Anda di halaman 1dari 60

Cement BondLog

(CBL) Evaluation
Guidebook
QCandInterpretation
HuawenGai
BPEXPLORATION
CBL Evaluation Manual
QC and Interpretation
Whetherto run a cement evaluationlog?
What tool to choose?
When to run the log?
How doesthe CBL tool work?
How dothe conditions affect the log?
How to carry out QC operation?
The systematic way to Interpret the Cfl
Historical mIstakes corrected
Squeeze consIderations
DrHuawen Gai
Drillingand CompletionsBranch
liPResearch Centre
Sunbury-on-Thames
Middlesex TWJ6 7LN
UK
Tel. (+44) (0)932 763495
Fax (+44) (0)932 763352
Acknowledgements
ManyPEsandDEsinBPExplorationhave directlycontributedtothismanual. I particularlywant
to thankDavidLaw, DavidMunro, Lee RichardsonandDaryl KellingrayofDyceAberdeen and
Chris Greaves ofWestport Lab Houston for their most valuable comments and advice.
I want to thankthe following people in Drilling andCompletions Branch whomade significant
technical contributions oreditorial advice inpreparing thismanual: Chris Lockyear, Dan Ryan,
AshleyHibbert, GeorgeBrown(ProductionOperation Branch),JohnMason, JohnBenstedand
Nigel Brown. The help from Robin Lewis, Ian Palmer and Andy Gardner in associated
experiments is most appreciated.
Severalpeople from logging service companies assistedin supplying information. Id like to
thankSigveMauritzen, AVinceSpinelliandPitakWangvarangkoonofSchiumberger, andRuud
Henskens of Atlas Wireline for the valuable discussions.
H Gai
Sunbury, UK
June, 1992
L C e m e n t E v a l u a t i o n M a n u a l -Q C a n d I n t e r p r e t a t i o n 1992
C B L E v a l u a t i o n M a n u a l Q C a n d I n t e r p r e t a t i o n
Contents:
How to Use the Manual andQuick Reference Charts i-viii
~1. Things you should knowabout the tools 3
Whether to run a logand Criteriato choose a toolQCis most important
What the tools can do at their bestDo not interpret logs in isolation
~2. Tool principles andJargon 4
Howthe measurement is made How the tool works downhole Important
features ofthe tool structure What aloglooks like El, 2, E3etc.
Gates Transit Time Stretching Cycle skipping Casingarrivals,
formation amivals, andmud arrivals Fastformationsp-annulus Freepipe
~3 . Information Includedinthe log 8
The logheaderThe bodyof the log The logtail The BP questionnaire
~4 . Parameters affecting the log results 9
p-annulus EccentricityChannelling Casingcoating FastformationsMud
type andconditions Temperature Casing diameter andthickness Casing
damages Casingstandoffandopen holegeometiyDouble casing strings
WOCtime Cementparameters andconditions Computer keyboard operations
0. Operation QC In three phases 17
Before logging During logging After logging
~6. Interpretation 21
Intespretation Chart QCreviewQuick checksExamine the TTcurvesandthe
CBL curves andthe tDL logBPI calculation with example Special Investigation
Chart
~7. Cementing operation 29
Cementing operation the CFS
~8. Squeeze considerations 30
Where didthe cement go Whatkind of channel couldit be Where to squeeze
~9. Logexamples 33
Logheader/tail andscale ~i-annulusEccentricityFastformations
Muddensity TemperatureGreen cement Double casing string
~1O. Data and Charts for Reference 4 1
Toolperformance comparison Tool characteristicsSoundvelocities in muds
formations Casingexpansion underpressureRelationship betweeneccentricity,
amplitude andTTreductionInterval lengths requiredfor isolation Amplitude
compensation charifor various muds 3El readingsfor 100% cementedand0%
cementedpipes
Index 47
[C e m e n t E v a l u a t i o n M a n u a l - Q C a n d I n t e r p r e t a t i o n 1992
Concord..
99/79901
0
U
0)
0)
U
0
C B L E v a l u a t i o n M a n u a l Q C a n d I n t e r p r e t a t i o n
How to use the Manual
WhoIsltwrltten for? For PE5 andDEswithinBPwhomaybe involved inplanning cement
job evaluation,witnessing the logging process, interpreting cement bond logs, or making
squeeze job decisions.
HowtouseIt? Muchefforthasbeen made toensurethat it is easyto use infieldapplications.
Beginner orexpert, you can start whereyou need:
Job planning and witnessing 1, 5 ( s means section)
Log interpretation 4 , 6-8
Undertaking squeeze job 8
Beginner or requiring basics 1-4 andthen 5-6
Themanual is crossreferencedby ~(~*) and supplied withworking examples. Wherever
you start, you shouldfindthe needed information. If you do not get what you want, let us
knowand we will sort it out for you and improvethe manual!
Update yourexpertise: Themanual hassomenew resultsfromrecent research. If you are
already anexpertininterpretation, you areadvisedtoreadthroughat least 6 to updateyour
expertise.
Structure Whats included
~fs~ S Ke y kn o wl e d ge o f t he t o o l s a n d t he i r se l e ct i o n (~1)
Pr i n ci p l e s a n d ja r go n u se d (~2)
5Op e r a t i o n OC i n t hr e e p ha se s: (~5)
B e fo r e t he jo b, d u r i n g t he l o b a n d a ft e r t he jo b
5L o g co n t e n t s a n d fo r m a t (~3)
Op e r a t i o n OC r e v i e w (~6)
~ IS I n t e r p r e t a t I o n i n cl u d i n g squ e e ze co n si d e r a t i o n (~7)
5E xa m p l e s a n d r e fe r e n ce d a t a (~9&10)
C e m e n t qu a l i t y, p r o ba bi l i t y o f zo n a l i so l a t I o n
C o n cl u si o n s ~ S Squ e e ze jo b r e co m m e n d a t i o n
S i n v a l i d l o g
C o m m e n t s/qu e r i e s ...~ S C o m m e n t s o n t he m a n u a l o ~ge n e r a l i n t e r e st
t o DC B RC S ~ He l p o n l o g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n
The hi ghl i ght e d he a d e r a t t he t o p o f e a ch p a ge t e l l s yo u whe r e yo u a r e i n t he m a n u a ~j
[C e m e n t E v a l u a t i o n M a n u a l -Q C a n d I n t e r p r e t a t i o n 1992
The fo l l o wi n g cha r t s a l so a p p e a r i n t he
Thi n gs Yo u Sho u l d Kn o w a n d L o g
I n t e r p r e t a t i o n se ct i o n s. The y a r e co l l e ct e d
he r e fo r e a sy a cce ss o r qu i ck r e fe r e n ce .
Pl e a se r e fe r t o t he a p p r o p r i a t e se ct i o n i f a n y
d e t a i l o f t he cha r t s i s r e qu i r e d .
C B L E v a l u a t i o n M a n u a l - OC a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n Pa ge i i
This Chart tries to help answer three key questions for decision making.
Whether to run a cement ev aluatio n
1. Ai m s o f t he ce m e n t ~ 3. C ernenhng se r v i ce
Zo n a l i so l a t i o n o f Al l a p p r a i sa l we l l s I f e xp e r i e n ce d p e r so n n e l
l i n e r s t r a n sv e r si n g sho u l d be bo n d l o gge d wi t h go o d p e r fo r m a n ce
r e se r v o i r s sho u l d a n d so sho u l d m o st r e co r d s i n a fi e l d a r e
ha v e hi ghe r p r i o r i t y p r o d u ct i o n we l l s u se d , t he n u m be r o f
~?n ~t e ~t e Wr ~a i ~ be l o gge d ca n
In jo b planning phase thesethree
facto rs must be carefully
co nsidered to descide if the
cement jo b sho uld be bo nd lo gged
What to o l to cho o se?
1. Mud weight etc* 2. Achiev e aims o f the lo gging 3. Lo gging serv ice co mpany
Fo r OBM>lOppg & C apability o f t he t o o l s (1.2) e xp e r i e n ce o f p e r so n n e l
WBM>13ppg o nly C BL type Impo rtance o f iso latio n p e r fo r m a n ce o f t he i r t o o l
o f to o l can be used Po ssible cement co nditio ns co sts
*Pl e a se r e fe r t o 10.l a n d
10.2 fo r o t he r co n st r a i n t s
fa ct o r s. 4l 1I ~~~
Altho ugh in mo st cases bo th C BL and C ET types o f to o l can be
I used (~1O.1, the mo st impo rtant is Q C ), av o id the C BL when there
I are:
1) Interv als co ntaining a ~s-annulus (~2.12) which lo gging under
I pressure failed to eliminate(~4.2,~9.3)
2) Interv als where iso latio n is required co ntain fast fo rmatio ns
~ 9.4)
When to r u n t he log?~
To av o id green cement (~4.12, 9.8): do no t start lo gging~)
I within 8hrs after the cement has set I
I 2) To av o id l2-annulus especially fo r C BL: do no t reduce thel
I pressure in central ho le after cementing and befo re lo ggingl
U~L1,~9.2) J
C B L E v a l u a t i o n M a n u a l - Q C a n d I n t e r p r e t a t i o n Pa ge i i
TheFlowChart on theopposite page offersasystematicwaytointerpret a CBL log. The actions
at each step are briefly explained on this page. See 6 and the given references for detail.
che ck:sJo b p l a n n i n g e xe cu t i o n
The 5 d a t a se t s (se e p 22) > M a i n l y i n l o g he a d e r
S The l o ggi n g e n gi n e e r s co m m e n t s
The p r e se n t a t i o n L o g co m p l e t e n e ss
Ta ke 1 o r 2 m i n u t e s t o se e i f t he I T a n d I E .g.:7, 29 l b,ft ca si n g The TI sho u l d be i n
t he C B L a r e i n t he e xp e ct e d r a n ge a n d t he I t he o r d e r o f 270~u s(se e p 22) a n d C B L
- VDL l o g ha s go o d co n t r a st . i sho u l d be fr o m 1 t o 65m V.
The TI cu r v e s a r e bo u n d t o v a r y. Yo u
m u st kn o w why t he y d i d o n t he l o g i n ha n d j
E.g.:the mark ed z o ne is pro bably due to
eccentralisatio n - No fast fo rmatio n was
co nfirmed by o ther lo gs including VDL.
To co n fi r m TOC , I
go o d ce m e n t a n d I
fr e e p i p e i s t o i
p r o v i d e ke y
r e fe r e n ce s fo r t he
B PI
M a i n l y t o
su bst a n t i a t e TI
a n d Am p i i t u d e
i n d i ca t i o n s
C o n ce n t r a t e o n zo n e s o f i n t e r e st . The l o n ge r t he I E l f - E l m
i n t e r v a l o f hi ght B PI v a l u e , t he be t t e r cha n ce o f I SPI E l - E l
zo n a l i so l a t i o n (se e p 26 fo r a n e xa m p l e ). I f c
C B L E v a l u a t i o n M a n u a l - Q C a n d I n t e r p r e t a t i o n Pa ge i v 1 C B L E v a l u a t i o n M a n u a l - OC a n d I n t e r p r e t a t i o n Pa ge v
This Flow Chart provides a common sense approach to Special Investigation. A good
understanding ofwhat can affect the tool perfomiance and how(in 2 and 4 ), is very useful.
i n v o l v e s t he fo l l o wi n g a ct i o n s
Sp e ci a l i n v e st i ga t i o n whi ch m a y ha v e t o be i t e r a t i v e
1. Fi n d i n g i n fo r m a t i o n ~
2. An a l ysi n g a bn o r m a l l o g be ha v i o r 1
3. C a l cu l a t i n g t he p r o ba bi l i t y o f zo n a l i so I a t i ~
Pr o ce e d l * ~ Ye ~ ft hl Np ~ ~.c~ya l i d i o ~
____________ a cco u n t e d fo r ?
* E i t he r go t o t he n e xt a ct i o n o r r e su m e t he m a i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n fl o w cha r t o n p r e v i o u s p a ge
C B L E v a l u a t i o n M a n u a l - Q C a n d I n t e r p r e t a t i o n Pa ge v i
This Chart andthe one on the next page are concernedwith decision ofasqueeze job. They
askthreecrucial questions andoffer common sense answers. Donot decide to squeeze before
answeringthese questions!
1. Where did the cement go ?
Analyse the well and cementing
co nditio ns to gether with the lo g
:
No t cl e a r l y ~ca t e d ?~6.2~ Ye s
C he ckI f a n y fl u i d l o ss C a l cu l a t e t he d i ffe r e n ce
o ccu r e d d u r i n g d r i l l i n g fr o m e xp e ct e d v a l u e
o r ce m e n t i n g(~6) (No t e t he ho fe ga u ge ,
wa sho u t : ca l i p e r l o g).
~ N
1~~(e s
Po ssi bl e ce m e n t Po ssi bl e he a v y The ce m e n t i s l i ke l y Po ssi bl e ba d
l o ss by l a r ge co n t a m i n a t i o n o r ba d t o be st i l l i n t he co n t a m i n a t i o n
qu a n t i t i e s. Su ch sl u r r y l e a d i n g t o a n n u l u s bu t ba d l y a t t he ce m e n t
ca se s a r e gr e e n ce m e n t . bo n d e d t o t he ca si n g t o p o r ba d m u d
u su a l l y e a si l y Re -r u n t he C B L I f a n d m a ybe t o t he r e m o v a l .
I d e n t i fi a bl e . p o ssi bl e . fo r m a t i o n a s we l l . _____________
C B L E v a l u a t i o n M a n u a l - OC a n d I n t e r p r e t a t i o n Pa ge v i i
6 sce n a r i o s o f co m m u n i ca t i o n cha n n e l s
E cce n t r e d ca si n g, m u d cha n n e l o n t he n a r r o w si d e .
He a v i l y co n t a m i n a t e d ce m e n t whi ch m a y o r m a y n o t
be so l i d .
C o n t a m i n a t e d bu t so l i d ce m e n t o n t he wi d e si d e wi t h
m u d cha n n e l o n t he n a r r o w si d e .
C o n t a m i n a t e d bu t so l i d ce m e n t o n t he n a r r o w si d e
wi t h m u d cha n n e l o n t he wi d e si d e .
k asy:
Ga p be t we e n t he se t ce m e n t a n d m u d
t he ca si n g cement
co n t a m i n a t e d
Thi ck m u d ca ke be t we e n t he se t ce m e n t
ce m e n t a n d t he fo r m a t i o n , fo r m a t i o n
We l l co n d i t i o n s a n d ce m e n t i n g o p e r a t i o n v s p o t e n t i a l cha n n e l s
C ha n n e l B a d ca si n g- De v i a t e d Di sp l a ci n g ce m e n t i n g
t yp e ce n t r a l i sa t i o n we l l s co n t a m i n a t i o n o p e r a t i o n p r o bl e m s
I ,
.4,
Se v e r e i i i
_________________ hi gh d e v i a t i o n
Wa sho u t se ct i o n ~o ~e i we i i s
a,
So me delayed co mmunicatio ns o bserv ed In po ro us reserv o irs
are believ ed to be caused by the disintegratio n o f the mud cak e.
This type o f channel Is hardly detectable with to days techno lo gy
Bo nd lo gs pro v ide v ital info rmatio n fo r squeez e
jo b design particularly in the fo llo wing areas:
1. Depths/lengths o f co mmunicating channels fo r po sitio ning
the perfo rating gun and bridge plug o r pack ers.
2. Az imuth o f co mmunicating channels fo r perfo rating sho t
phase arrangement: a 45degree channel can be missed!
3. Identify the v ent fo r the channel filling substances.
C B L E v a l u a t i o n M a n u a l -OC a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n Pa ge v i i i
Things Yo u Sho uld Kno w
Thi s p a r t o f t he M a n u a l p r o v i d e s t he st a r t i n g
p o i n t fo r p r o p e r u se o f t he t o o l a n d
i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t he l o g.
C B L E v a l u a t i o n M a n u a l - C C and I n t e r p r e t a t i o n Pa ge
~1. Things you should know
1.1 Whether to run acement bondlog ornot can result insubstantial expenditureorsavings,
1. Aims ofthe cement I 2. E xi st i n g k no wledge ~1 3. Cementing service and is a decision whichrelies largely on experience, logging objectives (e.g. ifonly TOC
jo b t he fi e l d co m p a n y is requireda temperature l o g run at the right time would be the best) and government
Zo n a l i so l a t i o n o f I Al l a p p r a i sa l we l l s
l i n e r s t r a n sv e r si n g sho u l d be bo n d l o gge d I f e xp e r i e n ce d p e r so n n e l l e gi sl a t i o n C r i t e r i a t o cho o se a p a r t i cu l a r t o o l ca n be d i ct a t e d by t he we l l co n d i t i o n s and wi t h go o d p e r fo r m a n ce ce m e n t i n g o p e r a t i o n s (~10. 1, 10.2), bu t a r e u su a l l y go v e r n e d by fa ct o r s su cha s e xp e r i e n ce ,
r e se r v o i r s sho u l d I a n d so sho u l d m o st
ha v e hi ghe r p r i o r i t y I p r o d u ct i o n we l l s r e co r d s i n a fi e l d a r e
______________________ u se d , t he n u m be r o f we l l s r e qu i r e d l o ggi n g emphasis and co st . E xp e n si v e t o o l s do not necessarily give the extra
ca si n g be r e d u ce d
t ha n i n t e r m e d i a t e t o be l o gge d ca n p r o ba bl y i n fo r m a t i o n yo u r e a l l y n e e d ! (Thi s M a n u a l co n ce n t r a t e s o n t he C B L o n l y.)
1.2 Q C i s t he m o st i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f ce m e n t bo n d l o ggi n g. Thi s i s be ca u se t he e ffe ct s o f m o st
cement jo b sho uld be bo nd lo gy parameters o nthe lo g are no t quantitativ ely k no wn (~4). The best thing to do is to eliminate planning phase thesethree them as much as is po ssible while lo gging. facto rs must be carefully co nsidered to descide if the 1.3 Ev ery to o l has its limitatio ns ev en under perfect co nditio ns, e.g.:
The C BL t o o l can o n l y give an a v e r a ge m e a su r e m e n t o f t he 360a n n u l u s (~2.3).I t i s
impossible forthe CBLtoindicate t he p o si t i o n o f a cha n n e l .The Va r i a bl e De n si t y L o g (VDL ,
2.4) is a qu a l i t a t i v e l o g and d o e s not indicate howmuch oft he a n n u l u s is bonded (~6.5).
I 1. Mud weight etc* I [~A~hiev e aims o f the lo gjI~ijl3. Lo gging serv ice co mpany I The C E T t o o l a n d t he US! (~io.i)concentrateo n l y o n t he casing/cement interfacei n t he i r
I Fo r OBM>1 Oppg & I . C apability o f the to o ls ( 1.2) 1 e xp e r i e n ce o f p e r so n n e l d a t a m e a su r e m e n t . The cement map i s i n fa ct a n i n t e r fa ce m a p . I f a channel is beyo nd
I o f to o l can be used Po ssible cement co nditio ns I co sts
I *PI ~ser e fe r t o 10.l a n d
1.4 Although cement bondlogging can bequantitative, itis not always accuratebecause ofthe
I WBM>l3ppg o nly C B L t YP~j~~ Impo rtance o f iso latio n 1 p e r fo r m a n ce o ft he i r t o o l I t hi s i n t e r fa ce i t i s n o t d e t e ct a bl e .
I fa ct o r s.
I 10.2 fo r o t he r co n st r a i n t s m a n y fa ct o r s that a ffe ct t he l o g ~4). The r e fo r e a l wa ys r e m e m be r to rev iewthe i l l picture
i n cl u d i n g the way the cement jo b was carried o u t (~4,7, 8). Do n t l e t ca l cu l a t e d r e su l t s
~Altho ugh in mo st cases bo th C BL and C ET types o f to o l canbe o v erride co mmo n sense.
I used (~1O.1,the mo st impo rtant is Q C ), av o id the C BL when there 1
I are:
I 1) Interv als co ntaining a ~.t-annuIus (~2.12) which lo gging under
pressure failed to eliminate(~4.2,~9.3)
I 2) Interv als where iso latio n is required co ntain fast fo rmatio ns
~ (~4 .5, 9 .4 )
(~iE~ To av o id gr e e n cement (~4.12, 9.8): do no t st a r t lo ggin~~
I within 8hr s a ft e r the cement has set
I 2) To av o id ~.u-annulus especially fo r C BL: do no t reduce the
I pressure in central ho le a ft e r cementing and befo re~~n~J
9 .2)
C B L E v a l u a t i o n M a n u a l - C C a n d I n t e r p r e t a t i o n Pa ge 2 ~C B L E v a l u a t i o n M a n u a - C C a n d I n t e r p r e t a t i o n Pa ge 3
Thi n gs yo u sho u l d kn o w
~2. Tool Principles andJargonused
2.1 Rowthe measurement Is made:
The CBL tool has a sonde for measurement and an electronics cartridge
for signal acquisition and transmission. The sonde works on piezo-
electricity a physical propertyofcertain materials such as quartz and
piezo-ceramic ifthe material is deformed, a voltage will be generated
on itssurfaces and conversely, ifavoltageis appliedto thematerial it will
deformaccordingly. Mechanical vibrations orwaves approaching such
a material can therefore be converted into voltages and by measuring
these voltages the mechanical waves can be analysed.
2.2 How the tool works down hole:
The sonde (see Fig.2.1) typically has one transmitterand two receivers
which areina metal mandrel andare3 and 5 fromthetransmitter. When
the transmitter is fired, it will send out a cylindrical compressional wave
train (usually about 20kHz). This wavetrainwill travel through themud
into the casing/cement/formation structures, where different types of
waves such as shear wave wifi be induced by mode conversion
phenomenon. Some ofthe induced waves will travel along the cased
weilbore, and on their waytheywill sendtheir characteristicsbacktothe
mud. Thereceivers inthe mudcan thereforepickup these waves which
carry information about the media.
Theearly part ofthe receivedwaveformis foundtobe indicative ofthe
quality ofthe bond betweenthe casing/cement interface: the better the
bond, the lower the amplitudes. Thelater parts can tell us, for example,
howfast the the soundtravels in the formation (~2. 10, ~4 .5).
The 3 receiver is dedicated to measuring the first peak of the received
waveform, including itsarrival time anditsmaximumvalue, conventionally
called El (~2.5).The arrival time is usedto checkifthe tool is properly
centralisedfor avalidlog (~6.3), andthe El valueis usedfor bondquality
calculations (~6.6).The 5 receiver records the whole waveform to
produce either the VDL orthe signature log (~6.5)or both. This provides
more information tohelp detect the bond (~6.5).
2.3 Important features of tool structure:
Thetransmitterandreceiversaretube-likeandwill respondtomechanical
waves without telling their radial directions. This means that the CBL
measurement is an average ofthe circumferenceand is unable to detect
the azimuthal position ofan uncementedarea inthe annulus, knownas
a channel.
Fig. 2.1 CBL sonde
C B L E v a l u a t i o n M a n u a l - Q C a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n Pa ge 4
To prevent the housing mandrel from short-circuiting the transmitted wave, it is cross-
sectionallyslotted. Consequently the sondeis not rigid andcan bendunder itsownweight. The
tool centralisation should take this into consideration (~4 . 2).
2.4 What alog looks like:
A sampleofa common CBL log is showninFig.2.2. Theleft trackis the Transit Time (Ti) curve
(~2.7). Usually inthis trackthere are alsoa gamma-raylog and a casing collar locator (CCL) log
for depthtie-in. The middle trackis the CBL amplitude curve which is a continuous readingof
El (~2.5). The right trackis the VDL log whichis producedby applying a simple processing to
the waveforms received by the 5 receiver. The processing is essentially thresholding and
stacking: positive peaks are representedby blackline segments and negative peaks white ones;
these line segments are then stackedalong the well depth and the VDL log is created. If the
waveforms are stackedwithout the thresholding treatment, the log created is called signature
log. Note thesecurves maybe namedwithdifferent mnemonicsor indifferent scale, e.g. extra
letters may be used to distinguish curves generated by sliding gate (~2.6)fromthose by fixed
gate.
Fig. 2.2 Log sample
Thelog interpretation is all about making sense ofthecurves in the context ofthe cement job
and the well.
C B L E v a l u a t i o n M a n u a l - Q C a n d I n t e r p r e t a t i o n Pa ge 5
Thi n gs yo u sho u l d kn o w
Jargon:
2.5 El, E2, E3 etc. ( Fig.2.3 )
El means the amplitude and duration ofthe
first peak,conventionally stated in mV.
Similarly E2 is the negative peak following
El, E3 is the next positive peak, and so on.
2.6 FIxedgate, Sliding or Floating gate
(Fig.2.3)
For datareduction, the electronicsstarts measuring El onlywhen it is about to arrive, and stops
measuring whenit has passed. This measuring periodis calleda gate. It is vital that the gate is
openedin the rightposition on thewaveformin orderto see El. Therehave been twoways of
setting the gate: the fixedgate and the slidinggate. Thefixedgate is set by the tool operator to
straddle El. Onceset a fixedgate will open andclose irrespective ofthewaveform. The sliding
gate is triggeredopen by the waveformwhen it has first reached a preset detection level.
Mostofthetimeboth typesofgate will givethe samevalueofEl. However, whentheEl position
is caused tochange by certain conditions (e.g. fast formations, 2.11), a fixed gate couldmiss
it but a sliding gate wouldpick it up. On the otherhand a sliding gate couldbe triggeredopen
by E3 instead ofEl ifthe latter is lower than the detection level. Therefore both typesof gate
are nowcommonlyused together.
2.7 Transit Time(Ti) (Fig.2.3)
TheTi is the time spanbetween when the transmitter is fired and when the waveformat the
receiver hasreacheda preset detectionlevel. The slidinggate is opened at theTI. Note: unless
El amplitude coincides with the detection level, the Ti is not the time when El reaches its
maximumvalue. See also4 .2.
2.8 StretchIng (Fig.2.3)
Stretching means the increase in the T~due to the decrease in El caused by, for example,
increased bond quality. Becausethe Ti is related tothe detection level, a decreased peak wifi
reach the detection level later and thus stretch the Ti.
2.9 Cycle skipping (Fig.2.3)
Whenthe El value for somereason (e.g. very good bondorsevere eccentralisation) becomes
lowerthan the detectionlevel, the first time thewaveformreachesthe detection level couldbe
part ofE3 (or even E5, E7 etc. ifthe early ones all fall below). The TI measurement wifi skip
a cycle (or two cycles, three cyclesand so on). TheTI will be increased by roughly an integer
number ofthe wavelength.
C B L E v a l u a t i o n M a n u a l - Q C a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n Pa ge S
2.10CasIng arrivals, Formation arrivals, Mudarrivals (Fig.2.4 )
Thereceivedwaveformis extremelycomplicated. It is acombination ofwavetrainswhichhave
gone through different media such as casing, formation and mud and consequently carry
information about them. Casing arrivals, formation arrivals and mud arrivals are terms to refer
tothecorresponding portionsofthewaveform. Becausethetailofonetypeofarrivalswill always
be eatenby thehead ofthe next, on a single waveformonecannot clearlysee the joints oftwo
typesofarrivals. However, whentheVDL log is generated, the features ofthese arrivalsusually
standout as shown.
Thefeatures ofcasing arrivalsand mudarrivals on
the VDL are straight stripes starting at relatively
fixedtimes. This is because theacoustic properties
ofthe steel casing andthat ofthe mudcolumn are
usually homogeneous. The sound velocities inthe
formations, however, can vary substantiallyalong
the well, making the formationarrivals wander in
time asshown in wiggly stripes. C asing arriv als Fo rmatio n arriv als Mud arriv als
2.11 Fast formations
Fig. 2,4
Formationsinwhich soundwaves travel typically fasterthan insteel (57
1.is/ft) areconventionally
calledfast formations (~4.5, 10.3). OntheVDL log, fast formationarrivalswill appear before the
casing arrivals and override them(~9 .4 ).
2.12 Micro-annulus
Micro-annulus refers to a minute gapbetween the casing and the cement. Such agap damages
acoustic coupling between thecasing and the cement although usually it doesnot permit fluid
communication. The development of a micro-annulus and at what size it will invalidate the
measurement ofbond quality has not been fully understood(~4 .1).
A micro-annulus can make the CBL log look as if the casing was partially or completely
unsupported. On the VDL log there will be strong casing arrivals as well as strong formation
arrivals(~9 .2).Once a micro-annulus hasoccurred, it is not possible to quantitatively estimate
the bondconditions because the micro-annulus couldmaskcoexistent channels.
2.13 Free pipe
Free pipeis a sectionofpipewhich is not cemented. However, someengineershave been using
thetermtodescribea log whichappears asiftheannulus werenotcemented. Inthiscase it does
not necessarilymean that theannulus is free ofcement orindeed squeezable. See 9 .1 on p 34
for a free pipe example.
C B L E v a l u a t i o n M a n u a l - Q C a n d I n t e r p r e t a t i o n Pa ge 7
Thi n gs yo u sho u l d kn o w
~3 . Information includedinthe log
It is not imperative that logs from different service companies have the same format. But a
complete log should have four parts: the header, the body, the summary or tail and the
questionnaire. See example shown in 9 .1.
3 .1 The log header should include the following:
- GeneralInformatlowlog types, well name, log time and date, rignameand type, location,
log measurement base, log scale andrun number
- Wellgeometrical data. deviation, depths andbit sizes ofholesections, depths and sizes
and weights of casings sections, top and bottomof loggedintervals
- Wellfluids data: type, density
- Cementing data: type, slurrydensities, volumes, additives, retarders, starting andfinishing
pumping times, labthickening and setting times, spacer type and density andvolume, fluid
loss volume
- Wellpressure andtemperature data: pressureapplied afterbumping theplug, pressures
applied at the time of logging, temperature profile
- Logging equipment data. modules number, calibrationstatus
- Tool string sketch: centraliser types and positions
- Logging engineers comments: record the aims of the logging, events which mayhave a
bearing on the log and express views on the quality of the log
3 .2 The body of the log should include the following where applicable:
- A freepipereading sectiow record about two joints ofpipe if available
- The main log: recordthe main interval(s) of interest
- Therepeat sectiow record about 200m
The title ofeach ofthese sections shouldalsoincludethe pressure applied even ifit was zero.
All curve scales and legends should be clearly and correctly indicated. Less conventional
mnemonics should be explained
1 in the title area.
Not Inwide practiceyet If you witness l o gs, you can helpspeedup this process!
3 .3 The log tall
Should include summaries of tool operational status, software input parameters, and tool
calibration before survey (~9 .1).
3.4 The BP questionnaire (Log Quality Control Sheet)
Shouldbecompletedand signedby the logging engineer, and includedas part ofthehardcopy
log.
L C B L E v a l u a t i o n M a n u a l -Q C a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n Pa ge S
~4.Parameters affecting the Log Results
Some key parameters are discussed here. Because most of theireffects are not quantitatively
known, it is important to understand the mechanismby whichthey affect the log, and assess
which parameterwould carrymore weight than others in a given situation.
4.1 MIcro-annulus
How it occurs: Not fully understoodyet but a micro-annulus can becreated either by casing
contractionafterthe cement hasset, orby casing expansionunder highpressuresthat breakthe
cement bond. Casing contraction canbe thermal or mechanical. Casing expansion is usually
causedby high pressure such as occurs during a squeeze job. The micro-annulus can therefore
be classified into 3 types: thermal contraction, mechanical contraction and expansion.
The thermal contraction type is due to the heat released fromcement hydration. The casing
contractsafter thecement hasset andtheheat hasdispersed. This typeofmicro-annulus depends
on thecement sheaththicknessand composition, and thethermal conductivity ofthe formation.
Themechanical contractiontype is caused by reduction in pressure, for example, by changing
casing fluid to a lighter one after the cement has set, orholding the pressure inside the casing
before the cement hasset and release it afterwards.
Theexpansiontype is usually causedby squeeze pressurethat permanentlydamagesthe bond.
When the pressure is released, only the casing resumes its previous size but not the cement.
How it affects the log: When the cement is bonded to the casing, the acoustic energy is
transmitted fromthe casing to the cement easily and is thus heavily attenuated, When a micro-
annulus hasdeveloped, the energy transmissionis severely hinderedand a large proportion is
trappedinthecasing. (A gasfilledmicro-annulus is muchworse than aliquidfilledone in terms
ofenergytransmission). The casing then rings relativelyfreely, producing strong casing arrivals
on the VDL log. The El amplitude will be high, indicating that little bond exists. Particular
problems with micro-annulus are:
1) It is not possible to distinguish a partiallybonded annulus with a channel froma cemented
annulus which can provide isolation but with a micro-annulus.
2) The effect of a micro-annulus can be so bad that the log may look like that the pipe is
completelyunsupported. This must have ledtoa goodproportionofthe failedsqueeze jobs.
C B L E v a l u a t i o n M a n u a l - Q C a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n Pa ge 9
Thi n gs yo u sho u l d kn o w
Becausethe CBLtool measuresthe bondbetweenthecement andthecasing, themicro-annulus
that destroysthis bond is the most severe factor that affects the log results.
How toprevent it: Obviously trynot to create the conditions mentionedabove under which
a micro-annulus may occur. A method practisedby some oil companies toprevent it from
occurring is pump the cement wiper plug with a light fluid and change back to the weighted
mudafter the cement have set. Or even circulating the light fluidto cool the casing while the
cement is setting. Because a micro-annulus does not usually permit communication and only
affect the log, it is more important toeliminate it, ifit has occurred, at the time oflogging. This
canbe donebypressurising the casingusing awireline packofforsometimesusing a heavymud
to increase the hydrostatic pressure (~5.2).
Type ofmlcro-annulus Be preparedto pressure u p to:
Thermal contraction l000psi
Mechanical contraction Reducedpressure (hydrostatic orwellhead) +l000psi
Expansion Maxsqueeze or hydrostatic pressure applied
Limited by~burst pressure ofcasing; Casing pressure test; Liner toptest.
* After the recent cementing. See 4 .2 for pressure determinationduring logging.
4.2 Tool eccentridty
Howit affects the log: When the tool is off the casing centre, the acoustic energy fromthe
transmitter will not reach the casing circumference simultaneously (~2.2).Insteadpart of the
casedweilbore which is closer to the tool forms a shorter path for some ofthe energy to go
through. Consequently this will causereduction in the CBL amplitude as well as in the Yr as
shown in Fig.4 .1.
The Yr has beenused as a log quality
indicator. Traditionally when the U
reduction is less than
4 ~.tsthe log is
accepted with an error of unknown
magnitude. Recent research results tell
us that the amplitude has a unique
relationship withthe amount ofeccen-
tricity but it is a multi-valuefunction of
theYrreduction(~1O.5). Theimportance
ofthese results are two fold:
1) When minor eccentricity(e.g. Ti reduction 4 ~ts)occurs the amplitude reduction caused
by eccentricity canbe compensated for.
r C B L E v a l u a t i o n M a n u a l - Q C and interpretation Pa ge 10
2) The fact that the amplitude reduction is not uniquely determinedby agiven TI reduction
reveals the limitation of the U being used as a qualitycontrol indicator.
How toprevent tool eccentricity: Not only sufficient number ofcentralisers areneeded, but
they must be put in the right positions. The following points should be observed:
1) Type ofcentralise?s: The rigid metal type seems to be the best. The rubber fin type is the
secondand thebowspring type is theworst. Worncentralisers can beweak and ineffective,
but they can be checked by visual inspection.
2) Number of centralisers: In vertical wells use minimumofthree centralisers andin deviated
wellsuseminimumoffive. Alwaysrequest at least twoextra onesfor thejob incaseanyfaults
develop in the mounted ones (~5.l).
3) Where to put them: For vertical wells put centralisers immediately above and below the
transmitter-receiver sectionand on top oftool assembly(CCL or GR). Notethe casing collar
locatoris not anadequate centraliser! Without a centraliser atthe top theCCL and GR section
may act as alever armtopromoteeccentering problem. For deviated wells add acentraliser
to the centre ofeachsection whichdoes not yet have a centraliser. Preferably always add
an extra one at the near receiver which is used for CBL amplitude measurement.
4 .3 ChannellIng
How it occurs: When the combined conditions of cementing operation and down hole
geometries are such that the cement cannot displace all the mudfromthe intended sectionof
theannulus, pocketsofmud mayreside in theannulus and formmud channels(~7,~8). Another
less recognized type of channel is the mud-cake channel due to filtration often occurring
betweenthe cement sheathand the reservoir formation. A channel may not be a problemifit
doesnot communicate. However, you do not knowuntil it does!
Howit affects the log: Ideally we want todetect any channels and like themto affect the log
asmuchas possible so that we can identify them. Unfortunatelyonlythose channelswhichare
immediately next to the casing have a strong bearing on the log. Others are more difficult to
observe. This is because ofthe energy transmission mechanism, as discussedin ~4 .1 and ~2.2.
Whenamudchannel occursnext tothe casing, alarge portionoftheacoustic energyinthecasing
corresponding to the channel will not be transmitted to the formation. As a result more energy
is returnedto the receiver and the El valuebecomes higher (~6.6).For channels awayfromthe
casing, however, this energy transmission mechanismis not presented in El but later in time,
and is usually drownedin the complicated waveform.
C B L E v a l u a t i o n M a n u a l - Q C a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n Pa ge 11
i n i n gs yo u sn o u i a Kn OW
A mud-cake channel can sometimes be identified fromthe VDL log when the cement/casing
interfaceiswell bonded. Becausethemud-cakechannel providesveryweakcoupling, not much
energy couldgo into the formation andthe majority wouldbe absorbedby the mud-cake and
the cement. As a result the VDL wouldshowweak casing arrivalswithlittle formation arrivals.
4 .4 CasIng coating
Some casingshave a layerofcoating such asepoxy. If thislayerofepoxyis thick(e.g. >70 mils),
it canaffect thelog inthesamewayasamicro-annulus. Butpressurewhenlogging will not affect
the CBL.
4.5 Fast formations
What formations are they: They are usually strongly packed hard formations such as
limestone and dolomite (~10.3).The soundvelocity in the formations is affectedby the forces
they are subjected to as well as their microscopic structure. Therefore the velocity may vary
slightly in the same type of formation at different locations.
Howthey affect the log: Whenfast formations arepresent, thesound waveinthe formations
is faster thanthat in the casing. Thelatter, however, isthe bond qualitymessenger. Thereal El
is distorted, oreven drownedintheformation arrivals. What is measuredhas thereforenothing
todo with cement bond quality. Fast formations make it difficult toevaluate the cement job.
Howto detect them. Fast formation arrivalsare easilyseen on the VDL log (~9 .4 ).TheYr will
be shorterandthe CBL amplitudes maybehigh. Remember that Ureduction can alsobecaused
by tool eccentricity. It is usually easyto tell fast formationfromtool eccentricity by examining
the VDL log, but it is difficult to see ifthe log is affectedby the combination of the two. The
formation arrivals on the VDL log can be confirmedby the open hole sonic log (~9 .4 ).
4 .6 Mudtype and conditions
Howthe mudaffects the log: Themud (or other casing fluid) is themediumfor the acoustic
signal togo to the casing/cement/formation structure and come back. It does not distort the
shape ofthe signal but affects the amplitude: anymediumwill attenuate theacoustic energyby
scattering or absorbing. Different mud will have different attenuation rate which affects El
amplitude. The soundvelocity may alsochange with different mud conditions, thus affecting
the U.
C B L E v a l u a t i o n M a n u a l - OC a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n Pa ge 12
Mud parameters that affect the acoustic attenuation and sound velocity are complicated. The
mud density and the sizes ofparticles contained init are two major ones. Thegeneral trendis
that the denser the mud, the less attenuative it is (~1o.7).In other words, in dense mud the
measuredamplitude will behigher thanthat inlightermud underthesameweilbore conditions.
Tiny gas bubbles in the mud can affect the log by increasing the TI and reducing the El
unpredictably.
4 .7 Temperature
Howit affects the log: There are two aspects ofthe temperature effect: firstly on physical
conditions ofthe wellbore such as casing fluiddensity, and secondly on the tool. A good tool
should be insensitive to temperature changes. The response of such a tool to the changes in
weilboreconditions due tothe well temperature profileshouldbe stableand repeatable on the
log. Inmost wells this response is small but in hightemperature orhigh temperature gradient
wells this can be noticeable.
Whentemperature changes, thesensitivityofthetransducers will change, andsowill that ofthe
electronics. Theoutput ofthetool will inevitably includesome error.This error canbe ofsteady
state (when the tool is used to the new temperature) ortransient (whenthe tool is not used to
the new temperature yet), but usually both.
The overall temperature effect cannot be quantified. In HPHTwells it is important to observe
the logging time and the repeatabilityofthe log since the log validitycan be severelyimpaired
under these circumstances.
4 .8 CasIng diameter andCasing thickness
Howdo theyaffecttbe log: In casingsofdifferent OD, theattenuationchange is mainlycaused
by the different length ofthe mudpath: the larger the casing, the lower the CBL amplitude. The
amplitude decayrates alsodependon the typeofmudinthecasing (~l0.7).Themudconditions
and the temperature effect are closelylinked and should be considered together.
Ageneral rulefor commonlyusedcasing size is that amillimetre increase inthe thickness ofthe
casing wouldcauseabout lmVincrease inthe free pipe CBL amplitude. The reasonis that the
thicker the casing the less acoustic energywould be transmitted to the cement, and the energy
trappedinthe casing willbemore difficult todamp.Jointsofdifferent weightsinonecasing string
should be seenfromthe U curves.
C B L E v a l u a t i o n M a n u a l - Q C a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n Pa ge 13
Thi n gs yo u sn o u l a Kn OW
4.9 CasIng damage
Howdoes itoccur: Casing canbewornbydrill-pipe, orsplitby excessivepressure. Perforations
ofcourse blow holes in it. Corrosion cancause seriouspittings in casing.
Howit affects the log: Casing wear or corrosioncancausetool eccentricityproblemand thus
reduce the El amplitude. Perforations can damage cement bond, especially for weak cement
(compressive strength <2000psi), by cracking the cement. Split casing can cause the tool to
becomestuck. Severeirregularity inthe casingwill be reflectedin the log. For example, casing
collars damagethe continuous transmitting ofthe acoustic energyand thiscan be seen from
both the U and the VDL log oflight or less well-bonded cement.
4.10CasIng standoff andGeometry ofthe open hole
Howdo theyaffect the log:When the casing has a 0%standoff (i.e. touching the formation),
therewill be some formationarrivals coming through inthe VDL log regardlessof the cement
conditions inthe annulus. The contact betweenthe formation and the casing may alsodeform
the El, giving incorrect bond indications. This can undoubtedly maskchannels.
The geometry of the open hole would affect the log in two ways (~7).First, if the annulus
thicknessisless than19 mm(0.75), theEl might bedeformedandincrease because ofreflection
fromformation catching the first half of El. (Since this depends also on the cement and the
formation, especially the cement/formation interface conditions, this thickness is only a rough
guide). Secondly, in washout areas especially in deviated hole, mud removal is much more
difficult. Thethermal conditions inwashout sectionsare different fromtherest ofthe cemented
annulus. This may add to the complication ofmicro-annulus generation and its detection.
Small casing standoff can leave very thin cement in part of the annulus and cause the El
deformationproblem. Itis reportedby Dowel Schlumberger that casing standoff from100%to
0% couldcause 30% increase in the El.
4.11 Double ( or concentric) casing strings
How do they affect the log: When the annulus createdby one casing string inside another
(eg. the liner overlap) is cemented, the log usually shows the following features to indicate a
goodjob (~9 .8):
C B L E v a l u a t i o n M a n u a l - Q C a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n Pa ge j
1) The U curves will be increased. In a 7 and 9 5/8 combination for example, the increase
is typically
20M~~
2) The first fewcycles of the waveformshown on the VDL log will be narrower, i.e. gaps
between the first few stripes are smaller than usual. Also, the apparent casing arrivals can
be so strong that formation arrivals are masked.
3) TheCBL amplitudes, which are not useful in such an interval, can be high.
Aroughexplanation for theseisthat the well-bondedconcentriccasinghascausedthefrequency
ofthe first fewcyclesto increase, while highattenuationhas causedEl tobe skipped, resulting
an increase inthe U and measurement ofE3 as amplitude output (~2.9 ).
4 .12 Wait oncement ( WOC) time
Howdoes it affect thelog: Cement slurries take time to set and bond tothe casing. SinceEl
represents thebondqualityofthecement tothecasing, it willchangefromfreepipevalue, before
the slurry thickens, to bondedvalue, when the cement hasset.
WOCtime shouldbetheminimumtime towait before logging. Logs producedat marginal WOC
times canbe very trickybecause the down hole conditions arenot the same as in the lab and
itmay well take a bit longer for thecement to set; Beside, the slurrycanbecontaminatedwhich
may stretch necessaryWOC time (~7).For foamedcement, this is often complicated by the fact
that some foamagents are retarders and are sensitive to contaminations. It is not possible to
tell greenish cement froma channel.
It is very important not to log the well too early: one hour savedmay cost you ten! It is always
good practice tomonitor the timing ofthe logging and the slurryproperties when interpreting
a log (~4 .l3).
4 .13 Cement parameters/conditions (~7)
Whatare they: Theslurrydensity, cement class, additivestypes(retarders oraccelerators) and
weighting agents are all thingsthat should be known.
Howdo they affect the log: For neat cement slurry, the heavier it is, the higher the acoustic
attenuation it will have when bondedto the casing. Other solids such as bentonite and silica
added in the cement may increase the attenuation.
Theacoustic attenuation offoamedcement is lower than that ofthe neat cement, resulting in
higher El values for 100% bonded casing. However, the CBL response to foamedcement has
not been systematically studied and therefore is more difficult to interpret.
C B L E v a l u a i i o n M a n u a l - Q C a n d I n t e r p r e t a t i o n Pa ge 15
Thi n gs yo u sho u l d kn o w
4.14 Computer keyboardoperations
What arethey: Softwareparametersetting for communicationcontrol andlog result formatting
(~3,~9 .1)
Howdotheyaffect thelog: It istheengineerskeyboardoperationsthat makethetoolcorrectly
functionand the data properly recorded. Apparently small errors on the keyboardcanspoil all
the hard work, and should not be underestimated.
Inthe log presentation, small mistakes such as incompleteinformation, wrong legendorscale
for curves, can cause frustration and time loss in the interpretation, or even big mistakes by
inexperienced personnel,
C B L E v a l u a t i o n M a n u a l - OC a n d I n t e r p r e t a t i o n Pa ge 16
0
I .
a
C.)
0
To m e e t wi t h t he l o ggi n g To he l p l o ggi n g e n gi n e e r
e n gi n e e r t o se t cl e a r ca r r y o u t a hi
9h qu a l i t y To a cce p t o r r e je ct t he
o bje ct i v e & t o su p p l y jo b by o bse r v i n g t he l o g (~5.3)
su ffi ci e n t i n fo r m a t i o n co r r e ct p r o ce d u r e (~5.2)
(~5.1) ___________________ ___________________
5.1 Beforelogging (Phase 7): Meet with the logging engineer and discuss:
1) The aims ofthe job (zonal isolation, finding TOC or else?)
2) Well conditions and history including (~3.1):
- Well ambient conditions (deviation, temperature, formationstructure, gas oroil reservoir
intervals, intervals ofinterest, any anomalies)
- Well fluid characteristics (OBM or WBM, weights, gas/solid contents and sizes, fluid
change after cement job?)
- Casing characteristics (sizes, weights, depths)
- Pressure history (BOP test, casing test, formation test, fluid change). Discuss whether
pressure will be needed during logging ifpressure was applied to the well after the
cement has set or pressure was maintained during the cement setting time.
3) Cement job (~4 . 13 cement type, density, special additives, estimate setting time, volume,
pumping time and anyproblemin cementing operation). Make sure logging does not start
within 8hrs after the lab cement setting time (~4 .12,~9 .8).
4 ) Choiceoftools (~1), tool string configuration, centraliser typesnumbers andpositions(~4 .2),
special/back-up equipment needed (such as wireline packoff)
The purpose of this meeting is to set clear objectives for the logging engineer, and supply
sufficient informationfor himorher to plan andpreparefor thejob. Themeeting shouldbeheld
at the earliest possible time. The logging engineer should thenproduce a job plan which can
helpyou take appropriate actions andplan ahead. Thelogging engineers plan shouldinclude:
1) The objective ofthe specific logging and the approach to achieve it.
2) Estimated time for logging operation, including a detailedplan ofwireline rig-up and rig-
down.
3) Indication ofany further informationneeded in orderto carry out the job successfully and
to present the log completely (~3).
C B L E v a l u a t i o n M a n u a l - Q C a n d I n t e r p r e t a t i o n Pa ge 17
~5.Operation QC In three phases
Once a decision is made that a log is to be run, the operation QC should becarried out inthe
three phases as shown in the following chart:
Q C M a t t e r s
5.2 DurIng logging (Phase 2)
On thewell Site we aretohelpthe logging engineer to carryout a highqualityjob by observing
the correct procedures. The logging engineer should have a detailedplan ofwhento do what,
but he or she may well alter it as things change.
Acheck lists
1) If the well waspressurisedorthe well fluidwas changednot asoriginally planned, discuss
with the logging engineer if pressure should be applied during logging to prevent the
possiblemicro-annulus effect (~2. 12, ~4 .1, ~9 .2).Ifwell headpressureis needed, thefollowing
is recommended to determine the pressure required:
- Run a0 psi repeat section
- Identifya potential micro-annulus zone (fom-iation signals behindcasingsignals)
- Stop the logging tool at the micro-annulus depth
- Switch the panel to time drive i.e. the screendisplay as if thetool was moving
- Tightenthe wireline packoff andstart pressure-up (pump mudslowly intothe casing)
- Monitor the amplitude until it nolonger drops
- Stop pressure-up
- Log underthis pressure
2) Thecentralisers arethe requiredtype/size and ingoodcondition. Also check that they are
correctly mounted and secured in the required position (~4 .2).
3) The tool used shouldbe calibrated and the next calibrationdate has not expired.
4 ) The tool string is correctly connected and testedbefore being loweredinto the well. Tool
calibrationbefore and after the logging run.
5) The parameters/constants Set fromthe keyboard are correct ( j3 ).
6) Donot exceed the maximumlogging speed.
7) The scales and markings are correctly set.
8) Monitorthe curvesonthescreen. Discussandrecordanysuspectedproblemwiththelogging
engineerand suggest torepeat abnormal sections. IftheTIdoesnotrepeat andthedifference
in amplitude in the repeat sectionis >10%, it couldbe a centralization problem. Pull out of
hole andchange/add centralisers if necessary.
C B L E v a l u a t i o n M a n u a l -Q C a n d i n t e r p r e t a t l o r Pa ge 18
5.3 After logging (Phase 3): Toaccept the log or otherwise.
Topresent thelog correctlyand ina complete manneris important, not onlyfor producing valic
logsfor immediate use, but alsofor documentation. Thelogs may be referredto afterthe wel
has produced for several years. Missing information can be irretrievable and render the lo~
meaningless.
Acheck list
1) All the signals have been correctly recorded. Authorise rig down.
2) The scales and legends used are correct (~9 . 1).
3) The log header, tail and the questionnaire etc. are fully completed with no incorrec
information.
4 ) Thelogging engineers comments have included and explainedall quality-relatedincidents
the aims ofthe logging and his or her opinion on howwell they were achieved.
5) The log hard copy is delivered on the time agreed. Authorise payment ifthere are no QC
problems, otherwise raise them with the service company.
6) If anyevent occurredduringthelogging whichmay have affected the log, preparea repor
describing that event in detail. Attach a copy ofthe report tothe hard copyofthe log wher
it has arrived.
C B L E v a l u a t I o n M a n u a l - OC a n d I n t e r p r e t a t i o n Pa ge 19
0
a
0,
a.
4,
at
0
-J
~6.CBL Interpretation
Asystematicwayto interpret a CBL log is demonstrated inthe interpretationflowcharts, Goto
the references given ifyou are uncertain at any stage.
You may have to break the main flowchart for special investigationwhich is shownon page
27, and resume afterwards.
INTERPRETATION FLOW C HART
C B L E v a l u a t i o n Manual - Q C and Interpretation Pa ge 20
6.1 QC Re v i e w
If the log is properlydocumented, it shouldcontainmost ofthe informationneeded for correct
interpretation, The majority of the key parts are included in the log header (~3).Check the
following four items. Anything missing or incorrectlyrecordedwill at least cause time loss or
an invalid log.
Item1: Theplanning andexecution oflogging Clear objectives? Effective effort to prevent
micro-annulus and eccentricity? Logging activelywitnessedwitnessing engineers signatures
and relevant reports?
Item2: Thefive data sets are complete and correct (~3. 1):
1) General information
2) Well geometry
3) Well fluids
4 ) Cementing operation
5) Well pressure and temperature
Item3:Thelogging engineerscomments Clear andrelevant inaddressinganyproblems. The
answers to the questionnaire can alsoimply his orher competency.
Item4: Thelogpresentation Header-body-tail-questionnaire, signaturesand date complete?
6.2 Quick check of r a n ge s of the various curves
77Curves: The normal ranges of U curves depend mainly on the casing ID andmud type/
weight (affecting the sound velocity). Temperature and the type of tool (the size of the
transducers) alsohave some effect. A rough guide for calculating this range is
TT(~is)(casingID eg. In mm)/(sound velocity in the mud eg. In m n z.~us 10.3) +
170(Ms)
The last item is the distance ofT-R spacing (3ft) times the soundspeed in steel (57~ts/ft).
CBL Curves: Thenormal ranges ofCBL for unbondedpipesdepend mainlyon the casing sizes
(~1O.8)andmudtype/weight (~10.7). The rangesfor 100%bondedpipesare less reliablebecause
of the difficulty in controlling the test conditions. For foamed cement there have not been
sufficient fielddata orlabresultsfor fully boundedpipesand theinterpretation is therefore more
difficult.
VDL/Signature log: Check whether the time scale/range are correct (in the above equation
replade 170 by 285, which corresponds to Sft), the log has goodcontrast, and thereare anyfast
formations (~9 .4 ).
C B L E v a l u a t i o n M a n u a l -00 a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n Pa ge 21
L o g I n t e r p r e t a t i o n
6.3 ExamInethe fl Curves
Thepurpose ofexaminingthe U curves is toexplainthe curve variation, ifany, and investigate
the log validity.
The ITcurves variation. TheU curves froma properly centralised tool run in uniformly
cemented pipes should ideally be straight lines in the expected region (~6.2).Parameters
affectingtheU curvesincludecentralisation (~4 .2, 9 .3), casingIDsize/weight (ID)changes (e.g.
casing collars)(S4 .8), casing fluids change over different depths (~4 .6, 9 .5), fast formations(~4 .5,
9 .4 ) and temperature (j4 .7, 9 .6). The U curves will also vary to indicate stretching, cycle
skipping (j2.9 ) and well bonded double-casing string (~4 .11,9 .7).
A log validity criterion. Awidely quoted log validity criterion in the literature and various
manuals is that ifthe U curvesvaryfor more than 4 iis,the log is invalid. Becareful. Variation
ofthe U curves ofa real log is rarelywithinthis limit: investigate ifthe causewas eccentricity!
Whenthe tool is not properlycentralised, theU can beshorter thannormal. Unfortunately the
amplitude will also be reduced. The effects ofmost other factors mentioned above on the
amplitude arelikely to be relatively small. Traditionally the log is treated as invalidbecause of
the unknownreduction intheamplitude. This nowhas been better understood(~4 .2, 10.5) and
theamplitude reductiondue toeccentricitycanbecalculated. However, because the uncertainty
ofthe effects ofother factors still exists, it is recommendedthat similar criterionbe used with
the U reduction limit being 5.us (~10.5).
Note the transient temperature effect can make the log invalid (~4 .7,9 .6) and so can fast
formationsandmicro-annulus theamplitudes inthe interval ofinterest arenot quantitatively
reliable.
6.4 ExamInethe CBL Curves
CBL curves: Look for Top of Cement (TOC) if
applicable (e.g. a non-liner job), where the CBL
curvesswing fromthe lowendofthe valuerangeto
the high (~6.2,9 .1). Is the TOC in the expected
region? Check with the annulus size and pumped _____
cement volume. A low TOC measured is often
associatedwith slurryloss anda highone incompletemud removal. Ifthe TOC is not found the
slurry has beencontaminated at least in the top section(~8).
Lookfor good cement sectionwhere the curves are
at thelow endofthe value range. Noteifa leadand
tail slurrysystemwas used, a difference shouldbe
seenin the good cement sections found, where the Leadce m e n t
tail cement shouldgive a lower reading. These will
be useful in qualitatively evaluating the cement job.
If no good cement section is found, the problem Tail cement
could be heavy contamination but refer to the
Special Investigation Chart on page 27.
C B L E v a l a a t i o n Manual - Q C a n d I n t e r p r e t a t i o n Pa ge 22
Look for Free Pipe (uncemented pipe) section if
applicable. Donotbemisledby high readings oftheCBL
curves: check for the micro-annulus (~4 .1)!The CBL
values for free pipe offer references in cement quality
evaluation (~6.6).
6.5 ExamIne the VDliSignature log
TheVDL log: must have goodblack andwhite contrast. It contains muchinformation but now
only a small portion is extracted, and this is done by visual examination. The main uses ofthe
VDL log are: --___________
1) to detect micro-annulus (~9 .2)
2) to detect fast formation (~9 .4 )
3) to confirm free pipe (~9 .1)
4 ) to confirmgoodbondin doublecasing strings(~9 .7)
5) to confirmgoodbondto the casing but bad bondto
theformation(wherethecasing arrivalsareextremely
low with little or no formation arrivals and CBL
amplitude indicates a good bond).
The signature lo& whichis often superimposedon the
VDL log, produces the wave amplitude information
whichis not availableon the VDL. This information can
be useful in confirming changes in bondquality. How-
ever, thesignature log is not aseasy to use as the VDL
indetecting, for example, the formationarrivalsandthat
is why it is often combined with the VDL log.
The indications ofthe U, the amplitude and the VDL logs must be in agreement and their
examinations shouldbeinparallel. Ifthey do not agree, there couldbe atool problemresulting
an invalid log.
L C B L E v a l u a t i o n M a n u a l -00 a n d I n t e r p r e t a t i o n Pa ge 23
6.6 BondPercentage IndexCalculation
BFlDeflnitiow Thepercentageofthe annulus wherethecement is well bondedtothe casing.
Therest ofthe annulus (100% - BPI) is not well bonded, whichmay be contaminated cement,
localised small gaps betweenthe cement and casing, ora channel.
Angle of bonded cement Elf- Elm
BPI (%) - - x 100%
The whole arinulus Elf- Elc
Wherethe Els arefromthe samereceiver (e.g., the 3 receiver), and the subscript mrepresents
thevalue measuredinthe zone ofinterest,f representsfreepipevalue, and cthevaluefor 100%
cemented pipe.
The BPI appliestoanytype ofcement system(neat, foam, etc.). Notewhenaleadand tail slurry
system is used, Elc should be selected separately for the two slurries. When Elfand El c are
available, the corresponding BPI at a given Elmcan be foundfromthe above equation, or as
shown in Fig.6.l below.
FI g.6.1 Ho w to find the BPI gr a p hi ca l l y
On the Elmaxis, mark El~and Elfvalues. Mark the BPI (%) axis by equal intervals from0 to
100. Drawa straight line from(Elc,lOO) to (EljO). Given aElmvalue, the corresponding BPI
can be found as shown.
Toprovidea sealwithhigh confidence, BPI needtobe around9 5%orhigher for certainlengths
(~l0.6).For gaswells thisrule should be applied more stringently.
C B L E v a l u a t I o n M a n u a l -00 e n d I n t e r p r e t a t i o n Pa ge 24
L o g I n t e r p r e t a t i o n
BPI Calculation Example
Belowis a sectionaroundthe shoeofa 7, 29 lb/ft linerjob run atthe GulfofMexico. Assuming
that the log has passed the QC and quickexaminations, let us see howthe BPI is calculated.
Suppose thecementing operation andother well conditions allowustobelieve that at least asectionof
perfectcementjob can be achieved, we canthenselect thelowest reading, 5mV, as 100%bondedvalue
Elc. Thefreepipe value Elfis nonexistent(hopefully!) inalinerjob, we thereforelookitupfrom10.8
anduse 62mV (or we can use an available value froma log with close conditions as the job in hand).
Between pointsAandB theaveragereadingof7mVgivestheBPI-(62-7)/(62-5)-9 6.5%; BetweenB and
C theaverage readingis about9 mV. The effect of the slight U reduction(34 ~.ts)causedby eccentricity
can be compensatedfor (~10.5),inthis case by increase the amplitude by about 10% to lOmV. The
correspondingBPI here is therefore (62-10)/(62-5)9 1%.
If El~cannot be clearly defmedon thelog, we can alsouse areasonable value elsewhere, e.g. 2.4 mV
from 10.8. The BPI for the two intervals will be (62-7)/(62-2.4 )9 2% and (62-l0)/(62-2.4 )87%
respectively. Asthere exist about9 0%bondedintervalsfor30ft, the probability of zonal isolationis high.
Notemorethan50%reductioninElc(from5mVto 2.4 mV) haschangedtheBPI valuefor <5%. Variations
in Elf does not affect the BPI much either. This means that for conventional jobs the selection of the
referencevaluesis important but not critical for areliableinterpretation. Preferablyboth
0andElfare
decidedfromthe log whenever possible. This method appliesto all typesofslurry design.
C BL EvaluatIon M a n u a i -Q C a n d I n t e r p r e t a t i o n Pa ge 25
SPEC IAL INVESTIGATION FLOW C HART~
* E i t he r go t o t he n e xt a ct i o n o r r e su m e t he m a i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n fl o w cha r t o n p r e v i o u s p a ge
C ~LE v a l u a t i o n M a n u a l -Q C a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n Pa ge 26
6.7 Finding Information
If information inthe log is incomplete, orother informationis requiredsuchas open hole logs
or somedetail ofcementing operation, contact the right person to obtain it. Keep an updated
list ofcontacts for necessary help: their name, specialities, company, base, telephone and fax
numbers etc..
6.8 AnalysIng abnormal log behaviour
1) Review all factorswhich are likely to affect the log (~4 ).
2) Eliminate one by one aroundthe keyproblemin handuntil only such factorswhose effects
may be significant.
3) Judge whether these factors have invalidated the log a good understanding of all the
factors (study 4 ) maybe veryuseful.
6.9 CalculatIng the probability ofzonal Isolation
Cementing operation can offer valuable common sense evaluation which should not be
discounted (~l.4 ).If any steps in the operation werealtered fromplanned, it is suggested that
the post-job CPS be run (~7).Astarting point is tojudgethe likelihoodofat least somesections
which are channel free. Ifno suchsectionscan beassuredandthe log shows avery badcement
job, a remedy job may have to be considered (~8).
For the BPI calculation, the El value for 100% bond(Sl0.8) may have to befound elsewhere if
that value for the given conditions is not available in the literature. Thelog ofa well ofclose
locationwith similar conditions can prove useful to provide this reference. The value can be
chosenby finding the lowest reading at intervals where isolation was required and achieved.
Make sure there were no fast formations or micro-annulus (~4 . 5,~4 . 1).
6.10Keep a recordof Interpretation
It is recommended that the interpretation ofalog is recorded, eg, on thebackofa log, for ease
oflater reference. The rubberstamp issued together with this manual is for this purpose. The
table from the stamp is designed to summarise the log with minimal amount of information.
Stamp the back of the log and fill in the formas you complete the interpretation.
C B L E v a l u a t i o n M a n u a l - Q C a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n Pa ge 27
L o g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n
~7.Cementing Operation
1. What to check~
Donot cometo conclusions on the quality ofthe cement job without reviewing the cementing
operation. Every step ofthe operationis carefully designedtoensure agoodjob. Problems may
occurifanyrecommended stepwas not followedcorrectly. Common sense canoften tell you
the nature ofthe problem.
Cement placement itself is a large and complex subject. But simplistically speaking, there are
somerules ofthumb. For example, the more centralizedthe casing string, the better thecement
job; Equally important are thedisplacement rates ofmud, spacer andcement slurry. Usually the
higher the flowrates, the better the displacement. The flow rates are limited by the formation
strength and the displacement facilities. The rheology and density of the fluids are similarly
important. The idea is to remove the viscous mud by spacer ascompletely as possible, thento
displace the spacerby thecement slurry. Thespacer hereis designedto make easythe removal
ofmud and the placement of cement. Usually a heavier fluidfollowing a lighter one can help
the displacement. Remember, non-vertical wells are not only difficult tolog, but alsodifficult
to cement because ofthe casing centralisation problemand thecomplicated flowregimes inan
inclined annulus.
Without being deeplyinvolved in cementing technology, you canalways get some idea about
the qualityof the cement job by checking the following:
- Was there any lost circulation?
- Was the casing string centralised?
- Werethe pumping rates and displacement timing as planned?
- Werethewell-site-measuredfluids properties(density, viscosity, additivesquantities etc.) as
designed?
Answer No to anyofthese questions couldmeanaless thanperfect cement job. Ifthere were
losses to theformation orother operational problemencountered during cement placement, it
couldbe a bad job and log interpretation must take this into account.
2. The Cement Placement Simulator (CPS)
This simulator, developed by the FluidMechanicsTeamat RCS, can tell you howto carry out
the cement job and what the cement job shouldlook like. TheCPS is locatedat Dyce, Houston
and Sunbury and wifi also be incorporated in DEAP. If a bad cement job is suspected it is
suggested that the CPS be run. The result is another reference for interpreting the log.
C B L E v a l u a t i o n M a n u a l - Q C a n d I n t e r p r e t a t i o n Pa ge 28
L o g I n t e r p r e t a t i o n
~8Squeeze considerations
Abad cement job indicatedby a bondlog (whichever type) does not meanyou can go ahead
and squeeze. Thefollowing questions must be answered asbest asyou can before any action:
Where didthe cement go? What kind ofchannel couldit be, and where and howto squeeze?
The following Charts may help you answer these questions.
1. Whe r e d i d t he ce m e n t go ?
An a l yse t he we l l a n d ce m e n t i n g
co n d i t i o n s t o ge t he r wi t h t he l o g
:
No t clearly~~d? ~
62~ Yes
C heck if any fluid lo ss C alculate the difference
o ccured duririu d~IIing fro m expected v alue
o r cementing(~6) (No te the ho le gauge,
_____________________ washo ut: caliper lo g).
__________________________ ~ Yes
Po ssible cement Po ssible heav y The cement is lik ely Po ssible bad
lo ss by large co ntaminatio n o r bad to be still In the co ntaminatio n
quantities. Such slurry leading to annulus but badly at the cement
cases a r e green cement. bo nded to the casing to p o r bad mud
usually e a si l y Re -r u n the C BL if a n d maybe to the remo v al.
identifiable. po ssible. fo rmatio n as well.
C BL E v a l u a t i o n M a n u a l - Q C a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n Pa ge 29
6 scenario s o f co mmunicatio n channels
E cce n t r e d ca si n g, m u d cha n n e l o n t he n a r r o w si d e .
He a v i l y co n t a m i n a t e d ce m e n t whi ch m a y o r m a y n o t
be so l i d .
C o n t a m i n a t e d bu t so l i d ce m e n t o n t he wi d e si d e wi t h
m u d cha n n e l o n t he n a r r o w si d e .
C o n t a m i n a t e d bu t so i i d ce m e n t o n t he n a r r o w si d e
wi t h m u d cha n n e i o n t he wi d e si d e .
k ey:
Gap be t we e n t he se t ce m e n t a n d m u d
t he ca si n g cement
co n t a m i n a t e d
Thi ck m u d ca ke be t we e n t he se t ce m e n t
ce m e n t a n d t he fo r m a t i o n . fo rmatio n
We l l co n d i t i o n s a n d ce m e n t i n g o p e r a t i o n v s p o t e n t i a l _cha n n e l s
C ha n n e l B a d ca si n g- De v i a t e d Di sp l a ci n g C e m e n t i n g
t yp e ce n t r a l i sa t i o n we l l s co n t a m i n a t i o n o p e r a t i o n p r o bl e m s
I ,
I ,
Se v e r e i n
________________ hi gh d e v i a t i o n
Wa sho u t se ct i o n Oft e n i n
ho r i zo n t a l wa i l .
~~1
So me delayed co mmunicatio ns o bserv ed in po ro us reserv o irs
are believ ed to be caused by the disintegratio n o f the mud cak e.
This type o f channel is hardly detectable with to days techno lo gy
Bo nd lo gs pro v ide v Ital info rmatio n fo r squeez e
jo b design particularly in the fo llo wing areas:
1. Depths,lengths o f co mmunicating channels fo r po sitio ning
the perfo rating gun and bridge plug o r pack ers.
2. Azi m u t h o f co mmunicating channels fo r perfo rating sho t
phase arrangement: a 45degree channel can be missedi
3. Identify the v ent fo r the channel filling substances.
L ~~E v a i u a t l o n M a n u a l ~Q C a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n Pa ge 30
a t
a t
U
C
at
at
at
C
a t
at
C .
E
C
9.1 AL o g Example
Header [on this page], body and tail [on next page], and questionaire (~3)
~i o n ~cC ~
L o g E xa m p l e s
C B L E v a u a t i o n M a n u a l - OC a n d I n t e r p r e t a t i o n Pa ge 32
C B L E v a l u a t i o n M a n u a l - Q C a n d I n t e r p r e t a t i o n Pa ge 33
Lo g Examples
AFTER
PRESSURIZIFIC J AMPLITUDE
~ aEFORE TO3000FSI&
RUN1 RUN2 AMPLITUDE PRESSURING RELEASING
*
9 .2MIcro.annukis
F~.ashs1om~rho1ding5Op~onthecasing~r3daysRun1wasmnwithOpsiandRun2wsswith7OOpsi.Adequate
pxessuxe ceneliminatesomemiao-annulus.
Fig.bwlogsninbefoieandasngwsspiessuzeiisedto 3OOO~l. Excessivepressuxecanbreakthebondbetween
the casing and thecement
TT (US )~ ___L_~M~_ __~_. VDL (US
aUO.00 5~._OOO 100.00 1200.0Q 1200.0
9 .3 Tool E c c e n t r i c i t y
Eccentrldty causesreductionintheTrandintheCBLamplitude (~1O.5). Ad d anexn~centmliseraithe3 receivercanalleviate
the problem(~6.2). Neverrun the CBL knowinglyoff-centred (egwith 711 rubbercentraliserforliner, running in95/8 casing
abovethe liner).
C BL Ev aluatio n M a n u a l - OC a n d Interpretatio n Page 34
TRAVEL TIME ATTENUATION
OS/IT
2 9 0 190 20 0
~ T~A/ - PEAK AMPLITUDE LIGNATUITE VARIABI E DENSITY
API MV
0 100 0 120200 1200 200 200
C C AMILIIIED
9 .4 Fast Fo r m a t i o n s R
The TT fell below the expected value (~5.2 ).The VDL and Signature logs also showed that
formation arrivals overtook the casing arrivals.
The formation arrivals can be confirmedby the open hole sonic log: the delta-T curve should
closelymirror the formation arrivals on the VDL, as shown below.
Quoted from Cement Evaluation Bigelow E L, Western Atlas International, Houston, 1990
C BL Ev aluatio n M a n u a l - C C a n d Interpretatio n Page 35
Lo g Examples
9 .5 C a sI n g Fl u i d s E ffe ct on theL o g
The mud weight changedfrom 1O.5ppg above 7028ft to 16.6 ppg below. The effect on the r r
is obvious butnot so onthe CBL amplitude. The well temperature profile canmake a difference
to the mud ( eg in density) if the mud has been staticin the hole for somtime, This can cause
the iT to vary ( ~6.2).
Quoted fromDS Cement BondLogging Field Reference Manuai.
C BL Ev aluatIo n Manual - C C a n d I n t e r p r e t a t i o n Pa ge 3 6
9.6 Temperature Effect onthe Log
Thetemperature inthe section shown wasabout 320Fand 300mbelowwas about 34 5F.The
tool was run to TD in 1.5hrs, experiencing high temperature gradiant, and the logging was
finished in2hrs. The tool was properly centralisedbut the CBL amplitude and the VDL were
affectedby transient temperature effect.
9.7 Double Casing String
BelowD is 7 (29 1b/ft) inside 9 5/8 (561b/ft) and the annulus was fully cemented. The TThas
increasedby 20its andthe VDL showed strong pipe ring withfirst fewcyclesbeing narrower.
The CBL amplitude here may be E3 (~2.5, ~6.11).
C B L E v a l u a t i o n Manual - Q C a n d I n t e r p r e t a t i o n Pa ge 37
L o g E xa m p l e s
TI M E AFTE R C E M E NTATI ON
4 HRS. a HRS. ze HRS.
9 .8 GreenCement
Remember that the down hole conditions are not as ideal as in laboratory. Cement slurrycan
easilyget contaminatedby mud, spacer orformationfluids. Thethickeningtime andsetting time
can be muchlonger than quoted(S4 .1, 6.12,13).
C B L E v a l u a t i o n M a n u a l - Q C a n d I n t e r p r e t a t i o n Pa ge 38
Parameters C BL C ET USI
Or i gi n a l d e si gn p u r p o se o p e n ho l e ce m e n t bo n d bo n d /co r r o si o n
C a l i br a t i o n co n d i t i o n s u p ho l e d o wn ho l e d o wn ho l e
C a si n g si ze s 4.5 - 13 3/8 4.5 -95/8 4.5-133/8
M u d d e n si t y hi gh(e g>l 8p p g) OB M < l o p p g OB M < l l p p g
u n qu a n fi ft e d e ffe ct WB M < l 3p p g WB M < l 5p p g
M i cr o -a n n u l u s se v e r e e ffe ct l e ss 9e ffe ct l e ss e ffe ct
(l i qu i d fi l l e d ) (l i qu i d fi l l e d )
He a v i l y co n t a m i n a t e d ce m e n t a m p l i t u d e a t t e n u a t e d co u l d i n d i ca t e a s co u l d i n d i ca t e a s
cha n n e l cha n n e l
C e m e n t /fo r m a t i o n bo n d ca n be d e t e ct e d n o t m e a su r e d a v o i d e d
E cce n t r a l i sa t i o n se n si t i v e l e ss se n si fi v e l e ss se n si fi v e
Ve r t i ca l r e so l u t i o n 3ft 3i n s 1.Si n s
Azi m u t ha l r e so l u t i o n n o n -d i r e ct o n a l 45 d e gr e e s 10 d e gr e e s
Sha p e o f cha n n e l (o n n o e ffe ct d e t e ct a bl e go o d m e a su r e m e n t
ca si n g/ce m e n t i n t e r fa ce )
C e m e n t t hi ckn e ss v a l u e s d e ba t a bl e l e ss e ffe ct l e ss e ffe ct
C o m p r e ssi v e st r e n gt h d e r i v e d (u n ~u sfi fl a bl y) d e r i v e d i d e a a ba n d o n e d
Do u bl e ca si n g st r i n g se v e r e e ffe ct l e ss e ffe ct l e ss e ffe ct
C a si n g stand-o ff st r o n g e ffe ct l e ss e ffe ct l e ss e ffe ct
C asing thick ness st r o n g e ffe ct m e a su r a bl e m e a su r e d
C a si n g wa l l co n d i t i o n s so m e e ffe ct st r o n g e ffe ct d e t e ct a bl e
M e cha n i ca l co m p l e xi t y si m p l e st co m p l e x e a sy t o d a m a ge
Operatio nal ro bustness OK easy to get wr o n g go o d ?
C o sts r e l a t i v e l y l o w t yp i ca l l y 2xC B L t yp i ca l l y 4xC B L
*Thi s i s be ca u se t he a co u shc i m p e d a n ce o f he a v i l y co n t a m i n a t e d ce m e n t i s i n a si m i l a r r a n ge a s t ha t o f m u d .
10.1 Performance Comparison of CBL, CET andUS!
C B L E v a l u a t i o n M a n u a l - Q C a n d I n t e r p r e t a t i o n Pa ge 39
Da t a a n d C ha r t s fo r Re fe r e n ce
11
_______ I
10.2 CharacterIstics of Commonly Used CBL Tools
( quoted from CBL Field Referenc Manual DS)
C BLEv aluatio n M a n u a l - OC a n d Interpretatio n Pa ge 40
SOUND VELOCITY ACOUSTEC
MATERIAL POROSLfl AT IMPEDANCE
TYPE (%) (Ms/ft) (ft/a) (rn/a) (M Ra yl )
Casing - 57.0 17,500 5,334 4 1.6
Dolomite - 43.5 23,000 7,010 20.2
Limestone - 4 7.6 21,000 6,4 00 17.3
~ Calsite - 49.7 20,100 6,126 16.6
~ Anhydrite - 50.0 20,000 6,09 6 18.2
Z Gypsum - 52.6 19 ,000 5,791 13.6
~ Q u a r t s - 52.9 18,9 00 5,760 15.2
Halite - 66.6 15,000 4 ,572 9 .3
Dolomite 5 to 20 50.0 to66.6 20000 to 15000 609 6 to4 752 17,0 to 11.5
Limestone 5 to 20 54 .0 to76.9 18500 to 13000 5639 to 39 62 14 .8 to9 .4
~ Sandstone 5 to 20 62.5 to 86.9 16000 to 11500 4 877 to 3505 12.6 to8.2
~ Shale 58.8 to 14 3 17000 to7000 5181 to 2133 12.0 to4 .3
OBM - 209 to 222 4 785 to 4505 14 58 to 1373 1.7 to 2.7
WBM - 19 8 to 205 5050 to 4 878 1539 to 14 87 1.8 to 3.0
Water - 208 4 800 14 63 1.5
~ Water +10%NaC1 - 19 2 5200 1585 1.7
Water +20% NaC1 - 182 5500 1676 1.8
Sea Water - 19 9 5020 1531 1.6
Kerosene - 230 4 34 0 1324 1.1
Air (15 psi, 0C) - 9 20 1088 331 0,0004
Air (3000 psi, 100C) - 780 1280 39 0 0.1
10.3 Speed of SoundInVarious Typesof Formation andMud
(edited fromWell Cementing, Dowel Schlumberger, 19 9 0)
10.4 CasIng ExpansionUnder Pressure
(quoted fromCement Evaluations Atlas, 19 9 0) _______________
C B L E v a l u a t i o n M a n u a l - Q C a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n Pa ge 41
Da t a a n d C ha r t s fo r Re fe r e n ce
E cce n t r i ci t y v s Re l a t i v e E l E cce n t r i ci t y v s I T r e d u ct i o n
I T r e d u ct i o n a ffe ct e d by ce m e n t TI r e d u ct i o n v s r e I a t i v ~ E l
Notes: 1) Cement doesnot affect the relationship in (a).
2) Mud affects relationships in (a) (b) and (c) but less in (d).
3) Cement affects amount of Yr reduction as shown in (c), consequently Yr-El
relationship is not unique.
4 ) Free pipe U-El relationship in (d) can beused for El conpensation.
10.5 Relationship among Tool Eccentricity, CBL AmplitudeandTr Reduction
C B L E v a l u a t i o n M a n u a l - OC a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n Pa ge 42
Data and C harts fo r Reference
Fo r B PI 95%
10.6 Interval Lengths Required for Isolation
10.7 Amplitude Compensation Charts for Various Muds, Casing ID andThicknesses
( quoted from The Fluid-Compensated Cement Bond Log Nayfeh et al, SPE Formation
Evaluation, pp3 3 5-3 41, 1986)
C B L Evaluation Manual - OC a i d I n t e r p r e t a t i o n Page 43
C asing siz e weight Free pipe 100% bo nded
(class H)
(in) (Ib) Elf(mV) E1
0(mV)
4 1/2 9.5
11.6
13.6
5 15.0
18.0
21.0
51/2 15.5
17.0
20.0
23.0
7 23.0
26.0
29.0
32.0
35.0
38.0
40.0
75/8 26.4
29.7
33.7
39.0
95/8 40.0
43.5
47.0
53.5
10 3/4 40.5
45.5
48.0
51.0
54.0
55.5
The data above werederivedfroma chart by Pardue et al [Cement BondLogging - A Studyof
Cement andCasing Variables,JPTMay19 63, pp54 5-555]. Notethey can onlybeusedasageneral
guide.
10.8 CBL 3 ReceIver El Readingsfor 100% Bondedand 0% Bonded Pipes
C B L E v a l u a t i o n Manual- QC andI n t e r p r e t a t i o n Page 44
Index
Amplitude 4 ,5,18,22 Pressure 2,8,9 , 10, 17,18,21
Afterlogging 19 Principles 4 ,5
Before logging 17 Questionnaire 8,19 ,21,33
Body, log 8,32 Review, QC 21
BPI, Bond Percentage Index 24 Signature log 4,5,23
Casing, arrivals 7 Sonde 4
Casing, coating 12 Squeeze job 29
CCL 5,11 Standoff 14
Cementing 3,17,11,28 Stretching 6,22
Centralisers 8,18,11 Tail, log 8,31
CET 3,39 Temperature 8,13,17,21,22,37
Channel 3,5,7,9 ,11,24 ,30 Test: BOP, casing, formation 10,17
Check list 18,19 Thickness 10,13,14
CPS 28 TOC 17,22,28
Criteria, tool selection 2,3 TT, Transit Time 6,21,22
Cycle skipping 6,22 USI 39
Density 8,13,15,17,28,36 VDL 3,5,7
Diameter, casing 13 WBM 17,4 1
Double casing string 14 ,37 WOC 15,38
During logging 18
El, E2, E3, etc 6
Eccentridty,centrallsation 5,10,34
Examples, logs 31-38
Fast formations 7,23,35
Features, tool 4
Five data sets 21
Foam cement 15,21,24
Formation arrivals 7
Free pipe 7
Gate, fixedand sliding 6
Geometry, open hole 14
GreenCement 15,38
Header, log 8,31
Interpretation 20
Isolation 2,9 ,20,4 3
Jargon, explained 5-7
Keyboardoperation 16
Manual structure
Micro-annulus 2,7,9 ,18,22,23
Mud arrivals 7
OBM 17,4 1
Peak 6,7
C B L Evaluation Manual-QC and interpretation Page45