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Guide to the Names in The Lord of the Rings

J. R. R. TOLKIEN
These Notes on Nomenclature were made by J. R. R. Tolkien to assist translators of the
book into other languages. They were comosed when only the !wedish and "utch
translations had aeared. They ha#e been re#ised for ublication by $hristoher
Tolkien. %ll references to The Lord of the Rings are by #olume and age of the !econd
&Re#ised' Edition.
(The Editor
Nomenclature of
The Lord of the Rings
%ll names not in the following list should be left entirely unchanged in any language used in
translation) e*cet that infle*ional +s) +es should be rendered according to the grammar of the
language.
It is desirable that the translator should read %endi* , in -olume III of The Lord of the Rings
and follow the theory there set out. In the original te*t English reresents the $ommon !eech of
the suosed eriod. Names that are gi#en in modern English therefore reresent names in the
$ommon !eech) often but not always being translations of older names in other languages)
esecially !indarin &.rey+el#en'. The language of translation now relaces English as the e/ui#alent
of the $ommon !eech0 the names in English form should therefore be translated into the other
language according to their meaning &as closely as ossible'.
1ost of the names of this tye should offer no difficulty to a translator) esecially not to one using
a language of .ermanic origin) related to English2 "utch) .erman) and the !candina#ian languages0
for e*amle Black Country, Battle Plain, Dead Marshes, Snow-mane !ome names) howe#er) may
ro#e less easy. In a few cases the author) acting as translator of El#ish names already de#ised and
used in this book or elsewhere) has taken ains to roduce a $ommon !eech name that is both a
translation and also &to English ears' a euhonious name of familiar English style) e#en if it does not
actually occur in England. Ri!endell is a successful e*amle) as a translation of .rey+el#en "mladris
3.len of the $left3. It is desirable to translate such names) since to lea#e them unchanged would
disturb the carefully de#ised scheme of nomenclature and introduce an une*lained element without
a lace in the feigned linguistic history of the eriod. 4ut of course the translator is free to de#ise a
name in the other language that is suitable in sense and5or toograhy0 not all the $ommon !eech
names are recise translations of those in other languages.
% further difficulty arises in some cases. Names &of laces and ersons' occur) esecially in the
!hire) which are not 3meaningless3) but are English in form &that is) in theory the author3s translation
of $ommon !eech names') containing elements that are in the current language obsolete or
dialectal) or are worn+down and obscured in form. &!ee %endi* ,.' ,rom the author3s oint of #iew
it is desirable that translators should ha#e some knowledge of the nomenclature of ersons and
laces in the languages used in translation) and of words that occur in them that are obsolete in the
current forms of those languages) or only reser#ed locally. The notes I offer are intended to assist a
translator in distinguishing 3in#entions3) made of elements current in modern English) such as
Ri!endell, Snow-mane, from actual names in use in England) indeendently of this story) and
therefore elements in the modern English language that it is desirable to match by e/ui#alents in the
language of translation) with regard to their original meaning) and also where feasible with regard to
their archaic or altered form. I ha#e sometimes referred to old) obsolescent) or dialectal words in the
!candina#ian and .erman languages which might ossibly be used as the e/ui#alents of similar
elements in the English names found in the te*t. I hoe that these references may be sometimes
found helful) without suggesting that I claim any cometence in these modern languages beyond an
interest in their early history.
Names of Persons and Peoples
#$$ledore %n old word for 3ale+tree3 &it sur#i#es in English lace+names'. It should be translated
by the e/ui#alent(that is) by a dialectal or archaic word of the same meaning. In .ermanic
languages this may be a word of the same origin2 for e*amle) .erman &1iddle 6igh .erman'
a$halter% Icelandic a$uldur% Norwegian) Old !wedish a$ald
Baggins Intended to recall 3bag3(comare 4ilbo3s con#ersation with !maug in The &o''it -- and
meant to be associated &by hobbits' with Bag (nd &that is) the end of a 3bag3 or 3udding bag3 7 cul+
de+sac') the local name for 4ilbo3s house. &It was the local name for my aunt3s farm in
8orcestershire) which was at the end of a lane leading to it and no further'. $omare also Sack!ille-
Baggins The translation should contain an element meaning 3sack) bag3.
Banks $learly a toograhical name containing 3bank3 in the sense 3stee sloe or hill+side3. It should
be reresented by something similar.
Barrow-wights $reatures dwelling in a 3barrow3 &gra#e+mound'0 see Barrow under 9lace+names. It is
an in#ented name2 an e/ui#alent should be in#ented. The "utch translation has grafgeest 3gra#e+
ghost30 the !wedish has )ummelgast 3gra#emound+ghost3.
Beech'one This is meant to be significant) being a translation into the $ommon !eech of some
Entish or EI#ish e/ui#alent. It should be translated similarly &for e*amle as Buch'ein, or robably
better Buchen'ein*'.
Big +olk, Big Peo$le Translate.
Black Ca$tain, Black ,ne, Black Riders. Translate.
Bolger. !ee Budgeford
Bounders E#idently intended to mean 3ersons watching the bounds &that is) boundaries'3. This word
e*ists in English) and is not marked as obsolete in dictionaries) though I ha#e seldom heard it used0
robably because the late nineteenth+century slang 3bounder3( an offensi#ely ushing and in+bred
man(was for a time in #ery general use) and soon became a term of contemt e/ui#alent to 3cad3. It
is a long time since I heard it) and I think it is now forgotten by younger eole. The "utch
translation uses Poenen 3cads3) robably because a well+known dictionary only gi#es $atser 3bounder)
cad3 as the meaning of 'ounder &labelled as slang'. In the te*t the latter sense is meant to be recalled
by English readers) but the rimary functional sense to be clearly understood. &This slender :est is
not) of course) worth imitating) e#en if ossible'.
Bracegirdle % genuine English surname) used in the te*t) of course) with refercnce to the hobbit
tendency to be fat and so to strain their belts. % desirable translation would recogni;e this by some
e/ui#alent meaning Tight-'elt, or Belt-tightener 5 strainer 5 stretcher &The name is a genuine English
one0 a comound of the Romance tye with the #erbal element first) as in Drinkwater 7 Boileau% but
it is not necessary that the reresentation should be a known surname in the language of translation.
8ould not -.rtels$anner do<'
Brandy'uck % rare English name which I ha#e come across. Its origin in English is not concerned0 in
The Lord of the Rings it is ob#iously meant to contain elements of the Brandywine Ri!er and the
family name ,ld'uck &see these entries'. The latter contains the word 3buck3 &animal'2 either Old
English 'ucc 3male deer3 &fallow or roe') or 'ucca 3he+goat3.
Buckland is also meant to contain the same animal name &.erman Bock/, though Buckland, an
English lace+name) is fre/uently in fact deri#ed from 3book+land3) land originally held by a written
charter.
Brockhouse Brock is an old word for the badger) still widely current in country seech u to the end
of the nineteenth century and aearing in literature) and hence in good dictionaries) including
bilinguals. !o there is not much e*cuse for the "utch and !wedish translators3 ha#ing misrendered it.
In the "utch translation Broekhuis &not a misrint) since it is reeated in the four laces where this
name occurs' seems absurd2 what is a 3breech+house3< The !wedish -althus 3wild+boar house3 is not
much better) since swine do not burrow= The translator e#idently did not know or look u Brock,
since he uses -r0!lingar for the name Burrows &!wedish gr0flingar, gr0fs!in 3badgers3'.
Brock occurs in numerous lace+names) from which surnames are deri#ed) such as Brock'anks
Brockhouse is) of course) feigned to be a hobbit+name because the 3brock3 builds comlicated and
well+ordered underground dwellings or 3setts3. The .erman rendering should be Dachs'au) I think.
In "anish use -rae!ling
Butter'ur !o far as I know) not found as a name in England) though Butter is so used) as well as
combinations &in origin lace+names' such as Butterfield These ha#e in the tale been modified) to fit
the generally botanical names of 4ree) to the lant+name 3butterbur3 &Petasites !ulgaris'. If the
oular name for this contains an e/ui#alent of 3butter3) so much the better. Otherwise use another
lant+name containing 3butter3 &as .erman Butter'lume, Butter'aum, "utch 'oter'loeme' or
referring to a fat thick lant. The butterbur is a fleshy lant with a hea#y flower+head on a thick stalk)
and #ery large lea#es.
4utterbur3s first name Barliman is simly an altered selling of 3barley3 and 3man3 &suitable to an
innkeeer and ale+brewer') and should be translated.
Ca$tains of the 1est Translate.
Chief, The Translate.
Chu'' % genuine English surname) chosen because its immediate association in English is with the
ad:ecti#e 3chubby3) round and fat in bodily shae &said to be deri#ed from chu', the name of a ri#er
fish'.
Corsairs Translate. They are imagined as similar to the 1editerranean corsairs2 sea+robbers with
fortified bases.
Cotton This is a lace+name in origin &as are many modern surnames') from cot, a cottage or humble
dwelling) and +ton) the usual shortening of 3town3 in lace+names &Old English t2n 3#illage3'. It should
be translated in these terms.
It is a common English surname and has) of course) in origin no connection with cotton the te*tile
material) though it is naturally associated with it at the resent day. 6obbits are reresented as using
tobacco) and this is made more or less credible by the suggestion that the lant was brought o#er the
!ea by the 1en of 8esternesse &I >?'0 but it is not intended that cotton should be suosed to be
known or used at that time. !ince it is highly imrobable that in any other language a normal and
fre/uent #illage name should in any way resemble the e/ui#alent of cotton &the material') this
resemblance in the original te*t may be assed o#er. It has no imortance for the narrati#e) !ee
-amgee
Cotman aears as a first name in the genealogies. It is an old word meaning 3cottager3) 3cot+
dweller3) and is to be found in larger dictionaries. It is also a well+known English surname.
Dark Lord, Dark Power Translate.
Dead, The Translate.
Dunlendings Lea#e unchanged e*cet in the lural ending. It reresents Rohan dun3n/lending, an
inhabitant of Dun3n/land
(asterlings Translate) as 3Easterners) men from the East3 &in the story men from the little+known
regions beyond the !ea of Rh@n'.
(lder )indred, (lder Race, (lder Peo$le Translate. In a language which ossesses two forms of the
comarati#e of old, use the more archaic form. &In English the older form elder imlies both
seniority and kinshi'.
The similarity between (lda-r lural) the western El#es) and (lder is accidental. The name (lda
3Elf3 had been de#ised long before The Lord of the Rings was written. There is no need to seek to
imitate it0 it is not useful or significant. $omare (lder Days, which again imlies a more ancient
eoch in the history of eole of the same kin) that is in the days of their far+off ancestors.
(lf-friend Translate. It was suggested by #elfwine, the English form of an old .ermanic name
&reresented for instance in the Lombardic #l'oin') though its analy;able meaning was robably not
recogni;ed or thought significant by the many recorded bearers of the name #elfwine in Old English.
(l!en-smiths Translate. The archaic ad:ecti#al or comosition form el!en used in The Lord of the
Rings should on no account be e/uated with the debased English word elfin, which has entirely
wrong associations. Ase either the word for elf in the language of translation) or a first element in a
comound) or di#ide into el!ish B smiths, using an e/ui#alent in the language of translation for the
correct ad:ecti#e el!ish
8ith regard to .erman2 I would suggest with diffidence that (lf, elfen are erhas to be a#oided
as e/ui#alents of elf, el!en (lf is) I belie#e) borrowed from English) and may retain some of the
associations of a kind that I should articularly desire not to be resent &if ossible'2 for e*amle
those of "rayton or of # Midsummer 4ight5s Dream &in the translation of which) I belie#e) (lf was
first used in .erman'. That is) the retty) fanciful reduction of 3elf3 to a butterfly+like creature
inhabiting flowers.
I wonder whether the word #l$ &or better still the form #l', still gi#en in modern dictionaries as a
#ariant) which is historically the more normal form' could not be used. It is the true cognate of
English elf% and if it has senses nearer to English oaf, referring to uckish and malicious srites) or to
idiots regarded as 3changelings3) that is true also of English elf. I find these debased rustic
associations less damaging than the 3retty3 literary fancies. The El#es of the 3mythology3 of The Lord
of the Rings are not actually e/uatable with the folklore traditions about 3fairies3) and as I ha#e said
&III C>D' I should refer the oldest a#ailable form of the name to be used) and left to ac/uire its own
associations for readers of my tale. In !candina#ian languages alf is a#ailable.
(nemy, The Translate.
(nt Retain this) alone or in comounds) such as (ntwi!es It is suosed to be a name in the
language of the -ale of %nduin) including Rohan) for these creatures. It is actually an Old English
word for 3giant3) which is thus right according to the system attributed to Rohan) but the (nts of this
tale are not in form or character deri#ed from .ermanic mythology. (ntings 3children of Ents3 &II E?'
should also be unchanged e*cet in the lural ending. The .rey+el#en &!indarin' name was ,nodrim
&II CD'.
(!enstar %s title of #rwen 6nd7miel 8hen used in the te*t this translation of 6nd7miel &a Fuenya
name' should be translated.
+air'airns, Translate. It is an English surname) a northern #ariant of the name +airchild It is used
by me to suggest that the el#ish beauty of Elanor) daughter of !am) was long inherited by her
descendants. Elanor was also remarkable for her golden hair0 and in modern English fair when used
of comle*ion or hair means rimarily blond) but though this association was meant to be resent in
the minds of English readers) it need not be reresented.
+air +olk The beautiful eole &based on 8elsh Tylwyth teg 3the beautiful kindred3 7 fairies'. Title of
the El#es. Translate.
+allohide This has gi#en difficulty. It should if ossible be translated) since it is meant to reresent a
name with a meaning in the $ommon !eech) though one de#ised in the ast and so containing
archaic elements. It is made of English fallow B hide &cognates of .erman fal' and &aut/ and means
39aleskin3. It is archaic) since fallow 3ale) yellowish3 is not now in use) e*cet in fallow deer, and hide
is no longer alied to human skin &e*cet as a transference back from its use of animal hides) used
for leather'. 4ut this element of archaism need not be imitated. !ee III C>C on the relation of secial
hobbit words to the language of Rohan.
+ang % dog3s name in I >G>0 translate. It is meant of course to be the English fang 3canine or
rominent tooth3 &Old English fengt8$% .erman fang9ahn'0 but since it is associated with -ri$, the
sense of the now lost #erb fang, I should think that .erman +ang would be a good #ersion.
+atty Lum$kin Translate. The kin is of course a diminuti#e suffi*.
+ell Riders Translate.
+ellowshi$ of the Ring Translate in the te*t0 also if ossible in the title.
+erny % name in 4ree. Translate. +ern and +erny, +ernie are English surnames) but whate#er their
origin the name is here used to fit the redominantly botanical names current in 4ree.
+irefoot Translate.
+irst'orn, The Title of the El#es. Translate. &3,irstborn3) since the El#es aeared in the world before
all other 3seaking eoles3) not only 1en) but also "war#es) of indeendent origin. 6obbits are of
course meant to be a secial #ariety of the human race'.
+ladrif !ee Leaflock
+lourdum$ling Translate.
+ree +olk% +ree Lords of the +ree% +ree Peo$les. Translate.
-amgee % surname found in England) though uncommon. I do not know its origin0 it does not
aear to be English. It is also a word for 3cotton+wool3 &now obsolescent but known to me in
childhood') deri#ed from the name of !. .amgee &died >??H') a distinguished surgeon) who in#ented
3.amgee tissue3. In a translation it would be best to treat this name as 3meaningless3) and retain it with
any selling changes that may seem necessary to fit it to the style of the language of translation.
-amling 3the ,ld/ % name of one of the Rohirrim) and best left unchanged) though like one or two
other names in Rohan 3Shadowfa:, 1ormtongue/ it has been slightly anglici;ed and moderni;ed. It
should be -ameling &with short a/ It would be one of the words and names that hobbits recogni;ed
as similar to their own) since it is an English &that is) $ommon !eech' name) robably the origin of
the surnames -amlen, -am3'/lin, and other forms. $omare The Tale of -amelin, a medie#al oem
from which ultimately was deri#ed art of !hakeseare3s #s ;ou Like "t &It is deri#ed from the stem
gamal- 3old3) the normal word in !candina#ian languages) but only found in Old English in #erse+
language) and in Old 6igh .erman only as an element in ersonal names'.
-oatleaf # 4ree name of botanical tye. It is an old name of the honeysuckle or woodbine.
$omare ,rench ch<!refeuille &medie#al Latin ca$rifolium, robably from the #ernaculars'. It
resents no difficulty in .erman) since -eiss'latt seems one of the names in use.
-old'erry Translate by sense.
-reat (nemy Translate.
-rey Com$any. Translate.
-reyhame 1oderni;ed form of Rohan gr=g-hama 3greycoat3. 4y+name in Rohan of .andalf. !ince
both -r=ghama and -reyhame would robably be unintelligible in a language of translation) whereas
at least the -rey- is meant to be intelligible to readers) it would be right) I think) to translate this
eithet2 that is) to reresent Iomer as translating its sense into the $ommon !eech &II JE'. !o the
"utch #ersion has correctly -ri>smantel% but the !wedish wrongly gr?hamn 3grey hantom3. In
.erman it might be -raumantel<
-rey &ost Translate.
-rey Pilgrim %nother by+name of .andalf) translation of Mithrandir It should be translated by
sense.
-ri$ "og+name. Translate. !ee +ang
-ru'' % hobbit+name. &-ru''s, I JH) is lural.' Translate) if ossible in some way more or less
suitable to sound and sense. The name is meant to recall the English #erb gru' 3dig) root) in the
ground.3
-uardians Translate.
&alfling $ommon !eech name for &o''it It is not actually an English word) but might be &that is)
it is suitably formed with aroriate suffi*'. The sense is 3a half+si;ed man 5 erson3. Translate with
similar in#ention containing the word for 3half3 in the language of translation. The "utch translation
used &alfling &resumably an intelligible deri#ati#e of half) though not in use in "utch any more than
in English'.
&arfoots &lural'. 1eant to be intelligible &in its conte*t' and recogni;ed as an altered form of an old
name 7 3hairfoot3) that is) 3one with hairy feet3. It is suosed to reresent archaic English h@Ar-f8t
later herfoot, with the usual change of er to ar in English. 1odern English hair) though related) is
not a direct descendant of Old English h @Ar, h=r 7 .erman &aar .erman &arfuss would
ade/uately reresent the form) meaning) and slight change of selling in an old roer name. !ee
+allohide
&arry &from &erry from &enry/ %ny oular man3s name of a similar sort will do.
&ayward Translate. % local official with the duty of insecting fences and keeing cattle from
straying &see I >K'. The word is now obsolescent) sur#i#ing chiefly in the #ery common surname
&ayward% but &o' &III LEE) LEK' was suosed actually to be a hayward. The word is deri#ed from
hay 3fence3 &not 3grass3' B ward
3
guard3. $omare &igh &ay, &ay -ate, &aysend, lace+names in
4uckland. If the language of translation ossesses an old comound of similar sense) so much the
better. The "utch translation used Schutmesster &which is #ery close2 3keeer of a ound or fenced
enclosure3.' The !wedish used st0ngsel!akt 3hedge+watch3) which I think is made for the urose.
&ealer, The &ealers Translate.
&eathertoes % 4ree name. There is no arallel in English) though &eather- aears in some
surnames. The "utch translation has &eideteen ,or .erman &eBde9hen< &9resumably a :oke of the
4ig ,olk) meaning that the Little ,olk) wandering unshod) collected heather) twigs and lea#es
between their toes'.
&o''it "o not translate) since the name is suosed no longer to ha#e had a recogni;ed meaning in
the !hire) and not to ha#e been deri#ed from the $ommon !eech &7 English) or the language of
translation'.
&olman, %n English surname0 but here suosed to 7 3hole+man3 &ronounced the same'. Translate
by this sense.
&orn'lower &orn'low and &orn'lower are English surnames. In the !hire they are e#idendy
occuational surnames. Translate by sense.
"sengrim, !ee III C>J2 3In some old families) esecially those of ,allohide origin such as the Tooks
and the 4olgers) it was ... ) the custom to gi#e high+sounding first+names3. The name is an old
.ermanic one) erhas best known now as the name 3"segrim/ adoted for the 8olf as a character in
the romance of Reynard the +o: It is best left untranslated since it is not suosed to be made of
$ommon !eech elements.
Leaflock Translate by sense) since this is suosed to be a $ommon !eech translation of the El#ish
+inglasC fing 3lock of hair3 B las3s/ 3leaf3. !imilarly the Ent+name +ladrif, translated as Skin'ark
Maggot Intended to be a 3meaningless3 name) hobbit+like in sound. %ctually it is an accident that
maggot is an English word meaning 3grub3) 3lar#a3. The "utch translation has Dan de Made &made 7
.erman Made, Old English maEa 3maggot3') but the name is robably best left alone) as in the
!wedish translation) though some assimilation to the style of the language of translation would be in
lace.
Marigold Translate this flower+name &see III C>J'. The name is used because it is suitable as a name
in English and because) containing 3gold3 and referring to a golden flower) it suggests that there was a
3,allohide3 strain &see > >L' in !am3s family(which) increased by the fa#our of .aladriel) became
notable in his children2 esecially (lanor, but also -oldilocks &a name sometimes gi#en to flowers of
the buttercu kind' who married the heir of 9eregrin Took. Anfortunately the name of the flower in
the language of translation may be unsuitable as a name in form or meaning &for instance ,rench
souci'. In such a case it would be better to substitute the name of some other yellow flower. The
!wedish translator sol#ed the difficulty by translating the name as Ma>agull and adding Ring'lom
&!wedish ring'lomma 3marigold30 comare .erman Ringel'lume/. The "utch translator was content
with Mei9oent>e 5daisy5% which is good enough. 6e did not include the genealogies in his translation)
and ignored 3the fact that "aisy was the name of a much older sister of !am and not a laymate of
Rosie $otton.
Mugwort % 4ree name0 the name of a lant 3#rtemisia, ,rench armoise, akin to 8ormwood) ,rench
armoise am<re/ Translate by the name of the lant in the language of translation &for e*amle
.erman Beifuss/ If suitable0 or by the name of some other herb of more or less similar shae. There
is no secial reason for the choice of Mugwort, e*cet its hobbit+like sound.
4ecromancer Translate.
4eeker'reekers, In#ented insect+name0 reresent it by some in#ention of similar sound &suosed to
be like that of a cricket'.
4oakes %dat this to the language of translation or substitute some suitable name in it of similar
style.
4oake3s/, 4oke3s/ is an English surname) deri#ed robably from the not uncommon minor lace+
name No&a'ke) from early English atten oke 3at the oak30 but since this is no longer recogni;ed) this
need not be considered. The name is in the tale unimortant.
,ld'uck !ee Brandywine, Brandy'uck The -'uck is deri#ed from a ersonal name Buck, in archaic
form Bucca &III JH?) year >KEK'. The first name -orhendad &I >G?' should be left unchanged. It is a
8elsh word meaning
3
great+grandfather30 the reason for gi#ing the folk of 4uckland 8elsh names or
ones of similar style is gi#en in III C>J+C.
,li$haunt Retain this. It is an archaic form of 3elehant3 used as a 3rusticism3) on the suosition that
rumour of the !outhern beast would ha#e reached the !hire long ago in the form of legend. This
detail might be retained simly by substituting , for the initial ( of the ordinary name of the elehant
in the language of translation2 the meaning would remain sufficiently ob#ious) e#en if that language
had no similar archaic form. In "utch olifant remains the current form) and so is used by the
translator) but with loss of the archaic colouring. ,li$hant in English is deri#ed from Old ,rench
olifant, but the o is robably deri#ed from old forms of English or .erman2 Old English olfend, Old
6igh .erman ol'enta 3camel3. The names of foreign animals) seldom or ne#er seen) are often
misalied in the borrowing language. Old English olfend, Old 6igh .erman ol'enta, are robably
ultimately related to the classical ele$hant &Latin from .reek'.
,rald +orn and ,rald as names of 4ombadil are meant to be names in foreign tongues &not
$ommon !eech' and should according to the system be left unchanged. +orn is actually the
!candina#ian word for 3&belonging to' ancient &days'3. %ll the dwarf+names in this tale are Norse) as
reresenting a northern language of 1en) different from but closely related to that of the Rohirrim
who came from the other side of 1irkwood &see III >CG) C>D'. ,rald is an Old English word for
3#ery ancient3) e#idently meant to reresent the language of the Rohirrim and their kin. It may be left
unchanged0 but since it is the e*act counterart in form and sense of .erman uralt, this might well be
used in a .erman translation.
,rc This is suosed to be the $ommon !eech name of these creatures at that time0 it should
therefore according to the system be translated into English) or the language of translation. It was
translated 3goblin3 in The &o''it, e*cet in one lace0 but this word) and other words of similar sense
in other Euroean languages &as far as I know') are not really suitable. The orc in The Lord of the
Rings and The Silmarillion, though of course artly made out of traditional features) is not really
comarable in suosed origin) functions) and relation to the El#es. In any case orc seemed to me)
and seems) in sound a good name for these creatures. It should be retained.
It should be selt ork &so the "utch translation' in a .ermanic language) but I had used the
selling orc in so many laces that I ha#e hesitated to change it in the English te*t) though the
ad:ecti#e is necessarily selt orkish The .rey+el#en form is orch, lural yrch
I originally took the word from Old English orc MBeowulf >>L orc-nass and the gloss orc 7 $yrs
&3ogre3') heldeofol &3hell+de#il3'N. This is suosed not to be connected with modern English orc) ork,
a name alied to #arious sea+beasts of the dolhin order.
Pickthorn % 4ree name0 meant to be 3meaningful3. Translate.
Pim$le %n orobrious nickname. Translate.
Proudfoot % 6obbit surname &it is an English surname'. Translate.
Puddifoot % surname in the muddy 1arish0 meant to suggest $uddle B foot Translate.
Fuick'eam Ent. This is a translation of !indarin Bregalad 3/uick &li#ely' tree3. !ince in the story this
is reresented as a name gi#en to him because he was &for an Ent' 3hasty3) it would be best to
translate the name by a comound &made for the urose' ha#ing this sense &for e*amle .erman
Fuick'aum</. It is unlikely that the language of translation would ossess an actual tree+name
ha#ing or aearing to ha#e this sense. Fuick'eam and Fuicken are actual English names of the
3rowan3 or 3mountain ash30 also gi#en to the related 3!er#ice+tree3. The rowan is here e#idently
intended) since 3rowan3 is actually used in Fuickbeam3s song &II ?E'.
Ring-wraiths This is a translation of the 4lack !eech 4a9gGl, from na9g 3ring3 and gGl, any one of
the ma:or in#isible ser#ants of !auron dominated entirely by his will. % comound must be made out
of suitable elements in the language of translation that has the sense of 3ring+wraith3 as nearly as
ossible.
Rum'le The name of an old hobbit+woman. It had no meaning &at that time' in the !hire. % form of
similar attern to suit the language of translation will suffice.
Sack!ille-Baggins Sack!ille is an English name &of more aristocratic association than Baggins/ It is
of course :oined in the story with Baggins because of the similar meaning in English &7 $ommon
!eech' sack and 'ag, and because of the slightly comic effect of this con:unction. %ny comound in
the language of translation containing elements meaning &more or less' the e/ui#alent of sack H 'ag
will do.
Scatha This is Old English &3in:urer) enemy) robber3' and so is from the language of Rohan and
should be left unchanged.
Shadowfa: This is an anglici;ed form of Rohan &that is Old English' Sceadu-fae: 3ha#ing shadow+
grey mane &and coat'3. It does not actually occur in Old English. !ince it is not $ommon !eech) it
may be retained) though better so in a simlified form of the Rohan name2 Scadufa: 4ut since in the
te*t this name has been assimilated to modern English &7 $ommon !eech') it would be satisfactory
to do the same in a .ermanic language of translation) using related elements. +a: 3hair3 is now
obsolete in English) e*cet in the name +airfa: &no longer understood'. It was used in Old 6igh
.erman 3faks/ and 1iddle 6igh .erman 3!ahs, !achs/, but is) I belie#e) also now obsolete0 but it
could be re#i#ed in this name) as it is in the English te*t2 for e*amle Schatten!achs* +a: 3faks/ is
still in use in Iceland and Norway for 3mane30 but 3shadow3 has no e*act e/ui#alents in !candina#ian
languages. The "utch #ersion has Schaduwschicht &shadow+flash') the !wedish Skuggfa:e
Sharkey This is suosed to be a nickname modified to fit the $ommon !eech &in the English te*t
anglici;ed') based on orkish sharkG 3old man3. The word should therefore be ket with modification
of selling to fit the language of translation0 alteration of the diminuti#e and /uasi+affectionate ending
-ey to fit that language would also be in lace.
Shelo' Though it sounds &I think' a suitable name for the !ider) in some foreign &orkish' tongue) it
is actually comosed of She and lo' &a dialectal English word meaning 3sider30 see 4ilbo3s song in
chater -III of The &o''it'. The "utch #ersion retains Shelo', but the !wedish has the rather feeble
&onmonstret
Shirriff3s/ %ctually a now obsolete form of English sheriff 3shire+officer3) used by me to make the
connection with Shire lainer. In the story Shirriff and Shire are suosed to be secial hobbit
words) not generally current in the $ommon !eech of the time) and so deri#ed from their former
language related to that of the Rohirrim. !ince the word is thus not suosed to be $ommon !eech)
but a local word) it is not necessary to translate it) or do more than accommodate its selling to the
style of the language of translation. It should) howe#er) resemble in its first art whate#er word is
used to reresent Shire &see this entry'.
Skin'ark English &7 $ommon !eech' translation of +ladrif The name should therefore be suitably
translated by sense. &$omare Leaflock/
Small'urrow % meaningful hobbit+name0 translate by sense.
Snowmane % meaningful name &of King Theoden3s horse') but &like !hadowfa*' translated into
modern English form) for snIw-mana It should therefore be reresented by its roer Rohan form
Snawmana, or translated &esecially into a .ermanic language') as for e*amle .erman
Schneem0hne
Stoors The name of a third kind of hobbit of hea#ier build. This is early English stor, stoor 3large)
strong3) now obsolete. !ince it is thus suosed to be a secial hobbit word not current in the
$ommon !eech) it need not be translated) and may be reresented by a more or less 3honetic3
selling according to the use of letters in the language of translation0 but an archaic or dialectal word
of this sense would also be accetable.
Swertings !aid by !am to be the name in the !hire for the legendary &to hobbits' dark+skinned
eole of the 3!unlands3 &far south'. It may be left unchanged as a secial local word &not in the
$ommon !eech'0 but since it is e#idently a deri#ati#e of swart, which is still in use &7 swarthy/, it
could be reresented by some similar deri#ati#e of the word for 3black 5 dark3 in the language of
translation. $omare Swarthy Men) the $ommon !eech e/ui#alent &III EJ'.
Thistlewool Translate by sense.
Took 6obbit+name of unknown origin reresenting actual 6obbit T2k &see III C>D'. It should thus be
ket and selt honetically according to the language of translation. The Took ersonal names
should be ket in the form and selling of the te*t) as Peregrin, Paladin, #delard, Bando'ras Note
that 4andobras3 nickname 34ullroarer3 is in $ommon !eech and should be translated by sense &if
ossible alliterating on 4'. This nickname also aears in Bullroarer Took in The &o''it >E. I
belie#ed when I wrote it that 'ullroarer was a word used by anthroologists for instruments that
made a roaring sound) used by unci#ili;ed eoles0 but I cannot find it in any dictionaries.
Tree'eard Translation of +angorn Translate by sense.
Twofoot Translate by sense.
6nderhill, Translate by sense.
1andlim' 7 +im'rethil, of which it is not a translation. Translate by sense. &%n Entwife3s name'.
1hitfoot Translate by 3white3 and 3foot.3 !ee 1hitfurrows under lace+names.
1indfola 7 38ind+foal3) but lea#e unaltered since it is in the language of Rohan &not $ommon
!eech'.
1ingfoot % nickname0 translate by sense2 3winged+foot3.
1ormtongue 31oderni;ed3 form of the nickname of -rBma, the e#il counsellor of Rohan2 Rohan
wyrm-tunga 3snake+tongue3. Translate by sense.
1oses This reresents &moderni;ed' the Rohan word for 3old men of the woods3. It is not a urely
in#ented word. The suosed genuine Rohan word was wIsa, lural wIsan, which if it had sur#i#ed
into modern English would be woses It would ha#e been better to call the 3wild men3 woodwoses) for
that actually occurs in Old English wudewIsa, glossing 3faunus, satyrus, sa#age men) e#il creatures3.
This word sur#i#ed into the Tudor eriod as woodoses &often corruted to woodhouses/) and
sur#i#es in heraldry) since the woodhouse 7 a wild hairy man clad in lea#es) common as a suorter
to arms. The wIsa element meant originally a forlorn or abandoned erson) and now(for instance in
.erman 1aise and "utch weesJmeans 3orhan3. The origin of this idea was no doubt the actual
e*istence of wild folk) remnants of former eoles dri#en out by in#aders) or of outlaws) li#ing a
debased and sa#age life in forests and mountains.
Place-Names
#rchet This is actually an English lace+name of $eltic origin. It is used in the nomenclature of 4ree
to reresent a stratum of names older than those in the $ommon !eech or 6obbit language. !o also
Bree, an English lace+name from a $eltic word for 3hill3. Therefore retain #rchet and Bree unaltered)
since these names no longer ha#e a recogni;ed meaning in English. Chetwood is a comound of
$eltic and English) both elements meaning 3wood30 comare Brill, in O*fordshire) deri#ed from 'ree
K hBll Therefore in Chetwood retain Chet and translate -wood
#shen Mountains $ommon !eech translation of (red Lithui &!indarin orod, lural eryd, ered,
3mountain30 lith 3ash30 B ad:ecti#al ui'. Translate by sense2 mountains of ash+grey hue.
Bag (nd The local name for 4ilbo3s house) and meant to be associated &by hobbits' with the end of a
3bag3 or 3udding+bag3 7 cul+de+sac. Translate by sense. !ee Baggins% the same element in the
language of translation should aear both in Baggins and in Bag (nd
Bagshot Row The row of small 3holes3 in the lane below 4ag End) said to ha#e been so named
because the earth remo#ed in e*ca#ating 4ag End was shot o#er the edge of the sudden fall in the
hillside onto the ground which later became the gardens and earthwalls of the humbler dwellings.
Translate by aro*imate sense) including the same element in the language of translation meaning
3bag3.
Bamfurlong %n English lace+name) robably from 'ean 3bean3 and furlong &in the sense of a
di#ision of a common field') the name being gi#en to a stri of land usually reser#ed for beans. The
name is now) and so is suosed to ha#e been at that time in the !hire) without clear meaning. It is
the name of ,armer 1aggot3s farm. Translate as seems suitable) but some comound containing the
word for 3bean3 and that for 3field) culti#ated ground3 would seem desirable.
BarLnduin This means 3the long gold+brown ri#er.3 Lea#e untranslated2 Brandywine is reresented as
a corrution of !indarin BarLnduin &accent on the middle syllable and') from 'aran 3brown) yellow+
brown3 B duin 3ri#er3. The common El#ish was duin=C stem dui 3flow &in #olume'3. The Fuenya form
would ha#e been luine &in Fuenya initial d became l') but the word was not used. Retain when so
selt. Asually by hobbits altered to Brandywine% see this entry.
Barrow-downs Translate by sense2 low treeless hills on which there are many 3barrows3) that is tumuli
and other rehistoric gra#e+mounds. This 'arrow is not related to modern 'arrow, an imlement with
a wheel0 it is a recent adotion by archaeologists of the English dialect word 'arrow &earlier 'errow)
from English 'eorg, 'erg, 3hill) mound3'.
Barrowfield !ee the receding entry. Translate by sense2 a field containing a gra#e+mound.
Battle -ardens, Battle Pit Translate by sense.
Better Smials !ee Smials under Things.
Black Country, Black Land $ommon !eech translation of Mordor Translate.
Black Stone Translate by sense.
Blackroot Dale Translate by sense0 $ommon !eech translation of Morthond &the name of a ri#er)
gi#en because its source was in the dark ca#erns of the "ead 1en'.
Blessed Realm Translate by sense. The name in the $ommon !eech for the ,ar 8estern Land in
which the -alar &guardian owers' and the 6igh El#es dwelt) called in Fuenya #man% the region
where the -alar dwelt being Dalimar, Dalinor) and that of the El#es (ldamar The 4lessed Realm was
at this time no longer art of the hysical world) and could not) e*cet in rare cases) be reached by
mortals.
Bonfire -lade Translate by sense.
Brandy &all This should be translated) but should contain the same element as that used in the ri#er+
name &4randywine'. In this case the whole word in the language of translation) for e*amle
Branntwein or Brende!in, could be used) since the 6all was on the east bank of the ri#er. In the
ersonal name Brandy'uck it could be reduced to the first element) for instance Brende'uk<
Brandywine This is reresented as a hobbit alteration &I >C' of the El#ish &!indarin' BarLnduin
&stressed on the middle syllable'. !ince this is meant to ha#e been intelligible at that time it should be
translated by sense0 but a difficulty arises) since it would be desirable that the translation should also
be a ossible corrution of BarLnduin The "utch translation used Brandewi>n% the !wedish missed
the oint) using Dinfluden, though Br0nna!in would ha#e ser#ed. "anish Brende!in or .erman
Branntwein would also do.
Bree Retain) since it was an old name) of obsolete meaning in an older language0 see #rchet
Bree-hill, Bree-land Retain the first element) and translate 3hill3 and 3land.3
Brocken'ores Not &I think' a genuine English lace+name0 but intended to ha#e the recogni;ed
sense2 3badgers3 borings) badgers3 tunnellings3. Translate in this sense. !ee Brockhouse
Buck &ill, Buckland The element 3buck3 should be translated. !ee Brandy'uck, ,ld'uck
Buckle'ury The name of the chief #illage in the Buckland Translate with a name containing the
3buck3 element &as abo#e' B some e/ui#alent of English -'ury &Old English 'urg, a lace occuying a
defensi#e osition) walled or enclosed0 a town. $omare 4or'ury/ The -le in Buckle- is either an
alteration of Bucken'ury, with the old geniti#e lural -en3a/) or a reduction of Buckland
Budgeford Budge- was an obscured element) ha#ing at the time no clear meaning. !ince it was the
main residence of the Bolger family &a hobbit+name not to be translated' it may be regarded as a
corrution of the element 'olge, 'ulge 4oth Bolger and Bulger occur as surnames in England.
8hate#er their real origin) they are used in the story to suggest that they were in origin nicknames
referring to fatness) tubbiness.
Bywater -illage name2 as being beside the wide ool occurring in the course of the 8ater) the main
ri#er of the !hire) a tributary of the 4randywine. Translate by sense.
Chetwood !ee #rchet
The Cleft &3of the !ider3' 7 Cirith 36ngol/ Cirith means 3cleft3) a narrow assage cut through earth
or rock &like a railway cutting'. Translate by sense.
Cloudyhead Translation of "war#ish BundushathGr% translate by sense.
Coom' % dee &but usually not #ery large' #alley. It is #ery fre/uent as an element in English lace+
names) selt in #arious ways) such as -com', -cum', -com'e In this story used in the name Dee$ing
Coom') or with reference to it. !ee Dee$ing Coom'
Crack of Doom In modern use deri#ed from 1acbeth I- i >>E) in which the cracke of Doome means
3the announcement of the Last "ay3) by a crack or eal of thunder2 so it is commonly suosed) but it
may mean 3the sound of the last trum3) since crack could be alied to the sudden sound of horns or
trumets &as it is in Sir -awain and the -reen )night lines >>H) >>HH'. In this story crack is here
used in the sense 3fissure3) and refers to the #olcanic fissure in the crater of ,rodruin in 1ordor. !ee
further under Doom and Mount Doom
Crickhollow % lace+name in 4uckland. It is meant to be taken as comosed of an obsolete element
B the known word hollow The -hollow &a small deression in the ground' can be translated by sense)
the crick- retained &in the selling of the language of translation'.
Dee$ing Coom' This should ha#e been selt Dee$ing-coom', since Dee$ing is not a #erbal ending
but one indicating relationshi2 the coomb or dee #alley belonging to the Dee$ 3&elm5s Dee$/ to
which it led u. !o also Dee$ing Stream
Derndingle !aid by Treebeard to be what 1en called the meeting+lace of the Ents &II ?L'0
therefore meant to be in the $ommon !eech. 4ut the $ommon !eech name must be suosed to
ha#e been gi#en a long time ago) when in .ondor more was known or remembered about the Ents.
Dingle is still known) meaning 3dee &tree+shadowed' dell3) but dern 3secret) hidden3 is long obsolete)
as are the related words in other .ermanic languages ( e*cet Tarn- in .erman Tarnka$$e &from
1iddle 6igh .erman'. Translate by sense) referably by obsolete) oetic) or dialectal elements.
Dimholt The wood of dark trees at the entrance to the "ark "oor The name is gi#en in the form of
the language of Rohan) and so should be retained unchanged) though dim is still current in English
&but here used in an older sense) 3obscure) secret3') and holt is in occasional oetic use.
Dimrill Dale The $ommon !eech name of "war#ish #9anul'i9ar, .rey+el#en 4an Duhirion The
$ommon !eech form is an accurate translation2 the #alley of the dim &o#ershadowed' rills that ran
down the mountain+side. Translate by sense. !imilarly Dimrill -ate, Dimrill Stair
Doom The word doom, in its original sense 3:udgment3 &formal and legal) or ersonal') has in
English) artly owing to its sound) and largely to its secial use in doomsday, become loaded with
senses of death) finality and fate &imending or foretold'. &Outside English doomsday is only
reser#ed in the !candina#ian languages2 Icelandic d7msdagur, !wedish domedag, "anish
d7mmedag% also ,innish tuomi$0i!0/.
The use in the te*t as a word descriti#e of sound &esecially in I book ii chater D' associated
with 'oom is nonetheless meant &and would by most English readers be felt' to recall the noun
doom, with its sense of disaster. This is robably not ossible to reresent in another language. The
"utch #ersion reresents doom 'oom honetically by doem 'oem, which is sufficient) and at any rate
has the suort of the #erb doemen, which esecially in the ast articile gedoemd has the same
sense as English doomed &to death or an e#il fate'. The !wedish #ersion usually has dom 'om, but
occasionally dum 'om This seems &as far as I can :udge' unsatisfactory) since the associations of
dum are /uite out of lace) and dum'om is a word for 3blockhead3 &.erman Dummko$f/
Mount Doom This was &in .ondor' the $ommon !eech name of the #olcano ,rodruin
&31ountain of red flame3') but was a translation of its other El#ish name #mon #marth &36ill of
"oom3') gi#en to !auron3s forge+mountain because it was linked in ancient and little+understood
rohecies with the 3doom3) the final end of the Third %ge) that it was foretold would befall when
Isildur3s 4ane was found again0 see the #erses in I LDK. Translate by sense2 31ountain &of' doom3 &in
the sense 3imending fate3'. !ee Crack of Doom
Dunharrow % modernisation of Rohan D2nhaerg 3the heathen fane on the hillside3) so+called because
this refuge of the Rohirrim at the head of &arrowdale was on the site of a sacred lace of the old
inhabitants &now the "ead 1en'. The element haerg can be modernised in English because it remains
an element in lace+names) notably &arrow 3on the &ill/ The word has no connection with harrow
the imlement. It is the Old English e/ui#alent of Old Norse hMrgr &modern Icelandic hMrgur') Old
6igh .erman harug In the language of translation it is best reresented by an aro*imation to the
Rohan form. The "utch #ersion Dunharg is satisfactory0 the !wedish Dunhar!a may be susected of
ha#ing taken harrow as the imlement &!wedish har!'.
Dunland This contains the English ad:ecti#e dun 3dark) dusky) dull+hued3. !ee III CG?.
Dwarrowdelf ,or dwarrows 7 dwar#es see III C>D. Dwarrowdelf is a translation of the actual
$ommon !eech name of Moria, Phurunargian, gi#en an archaic English form) since Phurunargian
was already itself archaic in form. The 3archaism3 is not of much imortance0 the name should be
translated by the same element as that used to translate Dwarf &or a #ariety of that' B a word
meaning 3mine) digging) e*ca#ation3 ( for instance .erman Nwergengru'e*
(astemnet Rohan0 retain it &though it contains east it is not a $ommon !eech name) but Rohan for
3east+lain3'. !imilarly (astfold &see +olde'.
(astfarthing !ee +arthings
(l!enhome, (l!en Door, (l!en Ri!er !ee (l!en-smiths, under Names of 9ersons and 9eoles.
(ntwade, (ntwash, (ntwood These are 3modernised3 names in the language of Rohan2 (ntwaed,
(ntwaesc, (ntwudu The second elements) waed 3ford3) waesc 3flood+water3) wudu 3wood3) are gi#en
modern English forms because the Rohan forms were recognisably akin to the words in the $ommon
!eech2 that is) seakers of the $ommon !eech) esecially in .ondor &where of course the names
and geograhy of Rohan were well+known') used these forms) assimilated to their own language.
The -wade, -wash, -wood may therefore be translated by sense) esecially if the language of
translation contains related elements) as !wedish !ad 3ford3. On (nt see that entry.
(ttendales This is meant to be a $ommon !eech &not El#ish' name) though it contains an obsolete
element eten 3troll) ogre3. This should be retained) e*cet in a language which reser#es a form of the
same word) as "anish >aette, !wedish >0tte, Icelandic >Mtunn, 7 Old English eoten, 1iddle English
eten, English dialect eten, yet=n
!imilarly (ttenmoors% moor here has the northern sense of 3high barren land3.
+arthings !ee I >?. This is the same word as English farthing &Old English feorEing, 1iddle English
ferthing') /uarter of a enny0 but used in its original sense 3fourth art) /uarter3. This is modelled on
thriding 3third art3) still used of the di#isions of Oorkshire) with loss of initial th after the th or t in
4orthriding, (astriding, 1estriding The alication to di#isions of other measures than money has
long been obsolete in English) and farthing has been used since early 1iddle English for 3a negligible
amount3) so that to English ears the alication to the di#isions of the !hire &an area of about >?)GGG
s/uare miles' is comical. This tone can hardly be reroduced) but related words could erhas be
used2 as "anish f>erding, !wedish f>0rding% or .erman Diertal &which is alied to 3regions)
districts3'.
+enmarch % Rohan name2 the fenny &marshy' border+land about the Mering Stream &ma in #olume
III' forming the boundary of Rohan and #n7rien This should ha#e been called +enmark, but since it
aears in III E? and on the ma to #olume III I ha#e retained it0 the meaning of -mark, or the
,rench form &of .ermanic origin' marche, is the same2 boundary) border &land'. %s a Rohan name
use in translation +enmark
+irien % Rohan name reresenting an old word &Old English firgen, ronounced firien' for
3mountain3. $omare &alifirien 3holy mount3. %s belonging to the language of Rohan) firien should
be retained. Inconsistently) +irienfeld, the flat uland of "unharrow) has been left unmodernised &the
+irienfield of the Inde* is in error') but +irienholt has been altered to +irienwood) the wood about
and on the sloes of the &alifirien In translation it would be best to lea#e both unaltered)
+irienfeld, +irienholt, as being alien &not $ommon !eech' names.
+olde % Rohan name) to remain unaltered. The same word occurs in (astfold, which should also
remain unchanged &comare (astemnet'. This is Old English folde &Old Norse fold'
3
earth) land)
country3) not connected either with the English #erb fold, or with 3shee$/ fold $omare Destfold and
Ostfold in Norway.
The +olde was the centre of the kingdom) in which the royal house and its kin had their dwellings0
its boundary eastward was roughly a line !outh+west from the :unction of the !nowbourn and
Entwash to the mountains0 the (astfold was the land from that line east to the +enmark between
Entwash and the mountains0 the 1estfold was the similar land along the mountains as far as the Ri#er
Isen. The defensi#e centre of the +olde and (astfold was at (doras% of 1estfold at &elm5s Dee$
+rogmorton This is not an actual English lace+name0 but it has the same element as in +rogmore
&4ucking+hamshire'2 frog B moor B town !ince this is an intelligible name) it may be translated. Note
that moor5mor has the meaning 3marshy land3) as usually in lace+names of southern and midland
England.
-ladden +ields -ladden is here the name for the 3flag3 or iris &Old English glaedene') now usually
selt gladdon, and has no connection with English glad and the #erb gladden Translate by sense) but
a#oid if ossible the 3learned3 name iris !imilarly in -ladden Ri!er, which flowed into the -ladden
+ields
-olden Perch %n Inn name0 robably one fa#ored by anglers. In any case Perch is the fish+name
&and not a land+measure or bird+erch'.
-reat Smials !ee Smials under Things.
,rom here to the end of . in the Inde* translate by sense2 all the names are in modern English &7
$ommon !eech'. 4ut note2 -rimslade, mentioned in III >LC as the home of -rim'old, killed in
battle) contains -rim &e#idently the name of an ancestor' B slade &Old English slaed, Norwegian
dialect slad') widely used in English lace+names) and still in use) mostly with the sense 3forest glade3)
3dell3 &esecially one on a sloe u a hillside'.
&alifirien % Rohan name0 retain unaltered. !ee +irien
&allows, The % $ommon !eech translation &III LCE) LDJ' of the .ondor name &not gi#en' for the
!acred 9laces of the tombs. Translate &if ossible with a word of archaic or oetic tone'.
&ard'ottle In the !hire0 the home of the 4racegirdles in the North ,arthing &not on the ma'.
-'ottle is an English lace+name element) Old English 'otl, #ariant of 'old &from which modern
English 'uild is deri#ed') meaning 3&large' dwelling30 it is not connected with 'ottle &glass container'.
$omare 4o'ottle on the small !hire+ma) which is an actual lace+name in England
&Northumberland'. Translate by suitable elements) meaning 3hard dwelling30 3hard3 because e*ca#ated
in or built of stone &in the rocky North ,arthing'. The e/ui#alent and related element in .erman
lace+names is -'.ttel% in !candina#ian -'ol &esecially in Norway'.
&arrowdale !ee Dunharrow.
&aysend. The end of the hay or boundary+hedge &not hay 3dried grass3'. Translate as 3hedge3s end3.
$omare &igh &ay
&elm5s Dee$, &elm5s Dike, &elm5s -ate &elm is the name of a man and should be retained.
&ill of -uard Translate) since this is the $ommon !eech name of #mon Tirith, the hill on which
Minas Tirith was built.
&oarwell The $ommon !eech translation of Mitheithel 7 3ale grey3 B 3sring) source30 well, as
usually in lace+names) has this sense &not that of a dee water+it'. Translate.
&o''iton !ee &o''it% the #illage name should be translated by 3hobbit3 and an element meaning
3#illage3.
&old In the &old of Dunharrow it has the sense 3stronghold) defended refuge3.
&ollin The $ommon !eech name &short for &ollin-land/ of the country called in El#ish (region
36olly+region3. &ollin is an old form) still used locally) of holly% the region abounded in holly+trees.
Translate.
&orn'urg, &ornrock These are so called because of 6elm3s great horn) suosed still at times to be
heard blowing. Translate.
"rensaga. Rohan0 it means 3iron+saw3) with reference to its serrated ridge) crest. It may be left
unchanged as an alien name) or translated &see the ne*t entry'.
"sengard and "senmouthe These names were intended to reresent translations into the $ommon
!eech of the El#ish names #ngrenost and Carach #ngren, but ones made at so early a date that at
the eriod of the tale they had become archaic in form and their original meanings were obscured.
They can therefore be left unchanged) though translation &of one or both elements in either name'
would be suitable) and I think desirable when the language of translation is .ermanic) ossessing
related elements.
"sen is an old #ariant form in English of iron% gard a .ermanic word meaning 3enclosure3)
esecially one round a dwelling or grou of buildings0 and mouthe a deri#ati#e of mouth,
reresenting Old English m2Ea from m2E 3mouth3' 3oening3) esecially used of the mouths of ri#ers)
but also alied to other oenings &not arts of a body'. "sengard 3the Iron+court3 was so called
because of the great hardness of the stone in that lace and esecially in the central tower. The
"senmouthe was so called because of the great fence of ointed iron osts that closed the ga leading
into Ad@n) like teeth in :aws &see III >KE) LGK'.
In the "utch and !wedish #ersions "sengard is left unchanged. ,or Isenmouthe the "utch uses
"senmonde, translating or assimilating to "utch only the second element &a more comlete
translation to ">9ermonde would seem to me better'. The !wedish renders it "sensga$, which is
incorrect) since "sen is not a roer name but ad:ecti#al.
The gard element aears in Old Norse garEr, whence current or dialectal !wedish g?rd, Danish
gaard, and English garth &beside the original English form yard'0 this) though usually of more lowly
associations &as English farmyard') aears for instance in Old Norse #s-garEr) now widely known
as #sgard in mythology. The word was early lost in .erman) e*cet in Old 6igh .erman mittin- or
mittil-gart &the inhabited lands of 1en' 7 Old Norse miE-garEr, and Old English middan-geardC see
Middle-earth 8ould not this old element in .erman form -gart be suitable for a translation or
assimilation to .erman such as (isengart<
Of -mouthe the .erman e/ui#alent aears to be M.n-dung &or in lace+names -munde'0 in
!candina#ian) "anish munding, !wedish mynning
Note. 8hate#er form is used in "sengard must also be used in the name of the Ri!er "sen, since
the ri#er+name was deri#ed from "sengard, in which it had its source.
Lake (!endim $ommon !eech #ersion of 4en 6ial 3water of twilight3. Translate by sense2 3e#ening
(dusk5 twilight5gloaming3.
Langstrand Translation of #nfalas This is a $ommon !eech name) so translate it by sense2 3long
strand3. The shortening of long to lang, #ery fre/uent in English lace+names) can be disregarded.
Limlight &Ri#er'. The selling -light indicates that this is a $ommon !eech name0 but lea#e the
obscured element lim+ unchanged and translate -lightC the ad:ecti#e light here means 3bright) clear3.
Lockholes The hobbit #ersion of 3lock+u &house'30 a lace of detention. Translate by sense.
Long'ottom The second element retains its original sense &as locally and fre/uently in lace+names
and deri#ed surnames such as Rams'ottom/ of 3#alley3 &esecially the head or inner end of a #alley'0
related words are !wedish 'otten, "anish 'und% also .erman Boden, but this does not agree closely
in sense. Translate by sense.
Lune %n anglicised) that is a hobbit) #ersion of El#ish LhGn It is thus an alien name) and should be
retained in the language of translation) assimilated if re/uired to its selling of such a sound as MlPnN.
Marish %n old form of English marsh Translate &using if ossible a word or form that is understood
but local or out of date'.
Mathomhouse !ee Mathom under Things.
Mering Stream This name aears on the ma to -olume III2 34oundary stream3. &!ee +enmarch/
Retain Mering as a Rohan word not in the $ommon !eech. &Old English mIere, m=re 3boundary3'.
Middle-earth Not a secial land) or world) or 3lanet3) as is too often suosed) though it is made
lain in the rologue) te*t) and aendices that the story takes lace on this earth and under skies in
general the same as now #isible. The sense is 3the inhabited lands of &El#es and' 1en3) en#isaged as
lying between the 8estern !ea and that of the ,ar East &only known in the 8est by rumour'. Middle-
earth is a modern alteration of medie#al middel-erde from Old English middan-geard &see "sengard/
The "utch and !wedish #ersions correctly use the old mythological name assimilated to the modern
languages2 "utch Midden-aarde, !wedish Mid-g?rd
Midgewater Marshes Translate by sense. The name was suggested by MP!atn in Iceland) of the
same meaning.
Mirkwood % name borrowed from ancient .ermanic geograhy and legend) chiefly reser#ed in Old
Norse myrk!iEr, though the oldest recorded form is Old .erman mirkiwidu Not reser#ed in
English) though Mirkwood is now used to reresent Old Norse myrk!iEr. Translate by sense) if
ossible using elements of oetic or anti/ue tone. The "utch #ersion has Demster-wold The
!wedish has MMrkm?rden, the last art of which I do not understand) since the only m?rd known to
me is the name of the fur+animal 3marten3 &"anish maar'. The translators of Norse mythology into
.erman or !candina#ian languages must ha#e desired something better<
Mirrormere $ommon !eech translation of "war#ish )heled9Qram &3glass+lake3'0 translate by sense.
Mount Doom !ee Doom
4or'ury $ommon !eech translation of +orn-ost The form that Old English norE-'urg would take
in modern English lace+names) meaning 3north &fortified' town3. Translate by sense) and by related
elements in the language of translation when a#ailable. !imilarly 4or-land 3&belonging to' the north+
lands3) in this tale those regions en#isaged in the action north of Rohan. The longer form 4ortherland
&I JKG' has the same reference. 4orthfarthingC see +arthing
,!er-hea!en Translate by sense. This is a $ommon !eech e/ui#alent of El#ish menel 3firmament3)
tar-menel 3high hea#en3 &I LCE') suggested by Old Norse u$$himinn, and correctly translated
6$$himlen in the !wedish #ersion. The "utch has Bo!en-hemel
Ri!endell 3$lo#en+dell30 $ommon !eech translation of "mladris3t/ 3dee dale of the cleft3. Translate
by sense) or retain) as seems best. The "utch #ersion retains the name as Ri!endel% the !wedish
#ersion has Dattnadal, which is incorrect and suggests that the translator thought that Ri!en- was
related to ri!er
Rushey 3Rush+isle30 in origin a 3hard3 among the fens of the 1arish. The element -ey) -y in the sense
3small island3 &7 !wedish M, "anish R) OId Norse ey/ is #ery fre/uent in English lace+names. The
.erman e/ui#alent is #ue 3ri#er+side land) water+meadow3) which would not be unsuitable in this
case.
Sarn +ord Retain Sarn The name is a half+translation &of Sarn-athrad 3stony+ford3') a rocess
fre/uent in lace+names. The El#ish Sarn is also seen in Sarn -e'ir
Scary % meaningless name in the !hire0 but since it was in a region of ca#es and rock+holes &III
JG>') and of a stone+/uarry &marked on the ma of the !hire in -olume I' it may be suosed to
contain English dialectal scar 3rocky cliff.3 Lea#e unchanged e*cet as re/uired by the selling of the
language of translation.
Shire %n organised region with a 3county+town3 &in the case of the hobbits3 !hire this was Michel
Del!ing'. !ince this word is current in modern English and therefore is in the tale in the $ommon
!eech) translate it by sense.
Shire, Old English scBr, seems #ery early to ha#e relaced the ancient .ermanic word for a
3district3) found in its oldest form in .othic gawi, sur#i#ing now in "utch gouw, .erman -au In
English) owing to its reduction to g= &ronounced y=/, it sur#i#ed only in a few old lace+names) the
best known of which is !urrey &from SuEer-ge' 3southern district3. This word would seem the nearest
e/ui#alent in anti/uity and general sense to the !hire of the story. The "utch #ersion uses -ouw%
-au seems to me suitable in .erman) unless its recent use in regional reorganisation under 6itler has
soilt this #ery old word. In !candina#ian languages &in which a related word does not e*ist' some
other &referably old' word for 3district3 or 3ro#ince3 should be used. The !wedish #ersion uses
+ylki, aarently borrowing the Old Norse &esecially Norwegian' fylki 3district) ro#ince3. %ctually
the Old Norse and modern Icelandic sPsla &!wedish syssla, "anish syssel, now obsolete in the sense
amt, but occurring in lace+names' was in mind) when I said that the real untranslated name of the
!hire was SS9a &III C>L'0 hence it was also said &I >C' that it was so named as 3a district of well+
ordered business3.
Sil!erlode Translation of El#ish Cele'-rant Translate by sense2 sil!er and lode 3course) water+
channel3.
Sil!ertine Translation of El#ish Cele'-dil Translate by sense2 sil!er and tine 3sike) shar horn3.
Snow'ourn 1odernised form of Rohan &that is) Old English' snIw'urna Either use Snaw'urna, or
in a language ossessing related elements modernise the name to suit it2 for instance)
Schnee'runnen, Sne'rRnd, SnM'runn
Staddle % #illage+name in 4ree. Staddle is now dialectal) but occurs in lace+names with the
meaning 3foundation3) of buildings) sheds) ricks) and so forth0 from Old English staEol Ase a related
e/ui#alent in the language of translation &if any') such as .erman Stadel, or assimilate it to the
selling of the language.
Starkhorn % mountain+name in Rohan. This may be retained) as a name not in $ommon !eech0 it
meant a horn &eak' 3standing u stiff like a sike3. The occurrence of stark in .erman &and !wedish'
should make it sufficiently intelligible. The "utch #ersion has Sterkhorn, the !wedish Starkhorn To
an English reader stark now has imlications of nakedness and grimness &not originally resent) but
due to its alication to rigor mortos in corses) and to the e*ression stark-naked') which would
erhas be better reresented in .erman by starr
Stonewain Dalley Translate by sense. The $ommon !eech name of the long) narrow defile along
which the wains &sleds or drays' assed to and fro from the stone+/uarries.
Stoning-land. Reresents Rohan Staning 3land/, a translation of .ondor. !ince this has been
modernised &that is accommodated to the forms of English' use the etymological e/ui#alent of 3stone3
in the language of translation) as sten, stein, for the first element.
Sunlands Translate by sense. It is e#idently meant as a oular name) in the $ommon !eech or
other languages) current in .ondor and the North+west for the little known countries of the far
!outh.
Sunlending This is a translation into the language of Rohan of #n7rien, the name of the land
immediately attached to Minas #nor &originally including that city and inhabited country as far as the
Ri#er (rui'. It is thus 3heraldic3 rather than climatic) and related to the heraldic names of Elendil3s
sons #nLrion and "sildur, being the counterart of "thilien It only occurs in the #erses &III EE'
urorting to translate the minstrelsy of Rohan) and should be retained. It might well be selt &indeed
more accurately' Sunnlending, as in the !wedish #ersion. 4ut the translation in the "utch)
Nuiderleen 3!outhern+fief3 is erroneous) since the 3southern fiefs3) also called the Outlands) referred to
the seaboard lands south of #n7rien
Tarlang5s 4eck Translate 4eck &as reresenting $ommon !eech' and retain Tarlang The !wedish
#ersion has Tarlangs hals% The "utch (ngte !an Tarlang
The 4eck was a long ridge of rock) o#er which the road climbed) :oining the main mass of the range
to the branch &containing three eaks' which searated the lain of (rech from Lamedon Tarlang,
originally the name of this ridge) was later taken as a ersonal name.
Teeth of Mordor Translate Teeth of
Three-farthing Stone !ee +arthings Translate) using whate#er word is adoted to reresent
farthing
Tighfield This is intended to contain an old word for 3roe3 &sur#i#ing in some of the senses of the
modern English noun tie) in which the selling is assimilated to that of the related #erb tie'. It was
the site of a 3roe+walk3 or roe+maker3s yard. It would be best translated by some other word for
3roe3 than that used in 3roe+walk3. Related are Icelandic taug and the word with #arious forms toug,
to!, tog, in "anish and Norwegian0 also nautical .erman &from Low .erman' tou
Note that English 3roe+walk3 seems to ha#e been misunderstood by translators0 certainly the
!wedish) with en re$'ro M!er 0l!en 'orta !id Sl0tt0ng There is no mention of a ri#er in my te*t &II
L>E0 !wedish II LCK'. Nor is it easy to see why ha#ing a 3roe+bridge3 o#er a ri#er would beget an
inherited knowledge in the family about the nature of roes) and their making. The "utch has
touw'rug, which I susect is also due to misunderstanding. I do not know the technical e/ui#alent of
3roe+walk3 in other languages2 dictionaries gi#e .erman Seiler'ahn, and "anish re'er'ane, but
these also are ossibly mistaken< % 3roe+walk3 &known in English since the se#enteenth century' is
so called because the roes were stretched out in long lines o#er trestles at inter#als.
The !wedish Sl0tt0ng and "utch 1eide!eld do not) of course) translate Tighfield as abo#e
defined) and are robably mere conte*tual guesses. There is) howe#er) another lace+name element
&eculiar to English' that has the same forms as the 3roe3 word) though it is robably not related2 in
modern lace+names tigh, teigh, tye, tey This meant an enclosed iece of land. It does not occur as
the first element in a comound.
Tindrock $ommon seech name &not a translation' of Tol Brandir, the stee inaccessible island of
towering rock at the head of the falls of Rauros Though originally $ommon !eech) the name was
gi#en long before the time of the tale) and contains the old word tind 3sike3) which if it had sur#i#ed
would ha#e rhymed with find 4ut it now aears as tine 3rong3) with loss of d. The Old Norse
e/ui#alent was tindr, Old 6igh .erman 9int It might be ossible to use the latter as an archaic form0
but the current &robably related' .erman Ninne has recisely the right sense. Of this Ninne the
!wedish e/ui#alent is Tinne, "anish Tind3e/ J which also seem suitable. Tol Brandir should be
retained as an El#ish name.
Tower %ll the lace+names under Tower3s/ in the Inde* are contemorary $ommon !eech
translations or author3s translations of the .rey+el#en names) and should be translated in those arts
that are English.
Treegarth &of Orthanc'. On garth see "sengard Trans+late by sense2 garth is an enclosed sace or
garden) usually round a central building &here ,rthanc'.
6nderharrow, !ee Dunharrow % hamlet in the #alley below the Dunharrow Ase the same word as
that used for harrow &3fane3' in Dunharrow
6$'ourn 6$- is used in English lace+names for ri#er+side #illages far u the named ri#er &as
6$a!on in 8iltshire') esecially in contrast to larger laces near its mouth) as 6$wey abo#e
1eymouth This #illage was some way u the Snow'ourn abo#e (doras, but not so far u as
6nderharrow !ince the name is gi#en in modernised English form) it may be translated if that
resents no difficulty) or retained in its roer Rohan form 6$'urnan
1atchwood Translate.
1aymeet On the ma of the !hire in -olume I this aears as 1aymoot, but in the te*t modernised
as 1aymeet, a #illage at the meeting of three ways. Translate by sense) as con#enient.
1eatherto$ Translate. It is the $ommon !eech name of the hill called in .rey+el#en #mon SGl 56ill
of the 8ind3.
1ellinghall Treebeard3s translation into the $ommon !eech of &3art of3' the name of his dwelling.
Translate. The intended sense is 3hall &under or behind' the outflow of the sring.3
1estemnet Rohan2 emnet 3flat+land) lain3) e/ui#alent of "anish slette% and of .erman ('ene &to
which it is related'. Retain) as not being a $ommon !eech name0 but 1est- may be reselt &for
e*amle with D' in a language that does not use 1, since the word for 1est was the same or similar
in the $ommon !eech and in the language of Rohan.
1esternesse The $ommon !eech name of 4Smenor &which means 38est+land3'. It is meant to be
western K ess, an ending used in artly franci;ed names of 3romantic3 lands) as Lyonesse, or Logres
&England in %rthurian Romance'. The name actually occurs in the early romance )ing &orn) of some
kingdom reached by shi. Translate by some similar in#ention containing 1est- or its e/ui#alent. The
!wedish #ersion has D0sterness, the "utch 1esternisse
1estfarthing !ee +arthings
1estfold !ee +olde
1estmarch &in the !hire'. Translate. March means 3borderland3.
1est Marches &in Rohan'. This is gi#en in $ommon !eech form and may be translated as 3the
8est&ern' 4orderlands32 in Rohan the land bordering the "sen
1etwang $ommon !eech translation of 4indalf &.rey+el#en nTn 3wet3 B talf 3flat field3'. 4ut it is in
archaic form) wang being an old word for 3field) flat area3. &1etwang is an actual lace+name in
Oorkshire'. 4oth elements should be translated. In !candina#ian languages the e/ui#alents of both
wet and wang are found2 Icelandic !otur and !angur% !wedish !?t and !?ng% "anish !aad and !ang
The "utch #ersion retains 1etwang, though 4atwang would ha#e been better0 the !wedish has D?ta
!0gen) which is not the meaning) and is /uite unsuitable2 the 1etwang was a athless fen. 1ang did
not sur#i#e in "utch) or in .erman &e*cet in lace+names or dialect'. .erman 1ange, "utch wang
3cheek3 is a different &but related' word.
1hitfurrows &in the !hire'. Translate by sense) whit- being the usual shortening of white in ersonal
names 31hitlock/ and local names 31hitley/ $omare 1hitfoot !imilarly 1hitwell in the !hire &an
actual English lace+name'. The reference in English lace+names is usually to the colour of the soil.
1ilderland %n in#ention &not actually found in English') based on wilderness &originally meaning
country of wild creatures) not inhabited by 1en') but with a side+reference to the #erbs wilder
3wander astray3 and 'ewilder It is suosed to be the $ommon !eech name of Rho!anion &on the
ma) not in the te*t') the lands east of the 1isty 1ountains &including 1irkwood' as far as the Ri#er
Running. The "utch #ersion has 1ilderlandC "utch has wildernis, but not .erman or the
!candina#ian languages &.erman 1ildnis) "anish !ildnis'.
1ithywindle Ri#er+name in the Old ,orest) intended to be in the language of the !hire. It was a
winding ri#er bordered by willows &withies'. 1ithy- is not uncommon in English lace+names) but
-windle does not actually occur &1ithywindle was modelled on withywind, a name of the con#ol#ulus
or bindweed'. %n in#ention of suitable elements in the language of translation would be desirable.
-ery good is the "utch #ersion 1ilgewinde &with wilg 7 English willow/ I do not understand the
!wedish #ersion Dittes$ring 8ords related to withy are found in the !candina#ian languages0 related
also is .erman 1eide
Things
,ew of the entries in this section of the Inde* re/uire comment) since they are either in alien
&esecially El#ish' languages) or simly in modern English &7 $ommon !eech' and re/uire normal
translation.
(lder Days This is naturally taken by English readers to mean 3older3 &that is) former') but with an
archaic fla#our) since this original form of the comarati#e is now only alied to ersons) or used as
a noun in (lders &seniors'. In in#enting the e*ression I intended this) as well as association with the
oetic word eld 3old age) anti/uity3. I ha#e since &recently' come across the e*ression in early
English 'e eldern dawes 3in the days of our forefathers) long ago3. This) meaning 3"ays of the
!eniors3) might hel in de#ising a translation that is not :ust the e/ui#alent of 3the older days3. The
!wedish #ersion has simly i Uldre tiden% the "utch de ,ude Tid &less correctly) since this would
naturally also aly to the other ages before the Third'.
The similarity to (ldar, lural of (lda 3Elf3) is accidental and unintentional. (lda is the Fuenya
form of the .rey+el#en word edhel !ee (lder )indred (l!en- 8ith regard to this old ad:ecti#al
form) see (l!en-smiths
(!ermind % flower+name) translation of Rohan sim'elmynV The element -mind has the sense
3memory30 the name thus resembles 3forget+me+not3) but a /uite different kind of flower is intended2 an
imagined #ariety of anemone) growing in turf like #nemone $ulsatilla) the as/ue+flower) but smaller
and white like the wood anemone. Translate by sense. The !wedish and "utch #ersions both omit the
element -mind, and so roduce names e/ui#alent to 3e#erlasting flower3) which is not the oint.
Though the lant bloomed at all seasons) its flowers were not 3immortelles3. &The !wedish has
e!ighets'lommor, the "utch "mmerdaar'.
"thilstone Translate the second element -stone
)ingsfoil Translate2 -foil &from Old ,rench foil' 7 3leaf3) as in English lant+names such as
cinWuefoil Only the leaf of asVa was #alued.
Lithe The former and later Lithe &Old English lBEa' were the old names for June and July
resecti#ely. %ll the month+names in the !hire $alendar are &worn+down' forms of the Old English
names. In the 6obbit $alendar 3the/ Lithe was the middle+day &or >?Jrd day' of the year &see
%endi* "'. !ince all 6obbit month+names are suosed not to be $ommon !eech) but
conser#ati#e sur#i#als from their former language before migration) it would be best to kee Lithe
unaltered(as would be necessary with the other calendar names in any translation of the
%endices. The "utch #ersion kees Lithe &The word was eculiar to English and no related
calendar word is found elsewhere'. The !wedish #ersion rewrites the assage &I >K' 3. . . who was
elected e#ery se#en years at the ,ree ,air on the 8hite "owns at the Lithe) that is at 1idsummer32
&an !aldes !art s>unde ?r !id midsommar!akan u$$e $0 kritkli$$orna i sommarsolst?ndets natt
This) besides omitting the 3,ree ,air3 and misrendering the 38hite "owns3 as the 3chalk cliffs3)
misreresents the assage and the customs lainly alluded to. It was not a night festi#al or 3wake3) but
a day+celebration marked by a 3,ree ,air3 &"utch #ersion Dri>e Markt') so called because anyone who
wished could set u a booth without charge. The translator has assimilated the assage to the
!candina#ian summer+solstice festi#al) christianised in name by association with !t. John the 4atist3s
day &June LC') which occurred at more or less the right date &Icelandic X7ns!aka, X7nsmessa, "anish
Sankthansnat, Skaersommernat'. 4ut the affair was not a 1idsummer Night3s "ream= !ee ;ule
Long'ottom Leaf. !ee Long'ottom) under 9lace+names.
Mathom Lea#e unchanged0 it is not $ommon !eech) but a word eculiar to hobbits &comare
Smials, and see III C>C'. The meaning is defined in I >C as 3anything that 6obbits had no immediate
use for) but were unwilling to throw away3. It reresents Old English mLEm 3recious thing) treasure3.
,ld To'y % #ariety of tobacco) named after To'old &orn'lower Ase whate#er e/ui#alent of To'y is
used for the ersonal name &I >E'.
,ld 1inyards % wine(but of course in fact a lace+name) meaning 3the Old -ineyards3. 1inyard is
actually reser#ed as a lace+name in England) descending from Old English before the assimilation
to ,rench and Latin !in-. This cannot) I think) be imitated) and one must remain content with the
word for 3#ineyard3 in the language of translation) as weingarten, !ingaard, and so on. The "utch
#ersion has ,ude 1i>ngaarden The !wedish) for no ob#ious reason &unless failure to recognise
1inyards as a relati#e of !ing?rd') simly omits the name.
PSkel-men # Rohan name for the effigies of men of a #anished race. It reresents Old English $Scel
&still sur#i#ing as $uckle/, one of the forms of the $uk- stem &widesread in England) 8ales) Ireland)
Norway and Iceland' referring to a de#il) or to a minor srite such as 9uck) and often alied to ugly
misshaen ersons. The $Skel-men are ade/uately described) and the element $Skel may be retained
(or relaced by some word of similar &ossibly related' form and sense. The "utch #ersion has de
PSkel-mensen, the !wedish Pukel-m0nnen
Ro$e-walk Not in the Inde*) but it occurs in II L>E as a technical name for a roe+maker3s yard0 see
Tighfield
Smials % word eculiar to hobbits &not $ommon !eech') meaning 3burrow30 lea#e unchanged. It is a
form that the Old English word smygel 3burrow3 might ha#e had) if it had sur#i#ed. The same element
aears in .ollum3s real name) SmYagol !ee III C>C+D.
S$ringle-ring %n in#ention0 render it by a similar one suitable to the language of translation)
imlying a #igorous ring+dance in which dancers often leaed u.
Tale in Tale of ;ears means 3counting3) 3reckoning3.
1estmansweed Translate) as a $ommon !eech rendering of 3herb of the 1en of the 8est3 &of
1esternesse, 4Smenor')
;ule The midwinter counterart of Lithe It only occurs in The Lord of the Rings in %endi* ") and
31idwinter3 only occurs once during the main narrati#e. The midwinter festi#al was not an El#ish
custom) and so would not ha#e been celebrated in Ri#endell. The fellowshi) howe#er) left on
"ecember LD) which had then no significance) since the Oule) or its e/ui#alent) was then the last day
of the year and the first of the ne*t year. 4ut "ecember LD &setting out' and 1arch LD
&accomlishment of the /uest' were intentionally chosen by me.
In translation) ;ule should like Lithe be treated as an alien word not generally current in the
$ommon !eech. It should therefore be retained) though with a selling suitable to the language of
translation2 so for e*amle in "anish or .erman selt Xule ;ule is found in modern English &mostly
as a literary archaism') but this is an accident) and cannot be taken to imly that a similar or related
word was also found in the $ommon !eech at that time2 the hobbit calendar differed throughout
from the official $ommon !eech calendars. It may) howe#er) be suosed that a form of the same
word had been used by the Northmen who came to form a large art of the oulation of .ondor
&III JL?') and was later in use in Rohan) so that some word like ;ule was well known in .ondor as a
3northern name3 for the midwinter festi#al0 somewhat like the aearance in modern .erman of Xul
&as a loan from the North<') in such words as Xul'lock 3Oule+log3 and Xulkla$$ &as in !wedish and
similarly in "anish'. In !candina#ia) of course Xule would be well understood.