve the
density of concrete surface subject to impact and wear.
Retarding admixtures-
delays or extend the setting time of concrete
especially during hot weather condition
(hydration accelerates curing) allowing
more time to place, consolidate and finish
the concrete.
Admixtures:
Accelerating admixtures-
Speeds up the setting of concrete to reduce
the whole curing period or for early removal
of forms.
such as calcium chloride, are used to
increase the rate of hardening--usually
during cold weather.
Admixtures:
Water Reducers (Super-Plasticizers)-
Water can be reduced
Increases viscosity
Results in higher strength and more durable
concrete due to reduced water
Admixtures:
Air Entrainment Admixtures-
All concrete contains entrapped air
Large bubbles
Large voids are undesirable for durability &
permeability
Entrained air
Bubbles are microscopic in size & distributed
through out concrete
Increases durability by providing escape
route for freezing water as it expands
When Do We Use Air Entrained Concrete?
Concrete to be placed in exterior locations requires air entraining
(water/freeze/thaw)
Entrapped Air Voids
Entrained Air
Water Cement Ratio
Water cement ratio controls the strength, durability and water
tightness of hardened concrete.
Based on Abrams Law (D.A. Abrams, 1919) the
compressive strength of concrete is inversely proportional to
the ratio of water to cement
Too much water will weaken concrete after curing.
Little water is dense but causes difficulty in placement and
workability of concrete.
Water Cement Ratio
The Average water-cement ratio is 30 liters per 50 kg. of
cement bag.
Excessive water causes bleeding and laitance.
Bleeding (emergence of excess mixing water on the surface of newly
placed concrete caused by settlement of solids within the mass)
Laitance (milky deposit containing cement and fine aggregate on the
surface of new concrete combined with bleeding, overworking of mix or
improper finishing).
Control of Concrete Mixes:
Concrete is normally specified according to the compressive
strength it develops depending on the type of cement used. If
ordinary Portland (7 - 28 days) or high early strength (3 7
days) after placement
Two methods of testing concretes compressive strength:
1. Slump test
2. Compressive Cylinder Test
Control of Concrete Mixes:
1. Slump test to measure the consistency of freshly mixed
concrete. Where a concrete is placed at a slump cone ( 300
mm high with a respective top diameter and bottom is 100
mm and 200 mm) and tamped in a prescribed manner then
lifted to determine the decrease in height expressed by
vertical settling in cm/mm.
Slump Test
Inverted cone
fill it up with three layers
of equal volume
rod each layer 25 times
scrape off the surface
200
100
300
Slump Test
slump cone
rod
concrete
Slump test
Slump
Ruler
43
Placing Conditions Degree of
Workability
Slump
(mm)
Blinding Concrete;
Shallow Sections;
Pavements using pavers
Very Low See 7.1.1
Mass Concrete;
Lightly reinforced sections in Slabs, Beams,
Walls, Columns; Floors;
Hand placed Pavements;
Canal lining; Strip Footings
Low 25-75
Heavily reinforced sections in Slabs,
Beams, Walls, Columns;
Slip form work; Pumped Concrete.
Medium 50-100
Trench fill; In-Situ Piling High 100-150
Factors affecting slump
water cement ratio
w/c = weight of water / weight of cement
constant cement content
increase water content
increase slump
NO GOOD
Factors affecting slump
Low paste content
Harsh mix
High paste content
Rich mix
Paste Content
ball bearing effect-start
starting height
ball bearing effect-end
slump
Factors affecting slump
Aggregates
Grading: larger the particle size, the higher the
slump for a given paste content
effect of aggregate size
1
1
1
Consider a single aggregate the size of 1x1x1
Compute the surface area as you
break up the particles
volume = 1 cubic in
surface area = 6 square inches volume = 1 cubic in
surface area = 1.5*8= 12 square inches
block surface area = 0.5*0.5*6=1.5
block surface area = 1*1*6= 6
Break it up further
Compute the surface area
0.5 in
0.25 in
surface area = 0.25*0.25*6*8*8=24
Larger particles, less surface area, thicker
coating, easy sliding of particles
Smaller particles, more surface area, thinner
coating, interlocking of particles
Effect of aggregate size
size #of particles volume surfacearea
1" 1 1cubic inch 6squareinches
.5" 8 1cubic inch 12squareinches
0.25 64 1cubic inch 24squareinches
0.125 512 1cubic inch 48squareinches
size #of particles volume surfacearea
1" 1 1cubic inch 6squareinches
.5" 8 1cubic inch 12squareinches
0.25 64 1cubic inch 24squareinches
0.125 512 1cubic inch 48squareinches
Angularity and surface texture of
aggregates
angular and rough
aggregate
smooth aggregate
river gravel
Bleeding
Water accumulation on surface
Examine the concrete surface
Temperature
fresh concrete
aggregates paste
Interaction between bleeding and evaporation
surface water
Evaporation
Bleed water
Bleed water = evaporation
Bleeding and its control
Creates problems:
poor pumpability
delays in finishing
high w/c at the top
poor bond between
two layers
causes
lack of fines
too much water content
Remedies
more fines
adjust grading
entrained air
reduce water content
Causes of Plastic Shrinkage Cracking
water evaporates faster than it can reach the
top surface
drying while plastic
cracking
Too much evaporation leads to surface cracking
no surface water
Evaporation
Bleed water < Evaporation
drying
Plastic Shrinkage Cracking-Remedies
Control the wind velocity
reduce the concretes temperature
use ice as mixing water
increase the humidity at the surface
fogging
cover w/polyethylene
curing compound
Fiber reinforcement
Free Shrinkage,
causes volume change, but no stresses
before shrinkage
After Shrinkage
Restrained Shrinkage- creates stresses,
which may cause cracking
Restrained shrinkage cracking
Parallel cracking perpendicular
to the direction of shrinkage
Curing
The time needed for the chemical reaction
of portland cement with water.
concrete after 14 days of curing has
completed only 40% of its potential.
70 % at 28 days.
Curing tips
ample water
do not let it dry
dry concrete = dead concrete, all reactions stop
can not revitalize concrete after it dries
keep temperature at a moderate level
concrete with flyash requires longer curing
Temperature effects on curing
The higher the temperature the faster the curing
best temperature is room temperature
strongest concrete is made at temperature around 5
C.(not practical)
If concrete freezes during the first 24 hrs., it may
never be able to attain its original properties.
Temperature effects on curing
real high temperatures above 50 C can cause
serious damage since cement may set too fast.
accelerated curing procedures produce strong
concrete, but durability might suffer.
Two general methods of curing
can be used:
Keep water on the concrete during the
curing period.
These include
ponding or immersion,
spraying or fogging, and
saturated wet coverings.
Such methods provide some cooling through
evaporation, which is beneficial in hot weather.
Prevent the loss of the mixing water from
concrete by sealing the surface.
Can be done by:
covering the concrete with impervious paper or
plastic sheets,
applying membrane-forming curing
compounds.
Testing of concrete
Concrete testing can broadly classified in to two major
divisions.
Green (Fresh) concrete Tests.
Workability tests
1. Slump test
2. Compacting factor test
3. ASTM flow test
4. Remoulding test
5. Vebe Test
6. Flow test
7. Ball penetration test
8. Nassers K-test
9. Two point tests
Testing of concrete
Hardened concrete tests.
Strength in compression
Cube test (British Standard1881 : Part 111 :1983)
Cylinder test (BS 1881 : Part 110 :1983) (ASTM C
192-90a
Flexural strength test
Tensile test
Three types of compression test specimens are used:
cubes, cylinders, and prisms.
Cubes are used in Great Britain, Germany and many
other countries in Europe.
Cylinders are the standard specimens in the Unites
States, France, Canada, Australia and Newzeland.
In Scandinavia tests are made on both cubes and
cylinders.
The tendency nowadays, especially in research is to use
cylinders in preference to cubes.
Compression Tests Compression Tests
Strength Development and Strength
Measurement
Aggregates glued together by cement paste to
form concrete
Cement hydration is a chemical reaction which
requires water
Strength gain reflects degree of hydration
Strength gain depends on
Type of cement
Temperature history temperature and time
Curing
Admixtures
Factors Affecting Compressive Strength at 28
days
Aggregate content
Cement type and fineness
Water/cement ratio
Degree of compaction
Extent of curing
Temperature
Strength Measurement
100mm or 150mm cubes at 7 and 28 days
300mm x 150mm cylinders at 7 and 28 days (note
ratio 2:1 and circular in plan)
Other tests direct tension, bending and cores
Non-destructive testing
Cube Making:
Cube making:
Prime objectives
to achieve full compaction
avoid loss of moisture
keep at proper temperature when in curing tank
Use proper tools.
Advantage of cube shape is ease of making
accurate sides.
Cube Making
Specifications
Cube Curing and Cube Testing
Cube Reports and Cube Failures
Cube Curing and Cube Testing
Cube Curing:
De-mould (take the mould out) when
stability of cube allows.
Prevent loss of moisture before placing
in curing tank.
Loss in strength due to initial drying out
is unrecoverable.
No provision for in-situ cubes. Give
temperature matched curing.
Cube curing
After curing process, cubes were tested by
compressive strength machine as shown in
the figure to measure the compressive load
at which cubes will fail .
Cube Testing
COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH TESTING
MACHINE FOR CONCRETE
Compressive strength testing of Concrete cubes
Criteria for cube failures
A strength (the characteristic 28-day strength) is
specified based on design the concrete Grade
In compression test, two tested cubes at 28 days =
one result
Provided difference between individual results
is within 15% of average
Individual cube result:
every individual result must be greater than the
characteristic -3MPa
Concrete Cube Test Result Variability
Variability 28 day cube results have a
mean strength and a standard deviation
For an expected 5% defective level, the
target mean strength is the specified
characteristic strength plus 1.64 times the
standard deviation
Ensure actual mean is greater than target
mean strength
Failure modes- Normal
Failure modes- Abnormal
Aquality control test based on 728 days curing period
to determine the compressive strength of a concrete
specimen.
The standard cylinder is 150 mm diameter, 300 mm
long and is cast in a mould generally made of steel or
cast iron. The cylinder specimens are made are
compacted either in three layers using a 16 mm diameter
rod or in two layers by means of a vibrator.
Details of procedure are prescribed in ASTM Standard
C192-76.
Cylinder Test Cylinder Test
After top surface of the cyliner has been finished by means of
trowel, the cube is stored undistributed for 24 hours at a temperature
of 18 to 22 C and relative humidity of not less than 90 percent. At
the end of this period the mould is stripped and the cylinder is
further cured in a water at 19 to 21 C .
The test is generally performed at 28 days but it also perform
additional test at 3 and 7 days. In compression test, the cylinder is
placed with the faces in contact with the platens of the testing
machine, i.e. the position of the cube when tested is at right angles
to that as-cast.
The load on the cylinder should be applied at a constant rate of
stress equal to 0.0250 KN/sq. meter/ sec
Cylinder Compressive Tests Cylinder Compressive Tests
Dr. Mohamed Abdallah El-Reedy
Email:elreedyna@gmail.com
Consolidation of Concrete:
The process of eliminating voids other than entrained air
within newly placed concrete and ensuring close contact of
the concrete with form surfaces and embedded steel
reinforcement.
Through : vibration, spading and rodding
Excessive vibration causes segregation (separation of coarse
aggregate from mortar causing excessive horizontal movement
making a free fall mix)
Excessive vibration also causes stratification (separation combined
with excessive wetting into horizontal layers where lighter material
migrate towards the top)
Different Process of Mixing Concrete:
Manual flat surface with shovels and buggy
Small Power a manual mixing rotating drum
Bagger Mixer equipped with diesel engine and pump
operated mechanical mixing drum (1 or 2bags) or rotating
mixing drum at the back of a truck.
Method of Transporting a Concrete:
Ready Mixed- concrete mixed at batch plant for delivery by
an agitator to construction site.
Method of Transporting a Concrete:
Shrink Mixed concrete partially mixed at the batch plant
then mixed completely in a truck mixed en route to
construction site.
Transit Mixed concrete dry batch at a batch plant & mixed
at the truck mixer en route to construction site.
Method of Transporting a Concrete:
Gunite or shotcrete for lightweight construction, where
concrete mix is pumped through a hose and sprayed at high
velocity over reinforcement until desired thickness is reached.
With proper materials and techniques,
concrete can withstand many acids, milk,
manure, fertilizers, water, fire, and abrasion.
Concrete can be finished to produce
surfaces ranging from glass-smooth to
coarsely textured, and it can be colored with
pigments or painted.
Concrete-Applications
Concrete has substantial strength in
compression, but is weak in tension.
Most structural uses, such as beams, slabs,
and tanks, involve reinforced concrete,
which depends on concrete's strength in
compression and steel's strength in tension.
When specifying and ordering concrete, the
customer should be prepared to discuss such
things as:
1. Amount of concrete required,
2. use of the concrete,
3. type of cement,
4. minimum amount of cement per cubic meter
5. maximum water-cement ratio
6. any special admixtures,
7. amount of air entrainment,
8. desired compressive strength,
9. amount of slump, and
10. any special considerations or restrictions
CONSTRUCTI ON
STONES
Prof. P. K. Bhuyan
Department of Civil Engineering
NI T Rourkela
TOPICS
Stone Masonry
Stone as a Construction Material
Classification of Stone
Cutting and Dressing of Stones
Construction of Stone Masonry
Comparison between Brick and Stone
masonry
Stone
a natural, hard substance formed from
minerals and earth material which are
present in rocks.
Rock
the portion of the earths crust having no
definite shape and structure
To qualify as a construction material, stone
should have the following qualities:
Strength: Most types of
stone have more than
adequate compressive
strength. The shear
strength of stone,
however, is usually
about 1/10 of its
compressive strength
Hardness: hardness is
important when stone
is used for flooring,
paving, and stair
treads.
Hardness:
Talc, easily scratched with the thumb-nail: 1
Gypsum, scratched by the thumb-nail: 2
Calcite, not scratched by thumb-nail but easily cut by knife: 3
Fluorite, can be cut by knife with greater difficulty than calcite: 4
Apatite, can be cut only with difficulty by knife: 5
Orthoclase, can be cut w/ knife w/ great difficulty on thin edges: 6
Quartz, not scratched by steel, scratches glass: 7
Topaz: 8
Sapphire: 9
Diamond: 10
Durability: Resistance
to the weathering
effects of rain, wind,
heat, and frost action
is necessary for
exterior stonework
Workability: A stones
hardness and grain
texture must allow it to
be quarried, cut and
shaped
Density: A stones
porosity affects its
ability to withstand
frost action and
staining
Density:
Porosity of Stones
24-hours Water Absorption of Stones by Volume
Appearance:
Appearance factors
include color, grain,
and texture
Produced by blasting or cutting - Irregular-sized stone
is produced by blasting the rock, the larger pieces are cut
into smaller units for use as an exterior finish, rest is
crushed and sorted into various sizes as aggregates - Most
of the dimensional stones used in building construction are
produced by cutting large blocks in the quarry - Cut with
diamond belt saws; rubber air bags inflated in the saw cut
to break it away and then the separated rock is lowered
onto prepared stone chips cushion - Thereafter it is cut
into smaller sizes and transported by front-end loaders to
the mill for further processing
Quarrying and Producing Building Stones
CLASSIFICATION OF STONES
(according to geological origin):
Igneous rock
Sedimentary rock
Metamorphic rocks
Igneous rock is formed as a result of cooling of the
molten rock to solid state - It is nonporous, hard,
strong and durable
Igneous rock also known as
primary, un-stratified or eruptive
rocks
Granite: Consists mainly of
quartz, feldspar, mica, and other
colored minerals; colors include
black, gray, red, pink, brown,
buff, and green
Serpentine: Main ingredient is
serpentine; color ranges from
olive green to greenish black, is
fine grained and dense
Basalt: Color ranges from gray
to black; used mainly for paving
stones and retaining walls
17
Granite
Non-porous, hard, strong, durable
Color Range
Surface Textures
Sources
Primary Uses
18
Polished Surface
Rough Texture
19
Shape
Flat to Round
TYPES OF BUILDING STONES
Serpentine igneous with
mineral serpentine.
Typically olive green to
greenish black but
impurities may color the
rock.
Used only for interiors due to
weathering
Sedimentary rock is formed by the deposition of
sediment by water, wind or glacier, results in
sandstone, limestone and shale
Sedimentary rocks are also known as aqueous or
stratified rocks
Sandstone: Sedimentary rock composed of sand sized grains
made of silica, iron oxide and clay - Colors include gray,
brown, light brown, buff, russet, red, copper, and purple
Limestone: Sedimentary rock composed of calcite and
dolomite - Three types: oolitic, dolomitic and crystalline -
Has high compressive strength - Used for building stones and
for paneling
Shale: Derived from clays and silts; weak along planes and is
in thin laminations - High in limestone and color varies from
black to red, yellow, and blue
TYPES OF BUILDING STONES
Sandstone class of rock
of cemented silica grains
with texture ranging from
very fine to very coarse.
Colors vary from buff,
red and light brown.
Porous where as 30% of
volume composed of pores
TYPES OF BUILDING STONES
Limestone sedimentary
rock like dolomite, no
cleavage lines, low in
absorption, smooth, uniform
in structure & composition.
High compressive & tensile
strength
Used for:
wall & floor surfaces
25
Limestone with Granite
TYPES OF BUILDING STONES
Travertine sedimentary rock,
pleasing texture with small
natural pockets on a cut
surface.
Used for:
interior decorative stone
Metamorphic rocks has undergone a change in
structure, texture, or composition due to the
natural agencies, as heat and pressure,
especially when the rock becomes harder
and more crystalline, as marble and slate
Metamorphic rocks:
Examples of Transformation of Rocks
29
Metamorphic Rock
Marble
Slate
TYPES OF BUILDING STONES
Marble metamorphic rock, a
re crystallized limestone
forming into carrara, parian,
onyx and vermont.
Used for:
flooring
wall & column facing
31
Marble - Exterior Application
TYPES OF BUILDING STONES
Slate Rock
metamorphosis of clays
and shales deposited in
layers. May be separated
into thin, tough sheets
called slates . Colors are
black, green red, grey, or
purple.
Used for:
flooring
window sills
stair treads & facing
33
Slate Flooring
Quartzite: It is a variety of stone composed of
mainly granular quartz cemented by silica, color
varies from brown, buff, tan, ivory, red through gray
Schist: Made of silica with smaller amounts of iron
oxide and magnesium oxide - Color varies from
blue, green, brown, gold, white, gray, and red
Other Metamorphic Rocks Used In
Stone Masonry
35
STONE CONSTRUCTION
Largely used as facing for building material with steel and concrete frames.
Application Categories :
1. Paneling
2. Ashlars
3. Rubblework
4. Trim
Running Bond - a
masonry bond formed
when all units are laid in
stretcher position, with
a half-unit overlap
Paneling thin slabs of stone cut to dimension
and thickness to cover back up walls and
provide finished exterior
Stack Bond - a masonry
bond formed when there
is no overlapping of all
units and all horizontal
& vertical joints are
aligned
Paneling thin slabs of stone cut to dimension
and thickness to cover back up walls and
provide finished exterior
Ashlar Masonry
In this type properly dressed stones are
used.
1. Ashlar fine or course ashlar masonry
2. Random coursed ashlar masonry
3. Rough tooled ashlar masonry
4. Rock or quarry faced ashlar masonry
5. Chamfered ashlar masonry
6. Block in course masonry
7. Ashlar facing
Ashlars work requires the use of cut stone
that includes broken ashlars, regularly /
irregularly coursed.
Coursed Ashlar - Ashlar
masonry laid out in
courses of equal height;
blocks of various sizes
may be combined to
make up the height of
the course
Ashlars work requires the use of cut stone
that includes broken ashlars, regularly /
irregularly coursed.
Random Ashlar - Ashlar
masonry laid without
regular courses but with
an overall effect of
horizontal orientation
Rubble Masonry
In this type undressed or roughly dressed
stones are used
1. Un-coarsed Rubble Masonry
2. Random Rubble Masonry
3. Coursed Rubble Masonry
4. Dry Rubble Masonry
Rubble - consists of rough fragments of broken
stone that have at least one good face for
exposure in a wall.
Rubblework random & no attempt to
produced an orderly course either
horizontal or vertical.. Small spaces are
filled with smaller stones.
Coursed Rubble - Fieldstone
or roughly dressed stone,
with or without mortar,
assembled to give a effect of
courses
Rubblework random & no attempt to
produced an orderly course either
horizontal or vertical.. Small spaces are
filled with smaller stones.
Fieldstone - Stone found on the
ground (i.e., not quarried) that is
a suitable size and shape for use
as drywall or rubble masonry
Dimension stone - is quarried and squared stone
2 or more in length and width and of specified
thickness, used commonly for wall panels,
cornices, copings, lintels and flooring.
Corbel
Cornice
Drip Stone
Throating
Coping
Frieze
Spalls
Trim stones cut for specific purposes like:
Corbel
It is a piece of stone projected outside of a
wall to provide support to a structural
member of the Roof or Floor.
Cornice
Its a large course of stone masonry provided
at the ceiling level of roof, projected outside
of wall.
Drip Stone
A projected stone with toothing at
undersurface. It is provided to through the
rain water off the wall.
DIAGRAM
Throating
The process of cutting groves in
Soffits of sills
Drip stones
Coping
String course etc.
Its purpose is to avoid the entry of rain water.
Coping
It is a special course provided at the top of a wall
to avoid entry of rain water in wall.
Frieze
The stone course provided below the cornice is
called frieze
Rusticated - A term
describing stone masonry
with a recessed cut margin,
so a channel is formed
when the blocks are aligned
Stone Finish
Sand Finish - A stone finish that is granular and
moderately smooth, varying with the
characteristics of the specific stone
Sawn Face - A term describing stone exhibiting
the marks left by the saw used to cut it
Rock Face - A stone finish with emphasized
face-plane shifts and rough corners,
exaggerating the natural look of the stone
Split Face - A stone finish exhibiting the natural
quarry texture resulting from splitting the stone
Flagstone - refers to flat stone slabs used for
flooring and horizontal surfacing.
Cobble stone - A stone used in paving. It may
be rectangular, or naturally rounded
Stone Pavers
Durex Blocks - Roughly cubed, usually granite
blocks used for paving
Lifting Appliances for Stone Masonry
Pin Lewis Chain Dogs
Chain Lewis Three Legged Lewis
60
Stone vs Brick
Similarities:
Both stacked
Mortar J oints
Differences:
Shape:
Brick molded - Stone Cut and Carved
Physical Properties:
Brick made/controlled Stone provided by
nature
Brick
&
Brick Masonry
Dr. P. K. Bhuyan
NIT Rourkela
Definitions
Masonry
It is used for the work of a mason.
Mason is a person who built structures with construction materials.
Masonry Units
It is an artificially prepared regular shape block used in the masonry
works.
Like .
Brick in brick masonry
Stone block in stone masonry
Concrete block in Block masonry
History of Bricks:
Bricks are one of the oldest types of building blocks.
They are an ideal building material because they are relatively
cheap to make, very durable, and require little maintenance.
A brick is a block of ceramic material used in masonry
construction, usually laid using various kinds of mortar.
Bricks dated 10,000 years old were found in the Middle East.
Examples of the civilizations who used mud brick are the
ancient Egyptians and the Indus Valley Civilization, where it
was used exclusively. In particular, it is evident from the ruins
of Buhen, Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa.
The first sun-dried bricks were made in Mesopotamia (what is
now Iraq), in the ancient city of Ur in about 4000 BC
Advantages of bricks :
* Brick will not burn, buckle or melt
* Brick will not rot
* Brick will not rust and corrode
* Brick will not dent (depress).
* Brick will not fade from the Sun's UV Rays.
* Brick will not be damaged by high winds, rain or hail.
Brick will not require constant maintenance.
* Brick will not limit your personal expression.
* Brick will not limit your design options.
General Characteristics of Bricks
Brick is made of clay or shale formed, dried and fired into
a durable ceramic product.
There are three ways to form the shape and size of a brick:
extruded (stiff mud), molded (soft mud) and dry-pressed.
The majority of brick are made by the extrusion method.
Brick achieves its color through the minerals in the fired
clay or through coatings that are applied before or after
the firing process. This provides a durable color that never
fades or diminishes.
Brick shrink during the manufacturing process as
vitrification occurs. Brick will vary in size due to the
manufacturing process.
The method used to form a brick has a major impact on
its texture.
Sand-finished surfaces are typical with molded brick.
A variety of textures can be achieved with extruded brick.
manufacturing facilities near clay sources to reduce
transportation, by recycling of process waste, by
reclaiming land where mining has occurred, and by
taking measures to reduce plant emissions. Most brick
are used within 500 km of a brick manufacturing
facility.
Raw material for clay:
Clay is one of the most abundant natural mineral
materials on earth. For brick manufacturing, clay must
possess some specific properties and characteristics.
Such clays must have plasticity, which permits them to
be shaped or molded when mixed with water; they
must have sufficient wet and air-dried strength to
maintain their shape after forming.
Also, when subjected to appropriate temperatures, the
clay particles must fuse together.
Types of Clay
: Clays occur in three principal forms, all of which have
similar chemical compositions but different physical
characteristics.
Surface Clays. Surface clays may be the upthrusts of older
deposits or of more recent sedimentary formations. As the
name implies, they are found near the surface of the earth.
Shales. Shales are clays that have been subjected to high
pressures until they have nearly hardened into slate.
Fire Clays. Fire clays are usually mined at deeper levels than
other clays and have refractory qualities.
Surface and fire clays have a different physical structure
from shales but are similar in chemical composition.
All three types of clay are composed of silica and alumina
with varying amounts of metallic oxides.
Metallic oxides act as fluxes promoting fusion of the
particles at lower temperatures. Metallic oxides (particularly
those of iron, magnesium and calcium) influence the color
of the fired brick.
The manufacturer minimizes variations in chemical
composition and physical properties by mixing clays from
different sources and different locations in the pit.
Chemical composition varies within the pit, and the
differences are compensated for by varying manufacturing
processes. As a result, brick fromthe same manufacturer will
have slightly different properties in subsequent production
runs. Further, brick from different manufacturers that have
the same appearance may differ in other properties.
Raw Material
Bricks
Manufacture - 4 stages
Material preparation
Manufacturing
drying
Firing
Preparation: material
(clay) washed and grinding
(fineness)
15
Sample of grinding machine
for clay
Sample of crushing machine
Brick
Manufacturing : Clay will
grinded with 15% of water. The
clay will be pushed through the
mould base on the shape. After
that, Clay will cut to get a
standard size of brick using wire.
Sometimes, bricks will produced
using big mould that clay will be
press that using hydraulic
machine or without hydraulic
press.
16
Molded or
Handmade
solid units
pressed into fiberglass, wood
or steel molds
used to be by hand, now
machines
sand or water coated molds
to release bricks
usually rougher surface and
edges
After bricks in form,
identification or
perforation to the bricks.
Drying : Wet unit bricks
will be drying in space or
room with control
temperature to make sure
the bricks in complete dry.
18
Brick was compile
before bring to the
kiln
Firing : Dry bricks, was
compile in kiln to firing
process with 600
o
C
(temperature). This is for
burn the carbon and sulfur
that have remain.After
that, temperature will
increase to 900
o
C to get a
vetrification process.
Normally, vitrification
process occurred around
800
o
C.
Bricks become hard/strong
after vitrification process.
19
Bricks
Bricks manufacturing process
flow
MATERIAL PREPARATION
Manufacturing
Manufacturing
Setting
Firing Process
Packaging
Important Components Of Brick Making
Important Components Of Brick Making 2.
The Raw Materials
This wood sheet is used as the stand for bricks, because when the bricks
are ready they are wet, so we cant touch them and thats why we are using
this wood stand.
MIX THE MATERIALS
They are mixing the materials: chopped stone, cement,white
sand and water.
START THE WORK
First, arrange the wood sheet in the
machine, below the two holes.
Secondly, pull the wood handle and
move it round so you can see the two
holes
Then fill the material on the two
holes, and manage it equally.
Then pull up the handle and
move it around like this.
Afterwards, back to the old
position and push the handle
harder in down way.
Then pull it up... get the
shape!
Take the bricks out of the machine.
Arrange the bricks in a line.
Style of the bricks arrangement when they are wet.
Remove the wood stand and arrange it in
different styles..
Next morning, the water should
be applied to the brick and they
become more harder.
Transport facilities of the
material..
Different kinds of bricks.
PROPERTIES OF BRICKS
The most important properties of brick are
1) durability, 2) color, 3) texture, 4) size variation, 5)
compressive strength and 6) absorption.
Durability:
The durability of brick depends upon achieving incipient
fusion and partial vitrification during firing. Because
compressive strength and absorption values are also related
to the firing temperatures, these properties, together with
saturation coefficient, are currently taken as predictors of
durability in brick specifications. However, because of
differences in raw materials and manufacturing methods, a
single set of values of compressive strength and absorption
will not reliably indicate the degree of firing.
Texture:
Coatings and Glazes : Many brick have smooth or sand-
finished textures produced by the dies or molds used in
forming.
A smooth texture, results from pressure exerted by the
steel die as the clay passes through it in the extrusion
process. Most extruded brick have the die skin removed
and the surface further treated to produce other textures
using devices that cut, scratch, roll, brush. Brick may be
tumbled before or after firing to achieve an antique
appearance.
Color:
The color of fired clay depends upon its chemical composition,
the firing temperatures and the method of firing control.
Of all the oxides commonly found in clays, iron probably has
the greatest effect on color. Regardless of its natural color, clay
containing iron in practically any form will exhibit a shade of
red when exposed to an oxidizing fire because of the formation
of ferrous oxide. When fired in a reducing atmosphere, the
same clay will assume a dark (or black) hue. Creating a
reducing atmosphere in the kiln is known as flashing or
reduction firing.
Given the same raw material and manufacturing method,
darker colors are associated with higher firing temperatures,
lower absorption values and higher compressive strength
values. However, for products made from different raw
materials, there is no direct relationship between strength and
color or absorption and color.
Size Variation
Because clays shrink during both drying and firing,
allowances are made in the forming process to achieve the
desired size of the finished brick. Both drying shrinkage and
firing shrinkage vary for different clays, usually falling within
the following ranges:
Drying shrinkage: 2 to 4 percent
Firing shrinkage: 2.5 to 4 percent
Firing shrinkage increases with higher temperatures, which
produce darker shades. When a wide range of colors is
desired, some variation between the sizes of the dark and
light units is inevitable.
To obtain products of uniform size, manufacturers control
factors contributing to shrinkage. Because of normal
variations in raw materials and temperature variations within
kilns, absolute uniformity is impossible. Consequently,
specifications for brick allow size variations.
Compressive Strength and Absorption
Both compressive strength and absorption are affected
by properties of the clay, method of manufacture and
degree of firing.
For a given clay and method of manufacture, higher
compressive strength values and lower absorption
values are associated with higher firing temperatures.
Although absorption and compressive strength can be
controlled by manufacturing and firing methods, these
properties depend largely upon the properties of the
raw materials.
Tests on bricks:
Clay Masonry Units -ASTM C 67, Standard Test Methods
for Sampling and Testing Brick and Structural Clay Tile
Procedures for the sampling and testing of brick and
structural clay tile.
Tests include modulus of rupture, compressive strength,
absorption, saturation coefficient, effect of freezing and
thawing, efflorescence, initial rate of absorption and
determination of weight, size, length change, and void
area.
Brick
British Specification
Recommends
LENGTH (L)
Minimum Length = 8-5/8
Maximum Length = 8-7/8
WIDTH (W)
Minimum Width = 4-1/8
Maximum Width = 4-1/4
DEPTH (D)
Minimum Depth = 1-15/16
Maximum Depth = 2-15/16
L
W
D
Brick Positions:
Stretcher
Header
Soldier
Shiner
Rowlock
Sailor
Definitions
Arrises
The edges formed by the
intersection of plane surfaces of a
brick are called arises.
Frog
The depression provided in the
face of a brick during its
manufacturing is called the frog.
Course
each horizontal layer of bricks
laid in mortar is called course.
Arises
Frog
Courses
Definitions
Quoins
The external corners of a wall
are called Quoins. And the
bricks forming quoins are called
quoin bricks. E.g quoin header or
quoins stretcher.
Perpends
The imaginary verticle lines
which includes verticle joints
called Perpends.
Perpends
Quoin
Header
Quoin
Stretcher
Definitions
Header
Brick laid with its width in elevation is called header. In
a course in which all bricks are header is called heading
or header course.
Stretcher
Brick laid with its length in elevation is called stretcher.
In a course in which all bricks are stretcher is called
stretcher or stretching course.
Definitions
Closure
Closure bricks are prepared by cutting standard
brick across length or in different ways to fulfill the
requirements of bond in straight walls, corners,
junctions or crosses is called closures.
They are of four types
Queen closure
King closure
Bevelled closure
Mitered closure
Brick bats
Brick bats are prepared by cutting standard brick
across width.
They are of four types
Three quarter bat
Half or square bat
Quarter bat
Bevelled bat
Definitions
Facing
The external face of wall is called facing.
Backing
The unexposed or internal face of wall is called backing.
Hearting
The interior portion between facing and backing is
called hearting.
Definitions
Reveals
It is the verticle sides of door or window opening from
outside is called reveals.
Jambs
It is the verticle sides of door or window opening from
inside is called jambs.
Soffit
The under surface of a lintel is called Soffit. Its the
horizontal surface.
Sill
The horizontal surface at the bottom side of a door or
window opening is called sill.
Definitions
Column
The isolated vertical load bearing member whose cross sectional
dimensions are much lesser then its length is called column.
Pillar
The isolated vertical non load bearing member used for ornamental
purpose or as memorial is called pillar.
Pier
The isolated vertical load bearing members used as an intermediate
support of a series of arches is called pier.
Pilaster
The thickened vertical load bearing member strengthening a wall is
called pilaster.
Stanchion
The vertical load bearing member constructed of rolled steel
section is called stanchion.
Definitions
Mortar
The mixture of binding material and fine aggregate
forming a workable paste is called mortar.
Grout or slurry
The thin paste of cement is called grout or slurry. It is
used to fill the joints.
Lintel
A small horizontal member to span up small opening is
called lintel.
Copping
It is provided at the top of a wall to avoid dampness.
Classification of Brick Masonry
According to type of Mortar
Pucca Masonry
Pucca & Kutcha Masonry
According to types of bricks
First class brick Masonry
Second class brick Masonry
Third class brick Masonry
Kutcha Masonry
Mortar Functions
Provides for full bearing
Seals between masonry units
Adheres / bonds masonry units
Aesthetics
20% of wall area
Affects the color and texture of masonry wall
Mortar specified in testing standard ASTM C-270
Mortar Ingredients
Portland Cement
Hydrated Lime
Sand
Water
Admixtures (optional)
Bond in brick masonry
It is the arrangement of bricks in each layer to avoid the continuity of
vertical joints in any two adjacent courses.
NECESSITY OF BOND
Bond in brickwork is provided for the following reasons
To break the continuity of vertical joints in consecutive courses.
To ensure longitudinal and lateral strength of the masonry work.
To distribute the load uniformly over the structural mass.
To ensure the quality of work.
To ensure systematic work
To provide good esthetics
To economize the work.
REQUIRENMENTS OF GOOD BOND IN BRICK WORK
Bricks should be uniform in size.
Mortar thickness should be less than 10mm
Vertical joints in alternate courses should be in a single plumb line.
Header should be exactly in the middle of stretcher in two consecutive
courses.
Brick bats should be avoided.
Types of bonds
Following are the different types of bonds used in
brick masonry work.
BONDS IN MASONRY WALLS
Header bond
Stretcher bond
English bond
Flemish bond
Facing bond
Dutch bond
BONDS IN MASONRY COLUMNS
English bond
Flemish bond
Wall Junctions
The places where the walls of same or different widths meets or crosses
each other are called wall junctions.
TYPES OF WALL JUNCTIONS
Two types
Straight junctions
Squint junctions
Straight junctions
The junctions formed when two walls crossing each other at right
angle.
Corner junctions
Tee junctions
Cross junctions
Squint quoins
The corner formed when two walls are meeting at some angle.
Obtuse quoins
Acute quoins
Masons tools in Bick masonry
Trowel
Brick hammer
Lines and pins
Spirit level and water level
Straight edge
Plumb bob
Mason;s square or guniya
Tape (steel)
General Principles and precautions in
Brick Masonry
English bond should be used if not specified.
Bricks used should be well burnt and should be uniform in
size, shape and colour.
For facing work selected bricks should be used.
Curing of bricks should be done for at least 2 hours.
Bricks should be laid with frogs pointing upward or as
specified by the Engineer In charge.
Mortar used in brick masonry should be of good quality.
In walls greater than 9 or 0.225 m width hearting joints
should be filled properly.
Brick bats are avoided.
Reinforced brick Masonry
The brick masonry done by embedding reinforcement
in rich cement mortar is called Reinforced brick
masonry.
Reinforcement used may be in the form of
Steel bars
Hoop iron
Wire mesh or XPM (expanded metal with specified
LWM and SWM)
Constructions of Brick Masonry
It is the art of laying bricks in a proper bond with
specified mortar to form a structure.
It involves the following activities
Selection of bricks
Stacking of bricks
Soaking of bricks
Preparation of mortar (ASTM Specifications C 270, "Mortar for Unit
Masonry)
Laying of bricks
Defects and Maintenance of Brick
Masonry
DEFECTS
Due to Substandard materials
Due to corrosion of metals
Due to effect of sulphates
Due to frost action
Due to efflorescence
MAINTENANCE
Cleaning brick masonry
Removing efflorescence
Re-conditioning the brick masonry
Repainting the brick masonry
More Bonds
1. Header bond
2. Stretcher bond
3. English bond
4. Flemish bond
5. Raking bond
6. English Cross bond
7. Hoop Iron Bond
8. Facing bond
9. Dutch bond
10. Monk bond
11. Brick on edge bond
12. Silverlocks bond
3/4
3/4
Header Bond
First course or Odd courses
Second course or Even courses
Course: Continuous layer
Wythe: Continuous vertical section
Basic Brickwork Terminology
Bed
Joint
Head
Joint
Course - horizontal layer of brick
Basic Brickwork Terminology
Header - Bonds two wythes together
Wythe: vertical layer 1 unit thick
Soldier - Laid on its end, face parallel
Rowlock -
laid on face,
end visible
Stretcher - long dimension horizontal
& face parallel to the wall
Corbel Shelf or ledge formed by projecting successive courses
of masonry out from the face of a wall
Quions Stone blocks used to form strong corners.
English Bond
2 courses of English bond
Flemish Bond
Flemish Bond
Lintel and load distribution
Brick Pilaster
Corner Junctions (English Bond & Flemish Bond)
Tee Junctions (English Bond & Flemish Bond)
Cross Junction & Squint Junctions
Squint Quoins (English Bond)*
Brick Work
Brick
arrangement in
brick work
90
Brick work
Brick
arrangement in
brick work
91
Brick Work
Brick
arrangement in
brick work
92
Brick Work
Brick
arrangement in
brick work
93
Brick Work
Brick laying
Material that was used in
mortar (mix of cement or
lime with sand or both
Ratio; binder : sand = 1:3
Thickness or mortar
normally in range 6.5mm-
9mm
94
Brick Work
Plastering
These have been done after brick lying finishing. The
purpose is to get a smooth surface and uniformity in color.
The wall should scratch to get a rough surface that will
easy when plastering work
Materials that was used : lime, cement Portland, gypsum
Plastering work should be in two layers, which one base
layer and finishing layer.
Base layer ; cement :Lime : sand = 1:2:8-9 @ 1:1: 5-6 @
cement : sand = 1:3 @ gysum : sand = 1:1-3 @ gypsum : lime
: sand = 1:3:7-9
Finishing layer; lime : gypsum = 1: 0.25 - 0.5
95
Advantages of brick
96
Decorative of brick work
Walk way
97
Advantages of brick
The
End
102
Considerations in Choosing
Brick
Molding process
Color
Size
Grade
Type
EXTRUDED pushed through a dye & then cut by wire kinda like square toothpaste
hollow core
formed into a column and cut to size with wires
usually smoother surface and finer edges
However, most brick is.
Brick Masonry - Sizes and Shapes
No standard size
Normal coursing - 3 bricks h = 8 (including
mortar joints so it aligns with 8 block (CMU)
Larger sizes mostly for economy
Custom Shapes & Colors ($$$$$)
Sizes:
MODULAR 8
STANDARD 75/8
THREE-INCH
OVERSIZE
ROMAN
NORMAN
SIX-INCH JUMBO
JUMBO
Bitumen
&
Desirable Properties
By
Dr. P. K. Bhuyan
NIT Rourkela
2
Overview
Pavement materials
Soil (sub-grade, embankment)
Aggregates(coarse, fine)
Binders (Bitumen, cement)
3
Bitumen is a petroleum product obtained by the
distillation of petroleum crude
Bitumen is a hydrocarbon material of either natural or
hydrogenous origin, found in gaseous, liquid,
semisolid or solid form
Highway construction: hydrocarbon material which
are cementious in character
Bitumen
4
Bitumen
1. Natural product (lake asphalt, rock asphalt)
2. Fractional distillation of petroleum
a. Asphalt cement (Penetration grade)
b. Oxidised asphalt (softening point grade)
c. Liquid asphalt
3. Tar: destructive distillation of coal
5
Cutback: the viscosity of bitumen reduced by volatile
diluents (kerosene, diesel): slow, medium, rapid curing
Emulsion: bitumen is suspended in finely divided condition
in an aqueous medium (water) and stabilized with an
emulsifier: slow, medium, rapid setting
Liquid Bitumen
6
1. Normal Bitumen
Production
The portion of bituminous material present in petroleum
may widely differ depending on the source
Almost all the crude petroleum's contain considerable
amounts of water along with crude oil
Hence the petroleum should be dehydrated before the
distillation
7
Petroleum distillation Flow Chart
8
Petroleum distillation
9
Types of Distillation Processes
Fractional distillation
In the fractional distillation the various volatile
constituents are separated at successively higher
temperatures without substantial chemical change
The fractions obtained yield gasoline, naphtha,
kerosene and lubricating oil and the residue would be
petroleum bitumen
Destructive distillation
The material undergoes chemical changes under the
application of extreme heat and pressure
10
Steam distillation
1. Steam distillation is employed to produce
steam refined petroleum bitumen without
causing chemical change
2. When the residue is distilled to a definite
consistency without further treatment it is
called as Straight-run Bitumen
Types of Distillation Processes
11
It should be fluid enough at the time of mixing to
coat the aggregate evenly by a thin film
It should have lowtemperature susceptibility
It should show uniformviscosity characteristics
Bitumen should have good amount of volatiles in
it, and it should not lose them excessively when
subjected to higher temperature
Desirable Properties of Bitumen
12
The bitumen should be ductile and not brittle
The bitumen should be capable of being heated to the
temperature at which it can be easily mixed without any
fire hazards
The bitumen should have good affinity to the aggregate
and should not be stripped off in the continued
presence off water
Desirable Properties of Bitumen
13
2. Cutback Bitumen
Bitumen, the viscosity of which has been reduced
by a volatile dilutent
Thus to increase fluidity at lower temperatures
bitumen is blended with a volatile solvent
After the use of cutback, the volatiles get
evaporated and binding property gets developed
For use in some constructions like, surface
dressings, some type of bitumen macadam and
soil-bitumen stabilization, it can be mixed at low
temperatures
14
Continue.
The viscosity of cutback and the rate at
which it hardens on the road depend on the
characteristics and quantity of both bitumen
and volatile oil used as the dilutent
Types: classification based on rate of curing
or hardening after application
1. Rapid Curing (RC)
2. Medium Curing (MC)
3. Slow Curing (SC)
15
Viscosity of Cutbacks
Type and grade of
Cutback
Viscosity in seconds in tar viscometer
4mm orifice
25
o
C
10mm
orifice
25
o
C
10mm
orifice
40
o
C
RC-0, MC-0 & SC-0 25 to 75
RC-1, MC-1 & SC-1 50 to 100
RC-2, MC-2 & SC-2 10 to 20
RC-3, MC-3 & SC-3 25 to 75
RC-4, MC-4 & SC-4 14 to 45
RC-5, MC-5 & SC-5 60 to 100
16
Continue.
Lower grade cutbacks like RC-0, RC-1 etc.
would contain higher proportion of solvent
RC-0 & MC-0: 45% solvent, 55% bitumen
RC-5 & MC-5: 15% solvent, 85% bitumen
17
Continue.
Rapid Curing Cutbacks are bitumens, fluxed or cutback with a
petroleum distillate such as naphtha or gasoline which will
rapidly evaporate after use
Medium Curing Cutbacks are bitumen fluxed to greater fluidity
by blending with an intermediate-boiling-point solvent like
kerosene or light diesel oil
Slow Curing Cutbacks are obtained either by blending bitumen
with high-boiling-point gas oil, or by controlling the rate of flow
and temperature of the crude during the refining
18
3. Bituminous Emulsion
A liquid product in which substantial amount of
bitumen is suspended in a finely divided condition in
an aqueous medium and stabilized by means of one
or more suitable materials.
Two phase system, one liquid being dispersed as fine
globules in the other
Bitumen is broken up into fine globules and kept
suspended in water
Small proportion of an emulsifier is used to facilitate
the formation of dispersion and to keep the globules
of dispersed binder in suspension
19
Continue.
Bitumen content of emulsion ranges from 40 to 60% and
the remaining portion is water
Emulsifiers usually adopted are soaps, surface active
agents and colloidal powders (1.5 to 1%)
Penetration values of bitumen grades that are emulsified
for road construction are generally between 190-320
Manufactured emulsions stored in air tight drums
Used mainly in maintenance and patch works and also in
wet weather conditions
20
Bituminous Emulsion
1. Residue on sieving: not more than 0.25% by wt. of
emulsion consists of particles greater than 0.15mm
diameter
2. Stability of mixing: To test if emulsion breaks down
and coats the coarse aggregates with bitumen too
early before mixing is complete
3. Stability of mixing: To assess the stability of
emulsions when the aggregate contains large
proportions of fines with cement
Continue.
21
Continue.
4. Water Cement: To know the percentage
of water in the emulsion which depends on
the type of the emulsion
5. Sedimentation: Some sedimentation may
occur when a drum of emulsion is left
standing before use
6. Viscosity: Should be Low enough to be sprayed
through jets or to coat aggregates in simple mixing
22
Continue.
Breaking of Emulsion
When applied on road, breaks down and the binder starts
binding the aggregates, though the full binding power develops
slowly as and when the water evaporates.
First sign of breakdown is change in color of film from chocolate
brown to black
Rapid-set grades: Emulsion which break rapidly on coming in
contact with aggregates
Medium-set grades: Which do not break spontaneously on
coming in contact with aggregates but break during mixing or by
fine mineral dust
Slow-set grades: When special emulsifying agents are used to
make emulsion relatively stable
23
Bitumen (Normal)
1. Penetration
2. Ductility
3. Softening point
4. Specific gravity
5. Loss on heating
6. Flash & Fire point
7. Viscosity
8. Solubility
Modified Bitumen (PMB, CRMB etc)
1. Elastic Recovery
2. Separation Difference
3. Tests on TFOT residue
Quality Control Tests
24
Continue.
Cutback Bitumen
1. Viscosity test using specified orifice
2. Penetration test
3. Ductility test
4. Solubility test
5. Flash point test
25
Flexible Pavements
26
BITUMINOUS PAVEMENT
CONSTRUCTION
Bituminous construction are classified
into four categories
Interface Treatments
Thin Bituminous Surfacing
Bituminous Surface Courses
Bituminous Binder Courses
27
INTERFACE TREATMENTS
Prime Coat
Tack Coat
Crack Prevention Courses
28
PURPOSE OF PRIMING
To plug the capillary
voids
To coat and bond
loose materials on
the surface
To harden or
toughen the surface
To promote adhesion
between granular
and the bituminous
layer
29
TACK COAT
Purpose of Tack Coat:
To ensure a bond between the new
construction and the old surface
Use of Cutback:
It should be restricted for sites at
subzero temperatures or for
emergency applications
30
WRONG PRACTICE OF TACK COAT
31
MECHANICAL SPRAYER FOR
TACK COAT
32
INSUFFICIENT TACK COAT
33
CRACKED SURFACE
Map/Alligator Cracking
Transverse Cracking
34
BITUMINOUS SURFACE DRESSING
(BSD)
BSD is provided over an existing bituminous
or granular surface to serve as thin wearing
coat. This may be one coat or two coats.
The main functions of BSD are:
To serve as a thin wearing course of
pavement
To prevent infiltration of surface water
To provide dust free pavement surface
35
FAILURE OF SURFACE
DRESSING
36
MODERN SURFACE DRESSING SPRAYER
37
SEAL COAT
A. Liquid Seal Coat: comprising of a layer of
binder followed by a cover of stone
chipping
B. Premixed Seal Coat: a thin application of fine
aggregates premixed with bituminous
binder
38
BITUMINOUS SURFACE COURSES
39
BITUMINOUS CONCRETE (BC)
BC is a Dense Graded Bituminous
Mix used as Wearing Course for
Heavily Trafficked Roads
40
BC Mix consists of Coarse
Aggregates, Fine Aggregates, Filler
and Binder blended as per Marshall
Mix Design
BITUMINOUS CONCRETE (BC)
41
Quality control operations involved are:
Design of mix in laboratory, and
control of mixing, laying and
rolling temperatures
Density, Marshall Stability, Flow,
Air Voids, Bitumen Content, radiation
of aggregates are controlled
Riding quality is a control
BITUMINOUS CONCRETE (BC)
42
Freshly Laid BC layer
BC Layer after Traffic
Movement
43
SEMI DENSE BITUMINOUS
CONCRETE (SDBC)
Wearing course on roads carrying
moderate traffic, generally less than
10 msa
Lesser binder content when
compared to BC
44
SDBC LAYER
45
COMPACTION OF BITUMINOUS MIXES
Lack of adequate compaction in field leads
to reduce pavement life
Inadequate compaction of hot mix leads to
early oxidation, ravelling, cracking and
disintegration before its life expectancy is
achieved
46
COMPACTION OF MIXES contd
Lack of attention to the air voids
requirement of compacted dense
graded bituminous mixes is the most
common cause of poor pavement
performance
Laboratory compaction produces more
density, hence 95-98% of laboratory
density or 92% of theoretical density is
preferred in the field
47
MASTIC ASPHALT
Mastic Asphalt is a mixture of
Bitumen, Filler and Fine Aggregates
in suitable proportions designed to
yield a void less compact mass
It is heated to 200C
It solidifies into a dense mass on
cooling to normal temperature
No compacting effort required
48
SEGREGATION IN MIX
Segregation due to Single Drop
49
SEGREGATION IN BM MIX
50
PROPER LOADING
51
GOOD PAVEMENT SURFACE
52
DENSE BITUMINOUS MACADAM (DBM)
DBM is Closely Graded
DBM is used as a Binder Course for
pavements subjected to heavy
traffic
Hydrated Lime or Cement shall be
used as filler, if the mix fails to
meet the water sensitivity
requirement
53
Wet Mix Macadam
Laying and compacting clean, crushed, graded aggregate
and granular material, premixed with water, to a dense mass
on prepared sub-grade or existing pavement
Thickness of single compacted Wet Mix Macadam layer shall
not be less than 75 mm
Coarse aggregate shall be crushed stone
If crushed gravel is used, not less than 90% by Wt of gravel
pieces retained on 4.75 mm sieve shall have at least two
fractured faces
If water absorption value of coarse aggregate is greater than
2%, the soundness test shall be carried out as per
IS:2386(Part-5)
TIMBER
AS
A BUILDING MATERIAL
Dr. P. K. Bhuyan
NIT Rourkela
INTRODUCTION
WHY TIMBER AS A BUILDING
MATERIAL?
ENVIRONMENTALY SUPERIOR BUILDING MATERIAL
CLASSIFICATION OF TIMBER
GROWTH OF TREES
DURABILITY
STRENGTH
REFRACTIVENESS
CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO IS 399
- ZONES
- USES
- AVAILABILITY
- COMPARATIVE STRENGTH
CLASS A, CLASS B, CLASS C
Defects in Timber
Defect, in this case, means
anything that effects the structural
integrity or appearance of timber.
Things that attack timber
STAGES IN DEFECTS
DEFECTS IN TREE DURING ITS GROWTH
DEFECTS IN TREE AFTER FELLING
DEFECTS IN TREE DURING SEASONING
DECAY AND DISEASES IN TREE
IS SPECIFICATION
1) PROHIBITED DEFECTS
2) PERMISSIBLE DEFECTS
DEFECTS AND DECAY IN TIMBER
CENTRE HEART/HEART SHAKES
BOW
TWISTED GRAIN
KNOTS
WANE
SLOPE OF GRAIN
FOXINESS
CUPPING
Defects in timber
Timber is a natural material that is
prone to defects.
One of these is the tendency to split
if it is put under stress from rapid
drying or de-lamination of the
growth rings.
These defects are all known as
Shakes
Click your mouse once to continue
Shakes
Click your mouse once to continue
HEART SHAKES
What other defects
occur in timber?
pith
juvenile
heart
sap
Blue stain
Click your mouse once to continue
BOW
TWISTED GRAIN
KNOTS
WANE
SLOPE OF GRAIN
CUPPING DEFECTS
What other defects
occur in timber?
Click your mouse once to continue
Insect attack
What other defects
occur in timber?
Click your mouse once to continue
Shrinkage
Timber Seasoning
SEASONING
Removal of moisture from timber so as to be in equilibrium
with moisture in surrounding atmospheric conditions, where
timber is likely to be used, is called as seasoning.
Timber Seasoning
When timber is first felled it is known as
green timber and has a very high moisture
content approx 50%
Before it can be used it must be dried
If this process is not controlled properly
defects can occur that can ruin good
timber
Aim of seasoning is to dry out the wood to
a suitable moisture content of 22% or less
Reasons for Seasoning
Seasoning is the controlled process of
reducing the moisture content (MC) of the
timber so that it is suitable for the environment
and intended use.
Wood will dry naturally so seasoning helps us
to control the process and keep the timber
more stable and more useful.
Prevents splitting
Prevents a lot of fungal and insect attacks
It is less likely to distort or warp later
After seasoning timber is easier to work with,
because it is lighter, harder and stronger.
Influence of Relative Humidity
Relative Humidity: the amount of moisture (water
vapour) in the air at a given temperature,
compared with the maximum amount of moisture
the air could hold at the same temperature
Wood will continue to shrink or grow
(HYDROSCOPIC) to reach equilibrium moisture
content. This means that it acclimatises to its
surrounding environment. For example if a piece
of timber with a moisture content of 12% is
placed in a room with a moisture content of 20%
the moisture level in the timber will rise until it
reaches 20%.
OBJECTIVES OF SEASONING
Seasoning improves following properties:
Strength
Durability
Working qualities including polishing, painting, and
gluing
Resistance to attack of insects, fungus
Proper seasoning reduces tendency to split, shrink and
warp.
Seasoning reduces weight of timber and is easy to
handle.
Timber becomes fit to receive preservative treatment
PREPARING TIMBER FOR SEASONING
Girdling
Coating with thick layers of moisture proof substance
such as coal tar, bituminous paint,
paraffin wax.
Water seasoning
METHODS OF SEASONING
SEASONING OF TIMBER
Air Seasoning
Kiln seasoning
Other methods of seasoning- Chemical Seasoning
Air Seasoning
Air Seasoning
With this process the timber is roughly sawn to size
and stacked using spacers called stickers, with the
timber stacked in the open air.
Vertical spacing achieved by using timber battens
(25mm) of the same species. The piling sticks
should be spaced close enough to prevent bowing
(600 to 900 mm centres) This allows the free
movement of air.
The stack should be protected from the direct
influence of the elements.
The ends of the beams must be painted to prevent
splitting.
Air Seasoning
Advantages
No expensive equipment needed
Small labour cost once stack is made
Environmentally friendly- uses little energy
Disadvantages
Slow drying rate
Large area of space required for a lot of timber
Only dries the timber to approximately 20% M.C. so
leaving it open to some insect and fungal attacks
while it is only suitable for outdoor joinery
Kiln Seasoning
There are two main types of kiln used in artificial seasoning
Compartmental Kilns
Progressive Kilns.
Both methods rely on the controlled environment to dry out the
timber and require the following factors:
Forced air circulation by using large fans, blowers, etc.
Heat of some form provided by piped steam.
Humidity control provided by steam jets.
The amount and duration of air, heat and humidity again
depends on species, size, quantity, etc. In general, the
atmosphere in the kiln at first will be cool and moist. The
temperature is gradually increased and the humidity reduced
until the required moisture content is achieved.
Compartmental Kilns
This kiln is a single
enclose container or
building, etc.
The timber is stacked
same manner as air
seasoning
Whole stack is
seasoned using a
programme of
settings(temperature
and humidity) until
the whole stack is
reduced to the MC
required.
Progressive Kilns
A progressive kiln has the stack on trolleys that progressively
travel through a sequence of chambers.
Each chamber has varying atmospheres that change the MC of
the timber stack as it travels through.
Advantages of this system- has a continuous flow of seasoned
timber coming off line
Kiln Seasoning
Advantages
Quicker due to higher temperatures, ventilation and
air circulation
Achieve a lower moisture content
Defects associated with drying can be controlled
Allows more precise rates of drying for various timber
species and thickness of boards
Disadvantages
Is expensive
Requires supervision by a skilled operator
Uses a lot of energy
Finding the MC
A moisture meter is most commonly used to
establish the MC of a particular batch of timber.
These meters are usually attached to two probes
which send an electrical signal through the
wood. Water is a conductor of electricity and
therefore the more water present the higher
the conductivity and this can be read from the
display.
Another method of establishing the MC is to remove random samples
from the stack. Each of the samples are placed on a micro scales and
their weight recorded. The samples are then placed in an oven or
microwave until the moisture has evaporated. The samples are then
weighted again and their dry weight recorded. The %MC is obtained by
the formulae Wet weight dry weight X 100 = %MC
dry weight
Finding the MC
Find the percentage moisture content of the following
sample of wood given the following information;
Wet weight = 224g
Dry weight = 200g
Wet weight dry weight X 100 = %MC
dry weight
224 200 X 100 = %MC
200
24 X 100 = %MC
200
0.12 X 100 = %MC
MC = 12%
Moisture Content
Seasoning and Shrinkage
Seasoning will cause dramatic
changes such as increase in
strength but also distortion and
shrinkage.
The greatest amount of
shrinkage takes place
tangentially along the grain with
little loss over the radial direction and along the length of the board.
Because of these varying shrinkage rates, tangential boards tend to
cup because of the geometry of the annual rings. Some rings are
much longer than the others close to the heart.
Therefore there will be more shrinkage
at these parts than the others.
Seasoning Defects: Shakes
Shakes are separation of the fibres along the grain
developed in the standing tree, in felling or in seasoning.
They are caused by the development of high internal
stresses probably caused by the maturity of the tree.
The shake is the result of stress relief and in the first place
results in a single longitudinal crack from the heart and
through the diameter of the tree.
As the stress increases a second relief crack takes form
and is shown as a double heart shake.
Further cracks are known as star shakes and show the
familiar pattern shown.
USES OF TIMBER AS A BUILDING MATERIAL
BEAMS
TRUSSES
RAFTERS
JOISTS IN FLOORS
DOORS FRAME AND SHUTTERS
WINDOWS FRAME AND SHUTTERS
STAIR CASES
POLES
PILES
COLUMNS
WOOD PRODUCTS OF TIMBER
Veneers
Plywood
Particle board
Fiber boards
Batten boards : Block boards and laminated boards
BAMBOO AND CANE AS AN
ALTERNATIVE SOURCE OFTIMBER
BAMBOO AS PLYWOOD
BAMBOO AS VEENERS
BAMBOO AS PARTICLE BOARDS
BAMBOO AS BATTENS BOARDS
BAMBOO AS POST etc.
BAMBOO AN ENDOGENOUS
TREE
BAMBOO A BUILDING MATERIAL
BAMBOO AS FLOORING
MATERIAL
TIMBER STRUCTURES
TIMBER FLOOR, CEILING,WALL
AND FURNITURES.
TIMBER AS A STRUCTURAL
MEMBER
CONCLUSION
FOREST UTILIZATION
THE GENERATION OF BY PRODUCTS
DISPOSAL OF WASTE
RESOURCE DEPLETION
GLOBAL WARMING
SYNTHESIS OF COMPOUNDS RESPONSIBLE
FOR ACID RAIN
FERROUS METAL
AND
NON-FERROUS METAL
Dr. P. K. Bhuyan
NIT Rourkela
A metal containing iron as a primary material
FERROUS METAL
- Iron
- Cast Iron
- Steel
- Stainless Steel
- Wrought Iron
A metal containing little or no iron
NON-FERROUS METAL
- Aluminum
- Bronze
- Brass
- Copper
- Lead
Iron is a metal extracted mainly from the iron
ore hematite. It oxidizes readily in air and water
to form Fe2O3 and is rarely found as a free
element.
Iron is believed to be the sixth most abundant
element in the universe
IRON
SMELTING TECHNIQUE
Pig iron is the intermediate product of smelting
iron ore with coke and resin
Cast into pigs in preparation for conversion into
cast iron, wrought iron or steel
Pig iron has a very high carbon content,
typically 3.5 - 4.5%, which makes it very brittle
and not useful directly as a material except for
limited applications
FERROUS METALS
CAST IRON
A hard, brittle, nonmalleable iron-based alloy
containing 2%-4.5% carbon and 0.5%-3%
silicon
FERROUS METALS
CAST IRON
APPLICATION:
- Piping & Fittings
- Ornamental Ironwork
- Hardware
- Base Metal for Porcelain Enameled Plumbing Fixtures
- Floor & Wall Brackets for Railings
- Circular Stairs
- Manhole Cover
- Gratings
FERROUS METALS
WROUGHT IRON
Commercially pure iron, containing only
approximately 0.2% carbon
A fibrous material due to the slag inclusions,
that gives it a "grain" resembling wood, which is
visible when it is etched or bent to the point of
failure
A tough, malleable, readily soft iron that is easily
forged & welded. Fatigue & corrosion resistant
FERROUS METALS
WROUGHT IRON
Literally means worked iron
APPLICATION:
- Piping & Fittings for Plumbing,
Heating & Air-conditioning
- Ornamental Ironwork
FERROUS METALS
GALVANIZED IRON (G.I.)
Iron coated with zinc to prevent rust. The
process is achieved thru hot-dip galvanizing
FERROUS METALS
GALVANIZED IRON
APPLICATION:
- Metal Decking
- Roofing & Accessories
- Ceiling Framing
- Wall Framing
- Piping
FERROUS METALS
STEEL
Alloys of iron and carbon
Carbon content is no more than 2%
Alloy elements is composed of phosphorous,
sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen, manganese, silicon,
aluminum, copper, nickel, etc.
Can be wrought, rolled, cast, and welded, but
not extruded
ALLOY ELEMENTS & ITS PURPOSE/S:
1. Aluminum for surface hardening
2. Chromium for corrosion resistance
3. Copper for resistance to atmospheric corrosion
4. Manganese in small amounts for hardening; in larger
amounts for wear resistance
5. Molybdenum, combined with other alloying metals
such as chromium & nickel, to increase corrosion
resistance and to raise tensile strength without reducing
ductility.
FERROUS METALS
ALLOY ELEMENTS & ITS PURPOSE/S:
6. Nickel to increase tensile strength without reducing
ductility; in high concentrations, to improve corrosion
resistance
7. Silicon to strengthen low alloy steels and improve
oxidation resistance; in larger amounts to provide hard,
brittle castings resistant to corrosive chemicals
8. Sulfur for free machining, especially in mild steels
9. Titanium to prevent intergranular corrosion of
stainless steels
10. Tungsten, vanadium, and cobalt for hardness and
abrasion resistance
FERROUS METALS
Types of Steel:
Carbon Steel
Alloy Steel
- Stainless Steel
- HSLA Steel (high-strength low-alloy)
- Weathering Steel
Unalloyed steel in which the residual element
as carbon, manganese, phosphorus, sulfur and
silicon are controlled.
Any increase in carbon content increase the
strength and hardness but reduces its ductility
and weldability.
Carbon Steel
FERROUS METALS
FERROUS METALS
Carbon Steel
APPLICATION:
- Structural Steel
- Concrete Reinforcement
- Decking and Panels
- Roofing & Accessories
- Windows & Doors
- Hardware
FERROUS METALS
Carbon Steel
APPLICATION:
- Structural Steel
I-beam
W-shape
S-shape
Channels
Angles
Plates
Pipes & Tubing
An alloy steel containing a minimum of 12%
chromium & additional nickel, manganese, and
molybdenum alloy elements
Resistance to heat, oxidation & corrosion
Does not stain, corrode or rust as ordinary steel,
but not stain-proof
Stainless Steel
FERROUS METALS
FERROUS METALS
Stainless Steel
APPLICATION:
- Exterior Wall Finishes
- Interior Wall Finishes
- Railings
- Signage
- Doors & Windows
- Hardware
A group of low-carbon steels containing less
than 2% alloys in a chemical composition
specifically developed for increase strength,
ductility, & resistance to corrosion
Much stronger & tougher than ordinary carbon
steel
HSLA (High-Strength Low-Alloy) Steel
FERROUS METALS
FERROUS METALS
HSLA Steel
APPLICATION:
- Reinforcement for Pre-stressed Concrete
- High-strength Bolts
- Special Structural Steel
- Cables for Elevators
A high-strength, low-alloy steel that forms an
oxide coating when exposed to rain or moisture
in the atmosphere
Best-known under the trademark COR-TEN steel
Weathering Steel
FERROUS METALS
Angel of the North
(20x54m),
Gateshead,
United Kingdom
FERROUS METALS
Weathering Steel
refers to a variety of carbon and alloy steels
that are particularly suited to be made into tools
Distinctively hard, resistance to abrasion and
deformation, and has ability to hold a cutting
edge
Tools Steel
FERROUS METALS
Soft, non magnetic, ductile and malleable silvery white
metal with thermal and electrical conductivity.
Aluminium is the most abundant metal in the Earth's
crust, and the third most abundant element therein,
after oxygen and silicon.
NNON-FERROUS METALS
Aluminum
Used as structural
framing like the high
strength aluminum alloys
and secondary building
elements such as
windows, doors, roofing,
flashing, trim and hard
wares.
Ductile, malleable and bright reddish brown color with
high thermal and electrical conductivity.
Posses a patina weather reactive surface layer of
insoluble green salt which retards corrosion and used to
alloy bronze and brass to increase strength and
corrosion resistance.
Copper
Used as electrical wiring,
piping and roofing material.
Care must be taken in
fastening, attaching or
supported only by selected
brass fittings.
Lead is a soft, malleable poor metal, also considered to
be one of the heavy metals. Lead has a bluish white
color when freshly cut, but tarnishes to a dull grayish
color when it is exposed to air and is a shiny chrome
silver when melted into a liquid. .
Brass
Lead
Brass is any alloy of copper and zinc. It
has a muted yellow color, somewhat
similar to gold.
It is relatively resistant to tarnishing,
and is often used as decoration and for
coins. In antiquity, polished brass was
often used as a mirror.
Lead pipe in
Roman baths
Tungsten carbide, or tungsten semicarbide, is a
chemical compound containing tungsten and carbon,
similar to titanium carbide. Tungsten carbide is often
simply called carbide.
METAL JOINERY
Soldering is a process in which two or more metal
items are joined together by melting and flowing a
filler metal into the joint, the filler metal having a
relatively low melting point. (below 840deg F)
Annealing
In the cases of copper, steel,
and brass this process is
performed by substantially
heating the material (until
glowing) for a while and allowing
it to cool slowly. The metal is
softened and prepared for
further work such as shaping, or
forming.
Brazing is a joining process whereby a filler metal or
alloy is heated to melting temperature above 450C
(842F), or, by the traditional definition that has been
used in the United States, above 800F (425C) and
distributed between two or more close-fitting parts by
capillary action.
Soldering is distinguished from brazing by use of a
lower melting-temperature filler metal; it is
distinguished from welding by the base metals not
being melted during the joining process.
Welding is a fabrication process that joins materials,
usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing coalescence.
This is often done by
melting the workpieces
and adding a filler material
to form a pool of molten
material (the weld puddle)
that cools to become a
strong joint, with pressure
sometimes used in
conjunction with heat, or
by itself, to produce the
weld.
A rivet is a mechanical
fastener. Before it is installed it
consists of a smooth cylindrical
shaft with a head on one end.
The end opposite the head is
called the buck-tail.
Blind rivets (also known as pop
rivets) The rivet assembly is inserted
into a hole drilled through the parts to
be joined and a specially designed
tool used to draw the mandrel into
the rivet.
Alclad is a trademark of Alcoa used as a generic term to
describe corrosion resistant Aluminum sheet formed from
high-purity aluminum surface layers metallurgically
bonded to high strength Aluminum Alloy core material.
These sheets commonly used by the aircraft industry
Sherardising is a method of galvanizing also called vapor
galvanizing. A layer of zinc is applied to the metal target
object by heating the object in an airtight container with
zinc powder. The temperature that the container reaches
does not exceed the melting point of zinc. Another method
of sherardisation is to expose the intended objects to vapor
from molten zinc using a reducing gas to prevent oxidation.
PROTECTING METALS
Geo-synthetics
Dr. P. K. Bhuyan
NIT Rourkela
What is geo-synthetic?
A geo-synthetic has been defined by the American Society
for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Committee on Geo-
synthetics as A pl anar pr oduc t manuf ac t ur ed
f r om pol ymer i c mat er i al used w i t h soi l , r oc k ,
ear t h, or ot her geot ec hni c al engi neer i ng
r el at ed mat er i al as an i nt egr al par t of a man-
made pr oj ec t , st r uc t ur e, or syst em.
WOVENGEOTEXTILE
Uniform and regular interweaving of threads
in two directions.
Regular Visible Construction Pattern.
Function: Soil Separation, Reinforcement,
Load distribution, Filtration, Drainage
Have high tensile strength and relatively low strain.
NON WOVEN GEOTEXTILE
Formed by heat bonding, resin bonding or needle punching.
No visible thread pattern.
Function: Soil separation, stabilization, load distribution, but
not used for reinforcement.
They have high strain and stretch considerably under load.
Geo synthetics are classified as follows:
1. Geotextiles
2. Geogrids
3. Geonets
4. Geomembranes
5. Geosynthetic clay liners
6. Geocells/geo web members
7. Geofoam
8. Geocomposites
Geotextiles
Geotextiles are defined as any permeable textile used with foundation soil, rock,
earth, or any other geotechnical engineering-related material as an integral part of a
human-made project, structure, or system.
CHARACTERISTICS
Porous and allow flow of water through it.
Most used geosynthetics.
They may be either woven or non woven
Available in rolls of 5-6m wide and 50-150m long.
Composed of polymers like polypropylene, high density
polyethylene, polyster.
Function: Separation, Reinforcement, Filtration, Drainage.
GEOGRIDS
They have open grid like configuration i.e. they have
large aperture between individual ribs.
They have Low strain and stretch about 2% under load.
Strength is more that other common geotextiles.
Function: Used exclusively for reinforcement
GEONETS
(Geospacers)
Formed by continuous parallel sets of
polymeric ribs at preset angles to one
another.
Their design function is completely
within the in-plane drainage area where
they are used to convey all types of
liquids.
Though they are used for the drainage
function but they have high tensile
strength.
Generally used along with one or two
geotextile matter one at the top and
other at the bottom to prevent soil
intrusion .
GEOMEMBRANES
Materials are relatively thin
impervious sheets .
Generally made from butyl
rubber.
Geomembrane are used more
often than geotextiles.
GEOSYNTHETIC CLAY LINERS
This is the mixed position of
polymeric materials and
natural soil.
Factory fabricated and
bentonite clay is sandwitched
between 2 geotextile.
Structural integrity is obtained
by needle punching.
Function: Containment, As
Hydraulic barrier.
GEO CELLS/GEO WEB MEMBERS
Similar to geotextiles or geogrids but have depth.
Formed by High Density Polyethylene sheets.
When opened form honey comb like structure and that
contain soil,gravel.
Allow water through it.
USE: In slopes with soft sub-grade
erosion control in channels
GEO FOAM:
Large but extremely light materials with gas filled cells.
Made from expanded poly styrene and extruded poly
styrene by polymeric expansion process.
Function: separation, lightweight fill, compressible
inclusions, thermal insulation,
GEOCOMPOSITES
This is a factory fabricated unit with two or more
geosynthetic components.
This is prepared to extract all the major properties of the
geosynthetics into a single unit with minimum cost.
Along with geosynthetic materials sometimes some non
geosynthetic materials are also used.
The various types of Geocomposites are :-
Geotextile-Geonet Composites
Geotextile Geomembrane Composiets
Geotextile Geogrid Composiets
Geomembrane Geogrid Composite
Geotextile-Polymer Core Composite
Advantages of Geo-synthetics
Cheaper inpoduct cost, transport and installation.
Can be designed (predictability)
Can be installed quicklywith flexibility to construct during short period.
Consistent over a wide range of soils
Space Savings
Material Quality Control - More homogeneous than soil and aggregates.
Better Construction Quality Control at site
Easy Material Deployment
Less Environmentally Sensitive
Improved performance and extended life
Increased safety factor
Compatible with field conditions
Increased service life of flexible pavement section by a factor of 2.5 to 3.0 for weak
subgrades (CBR 2%) and by 2.0 to 3.3 for moderate subgrades (CBR 4.2 to 4.5%)
Increase in allowable load bearing capacity by 40 to 50% for subgrade CBR>3 and
well over 50% for subgrade CBR<3
Functions of Geosynthetics
Geo-synthetics can perform one or several functions to
improve mechanical or hydraulic behaviour of the
structure
The basic functions performed by geo-synthetics are:
Separation
Filtration
Drainage
Reinforcement
Barrier
Functions of Geosynthetics
Separation
Filtration
Functions of Geosynthetics
Reinforcement
Drainage
Functions of Geosynthetics
Barrier
Types Of Geosynthetics Separation Reinforcement Filtration Drainage Barrier
Geotextile YES YES YES YES
Geogrid YES
Geonet YES
Geomembrane YES
GCL YES
Geofoam YES
Geocomposites YES YES YES YES YES
FUNCTION OF GEOSYNTHETIC MATERIALS:
A Comparative Review.
TESTS ON GEOSYNTHETICS:
1. Grab test
2. Seam testing
3. Puncture test
4. CBR push through test
5. Tear test
6. Diaphragm bursting strength test
7. Cone drop test
8. Dry sieve test
9. Gradient test
Application in Civil Engineering
Construction
Shallow foundations
In usual construction practice, one or
more layers of geosynthetic are placed
inside a controlled granular fill
beneath the footings. Such reinforced
foundation soils provide improved
load-bearing capacity and reduced
settlements by distributing the
imposed loads over a wider area of
weak subsoil.
In the conventional construction
techniques without any use of the
reinforcement, a thick granular layer
is needed which may be costly or may
not be possible, especially in the sites
of limited availability of good-quality
granular materials.
Geosynthetic products like
Paralink as shown in Figure (a)
can be very effective for use over
soft foundation soils as well as
over voids and piles (Fig. (b)).
The ideal reinforcing pattern has geosynthetic layers placed
horizontally below the footing, which becomes progressively
steeper farther from the footing (Fig. (a)). It means that the
reinforcement should be placed in the direction of the major
principal strain. However, for practical simplicity,
geosynthetic sheets are often laid horizontally as shown in
Figure (b).
Filters and Drains
Geosynthetics are being increasingly employed either as filters, in
the form of geotextiles, in conjunction with granular materials
and/or pipes (Fig. (a)), or as both filters and drains in the form of
geocomposites (Fig. (b)).
There are several application areas such as pavement edge
drains/underdrains, seepage water transmission systems in pavement
base course layers and railway tracks, abutments and retaining wall
drainage systems, slope drainage, erosion control systems, drains to
accelerate consolidation of soft foundation soils, drainage blanket to
dissipate the excess pore pressure beneath embankments and within
the dams and silt fences/barriers.
Afilter consists of any porous material that has openings small enough to
prevent movement of soil into the drain and that is sufficiently
pervious to offer little resistance to seepage.
Geosynthetic filters are being used successfully to replace conventional
graded granular filters in several drainage applications. In fact, filter
structures can be realized by using granular materials (i.e. crushed
stone) or geotextiles or a combination of these materials (Fig.). The
choice between the graded granular filter or geotextile filter depends
on several factors.
In filter applications, the
design must be
prepared so as to avoid,
throughout the design
life, the following
phenomena causing
decrease of the
permeability of the
geotextile filter in
course of time:
Blocking and binding
Erosion Control
The problem of soil movement due to erosive forces by
moving water and/or wind as well as by seeping water
is called soil erosion.
Gravity is also one of the prime agents of soil erosion,
particularly on steep slopes.
Soil erosion is associated with negative economic and
environmental consequences in many areas such as
agriculture, river and coastal engineering, highway
engineering, slope engineering and some more
sections of civil engineering.
The solutions of soil erosion problems typically involve the
use of basic erosion control techniques such as soil cover
and soil retention. The use of revetments is very common in
civil engineering practice for erosion control (Fig.). A cover
layer (called armour) of a revetment can be permeable or
impermeable. A cover layer substantially reduces the uplift
pressures and provides protection against the external
loads. Stones, concrete and asphalt slabs are most
commonly used as revetment armours.
Three-dimensional erosion control geosynthetic mats and geocells that
are nowadays commercially available with various dimensions can be
used in permanent erosion control systems. Geocells are three-
dimensional honeycomb structures that have a unique cellular
confinement system formed by a series of self-containing cells up to
20 cm deep. They have the ability to physically confine the soil placed
inside the cells (Fig.).
They retain soil, moisture and seed, and thus create situations for the
growth of vegetative mats on slopes where vegetation may be difficult
to establish. At the same time, the cellular confinement system
facilitates slope drainage.
The most common and natural element used for erosion control is vegetation.
Roots of the grasses protect the slope surface from erosion. The application of
vegetation as bank protection is preferred rather than the application of
conventional materials such as riprap, concrete blocks, etc. If necessary,
vegetation and appropriate geosynthetics can be applied in combination (Fig.).
Geotextiles and other perforated geosynthetics and open blocks provide
additional strength to the root mat and can reduce much of the direct
mechanical disturbance to plants and soil.
Geotextiles are also used in toe and bed protection, which
consists of the armouring of the beach or bottom surface in
front of a structure to prevent scouring and undercutting by
water waves and currents (Fig.). The stability of toe is
essential, because its failure will generally lead to failure of
the entire structure.
In many cases, geotextile is used to wrap a fill material (sand,
gravel, asphalt or mortar), creating geobags, geotubes or
geomats, known collectively as geocontainers, which are used
in hydraulic and coastal engineering (Fig. ).
Ponds, Reservoirs, and
Canals
Liquid containment and conveyance facilities, such as
ponds, reservoirs and canals, are required in several
areas including hydraulic, irrigation and environmental
engineering.
Unlined ponds, reservoirs, and canals can lose 2050% of
their water to seepage.
Traditionally, soil, cement, concrete, masonry or other stiff
materials have been used for lining ponds, reservoirs and
canals.
The effectiveness and longevity of such materials are
generally limited due to cracking, settlement and
erosion.
Flexible geosynthetic lining materials, such as
geomembranes, have been gaining popularity as
the most cost-effective lining solution alone or in
combination with conventional lining material for
a number of applications, including irrigation and
potable water.
Earth Dams
Earth dams are water impounding massive
structures and are normally constructed using
locally available soils and rocks. One of the
principal advantages of earth dams is that their
construction is very economical compared to the
construction costs of concrete dams.
Apart from the conventional materials used in the
earth dam, geosynthetics are being employed in
recent times for new dam constructions and for
the rehabilitation of the older dams.
Properly designed and correctly installed
geosynthetics, in an earth dam, contribute to
increase in its safety which corresponds to a
positive environmental impact on dam structures .
The reasons for which geosynthetics are used
extensively in earth dam construction and
rehabilitation are the following:
The use of geosynthetics in earth dams may serve
several functions: water barrier, drainage,
filtration, protection and reinforcement.
The geosynthetics are soft and flexible therefore,
they can endure some elasto-plastic deformations
resulting from the subsidence, expansion,
landslide and seepage of soil.
The geosynthetics (geotextiles and geogrids)
possess certain mechanical strength, which is
favourable as dam-filling materials.
The permeability of geomembranes is much lower
than that of clay or concrete.
The long-term performance of various components of an earth dam
is critical to the performance of the dam as a whole.
If a geotextile is to be used as a filter, careful assessment of the
properties, extensive testing and monitoring are required to
ensure its suitability.
The locations in earth dams where geotextile filters may be used are
in the downstream drain and in the downstream drainage blanket
(see Fig.). If the dam is subjected to rapid drawdown, then
drainage systems using geosynthetics may also be installed on the
upstream side of the core.
In the past, geotextile filters, have been used for the construction or
the rehabilitation of numerous embankment dams in various
parts of the world.
Tunnels
Tunnels are used for various purposes in civil
engineering, including traffic movement and fluid
flow.
Waterproof tunnels are required at some sections of the
highway and railway alignments. A crack-free concrete
lining is needed for a waterproof tunnel.
Geotextiles and geomembranes are commonly used in
modern-day tunnel technology to construct
waterproof tunnels.
Figure below shows the cross-section of a tunnel vault with the
general arrangement of the lining system.
The shotcrete lining placed over the excavated surface provides a
smooth surface for the geosynthetics. In addition the rock surface
is supported by the shotcrete immediately after excavation so that
the radially acting forces can be accepted adhesively. The
geotextile acts as a drainage layer and as protection for a
waterproofing geomembrane. It also acts as a cushion (stress-
relieving layer) to significantly reduce the formation of cracks in
the inner concrete lining by allowing free shrinkage deformation
of the concrete during the setting process.
It should be noted that geomembrane sheet sealing with
a protective geotextiles drainage layer has
predominated over the conventional sealing methods
such as asphalt membranes or bitumen-latex based
products.
The geosynthetic system not only meets the demands of
the rapid tunnelling rates but also the demands for
rough construction treatment.
Stabilization
Slopes can be natural or man-made. Several natural
and man-made factors, which have been
identified as the cause of instability to slopes, are
well known to the civil engineering community.
Many of the problems of the stability of natural
slopes are radically different from those of man-
made slopes mainly in terms of
1. The nature of soil materials involved
2. The environmental conditions, location of
groundwater level
3. The stress history
In man-made slopes, there are also essential
differences between cuts and embankments. The
latter are structures which are built with
relatively well-controlled materials.
In cuts, however, this possibility does not exist.
Several slope stabilization methods are available to
improve the stability of unstable slopes. The slope
stabilization methods generally reduce driving forces,
increase resisting forces, or both.
In recent years geosynthetic-reinforced slopes provide a
wide array of design advantages as mentioned below:
Reduce land requirement to facilitate a change in grade
Provide additional usable area at toe or crest of slope
Use available on-site soil to balance earthwork quantities
Eliminate import costs of select fill or export costs of unsuitable
fill
Meet steep changes in grade, without the expense of retaining
walls
Eliminate concrete face treatments, when not required for
surficial stability or erosion control
Provide a natural vegetated face treatment for environmentally
sensitive areas
Provide noise abatement for high traffic areas and minimize
vandalism
Offer a design that is easily adjustable for surcharge loadings from
buildings and vehicles.
Steep Slope Construction
Construction of high banks on soft soil
Erosion control of slope
Protection against rock falls
ROB for Road Loading
Applicat ion I n Railway
Use of Synthetic
Geogrids for Erosion
Control of Natural
Existing Slopes
Construction of Embankment
56
Typical Cross Section of Embankment
with Prefabricated Vertical Band Drains
Sand
Blanket
Initial
Embankment
Soft
Clay
Layer
Band
drains
Firm
Soil
Track Bed Design
Reinforced Earth Embankment
Formation Rehabilitation
Ot her Applicat ions I n Railway
USES OF GEO-GRID
GEOSYNTHETICS APPLICATION IN RAILWAY FORMATION
CONCLUSION
The rapid growth in the geosynthetic market the
world over has lent confidence to the civil engineer
in their use. One should not be tempted to imagine
geosynthetics are magical materials to yield
excellent results, without due consideration of the
problem or soil geosynthetic interaction. Such a
blind approach could lead to disaster. The future
appears to be more promising with stronger & more
durable geosynthetics emerging into the market
along with fibrous system to be mixed with soil for
giving more hope as well as challenge to the Civil
engineer in the years to come