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Chapter 5: How does training affect

performance?
Exam-style Questions page 113
1 dentify the !y-products of energy production for the lactic acid and aero!ic energy
systems" #3 mar$s%
The lactic acid system produces energy through the anaerobic (without oxygen) breakdown of
glycogen. This process provides a quick supply of ATP for short intense bursts of activity
lasting approximately !" seconds to ! minutes# for example a $""%metre running race. &f the
intensity is maintained then lactic acid is produced as a result of glycogen being used in the
absence of oxygen. This lactic acid results in muscle fatigue.
The aerobic system produces energy through the aerobic (with oxygen) breakdown of
carbohydrates fats and protein. This system can last indefinitely with adequate fuel supplies
and provides energy in sports such as triathlon. The by%products of the aerobic production of
energy are water which can be used to help maintain body temperature and carbon dioxide
which is exhaled.
& 'istinguish the roles that inter(al training can play for aero!ic and anaero!ic
performance" #) mar$s%
Interval training involves the breakdown of the training period into intervals of exercise
followed by intervals of rest or relief. The main components that are altered in interval training
are the time (duration) and the intensity (speed). These can be ad'usted to provide
improvements in both aerobic and anaerobic performance.
Aerobic training provides many physiological benefits to the athlete including increased
stroke volume and cardiac output increased oxygen uptake and lung capacity increased
haemoglobin levels and decreased resting heart rate. &n aerobic training the duration of the
exercise interval needs to be long enough to allow athletes to reach their maximal oxygen
uptake (max ()*) but short enough not to bring on fatigue. The intensity should allow
athletes to reach their max ()* but the rest intervals should be active# for example walking or
'ogging. This helps to remove lactic acid and allows the athlete to exercise for longer.
Aerobic interval training may include exercise of moderate duration (such as !" to +" minutes
in bouts of $ to ," minutes) and high intensity (such as -./0"1 maximum heart rate or very
near the lactate threshold). 2or example a runner might run ,*"" metres then walk for *""
metres then repeat the process four to five times. This will lead to the athlete3s nervous
system becoming better adapted to the movement patterns experienced in competition and
will also allow the athlete to exercise for longer periods of time at high intensity thereby aiding
adaptations in the aerobic metabolic systems in the muscle.
&n anaerobic training the duration of the exercise intervals needs to be short enough to utilise
the two anaerobic energy systems (ATP%P4 and lactic acid) as the ma'or supply of energy.
&ntervals are performed in sets of repetitions (reps) that are designed to overload the
anaerobic energy system. 5aximal effort reps that are ," seconds or less are designed to
improve the ATP%P4 stores in the muscles while slightly longer reps (up to * minutes) aim to
improve the body3s tolerance to lactic acid. There is not enough time to remove all the lactic
acid from the muscles between reps and sets. Therefore the body will develop a tolerance to
higher levels of lactate in the blood over time.
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ATP%P4 system intervals should be of short duration# that is less than ," seconds (,"/."
metres for running). 2or example a sprinter may run five sets of ." metres in ," seconds with
," reps per set with a work to rest ratio of ,<$. That is the sprinter may sprint for ," seconds
and walk back for $" seconds. This will lead to improvements in both the athlete3s speed and
ATP%P4 stores in the muscles.
To improve the lactic acid system anaerobic interval training should involve short%duration
intervals (," seconds to * minutes) with a work to rest ratio of ,<!. The rest component may
involve some gentle work such as walking or slow 'ogging. 2or example a runner may sprint
*"" metres in a time of !" seconds with a relief period of 0" seconds (walk or light 'og back to
the start). The runner would complete four sets with four reps per set. This will lead to
improvements in the body3s tolerance to lactic acid and therefore allow the athlete to continue
working with higher levels of lactate in the blood before fatigue sets in.
3a'escri!e four principles of training" #* mar$s%
Principles of training can be applied to all types of training to improve performance. 2our
principles of training are progressive overload specificity reversibility and variety.
The principle of progressive overload involves training or working harder than the body is
accustomed to in order to bring about improvement. 2or example when lifting weights an
athlete needs to increase the load (such as ,"" kilograms up to ,," kilograms) or increase
the reps (such as four reps up to eight reps) to keep improving otherwise the training effect
will decrease.
The principle of specificity implies that the type of exercise performed must be specific to the
task energy systems muscle group and components of fitness required for the athlete to be
successful in his or her chosen sport. 2or example a ,""%metre sprinter needs to specifically
focus on developing his or her ATP%P4 energy system and leg power to improve performance
rather than concentrating on developing endurance.
The reversibility principle implies that if a person stops or reduces his or her training then the
person3s fitness and hence performance will decline. 2or example if a marathon runner
ceased training for two weeks due to illness the runner3s aerobic fitness will be reduced.
2inally the principle of variety is important to apply as it helps to makes training more
interesting and fun while reducing the risk of boredom or lack of motivation. An example of
adding variety to a training session is playing touch football as a warm%up activity at netball
training.
3!+nalyse how these can !e applied to a program designed to de(elop muscular
hypertrophy" #) mar$s%
5uscular hypertrophy is the term used to describe the enlargement of muscle fibres
experienced by an athlete following training. 5uscles will undergo adaptations following
training and increase in diameter due to the increased level of storage of ATP within the cells.
Also the number of muscle fibres within a muscle will increase.
5uscular hypertrophy results from resistance (strength) training programs which are
designed to develop strength power and lean body mass. These programs use medium to
heavy resistance loads and a limited number of reps to increase the overall level of strength
of muscles.
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The principle of overload can to be applied to these resistance training programs in a number
of ways. The number of repetitions can be increased. 2or example the number of times a
weight is lifted in a set may increase from five to eight times. &ncreasing the number of sets
can also lead to overload. 2or example the number of sets of exercises done may increase
from three to five. Another way overload can be applied is through lifting heavier weights# that
is increasing the load from ." to .. kilograms.
7y overloading the muscles through increasing the weight being lifted or the number of times
it is lifted the body will adapt to the increased stress placed upon it. The muscles will increase
the stores of energy within them so they can cope with the increased demands placed upon
them or produce new muscle fibres to increase the total strength of the muscle. These
improvements lead to improved performance within a chosen sport as muscles become
stronger and more powerful following training. They will also be able to resist in'ury as the
tendons and other connective tissues are strengthened meaning that less training and playing
time will be lost in a season.
6pecificity is another important principle to be applied to training programs that are designed
to increase muscular hypertrophy. This principle makes sure that the training targets the
specific muscle groups required for an activity. 2or example a sprinter will target the prime
moving muscles of the legs such as the quads and hamstrings. The way the exercise is
undertaken also needs to be specific to the activity being trained for. 2or example a prop in
rugby needs absolute strength and will undertake slow to medium contractions while a 'avelin
thrower needs to be able to move muscles quickly and therefore needs to undertake rapid
contractions when training.
=hen specificity is applied to training programs there will be improvements that will benefit
the performance of an athlete. >apid contractions will lead to increased fast%twitch muscle
production increasing the speed and strength of future contractions and improving the
distance a 'avelin can be thrown. 7y lifting heavier weights a prop will be able to exert more
force in a scrum and push an opponent off the ball.
>eversibility is a principle of training that needs to be avoided if muscular hypertrophy is to be
achieved. &f resistance training is stopped for a period of time muscles will undergo muscular
atrophy# that is they will get smaller. The levels of storage within the cells will fall and this will
reduce the overall si?e of the muscle and reduce the resistance to in'ury and fatigue. This
reversing of muscle si?e and strength will lead to lower performance following cessation or
reduction of training.
The final principle variety needs to be applied to try to avoid boredom and maintain
motivation. 7y undertaking similar exercises in different ways the individual will retain
enthusiasm for training and avoid the possibility of reversibility and muscular atrophy. (ariety
can be achieved through undertaking different overload techniques such as blit?ing and
pyramid training during each training session. 7y maintaining motivation the athlete is more
likely to train regularly and effectively and this will lead to increased muscular hypertrophy and
improved performance.
*a,utline the adaptations that can occur as a result of aero!ic training" #* mar$s%
A number of adaptations can occur for an athlete as a result of undertaking aerobic training.
Resting heart rate is the number of times a heart beats per minute while the body is at rest. &t
will fall following an exercise program# for example 9* beats per minute (bpm) down to +.
bpm. @eart rate will also be lower during sub%maximal exercise.
Stroke volue is the amount of blood that leaves the left ventricle each time the heart beats.
&t will increase at rest and during exercise# for example 9* millilitres per beat (mABbeat) before
the aerobic training program could increase to 0" mABbeat following the program.
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Cardiac output is the amount of blood leaving the heart each minute. Curing rest or sub%
maximal exercise cardiac output will be unchanged. &t will increase however during maximal
effort# for example ,+.. litres per minute (ABmin) before the training program may increase to
,0 ABmin after the program.
!"ygen uptake is the amount of oxygen absorbed into the bloodstream each minute. &t
increases during maximal exercise. 2or example before training an individual3s maximum
oxygen uptake (max ()*) may be *.. ABmin whereas after training this may increase to !.*
ABmin.
Haeoglobin is the oxygen%carrying component of the blood generally found within red blood
cells. @aemoglobin levels increase following an aerobic training program as a result of the
body producing more red blood cells to deliver oxygen to the working muscles.
#ung capacity reflects to total si?e of the lungs. Training will lead to an increase in the si?e of
the lungs and also increase the number of capillaries that the lungs contain.
*!Explain how these adaptations lead to an impro(ement in performance" #- mar$s%
An athlete who undertakes an aerobic training program will undergo a number of
physiological adaptations that will lead to an improvement in performance.
>esting heart rate is the number of times the heart beats in one minute when at rest. The
heart only beats enough times to supply the required oxygen via the bloodstream to all the
cells of the body. After undergoing aerobic training the athlete3s heart will strengthen and not
need to beat as many times to supply oxygen to the body# therefore the >@> will be lower.
&mproved performance will occur as there is a greater potential for the heart rate to rise and
therefore the individual will be able to work at a higher level before maximum heart rate is
reached (as it has further to move) compared with an untrained athlete.
6troke volume is the single biggest factor in improving performance in aerobic activities. As
the heart becomes stronger it allows more blood to be moved per beat. &ncreased blood flow
allows more oxygen to be delivered to working muscles and increases the amount of carbon
dioxide and lactic acid that can be removed from the muscles.
4ardiac output reflects both heart rate and stroke volume. 4ardiac output will remain the
same at rest and during sub%maximum exercise due to the falling heart rate being offset by
increased stroke volume. &mproved performance occurs at maximal levels as the maximum
heart rate will be the same following exercise as it was before but stroke volume will have
increased leading to increased blood flow and oxygen being delivered to working muscles.
)xygen uptake reflects the fitness of the cardiovascular system. The stronger the heart and
the more capillaries located within the muscles and lungs the more oxygen that will be able to
be absorbed into the blood stream and delivered to the working muscles. As oxygen uptake
increases more oxygen can be delivered to working muscles and the athlete will be able to
do more work and therefore improve his or her performance.
@aemoglobin levels will increase following aerobic training programs. @igher levels of
haemoglobin within the blood combined with improved cardiac output results in higher levels
of oxygen%rich blood being delivered to working muscles. This will increase the rate at which
the muscles can work increase their resistance to fatigue and lead to improved performance.
&ncreased lung capacity following a training program leads to an increase in the body3s
capacity to absorb oxygen into the blood stream. &ncreases in the si?e of the lungs and the
number of capillaries within them allows more oxygen to enter the blood stream and
increases the level of work that can be done by an athlete.
PDHPE Application and Inquiry HSC Course &678 09- " ,0 ..++," 0 : )xford ;niversity Press
Australia