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Knowledge Is Power

SM
Apparatus Maintenance and Power Management
for Energy Delivery
DGA Scoring System g y
John Lapworth,
Doble PowerTest Ltd
Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA)
Ideal condition monitoring tool
Sensitive, broadband
Cheap, on-line
Sampled by site staff and analysed by oil
laboratory
Need to apply engineering experience for
interpretation
DGA Scoring System
DGA Interpretation
Type and severity of fault - gas signature
Gas ratios Gas ratios
Key gases
Family comparison Family comparison
Loading, operational history
Development of fault
Action levels
Trend analysis
Scoring system
DGA Scoring System
DGA - Key Gases
Fault Primary Secondary
P ti l Di h H d Partial Discharge Hydrogen
Dielectric
(Arcing/sparking)
Hydrogen
Acetylene
Ethylene
Di l t i H d M th Dielectric
(Power arc)
Hydrogen Methane
Ethylene
Acetylene
High Operating Methane Carbon High Operating
Temperature
Methane
Ethane
Carbon
Monoxide
Thermal hotspot Ethylene Methane
Ethane Ethane
Overheated
Cellulose
Carbon
Monoxide
Carbon
Dioxide

DGA Scoring System
Difficulties of Using DGA
Deciding on an appropriate sampling interval
Ensuring accuracy not compromised by :
Poor sampling method
Laboratory procedures Laboratory procedures
Deciding when a result is abnormal
Deciding on seriousness of a fault
DGA Scoring System
Existing DGA Interpretation Schemes
Gas signatures and ratios
E.G. Rogers, IEC 599, Duval etc
Trend analysis e d a a ys s
Normal and action levels
Expert systems
We will discuss pros and cons of these
DGA Scoring System
Rogers Ratios
DGA Scoring System
Gas Signatures and Ratios
Thermodynamic basis
Focus on diagnosing fault
Not good at deciding if DGA result is normal Not good at deciding if DGA result is normal
e.g. Rogers Normal Deterioration
(0000) code is rare
Errors at low gas levels Errors at low gas levels
Triple zero syndrome
DGA Scoring System
Trend Analysis
Increasing gas levels considered indication of
d l i f lt b t developing fault, but ...
Increase after de-gassing to equilibrium levels
Gas levels constant for inactive fault
Solubility and dispersion effects Solubility and dispersion effects
Different interpretation for H2 and C2H2
trends trends
May not have enough results for good trend
DGA Scoring System
Normal and Action Levels
What level is significant ...
Statistical approach is problematic:
What exceedance should be used - 90, 95 or
97% ?
Should all gases be treated as equally Should all gases be treated as equally
important ?
Abnormal results are unusual rather than Abnormal results are unusual rather than
unhealthy
DGA Scoring System
Expert Systems
E.g. Kohonen net cluster analysis technique g y q
Attempt to classify similar results
S h f hidd i f ti Search for hidden information
Identify changes of state
Rely on human expert to ascribe significance
DGA Scoring System
New DGA Interpretation Scheme
Based on IEEE C57.104-1991 Key Gas Method
Combustible gas signature - bar chart
Percentage total combustible gas (%TCG)
CO, H2, CH4, C2H4, C2H6, C2H2
Used in IEEE to distinguish faults
Used here to differentiate normal and abnormal
Faulty, normal and heavily loaded transformers
DGA Scoring System
IEEE C57.104-1991
DGA Scoring System
IEEE C57.104-1991
DGA Scoring System
Faulty Transformers
100
60
80
T
C
G
40
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e

T
0
20
Transformer
A B C D E F G
CO H2 CH4 C2H4 C2H6 C2H2
DGA Scoring System
Normal Transmission Transformers
100
60
80
T
C
G
40
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e

T
0
20
Transformer
1 2 3 4 5
CO H2 CH4 C2H4 C2H6 C2H2
DGA Scoring System
Normal Generator Transformers
100
60
80
T
C
G
40
60
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e

T
0
20
Transformer
I II III IV V
CO H2 CH4 C2H4 C2H6 C2H2
DGA Scoring System
New DGA Interpretation
High [ CO CO ] ( 60-90 %TCG ) = normal g [ ] ( )
( Higher levels may be abnormal )
Hi h [ C2H4 C2H4 ] ( 10 %TCG ) b l High [ C2H4 C2H4 ] ( > 10 %TCG ) = abnormal
Significant [ H2 H2 ] and [ C2H2 C2H2 ] = serious
Significant [ CH4 CH4 ] and [ C2H6 C2H6 ] = not serious
DGA Scoring System
Scoring System
Normal Normal < 60 < 60
All normal results can be ignored
Suspect Suspect > 60 > 60 Suspect Suspect > 60 > 60
Only suspect results need to be investigated
Serious Serious > 100 > 100
Winding and dielectric faults
Some can be discounted
DGA Scoring System
Scoring System
Quality function
Importance of gas signature
Strength function
Importance of gas levels
DGA Scoring System
Benefits of Scoring System
Normal results can be screened out (ignored)
Consistent, objective assessment of results
Based on actual failures Based on actual failures
Resource focussed on deserving cases
Can ignore unusual cases
New insights into significance of results New insights into significance of results
DGA Scoring System
Use in Condition Assessment
CONDITION ASSESSMENT TEST RESULTS
Dielectric
9 8 3 2 4 8
DGA RFI MAG TTR PF AE PD
10 10
Thermal / Life
3 4 4 4 2 4 4
DGA FFA H2O IRES ACID PF POL DP
5 10 10 5 10
Mechanical Mechanical
8 4
FRA LRT CAP
SUMMARY
Dielectric
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Thermal / Life
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Mechanical
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
OVERALL

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
DGA Scoring System
Application 1 - Core Earth Fault
30 year old 400 kV 750 MVA auto-transformer
Suspected core / frame to earth circulating
t f lt current fault
Core earth brought out and resistor inserted
Main tank de-gassed after work
Buchholz alarms subsequently at high loads
DGA Scoring System
DGA History
Sample date H2 CO CO2 CH4 C2H4 C2H6 C2H2
16/4/96 10 140 757 14 16 5 0.4
14/8/97 11 271 1,463 27 28 9 0.7
Core earth brought out and resistor fitted. Main tank de-gassed
20/4/98 14 64 576 19 18 4 0.6
Unusually high loadings Buchholz alarms Unusually high loadings. Buchholz alarms
22/7/98 40 112 823 62 64 12 2.9
23/7/98 38 100 1,393 87 131 23 5.1
31/7/98 109 180 1,142 125 152 25 5.7
DGA Scoring System
DGA Signature
100
60
80
C
G
40
60
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e

T
C
20
0
16/04/96 14/08/97 20/04/98 22/07/98 23/07/98 31/07/98
CO H2 CH4 C2H4 C2H6 C2H2
DGA Scoring System
DGA Score
140
100
120
60
80
D
G
A

S
c
o
r
e
40
D
28/10/95 15/05/96 01/12/96 19/06/97 05/01/98 24/07/98 09/02/99
0
20
DGA Scoring System
28/10/95 15/05/96 01/12/96 19/06/97 05/01/98 24/07/98 09/02/99
Evidence
DGA Scoring System
Application 2 - Puzzling Results
High CH4 CH4 and C2H6 C2H6 in many new transformers
Some also have high H2 H2 - high scores
Seasonal dependence - H2 H2 peaks in late
summer
Different transformer designs
Same oil
DGA Scoring System
New Transformer DGA
250
150
200
100
150
P
P
M
50
01/01/94 01/01/95 01/01/96 31/12/96 31/12/97 31/12/98 31/12/99 30/12/2000
0
H2 CH4 C2H6
DGA Scoring System
Effect of Oil Type on DGA
Oil type can change symptoms exhibited
Different gassing characteristics Different gassing characteristics
Temperature and time effects
May also affect head-space gas extraction May also affect head space gas extraction
How can we allow for this ? o ca e a o o t s
Need to know oil type
Need information on gassing properties g g p p
Tailor scoring parameters for oil type
DGA Scoring System
DGA Scoring Conclusions
Scoring system has been valuable
More consistent and objective assessments
Resources focussed where deserved
Applicable to wider class of transformers ?
Further work required to confirm this
Oil type needs to be taken into account
Further work to understand effects on gassing
Vehicle for improving understanding ?
DGA Scoring System