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Karma Phal Siddhant

Karma Phal Siddhant states that whatever one gets are the fruits of his own
actions. But to an inquisite mind, many questions arises about Karma
(Actions!, Phal ("ruits!, #ne (Atma $ Soul!, %ets!, and many questions
arises out of the answers.
&his sub'ect is heavily dealt with in the (edic )iterature. *i+erent %ranths
have e,-lained it in di+erent ways, -erha-s because any one e,-lanation
cannot answer all the questions of the inquisite minds of di+erent tilts, and
-erha-s Bhagvad %eeta s-ecialises on it. &he enlisted below is one of the
ways to e,-lain the same, -ointing out some basics.
&he sub'ect has been in detail in the boo. /Karm Phal 0imaansa/ authored
by Satish Arya 'i. &he audio of the boo. is given as attachments
&he terms as de3ned and conce-ts as enlisted below are interwoven,
so one may suggest a di+erent sequencing of the -oints given as
4t5s 'ust a matter of language that we are writing the %od and Atma as
6e7 one may li.e to call them as she.
&he three di+erent entities are Pra.riti (nearest 8nglish 9 :ature, Atma
(Souls and Parmatma (%od. &here e,istence and characteristics has
been e,-lained in the -age &rinity!
&he creation of universe and its ob'ectives has been e,-lained in the
-age ;osmogony!
&o understand the Karma Phal Siddhant in detail, one should read (edic
%ranth, -articularly Bhagvad %eeta.

<. Karmas are the actions -erformed by Atma (soul. Actions mean
anything that we do including and inaction.
=. Atma (soul is di+erent from our body, say 4 am an Atma and 4 have a
body in which 4 reside. &he actions are -erformed by the Atma with the
hel- of the body. All living things in this universe, both -lants and
animals, are living because they have an Atma in them. &here are
innumerable Atmas in these >niverse of which some reside in a given
body and some reside free of any given body. All Atmas are bound by
Karma Phal Siddhant.
?. &he human body is the best form of body in which in which an Atma
can reside and attain 0o.sha. &he body includes brain, heart, mind,
senses, intelligence, etc which are the tools through which the Atma
analyses the situation. Atma is the one who the decision and act.
Atma acts with the hel- of the body. Atma is eternal, but body is not.
Atma is conscious, body is not. A body lives till an Atma lives in it and it
dies after the Atma leaves it. After Atma leaves one body, he acquires
another body (or rebirth, unless he has left so because he has
gotten 0o.sha.
@. &he body is made of Pra.riti. &he nearest e,-lanation of Pra.riti would
be the matter and energy -resent in the >niverse. Pra.riti is also
eternal but it does not have consciousness.
A. &here are various forms of Pra.riti detailed in the cosmic sciences
given in the (edas. &he body is com-rised of the Biological form (li.e
cells and hence the organs, 0aterial form (li.e elements and
chemicals and the Subtler forms (li.e mind, intelligence, etc
B. 0o.sha is a state where the Atma resides free of any given body.
C. &here is a third entity (other than the Atmas and the Pra.riti, %od, who
is eternal and conscious. 6e is the one who is -resent at all times and
at all -laces, -ervading into the full Pra.riti and all Atmas. 6e is the
controller of the Karma Phal Siddhant. 6e -ossesses all the .nowledge
about Pra.riti, Atma and himself.
D. An Atma5s anand (nearest 8nglish 9 6a--iness is limited by the Pra.riti
in which he resides. Eesiding in his body, he will have to e,-erience all
9 anand, ha--iness and sadness. >nlimited anand can be attained only
in 0o.sha.
F. Atma has limited .nowledge, strength, self control, etc. 6e is mostly
free in his action but de-endent for results $ fruits. Ghilst being free in
action, it is a--ro-riate for him to -erform actions which are intended
for and results in the general well being. *ue to his limitations an Atma
may not -erform the desirable actions. Again, there are ways to
increase one5s .nowledge, strength and self control, which also
requires action in that direction. An Atma is e,-ected to evolve over
various births and someday become a-t in his actions. #nly then he
would be eligible for unlimited Anand, which he gets with 0o.sha.
<H. &he ob'ective of Karma Phal Siddhant is Iustice, that only the
deserving gets 0o.sha. And the main ob'ective of creation of this
Gorld is to enable the Atmas to attain 0o.sha. &hat also e,-lains that
the ultimate goal of 6uman )ife is also to attain 0o.sha.
<<. Actions (Karma are of three ty-es12 %ood, Bad and 0i,ed. 0ostly
all the actions are mi, of some good and some bad. A good action is
one which is done with intentions of well being of other Atmas and
Pra.riti and $ or an action which results in such well being. Gell being
of oneself is also a good action if it is done with an intention to
increase one5s -otential to be able to -erform good actions. A bad
action is one which is done with the intentions of ill being of others and
$ or action which results in such ill being.
<=. &he "ruit (Phal is of two ty-es1 Su.h (6a--iness and *u.h
(Sadness. &his is situational and not emotional. *u.h is being faced
with a situation where one would be restrained $ limited in achieving
well being. Su.h is being faced with a situation where one would be
liberated from a *u.h or achieve well being. &here is one more ty-e of
Phal which is called Anand. &his is a .ind of ha--iness which one
receives on communion with the %od. A .nowledgeable $ -ious -erson
would have e,-erience instances of anand. >nli.e ha--iness, Anand
has got no antonym.
<?. &hen there are emotions 9 i.e., feeling of being Su.hi (6a--y
and *u.hi (Sad. An ignorant one may feel very sad even on the face
of slightest *u.h, or may become very re'oicing on the face of a small
success. A .nowledgeable one tries to attain a situation where he
controls his emotions on the face of even substantial situations of Su.h
and *u.h. A state of Atma where he narrows down the di+erences in
emotions on facing the Su.h or *u.h is called :irvana. :irvana is one
of the essential ste-s to 0o.sha.
<@. 8ach Action done by an Atma, de-ending on whether good or
bad, earns him credit of Su.h or *u.h. Gith each e,-erience of Su.h or
*u.h, his credit gets deducted. *e-ending on his balance (and may be
other factors at the time of a death (leaving a body, he receives
another birth. 4t is interesting to note that each e,-erience of Su.h or
*u.h instigates further action, which is mostly a mi,ed one. 6ence, it
is a s-iral, which is why -erha-s some learned -eo-le have called it
0aya Iaal (4llusion &ra-
<A. &he full accounts of Karmas -erformed and Phals received is
maintained by the %od, not really meaning in -en and -a-er.
<B. Phal is received by an Atma in the three ways. JJJJJJJ
<C. &he Phal is given by J.
<D. *irect and 4ndirect relationshi-s between Karma and
<F. 6ow does god hel- us in doing good .arma
=H. Ghat should we do to do good Karma
=<. *oes %od forgivesK
==. *oes %od favoursK
=?. 6ow do we .now how evolved are we
=@. Ghat is death
=A. Ghat is rebirth
=B. &ill what time it will go on
=C. Ghat is the -ath to 0o.shaK
=D. Ghat are the stages to 0o.shaK
=F. Ghat ha--ens during 0o.sha
?H. Ghy should we try for 0o.sha
?<. 4n the -resent day set it seems that the %#* does not -unish the
o--ressersK *oes heK
A.L <. 6e -unishes the corru-t in many ways. #ne, they do not get the
mental -eace and bliss as one who is on -ath of %od. Please do not consider
those who are on right -ath out of fear and not reason.
=. ;orru-ts ma.e waste of their lives. 4f you consider life to e,tend beyond
these hundred odd years, you will understand that it would be foolhardy to
ma.e any conclusion out of only <HH years.
?. Mou were born in this corru-t world because as -er your -revious s-iritual
evolution, this earth and this yuga was best for your further growth.
@. 6e does not sit li.e a .ing and orders -unishment for souls. 4nstead every
moment he wor.s with you and for you to hel- you grow and im-rove. &hus if
you thin. evil, adverse hormonal reactions start in your body, you start
feeling uncomfortable. But if you refuse to -ay attention to these signals, you
dig grave for yourself. Ma'urveda @H.? states that such -eo-le -ave their -ath
to enter dar.ness.
A. &he sim-le a--roach to %od realiNation is to follow one5s minutest instincts
9 avoid any tas. which gives feeling of shame, confusion or guilt. And
-roactively see. urges that bring feelings of ha--iness, satisfaction,
alertness of mind. &hese have to be done at minute level and not coarsely.
&hus you would see that -utting e+orts, gaining .nowledge, hel-ing others,
meditation etc give utmost satisfaction that no material thing 9 wealth,
-olitical -ower, se,ual craving etc can com-are. 0ost material en'oyments
are illusions because of debilitated mind that has lost his ca-ability to thin.
-ro-erly li.e an alcoholic losing control over senses.
B. Ge have created our own assum-tions that money, wealth, -ower, se, etc
in themselves bring ha--iness. And hence assume that those who get it are
most ha--y. Ge feel disheartened that some -eo-le do all wrong things and
get easy access to these. But only those remain ha--y who use these only as
tools for a higher -ur-ose. And right ha--iness can come through right goals
and right means, both. 6ere by right means, 4 do not im-ly com-lying by
human2created laws. But com-lying by laws of nature$4shwar. *o you thin. a
:eta'i Bose or Bismil was unha--y in his -ursuit. :oO 4nstead the satisfaction
that they derived from following their conscience is beyond any com-arison
with those who consider -etty things li.e wealth, -ower, lust as goals in
themselves. *o you thin. a Shahru.h Khan can be more ha--y in life than a
*ayanand Saraswati or Shiva'iK 4f you thin., you are in illusion.
C. &o understand these laws, we need to intros-ect and study. And that will
hel- us rede3ne our de3nition of success and ha--iness. &his will resolve
your doubts.
&he goal of life is to see. ha--iness. &hat is evident in each act of every
living being around.
Prove yourself that worldly gains are biggest determinants of ha--iness and
your assertions may be right. But this is only a myth. Gordly gains are
necessary to an e,tent, and only as a tool. &he moment they become goals
in themselves, they become seeds of misery. 0any may get easy access to
them due to -ast .arma and -resent e+orts. But unless you are driven by a
higher goal, it will only add to misery.
&his is law of Paramatma and it ensures that 6e remans 'ust and .ind,
Karma in Saiva Siddhanta
- Sidhantaratnam, Dr. K. Ganesalingam
Atheenappulavar, London Meykandar Adheenam

1. Whether in edanta or Siddhanta or !hirukkural, Karma means a"tion. #o$ever in the
%ndian philosophi"al systems it also means the &ruit or result o& a"tion. !he $ords
Karumam and Kanmam have the same meaning. Vinai is the !amil $ord &or it.
'. (very a"tion has its o$n result. %t has to )e e*perien"ed )y the doer. Good a"tion results
in pleasant e*perien"e and evil a"tion results in unpleasant e*perien"e. !his in short is the
!heory o& Karma. !he phrase +Theethum Nanrum Pirar Thara Vaaraa+ ,-(vil and good
do not "ome &rom others-. in the Sangam !amil literature e*plains this theory in a
/. Many happenings in li&e es"ape reasons &or them. 0ne "annot e*plain $hy they happen.
Karmi" theory gives plausi)le e*planations in relation to the lives o& individuals.
#appenings relating to groups, su"h as deaths and devastations "aused )y $ar, natural
"alamities et"., are said to )e "aused )y 'Aathi bouthikam', 'Aathi aanmikam' and Aathi
theivikam', $hi"h need detailed studies.
1. !he a"tion one per&orms is "alled agamiya vinai or agamiya karma. !he &ruits o& one-s
a"tions get "olle"ted like a )undle and moves $ith the doer &rom )irth to )irth. !his
)undle is "alled Sanchitha vinai ,Sanchitha mooddai, as "alled )y some s"holars.. A
portion o& this vinai "omes to e*perien"e to the doer in a parti"ular )irth. !his is "alled
Prarabdha Vinai. %t is this vinai $hi"h is "alled Uzh (Ul) in !hirukkural.
2. (*"ept Saiva Siddhanta, %ndian philosophi"al systems, in general, speak o& karma as
applied to re)irths ,unar utavam. and not to the &irst )irth ,muthal utavam. taken )y a
soul. A""ording to Saiva Siddhanta, soul is in asso"iation $ith an entity "alled Anava
,anavam. &rom )eginningless period. (nmeshed in Anava, the soul $as under its )ondage
and una)le to e*hi)it its "apa)ilities to kno$ a"t and desire. !his state o& the soul is
"alled Kevala nilai ,Kevala state..
3. Anava is not ego. %t is the sour"e o& all negative 4ualities like ignoran"e, ego et",. 5nder
its )ondage, the soul $as una)le to kno$ itsel& and the God a)ove it. !he all-mer"i&ul
God, Lord Siva, $anted to &ree the soul &rom the grip o& Anava. #e provided the soul
$ith a su)tle )ody &ormed $ith eight tatvas o& Maya. With this su)tle )ody, the soul, &or
the &irst time sho$ed some -movement-. !his )e"ame its &irst karma, $hi"h had its o$n
6. !his resultant karma has to )e e*perien"ed and e*hausted )y the soul. 7or this to happen,
the soul should engage in a"tion or karma. 8o a"tion is possi)le $ithout the physi"al
)ody and earthly materials. Lord Siva, there&ore, "reates them &rom Maya and provides to
the soul. %t is the &irst time the soul o)tains a gross )ody, and it )e"omes its muthal
utavam. With this )ody the soul engages in a"tion $here its previous karma "omes to
e*perien"e and get e*hausted. %n this a"t, the soul gains e*perien"e, and through
e*perien"e gains kno$ledge. !his ne$ a"tion or karma has its o$n &ruits. !o e*perien"e
them the soul has to take another )irth. !hus karma and )irth &ollo$ one a&ter another.
9. Anava is a malam ,an impurity. asso"iated $ith the soul &rom the timeless period. #en"e
it is "alled -Sakaya malam-. Saka:am means -)orn $ith ,the soul.-. %t )inds the soul and
hen"e is "alled pasam ,that $hi"h )inds.. %t is, as &ar as the soul is "on"erned, - moola
malam- ,original impurity..
;. Maya in Saiva Siddhanta is real. %t is not an illusion. Like a potter "reating pots &rom "lay,
God "reates the physi"al )odies, the $orlds and $orldly things &rom Maya. Karma and
Maya are &ed to the soul, )y God, to &ree it &rom the grip o& Anava. 5nlike Anava, they
are -late "omers- to the soul. %n the stri"t sense o& the $ord, they "annot )e "alled malams.
As they a"t in asso"iation $ith anava malam, they are also "alled malams.
1<. Almost all the %ndian religions "onsider the theory o& karma as suita)le to e*plain events
in one-s li&e, $hi"h es"ape reason. (ven religions like =udhism and >ainism $hi"h do not
)elieve in God, )elieve in karma. #o$ever the e*planations o& the theory di&&er to some
e*tent &rom religion to religion.
11. A""ording to =udhism and >ainism, the karma o& a person goes on its o$n and :oins him
in the &ollo$ing )irths and "omes to e*perien"e. 8o e*ternal =eing like God is ne"essary
&or it. %t is like a "al& going and identi&ying its mother "o$, among large num)er o& "o$,
&or &eeding. !here is a pro)lem in a""epting this e*planation. 5nlike the "al&, $hi"h is an
intelligent )eing, karma is not. #o$ is it possi)le &or it to rea"h the doer in his ne*t
)irths? 8o satis&a"tory ans$er is availa)le. A""ording to Saiva Siddhanta, an all-
intelligent and "apa)le God is re4uired to )ring karma to the e*perien"e o& the soul.
1'. Saiva Siddhanta also e*plains ho$ the karma o& a person moves &rom )irth to )irth. !he
su)tle )ody provided to the soul in its kevala state, as mentioned earlier, is &ormed $ith
eight tatva! ,evolutes o& maya.. %t is "alled -Puriyatakaayam- ,)ody $ith eight entities,
tatvas.. !his su)tle )ody moves $ith the soul, &rom )irth to )irth, till its li)eration or
-"ukthy'. -#uddhi- is one o& the eight tatvas o& puriyattakayam. Karmas ,results o& karmas
or a"tions. &orm impressions on the )uddhi tatva and move $ith it &rom )irth to )irth.
!hey "ome to e*perien"e o& the soul at a pres"ri)ed time and pla"e. When and ho$ they
"ome to e*perien"e, are de"ided, on the )asis o& the t$o tatvas, -Kaalam- and -Niyathi-, )y
God himsel&. !his e*planation is &ound only in Saiva Siddhanta te*ts. !he !hirukkural
.akuththan vakuththa vakaiyallal .... is related to this "on"ept.
1/. As mentioned earlier, karma and )irth "ontinue one a&ter another. #ere 4uestions arise. %s
there no end to this "y"le? #o$ "an the soul get li)eration? Saiva religion sho$s the $ay
&or li)eration. We should develop positive 4ualities and attitudes in li&e. 0ur a"tion or
Karma should )e in the $ay o& Lord Siva $hose inherent nature is $isdom and attri)ute
is love.
11. %n every )irth, $e gain e*perien"e through karma, and kno$ledge through e*perien"e. %n
this pro"ess the grip o& Anavam, $hi"h is the sour"e ignoran"e, get loosened and
ultimately $e )e"ome li)erated &rom it. !his pro"ess is "alled malaariaakam. Also $e
develop e4uipoise o& mind to take pain and pleasure, the &ruits o& evil and good karmas,
alike. !his is "alled iruvinai ou. God Siva-s Gra"e then des"ends on us. %t is "alled
Sakthy niaatham. !hen our a"tions $ill not )e motivated )y our senses $hi"h are
prompted )y Anava malam. !hey )e"ome #is a"tions and karma $ill not &ollo$ us to
"ome to e*perien"e.