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Networking Event
Monday 25 Jan 10; Address Hotel, Dubai Marina
District Cooling Plants;
Comparison with Conventional Systems
Harris Sanoo
Energy Management Services Int.
Window Air conditioning
District Cooling Plants
Conventional Cooling
systems
Window Air Conditioners
Split (DX) Air Conditioners
Packaged Units
Air Cooled Chiller System
Water Cooled Chiller System
District Cooling Plant system
Air Conditioning Schematic Diagram
Ac equipment is a Heat Pump.
Pumping heat from SPACE to AMBIENT for cooling
ROOM@22degC
AMBIENT@46degC
Conventional Systems- Types
Cooling Requirement System Type
Small Buildings, Rooms
Low Cost
Window ACs
Small Building less than 300
Tons to 500 Tons
Split (DX) system
Ware house, Villas, Low rise
buildings
Packaged DX Units
Large Buildings up to 1,500
Tons
Air cooled Chillers
Large Buildings above 1,500
Tons
Water cooled Chillers
The following systems are popular in the region
Average Cooling Density = 250 Sq Ft / Ton
Window Air conditioning
Every room, window ACs to be installed
Split (DX) Units Airconditioning
One indoor unit & one outdoor unit required. Ducting is possible
Package Unit
Packaged unit installed on roof and
no equipment in indoor; only ducts to
distribute air
Air cooled Chiller system
Few Air Cooled Chillers will be
installed outdoor on the roof or in
the chiller yard.
Many indoor units ( Air Handling
Units or Fan Coil Units) needed with
ducts to distribute air
Water cooled Chiller system
Central water cooled chillers are
installed in plant room; normally in
the basement levels and Cooling
Towers on the roof.
District cooling System
District Cooling Chilled Water Piping Network
District cooling Plant Network
DCP Connections
Cooling System Selection
Initiial Cost
Maintenance
Cost
Energy
Cost
Cooling System- Life Cycle Costs for 20 Years
Cooling system to be designed and selected based on Energy Efficiency
Cooling System Selection
Energy Calculations- Basics
Constant Loads such as lights, Pumps, Motorsetc
Energy (kW Hrs) = Power (kW) * Time (Hrs)
Variable Loads such as Air Conditioners, VSD pumpsetc
Power (kW) is not constant and fluctuates with ambient
conditions for AC
Annual Energy Consumption, Month wise.
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
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Electrical Intensity for typical Buildings


HVAC Lighting & S.P Total
HVAC consumption is not constant and it depend on weather.
Typical Energy Consumption of a Shopping Mall in Dubai
Cooling System Selection
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
D
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(

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MONTHS OF THE YEAR
DUBAI INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT
MEAN MAX/MIN TEMPERATURE
2008
Monthly mean max
Monthly mean min
Long Term mean max
Long Term mean min
Cooling System Selection
Air Conditioning Equipments Energy Calculations
Standard Calculation Methods are
1. Degree Day Method
Each day is represented by a number, which shows how much hot or
cold the month is - Less accurate
2. Bin Hour Method
The temperature of each hour is tabulated in a range of
temperatures - Mediumaccuracy
3. Software Simulation
Calculation performed hourly basis. More accurate. Eg :- DOE
Air cooled Vs Water cooled chiller plants
Air cooled chiller plant require only electricity as input and
normally, the efficiency is 2 kW/Ton.
Water cooled chiller plant require both electricity and
water as input and the efficiency is 1.1 kW/ton.
Here the Cooling plant can not be compared in terms of
efficiency, but it require to be analyzed based on its
operating costs (Energy Costs) including water and
electricity.
Units of Cooling Efficiency
Cooling capacity is expressed in
Tons of Refrigeration
kWof Cooling
Energy Efficiency of cooling plant is expressed in the following terms
kW/Ton
CoP Coefficient of Performance (Output kW / Input kW)
EER Energy Efficient Ratio
Most of the Energy Calculations use kW/Ton and popular in the region
DCP Tariff
Normally, DCP provider will charge the user with the following
1. Consumption Charge
Pay as per the AC consumption.
Metered by Energy (Btu) Meters.
Unit is AED / RT-Hour
Monthly Energy Charges = Usage (RT Hr) x Agreed Energy rate
($/RT Hr)
2. Demand Charges
Pay for the contracted capacity (Peak load)equipment cost
Monthly Demand Charges = Declared Demand (RT) x Agreed Demand
rate ($/RT/month)
Comparison- DCP Vs Conventional
District Cooling Conventional System
Electrical Connected load is less Electrical Connected load required
for Plant Equipment
AC Plant equipment cost is not
required. Connection charge to be
paid to DCP Provider
AC Plant equipment cost is required.
Indoor equipments required Indoor equipments required
No need to pay Energy cost for the
plant. Usage charge to be paid
Plant energy cost to be paid as utility
charges.
No need of maintenance cost for
Plant equipments. Included in Usage
charges
Maintenance cost is required for
Plant equipment
Space is not required for Plant Chiller plant space is required
Good for high development density Good for Low development density
DCP Sustainability Issues
Item Sustainability Issue
Refrigerant Addressed in LEED points
Energy
Consumption
It depends on DCP Technology. It will be same if
DCP employ similar technology
Adaptation of New
Technology
As the Plant is centralized, it will be easier to
incorporate new technologies (Renewable)
Economies of
Scale
The cooling demand is met collectively there by
reducing the production cost
Capacity Utilization Normalizing Peak Loads
District cooling Benefits
District cooling Benefits
Exhaust
Piping
Sample Savings Comparison
Sample Savings Comparison
Sample Savings Comparison
Sample Savings Comparison
integrated service offering across the energy efficiency spectrum
Green Solutions
Smart Property Solutions
Gas Solutions
Water Management
Renewable Energy
Clean Development
Mechanism (CDM)
Power Solutions
National Energy
Management Program
Click Menu To Navigate
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2007
Green Building Certification
Depth and Breadth
EMS Type of Services
Green Solutions
A systematic procedure directed towards in-depth analysis of the functions of
systems, processes and building equipment .
It includes the following services :
Verification of the Utilities requirement in Master Planning stage
Feasibility Study on Ownership of District Cooling Plant
Design Guidelines and development of LEED certification
Carbon Credits Program
Energy Value Analysis of MEP designs
Consultation on Energy Matters during Construction Stage
Consultation on Commissioning of Energy Related Equipment
Back To The Menu
Client Name
Project
Built Up Area
Scope of
Services
REEM INVESTMENTS
Najmat Abu Dhabi
80.0 million square feet
Verifying cooling loads
Initial feasibility study to establish a district
cooling plant
Verification of the Cooling Plant Capacity
DCP Connection Feasibility Study
Client Name
Project
Built Up
Area
Scope of
Services
NORR Consultant
Shangri-la Hotel (Two towers residential
and hotel development )
N/A
Comparative study District Cooling vs. Stand alone
system
Client Name
Project
Built Up Area
Scope of
Services
UNION PROPERTIES PJSC
Green community phase 2
Auto mall showroom and offices for Motor City
Uptown Development 1 & 2
13.0 million square feet
Case Study :
Green Solutions
Reviewing concept design, material submittals, equipment
and construction techniques
Estimating and comparing energy use for various system
design choices Modeling of the building energy system
Introducing energy control and management systems
Design guidelines and development of LEED certification
Case Study
Energy Value Analysis of MEP designs
EMAAR PJSC Client Name
Burj Dubai Development Project
50.0 million square feet
Built Up
Area
Scope of
Services
Reviewing Concept design, material submittals, equipment
and construction techniques
Estimating and comparing energy use for various system
design choices Modeling of the building energy system
Introducing energy control and management systems
Energy-Saving Opportunities and Design Sequence
Benefits Smart Properties System
Smart Properties System for Existing Facilities
12% to 35 % savings of total annual energy costs for existing facility,
Detailed Energy Audits with energy balance studies, whereby the facility will
be divided into areas/ systems/ sectors. Each area will have its benchmark
consumption and estimated saving potential,
Environmentally friendly, improved efficiency and less maintenance
Control Command Center (CCC),
New Source of revenues with 25% annual return,
Replacement of inefficient equipment with new energy labeled equipment.
all existing buildings are remotely connected to a centralized command
unit to monitor, control and report
Specialized Smart Property System will help the Facility
Managers /Chief Engineer to monitor, control and report
www.ems-int.com
United Arab Emirates
Liberty Bldg. Office 303
Al Garhoud, Dubai, U.A.E
P.O. Box 31411
Tel No. +971 4 282 7000
Fax No. + 971 4 282 7001
info@ems-int.com
Saudi Arabia Office
Olayan Finance Company Office
Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Tel No +966 5060967
amjad@ems-int.com
Jordan Office
P.O. Box 2457,
Amman 11953,Jordan
Tel No. +962 6 5538085
Fax No. + 962 6 5539097
jordan@ems-int.com
Qatar & Bahrain Office
P.O. Box 26262,
Doha, State of Qatar
Tel No. +974 441 1522
Fax No. + 974 441 1577
salim@ems-int.com
Thank You
We will be pleased to
answer any of your
questions!!
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