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Joann Ysip

Homework : Terms

Braxton Hicks Contractions: during pregnancy, naturally occurring tightening and relaxing of
uterine muscles in preparation for labor and delivery; usually irregular and painless
Cesarean: surgical procedure to deliver a baby through an incision in the abdomen and uterus.
Descent: is the process that the fetal head undergoes as it begins its journey through the pelvis.
It is a continuous process from the time of engagement until birth, and is assessed by the
measurement called station
Dilation: The process of enlargement, stretching or expansion
Engagement: mechanism by which the fetus nestles into the pelvis. It is also called lightening or
Effacement: thinning of the cervix in preparation for delivery
Episiotomy: surgical incision into the perineum and vagina, usually during childbirth
Expulsion: birth of the entire body
Extension: enables the head to emerge when the fetus is in a cephalic position, and it begins
after the head crowns. Extension is complete when the head passes under the symphysis pubis
and occiput and the anterior fontanel, brow, face, and chin pass over the sacrum and coccyx and
are over the perineum.
External Rotation: the shoulders externally rotate after the head emerges and restitution
occurs, so that the shoulders are in the anteroposterior diameter of the pelvis.
Fetal Attitude: the relation of the various parts of the fetal body
Fetal Lie: the relationship of the long axis of the fetus to the long axis of the mother
Fetal Position: the relationship of the part of the fetus that presents in the pelvis to the four
quadrants of the maternal pelvis, identified by initial L (left), R (right), A (anterior), and P
(posterior). The presenting part is also identified by initial O (occiput), M (mentum), and S
(sacrum). If a fetus presents with the occiput directed to the posterior aspect of the mother's
right side, the fetal position is right occiput posterior (ROP).
Fetopelvic Disproportion:pertaining to both the fetus and the pelvis, especially at the time of
Flexion: the process of the fetal heads nodding forward toward the fetal chest
Frequency: the number of occurrences of a periodic process in a unit of time
Hypoxia Internal Rotation: reduction of oxygen supply to a tissue below physiological levels
despite adequate perfusion of the tissue by blood. Internal Rotation the fetus occurs most
commonly from the occipitotransverse position, which is assumed at engagement into the
pelvis, to the occipitoanterior position while continuously descending
Lightening: feeling of decreased abdominal distention caused by the descent of the pregnant
uterus deeper into the pelvis, usually 2-3 weeks before delivery
Meconium: dark green or black fecal substance in the intestines of the fully grown fetus or
newborn, passed as the first one or two stools after birth.
Nitrazine Test Oxytocin: A test strip is used to detect the presence of amniotic fluid in vaginal
Oligohydramnios: deficiency in the amount of amniotic fluid
Paracervical Block: regional anesthesia of the inferior hypogastric plexus and ganglia produced
by injection of the local anesthetic into the lateral fornices of the vagina
Restitution: is the realignment of the fetal head with the body after the head emerges
Surfactant: surface-active agent, such as soap; a mixture of phospholipids (mostly lecithin and
sphingomyelin) in the respiratory passages, used as a test for fetal maturity
Tocotransducer: pressure sensitive device used to monitor the frequency of uterine
Transitional stage: unlike active labor, is the storm before the calm that is the pushing stage. It
is by far the hardest part of birthing, but also the shortest
Uterine Inertia: insufficient, uncoordinated contractions that do not produce efective dilation
for delivery