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PURPOSE OF PROJECT

There are certain environmental conditions which would be suitable for the growth and survival
of the carnivorous sundew plant (Dorsera Capillaris). However some of these conditions may act
as limiting factors to its growth as different species thrive in different conditions. In order to find
out what these factors were tests such as; the pH of soil/water, soil distribution, humus content,
water holding capacity of soil and quadrat throw to determine population density to show why
the population of the Carnivorous Sundew was distributed as it did.



















AIM OF PROJECT

To measure the physio-chemical characteristics of the Aripos Open Savannah and access their
potential biological significance as a population indicator for the Carnivorous Sundew Plant
(Drosera Capillaris).






















METHODOLOGY

On the morning of Thursday 23
rd
January, 2014 from approximately 9am to 1pm the lower six
Environmental Science class travelled in a bus along with two teachers to collect primary data
for our internal assessment at the Aripo Savannah One, a long stretch of forest reserve
approximately 160x70.
This forested reserve is located in the country of St Andrew on the east central portion of the
Caroni Plain. It is bounded by the towns of Arima and Sangre Grande. The savannah visited was
Savannah One in the Cumuto area Trinidad (see figure 1.1). The general site area of 160m was
broken up into four sites measuring 40m each (see figure 1.2). The general site area of 160m was
located in the open Savannah One and another area called the Palm Marsh was the fifth site
measuring 100m.
Students were then divided into groups comprising of three students each to collect two samples
of soil randomly from each of the four sites within the 160m area. Firstly a quadrat was thrown
randomly at each of the four sites to measure species diversity of the Carnivorous Sundew plant
and data was then recorded as follows ; site one comprised of 24, site two comprised of 18, site
three comprised of 12 and site four comprised of 24.. A trowel was then used to dig out 10
inches of soil from the ground and then this was placed into separate zip lock bags which were
then labeled appropriately for each site. Water samples were also taken from the ground at each
of the four study areas using separate small plastic containers which were then labeled
appropriately. These containers were tilted to allow minimum soil to enter. The soil samples
were then used to carry out tests such as water holding capacity of soil, pH of soil, soil
distribution and soil humus content. The water samples that were taken from each of the four
sites were then used to find out the pH of water. After collecting these samples the fifth site was
then sampled. This site comprised of heavily forested palm marsh measuring 100m.
Approximately half of it was visited. No sundew was located at this site as conditions were not
suitable for the Carnivorous Sundew plant. Tress such as The Cajuca (Virola Surinamensis),
Moriche Palm ( Mavitia Flexuosa), Olivier (Terminalia Obovata), Maripa/Corcorite Palm
(Attalea Maripa) and the the Galba (Aphelandra Galba) were counted and then recorded to
determine their species diversity.
Photographs were taken throughout this field study.



LITERATURE REVIEW


Ecology is a relatively new science. The term ecology was first defined in 1866 by the German
zoologist Ernst Haecke (1870) he based it on the Greek word Oikos meaning home and
wrote: By Ecology we mean that body of knowledge concerning the economy of nature. The
investigation of the total relations of the animal both to its inorganic and its organic
environment; including above all its friendly and inimical relations with those animals and plants
with which it comes directly or indirectly into contact-In a word, ecology is the study of all those
complex inter-relations referred to by Darwin as the conditions for the struggle of existence.
Since we wanted to focus on the physio-chemical parameters of an ecosystem ( The Aripo
Savannah 1) the relevant aim was chosen in the world of research. In order to evaluate habitat
quality many physical and chemical aspects of the specific ecosystem needs to be studied. These
environmental conditions would be studied to access the population of The Carnivorous Sundew
(Dorsera Capillaris) is based on limiting factors. The Carnivorous Sundew (Dorsera Capillaris)
is a pink or spathulate very small carnivous plant ( see figure 2.1). Carnivorous plants are plants
that consume some or most of their nutrients from either trapping and in digesting animals or
protozoans usually insects and other arthropods. The Carnivorous Sundew is usually found in
wet pine flatwoods, in areas that accumulate dead plant material such as bogs in the United
States as well as some areas in the Caribbean. These plants thrive mostly in acidic soils. This
plant looks red with round, concave leaf blades with varying tentacles with a mucilaginous
secretory gland to attract insects.
There are certain limiting factors to the growth of the Carnivorous Sundew. The Carnivorous
Sundew plant requires low soil nutrients and acidic soils which are found mostly in wet areas
such as bogs, fens and along streams and rivers. The Carnivorous Sundew can withstand
temperatures varying 30 degrees C in hot climates and as low as 5 degrees C. Some species
thrive in waterlogged areas and some thrive in moderate area of rainfall.
Fig: 2.1 Photograph showing The Carnivorous Sundew Plant.

DATA PRESENTATION

The intention of this section was to present the results of the labs of the quadrat throw to
determine population density, the water holding capacity of the soil, soil distribution, pH of both
soil and water, humus content of soil and the population density of The Cajuca (Virola
Surinamensis), Moriche Palm ( Mauritia Flexuosa), Olivier ( Terminalia Obovata) and The
Maripa/ Corcorite Palm ( Attalea Maripa).
QUADRAT THROW RESULTS
SITE Number of Carnivorous Sundew Plant
1 24
2 18
3 12
4 4

TABLE SHOWING THE RESULTS OF THE QUADRAT THROW SHOWING THE NUMBER OF THE
CARNIVOROUS SUNDEW PLANT FOUND AT THE ARIPOS OPEN SAVANNAH ONE.

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Site 1 Site 2 Site 3 Site 4
P
o
p
u
l
a
t
i
o
n

O
f

T
h
e

S
u
n
d
e
w

(
n
o
.
#

o
f

p
l
a
n
t
s
)

Regions For Sample Taking
GRAPH PORTRAYING THE POPULATION OF THE SUNDEW PER
REGION
Legend
Region #Plants
Site 1 - 24
SIte 2 - 18
Site 3 - 12
Site 4 - 4
Since the quadrat was thrown at each of the four sites data was recorded in a table format as
shown in (fig. 3.1). Site one had the most Carnivorous Sundew plants and Site four had the least
amount of the Carnivorous Sundew plants. The trends seen is that the Carnivorous Sundew
plants decreased in numbers along the sites examined starting from 24 in site one, 18 in site two,
12 in site 3 and the least recorded as 4 in site four.

TABLE SHOWING THE RESULTS OF THE WATER HOLDING CAPACITY OF DIFFERENT SOIL SAMPLES FOUND
AT THE ARIPOS OPEN SAVANNAH ONE.
MASS (g)
SAMPLE: A B C
SITE
1 A) 80.184
B) 71.239
80.169
71.157
80.096
66.618
2 A) 80.795
B) 70.524
82.873
72.874
76.96
69.889
3 A) 80.178
B) 69.042
80.160
66.922
80.390
69.176
4 A) 80.349

B) 72.460
82.180
69.320
80.472
70.437



Soil samples were taken from each of the four sites examined. Data was recorded in a table and
bar graph format as shown in (fig 3.2). Site three had the highest percentage of water holding
capacity of 29.46% followed by site one of 26.08% then by site four of 25.02% and lastly site
two of 24.52% holding the least amount of water.

Humus Content of Soil Results
SITE MASS OF
CRUCIBLE
INITIAL MASS
OF SOIL AND
CRUCIBLE
AFTER 1
ST

BURNING
AFTER 2
ND

BURNING
AFTER 3
RD

BURNING
AFTER 4
TH

BURNING
1 A) 42.866
B) 59.702
C)
52.445
69.941

52.187
69.758
________
_________
_________
_________
________
________
2 A) 29.661
B)
62.004
58.625
60.502
57.791
_________
__________
_________
_________
________
________
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
Site 1 Site 2 Site 3 Site 4
A
v
g
.

W
a
t
e
r

H
o
l
d
i
n
g

C
a
p
a
c
i
t
y

(
%
)

Sites Observed (regions)
GRAPH SHOWING THE AVERAGE PERCENTAGE FOR THE
RESULTS OF THE WATER HOLDING CAPACITY OF EACH SITE
Legend*
Region (%)
Site 1 - 26.08
Site 2 - 24.52
Site 3 - 29.46
Site 4 - 25.02
C) 60.448 60.177 __________ _________ ________
3 A) 29.714
B) 24.356
C) 58.926
55.884
38.000
75.057
55.689
38.504
74.735
55.523
38.501
74.724
55.443
38.495
74.691
________
________
________
4 A) 38.970
B) 33.331
C) 42.780
66.248
61.056
61.589
65.996
61.305
61.084
65.953
60.754
61.073
65.912
60.625
61.072
65.220
60.585
_______
TABLE SHOWING THE RESULTS OF THE HUMUS CONTENT OF DIFFERENT SOIL SAMPLES TAKEN FROM
THE ARIPOS OPEN SAVANNAH ONE.


Soil samples were taken from each of the four sites examined. Data was then recorded in a table
form in (fig 3.3). Site three had the highest percentage humus, followed by site two of 2.4%, then
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Site 1 Site 2 Site 3 Site 4
A
v
g
.

H
u
m
u
s

C
o
n
t
e
n
t

(
%
)

The Regions of Sample taking
GRAPH DISPLAYING THE AVG. PERCENTAGE FOR THE
RESULTS OF THE HUMUS CONTENT OF THE SOIL SAMPLES
FROM EACH SITE
Legend
Region (%)
Site 1 - 1.5
Site 2 - 24.6
Site 3 - 35.7
Site 4 - 2.72
by site four containing 2.72% and site one having the least amount of percentage humus which in
equivalent to 1.58%.
Ph of Soil Results
SITE pH OF SOIL
1 6.3
2 6.5
3 6.5
4 6.9
TABLE SHOWING THE RESULTS OF THE PH OF SOIL FROM FOUR DIFFERENT SOIL SAMPLES FOUND AT
THE ARIPOS OPEN SAVANNAH ONE.
Soil samples were taken from each of the four sites examined. Data was then recorded in a table
shown in (fig.3.4). Site one was the most acidic of 6.3 followed by site two and three both of pH
6.5 and lastly the least acidic being site four of 6.9.

Ph of Water Results
SITE pH of Water
1 5.7
2 5.7
3 6.0
4 5.3
TABLE SHOWING THE RESULTS OF THE PH OF WATER FROM FOUR DIFFERENT SOIL SAMPLES FOUND AT
THE ARIPOS OPEN SAVANNAH ONE.
Water samples were taken from each of the four sites examined. Data was then recorded in a
table shown in (fig 3.5). Site four was the most acidic of 5.3 followed by site one and two of pH
5.7 and lastly the least acidic site 3 of 6.0.

Results of Soil Particle Size
SITE SAMPLE VOL. OF
STONES
(CM
3
)
VOL. OF
LARGE
PARTICLES
(CM
3
)
VOL. OF
SMALL
PARTICLES
(CM
3
)
VOL OF
CLAY (CM
3
)
VOL OF
HUMUS
(CM
3
)
1 a
b
3.0
5.0
20.0
18.0
2.0
4.0
52.0
50.0

3.0
3.0
2 a
b

1.0
4.0
29.0
25.0
4.0
6.0
45.0
44.0
1.0
1.0
3 a
b

2.0
1.0
20.0
17.0
7.0
10.0
46.0
42.0
5.0
8.0
4 a
b

4.0
6.0
26.0
24.0
8.0
7.0
39.0
41.0
3.0
2.0
TABLE SHOWING RESULTS OF THE PARTICLE SIZE OF FOUR DIFFERENT SAMPLES FROM THE ARIPOS
OPEN SAVANNAH ONE.


SITE VOL. OF
STONES (%)
VOL. OF
LARGE
PARTICLES
(%)
VOL. SMALL
PARTICLES
(%)
VOL. OF CLAY
(%)
VOL. OF HUMUS
(%)
1 4.0

19.0 3.0 51.0 3.0
2 2.5 27.0 5.0 44.5 1.0

3 1.5 18.5 8.5 44.0 6.5

4 5.0 25.0 7.5 40.0 2.5
TABLE SHOWING THE AVERAGE PERCENTAGE RESULTS OF THE PARTICLE SIZE OF FOUR DIFFERENT
SAMPLES FROM THE ARIPOS OPEN SAVANNAH ONE.

Soil samples were taken from each of the four sites examined. Data was then recorded in a table
shown in (fig 3.6). Site four had the most stones of volume (cm3) of 5 followed by site one of 4
and two of 2.5 and site three had the least volume of stones of 1.5. Site two had the largest
volume of particles of 27 followed by site four of 25, site one of 19 and lastly site three of 18.5.
Site three had the highest volume of the smallest particle size of 9 followed by site four of 7.5,
then two of 5 and lastly site one of 3. Site one had the highest volume of clay of 51 followed by
site 2 of 44.5, then by site three of 40.5 and lastly site four of 40 and lastly site three had the
most humus of 5.5, followed site one of 3, then by site four of 2.5 and lastly site two of 1 and this
suggests that the Carnivorous Sundew thrives in areas of a larger ratio of small particles to larger
particles of soil.
Results of the the population density of The Cajuca (Virola Surinamensis), Moriche Palm (
Mauritia Flexuosa), Olivier ( Terminalia Obovata), The Maripa/ Corcorite Palm ( Attalea
Maripa) and the Galba (Aphelandra Galba) from site 5.

Name of Species Number of Species
The Cajuca (Virola Surinamensis) 25
Moriche Palm ( Mauritia Flexuosa) 46
Olivier ( Terminalia Obovata) 18
The Maripa/ Corcorite Palm ( Attalea Maripa) 6
Galba ( Aphelandra Galba) 1
TABLE SHOWING THE RESULTS OF FOUR SPECIES LOCATED FROM THE PALM MARSH AREA OF THE
APRIPOS OPEN SAVANNAH.





















ANALYSIS OF DATA

Site one had the most Carnivorous Sundew plants and Site four had the least amount of the
Carnivorous Sundew plants. The trends seen is that the Carnivorous Sundew plants decreased in
numbers along the sites examined starting from 24 in site one, 18 in site two, 12 in site 3 and the
least recorded as 4 in site four suggesting that the Carnivorous Sundew thrives mostly in site one
and least in site four.
Site three had the highest percentage of water holding capacity of 2.46% followed by site one of
26.08% then by site four of 25.02% and lastly site two of 24.52% holding the least amount of
water and this suggests that the Carnivorous Sundew thrives mostly in areas of a high water
holding capacity of soil.
Site three had the highest percentage humus, followed by site two of 2.4%, then by site four
containing 2.72% and site one having the least amount of percentage humus which in equivalent
to 1.58% which suggests that the Carnivorous Sundew thrives mostly in areas of a lower
percentage of humus in soil.
Site one was the most acidic of 6.3 followed by site two and three both of pH 6.5 and lastly the
least acidic being site four of 6.9 which suggests that the Carnivorous Sundew thrives mostly in
areas of acidic soil.
Site four was the most acidic of 5.3 followed by site one and two of pH 5.7 and lastly the least
acidic site 3 of 6.0 which suggests that the Carnivorous Sundew thrives mostly in areas of acidic
water.
Site four had the most stones of volume (cm3) of 5 followed by site one of 4 and two of 2.5 and
site three had the least volume of stones of 1.5. Site two had the largest volume of particles of 27
followed by site four of 25, site one of 19 and lastly site three of 18.5. Site three had the highest
volume of the smallest particle size of 9 followed by site four of 7.5, then two of 5 and lastly site
one of 3. Site one had the highest volume of clay of 51 followed by site 2 of 44.5, then by site
three of 40.5 and lastly site four of 40 and lastly site three had the most humus of 5.5, followed
site one of 3, then by site four of 2.5 and lastly site two of 1 which suggests that the Carnivorous
Sundew thrives in areas of a larger ratio of small particles to larger particles of soil.
Site 5 had no Carnivorous Sundew but was dominated by a Palm March setting. On observation
the soil seems to be wet and slippery and this suggests that the conditions were not suitable for
the growth and survival of The Carnivorous Sundew. Tress such as The Cajuca (Virola
Surinamensis) , Moriche Palm ( Mavitia Flexuosa), Olivier (Terminalia Obovata),
Maripa/Corcorite Palm (Attalea Maripa) and the the Galba (Aphelandra Galba) were counted
and then recorded to determine their species diversity.

DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

Since the quadrat was thrown at each of the four sites data was recorded in a table format as
shown in (fig. 3.1). Site one had the most Carnivorous Sundew plants and Site four had the least
amount of the Carnivorous Sundew plants. The trends seen is that the Carnivorous Sundew
plants decreased in numbers along the sites examined starting from 24 in site one, 18 in site two,
12 in site 3 and the least recorded as 4 in site four. This means that the physio-chemical
conditions were mostly suitable for growth in site one and least in site four as the population
progressively reduced from site one to four.
In order to determine why the Carnivorous Sundew plant population progressively reduced from
site one to four there must have been certain limiting factors that affected its growth. Five tests
such as the water holding capacity of soil, humus content of soil, pH of soil, pH of water and soil
particle size were carried out in the lab to determine why the Carnivorous Sundews varied from
site one to four.
After tests were done it seems that Site three had the highest percentage of water holding
capacity of 29.46% followed by site one of 26.08% then by site four of 25.02% and lastly site
two of 24.52% holding the least amount of water which suggests that the Carnivorous Sundew
thrives better in conditions of high water holding capacity of soil; Site three had the highest
percentage humus, followed by site two of 2.4%, then by site four containing 2.72% and site one
having the least amount of percentage humus which in equivalent to 1.58% which suggests that
the Carnivorous Sundew thrives better in conditions of low humus content of soil; Site one was
the most acidic of 6.3 followed by site two and three both of pH 6.5 and lastly the least acidic
being site four of 6.9 which suggests that the Carnivorous Sundew thrives in conditions of acidic
soil Site four had the most acidic content of water which was of 5.3 followed by site one and two
of pH 5.7 and lastly the least acidic site 3 of 6.0 which suggests that the Carnivorous Sundew
thrives in conditions of acidic water and lastly Site four had the most stones of volume (cm3) of
5 followed by site one of 4 and two of 2.5 and site three had the least volume of stones of 1.5.
Site two had the largest volume of particles of 27 followed by site four of 25, site one of 19 and
lastly site three of 18.5. Site three had the highest volume of the smallest particle size of 9
followed by site four of 7.5, then two of 5 and lastly site one of 3. Site one had the highest
volume of clay of 51 followed by site 2 of 44.5, then by site three of 40.5 and lastly site four of
40 and lastly site three had the most humus of 5.5, followed site one of 3, then by site four of 2.5
and lastly site two of 1 and this suggests that the Carnivorous Sundew thrives in areas of a larger
ratio of small particles to larger particles of soil.
Site 5 had no Carnivorous Sundew but was dominated by a Palm March setting. On observation
the soil seems to be wet and slippery and this suggests that the conditions were not suitable for
the growth and survival of The Carnivorous Sundew. Tress such as The Cajuca (Virola
Surinamensis), Moriche Palm ( Mavitia Flexuosa), Olivier (Terminalia Obovata),
Maripa/Corcorite Palm (Attalea Maripa) and the the Galba (Aphelandra Galba) were counted
and then recorded to determine their species diversity.
In conclusion it was seen the the physio-chemical parameters which affected the growth and
survival of the Carnivorous Sundew were as follows as it thrives in conditions such as low soil
nutrients, high water content of soil, acidic soil and water and in areas of a larger ratio of small
particles to larger particles of soil.




















CONCLUSION


In essence, it was observed that there was a variety of physio-chemical characteristics and trends
whilst conducting this experiment. Site1 was seen to have the largest population of the
Carnivorous Sundew plant and Site 4 had the least. From 24 plants in Site 1 to 4 plants in Site
4. This result displayed that Site 1 had the most suitable physio-chemical conditions for growth.
With the use of site 1 having an abundance of Sundew, it reflected that these plants thrive
greatest in regions of high stone density, water holding capacity and clay volume and in areas of
least humus content and volumes of smaller particles. In this site it was slightly acidic but it was
the highest in acidity both in water and soil. Via the use of experimental data and analysis the
physio-chemical characteristics of the Aripos Open Savannah was measured, making this
experiment a success.
















RECOMMENDATIONS

To improve these IA investigations should have been taken over a wider area of land.
To have a more accurate outcome of the aim, more samples should have been taken from
each site visit on the same day.
More samples from more than one savannah should have been obtained.
The same general site of the Aripos Open Savannah One should have been visited on
different days to obtain better variables.


















BIBLIOGRAPHY

M.B.V. Roberts, June Mitchelmore, Nelson Thornes, Jul 1, 2000 - Biology text

Cxc Biology by Phil Bradfield, Steve Potter

Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions By Michael L. McKinney, Robert M.
Schoch, Logan Yonavja

Environmental Science By G. Miller, Scott Spoolman

Navindra Ramsaroop - Caribbean Educational Publishers, 2011 - Environmental
sciences