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Energy Efficient Artificial

Lighting

















Name : S.P.M. Sudasinghe
Index No : 100523G
Field : Electrical Engineering
EE 3202
Individual Project

CONTENTS
Page
1. Introduction 1
2. Light
Measurements of Light 3
3. Lighting Technologies
Incandescent Lamp
Tungsten Halogen Lamp
Fluorescent Tubes
CFL
High Intensity Discharge Lamps
LED Lamps
Improving Technologies
4
5
6
7
8
8
9
4. Strategies for energy efficient lighting
Define light requirements
Choose efficient light source
Select best light fitting
Lighting Maintenance
Maximum use of day light
Lighting Control
Other methods to improve efficiency
9
10
11
12
12
13
14
5. Conclusions 14
6. References 15















1. INTRODUCTION
Providing light by means other than the sun is called Artificial Lighting. In early days people use artificial
lighting to get the sight when there is no sun light, but today it is used not only for get the sight but also for
Aesthetic purposes. From around 70000 BC people use fire to get light. Romans produce the first candle with
wick and gas lighting was common in 19
th
century. As time passes the era of electric lighting began. The first
electric lamp was the arc lamp in which an electric current was made to jump across two carbon electrodes.
After that Sir Joseph Swann of England and Thomas Edison both invented the first electric incandescent lamps
during the 1870s. After that various electric lighting technologies were introduced to the world. People concern
very much on the efficient lighting technologies in the past few decades.
Estimates indicate that energy consumption by lighting
is about 15 - 30% of a commercial buildings total
energy consumption and about 3 - 10% in an industrial
plants total energy consumption.





According to the Reports of CEB,
street lighting contributes to about
2% of the electricity consumption
of Sri-Lanka. Considerable
percentage of Domestic and
religious electricity consumptions
are also for artificial lighting. In
Sri Lanka the peak demand is in
between 6:30-8:30 PM. This is
mainly due to electric consumption
of domestic consumers and street
lighting. Lighting load is greater at
night and this contributed very
much to the peak demand on that
period. Power plants with high
operating costs such as coal and
diesel plants have to be used to
provide this high demand at the
peak and it affects not only to the economy of the consumers but also for the economy of the country.

Due to the high demand for the energy in the present world cost of energy increases rapidly as well as the
electricity bill. So it is essential to use energy efficiently for the day to day work, for the interest of both
consumers and the country. Efficiency in lighting usage plays a major role in the energy saving due to the above
reasons. We have to find the ways of efficiency without sacrificing the quality of the lighting output.

The main objective of this project is to find the ways of energy efficiency and reduce the energy wastage from
electric lighting. Study of energy efficiency depends on the purpose of lighting such as Domestic, Commercial,
Industrial, Street lighting, Hotels, Public places etc. But in our country majority of the energy wastage is done
by the domestic consumers. Hence the study is limited to the energy efficiency of domestic lighting.
Figure 1: Energy consumption of a typical building
(Source:SLEMA)
Figure 2: Daily load curve of Sri-Lanka and contribution of different loads to
the demand
1

Objectives:
Use energy efficiently for lighting purposes in Domestic sector
Reduce energy wastage from electric lighting in domestic consumers
Save on electricity bill and save on demand

Methodology:
In the very beginning of the project, the scientific literature relevant to the project such as the basics of
Illumination Engineering and photometry are studied. After that the study is about the lighting technologies in
the word, and about their advantages, disadvantages and suitability for the domestic lighting purposes.
Incandescent, Fluorescent and LEDs are the common lighting technologies used in the domestic usage. Typical
data about these technologies such as cost, efficacy and life time are collected from trusted sources and from the
local market. Then a comparison of these technologies is carried out to select an efficient one through them
based on the cost effectiveness.
Selecting an efficient light source is not enough to increase the efficiency of a lighting system. It is essential to
minimize the energy wastage and use the energy with maximum efficiency as possible. So the ways of energy
wastage in the domestic lighting system is find out and also the solutions to minimize them.
Some of these solutions can be applied at the designing and construction process of the building such as the
ways to maximize the use of natural day light. There are many architectural solutions to maximize the use of
natural day light without increasing the load on the air conditioning system and without sacrificing the comfort
of the residents. And then the study is about the methods of improving the efficiency of the building after the
construction process such as maintenance of a lighting system and adding automatic controllers.
















2
2. LIGHT

Visible Light is electromagnetic radiation that is visible to the human eye, and is responsible for the sense of
sight. Visible light has a wave length in the range of about 380 740 nm between the invisible infrared, with
longer wave lengths and the invisible ultraviolet with shorter wave length

Measurements of Light

Light has an intensity that is determined by the amplitude of the radiation and determines the perception of the
brightness of the light. It also has a wave length or frequency that determines the colour. Light may include a
range of different frequencies or colour.
The sensitivity of the human visual system is not the same at all wavelengths in the range 380 nm to 780 nm.
This makes it impossible to adopt the radiometric quantities conventionally used to measure the characteristics
of the electromagnetic spectrum for quantifying light. Hence another two systems have introduced to measure
light.
a) Photometry System
In this system light quantities are measured with wave length weighted with respect to a standardized
model of human brightness perception. The Commission Internationale de lEclairage (CIE) has introduced
two major standard observers to represent the sensitivity of the human visual system to light at different
wavelengths, in different conditions. They are Photopic Observer and Scotopic Observer.

These functions are used to measure the light quantities and the
photopic observer is widely used.

Luminous Flux (Lumen): The quantity of radiant flux which
express its capacity to produce visual sensation.

Luminous flux =


Where

= Radiant flux in a small wave length




V

= Relative luminous efficiency function


K
m
= Constant (683Lm/W for photopic observer)
Luminous Intensity ( Candela): Luminous flux emitted per unit solid angle
Illuminance ( lm/m
2
or Lux) : Luminous flux falling on unit area of a surface
Luminance (Candela/m
2
) : The luminance of a surface is the luminous intensity emitted per unit
projected area of the surface in a given direction.
Luminous Efficacy (lm/W) : The efficiency with which a light source converts electrical energy in to
Light

b) Colourimetry System
Photometry does not take into account the wavelength combination of the light. Thus it is possible for two
surfaces to have the same luminance but the reflected light to be made up of totally different combinations of
wavelengths. Hence colourimetry is used to quantify and describe physically the human colour perception.

Colour Temperature (K) : It is the temperature of an ideal black body radiator that radiates light of comparable
hue to that of the light source. For incandescent lamps, the color temperature is a "true" value; for fluorescent
and high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps, the value is approximate and is therefore called Correlated Color
Temperature.

CRT Light Description
2700 3000 Warm White
3000 5000 Neutral White
4100 Cool White
5000 6500 Daylight
> 6500 Cool Daylight


Figure 3: Photopic and Scotopic Functions
Table 1: CRT Ranges
(Source: Sri Lanka Sustainable Energy Authority)
3
Color Rendering Index : The ability of a light source to render colors of surfaces accurately can be conveniently
quantified by the color-rendering index. If CRI is close to 100 then the source renders true colours well.

As important as the quantity or brightness of light is the quantity. The three main problems that compromise the
quality of light are
i. Glare :- The presence of a luminance much above the average fore the visual field will produce
discomfort and is called glare.
ii. Veiling Reflections :- Veiling reflections are caused by bright light sources reflected from a task
surface, such as a book.
iii. Excessive Brightness Ratio :- It occurs when there are surfaces within the same space with large
differences in brightness

3. LIGHTING TECHNOLOGIES

3.1 Incandescent Lamp

In incandescent lamp, which is also called General Lighting Service Lamp (GLS), light is produced
with a Tungsten filament (melting point 3695K) heated to a high temperature by an electric current
through it. The bulb is filled with an inert gas such as argon (93%) and nitrogen (7%) to reduce evaporation of
the filament and prevent its oxidation at a pressure of about 70 kPa (0.7 atm). The filament is coiled to reduce
heat convection to the filling gas. The bulb is generally made of a soft soda glass and its size is set so that it does
not get too hot and the tungsten that evaporates from the filament during the life of the lamp does not blacken
the bulb too much. An electric current heats the filament to typically 2,000 to 3,300 K. These lamps can operate
both from DC or Ac current. Incandescent bulbs have a continuous spectrum radiating more energy at long
wave lengths (Red), and excellent colour rendering index about 100. Only 10% of the electrical energy input is
converted to visible light and other 90% of energy emits as heat. Due to the poor efficiency of incandescent
bulbs many governments have introduced measures to ban their use. Incandescent bulbs are manufactured in a
wide range of sizes, light output, and voltage ratings, from 1.5 volts to about 300 volts. They require no external
regulating equipment and have low manufacturing costs. As a result, the incandescent lamp were widely used
in household and commercial lighting, for portable lighting such as table lamps, car headlamps, and flashlights,
and for decorative and advertising lighting. In buildings where air conditioning is used, incandescent lamps' heat
output increases load on the air conditioning system.

Typical Properties of Incandescent bulbs:
Efficacy - 5-15 lm/W (12 lm/W)
Life - 1000 hours
CRI - 100
CCT - 2500K-2700K(Warm)
Dimming - easily dimmable


Lighting
Technologies
Incandescence
Incandescent
Tungsten
Halogen
Gas Discharge
Fluorescent HID
Solid State
LED OLED
Figure 4: Spectral distribution of the output of Incandescent bulb
4
Advantages
Inexpensive
Easy to use, small and does not need auxiliary
equipment
Easy to dim by changing the voltage
Excellent color rendering properties
Directly work at power supplies with fixed voltage
Free of toxic components
Instant switching
Disadvantages
Short lamp life (1000 h)
Low luminous efficacy
Heat generation is high
Lamp life and other characteristics are
strongly dependent on the supply voltage
The total costs are high due to high operation
costs.


3.2 Tungsten Halogen Lamp
Tungsten halogen lamps are derived from incandescent lamps. Inside the bulb, halogen gas in high pressure
limits the evaporation of the filament, and redeposits the evaporated tungsten back to the filament through the so
called halogen cycle

Halogen Cycle:
The Halogen combining with the Tungsten vapor on the wall of the lamp at about 250
0
C
The Tungsten Halide vapor reach close to the filament in extremely high temperature
It splits into Tungsten and Halogen again and Tungsten deposited on filament

Compared to incandescent lamp the operating temperature is higher, and consequently the color
temperature is also higher, which means that the light is whiter. Color rendering index is close to 100
as with incandescent lamps. Due to the higher temperature bulb must be made from quartz or high
melting point glass. These bulbs are more expensive as it is hard to make the quartz outer bulb and it is harder
to introduce the gas fill into the lamp due to the high filling pressure.
Halogen lamps have continuous spectrum that emits UV, visible light (12%) and infrared radiation and bulbs are
doped or coated to filter out the UV radiation. The latest progress in halogen lamps has been reached by
introducing selective-IR-mirror-coatings in the bulb. The infrared coating redirects infrared radiations
back to the filament. This increases the luminous efficacy by 4060% compared to other designs and
lamp life is up to 4000 hours.
There are halogen lamps available for mains voltages or low voltages (6-24V). The small size of halogen
lamps permits their use in compact optical systems for projectors. Also they are used for light source of
Automobile head lights and some manufacturers produce them for household fittings to replace standard
incandescent bulbs. Special precautions are required to avoid from firing and burning hazards due to high
temperature.

Typical features:
Efficacy - 15-35Lm/W (18 lm/W)
Life - 2000 - 4000 hours
CRI - 100
CCT - 2800K - 3200K (Warm)
Dimming - easy

Advantages
Small size
Directional light with some models (narrow
beams)
Low-voltage alternatives
Easy to dim
Instant switching and full light output
excellent color rendering properties

Disadvantages
High surface temperature
Lamp life and other characteristics are
strongly dependent on the supply voltage
Expensive than incandescent





5
3.3 Fluorescent Tube
Fluorescent lamps are the most commonly used form of discharge lamp. They come in a variety of shapes and
sizes and are available in a wide range of colours. The original form of the lamp was a long straight tube.
Fluorescent lamps work by generating ultraviolet radiation in a discharge in low pressure mercury vapor. This is
then converted into visible light by a phosphor coating on the inside of the tube. The electric current supplied to
the discharge has to be limited by control gear to maintain stable operation of the lamp because they display
negative voltage-current characteristics. Traditionally this is done with magnetic ballast but most circuits
now use high frequency electronic control gear.

The tube is made from a glass with high iron content to absorb
the UV radiation. Phosphor coating is applied inside the bulb.
There is wide variety of phosphors available each produces
different spectrum of light. Tube is filled with noble gas.
Linear lamps come in variety of diameters and lengths. In diameter
T12 (12*1/8 inch), T8 (8* 1/8 inch) and T5 (5* 1/8 inch). T5 lamps
perform best at the ambient temperature of 35C, and T8 lamps
at 25C. The T5 has a very good luminous efficacy (100 lm/W),
the same lamp surface luminance for different lamp powers
(some lamps), and optimal operating point at higher ambient
temperature. T5 lamps are shorter than the correspondent T8
lamps, and they need electronic ballasts.
Correlated color temperatures (CCT) vary from 2700 K (warm white) and 6500 K (daylight) up to
17 000 K and color rendering indices (CRI) from 50 to 95 are available. Because they contain
mercury, many fluorescent lamps are classified as hazardous waste. The United States Environmental Protection
Agency recommends that fluorescent lamps be segregated from general waste for recycling or safe disposal

Typical Features
Luminous Efficacy : 50-100 lm/W
CCT : 2700 6500K
CRI : 50 95
Lamp Life : 10000-16000 hours



Ballast
Ballast is a current limiting device, to counter negative resistance characteristics of any discharge lamps. In
case of fluorescent lamps, it aids the initial voltage build-up, required for starting. There are two types of
ballasts called Magnetic ballast (choke) and Electronic ballasts.

Magnetic ballast is basically an inductor. It limits the current (slow down the increasing of current) and
the voltage spike is produced when current through the inductor is rapidly interrupted (is used in some circuits
to first strike the arc in the lamp). For large lamps, line voltage may not be sufficient to start the lamp, so
an autotransformer winding is included in the ballast to step up the voltage. For magnetic ballasts, capacitor
must be connected in parallel for power factor correction. They operate at the 50 or 60Hz frequency of the AC
voltage. This means that each lamp switches on and off 100 or 120 times per second, resulting in a possibly
perceptible flicker and a noticeable hum.

Advantages
Inexpensive ( than CFL and LED)
Good luminous efficacy
Long lamp life, 10 000 16 000 h
Large variety of CCT and CRI

Disadvantages
Ambient temperature affects the switch-on
and light output
Need of auxiliary ballast and starter or
electronic ballast
Light output depreciates with age
Contain mercury
Short burning cycles shorten lamp life
6
Electronic ballast alters AC voltage frequency (50 Hz) into high-frequency AC (25- 50 kHz) while also
regulating the current flow in the lamp. Some still use an inductance to limit the current, but the higher
frequency allows a much smaller inductance to be used. High frequency operation reduces the ballast losses and
also makes the discharge itself more effective. Other advantages of the electronic ballasts are that the light is
flicker-free and there is the opportunity of using dimming devices.

Fluorescent lamp ballasts differ from the starting method of the lamp. They are
Preheat starting (switch start): - It is an old method used to start the fluorescent tubes using a
starter switch and ballast (choke coil). Starter passes the current through it at starting and filaments
heat up in that period. After some time starter interrupt the connection through it and hence voltage
pulse generated by the choke coil.
Rapid Start: - the lamp's ballast constantly channels current through both electrodes. This
current flow is configured so that there is a charge difference between the two electrodes,
establishing a voltage across the tube. Less voltage is required for starting than with instant
start lamps, thus using smaller, more efficient ballasts
Instant Start: - simply use a high enough voltage to break down the gas and mercury column
and thereby start arc conduction.

3.4 Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL)

The CFL is a compact variant of the fluorescent lamp. The overall length is shortened and the tubular discharge
tube is often folded into two to six fingers or a spiral. For a direct replacement of tungsten filament lamps,
such compact lamps are equipped with internal ballasts and screw or bayonet caps (Integrated CFL).
There are also pin base CFLs, which need an external ballast and starter for operation (Non-Integrated CFL).
In general compact fluorescent lamps are less efficient than linear lamps. Integrated CFLs are easy to install and
the advantage of pin base lamps (Non-integrated) is that it is possible to replace the burnt lamp while keeping
the ballast in place. CFLs turn on within a second, but many still take time to achieve full brightness. CFLs, like
all fluorescent lamps, contain mercury as vapor inside the glass tubing. Most CFLs contain 35 mg per bulb,
with the bulbs labeled "eco-friendly" containing as little as 1 mg. Health and environmental concerns about
mercury have prompted many jurisdictions to require spent lamps to be properly disposed of or recycled, rather
than being included in the general waste stream sent to landfills. Safe disposal requires storing the bulbs
unbroken until they can be processed.

Typical features

Luminous Efficacy - 50-70 lm/W
Life - 5000h - 15000h
CRI - >80
CCT - 2700K 6500K
Dimming - possible for some types only
Run up time - about 60s ( for full brightness)

Advantages
Good luminous efficacy
Long lamp life (6000-12 000 h)
The reduced cooling loads when
replacing incandescent lamps
Easy to install

Disadvantages
Expensive
Not dimmable (apart from special models)
Light output depreciates with age
Short burning cycles shorten lamp life
Contain mercury
When tube burns out whole lamp is useless


3.4 High Intensity Discharge Lamps

The family of architectural light sources with the highest light output levels is called high intensity discharge or
HID lamps. High-intensity discharge lamps (HID lamps) are a type of electrical gas-discharge lamp which
produces light by means of an electric arc between tungsten electrodes housed inside a translucent or
transparent fused quartz or fused alumina arc tube. This tube is filled with both gas and metal salts. The gas
facilitates the arc's initial strike. Once the arc is started, it heats and evaporates the metal salts forming a plasma,
which greatly increases the intensity of light produced by the arc and reduces its power consumption. High-
intensity discharge lamps make more visible light per unit of electric power consumed
7
than fluorescent and incandescent lamps since a greater proportion of their radiation is visible light in contrast to
heat. Like fluorescent lamps, HID lamps require a ballast to start and maintain their arcs. Unlike thermal solid
sources with continuous spectral emission, radiation from the gas discharge occurs predominantly in form of
single spectral lines. These lines may be used directly or after spectral conversion by phosphors for emission of
light. Discharge lamps generate light of different color quality, according to how the spectral lines are
distributed in the visible range.
HID lamps are typically used when high levels of light over large areas are required, and when energy
efficiency and/or light intensity are desired. These areas include gymnasiums, large public areas, warehouses,
movie theaters, football stadiums, outdoor activity areas, roadways, parking lots, and pathways
Factors of wear come mostly from on/off cycles versus the total on time. The highest wear occurs when the HID
burner is ignited while still hot and before the metallic salts have recrystallized. Restrik time of HID lamp is
about 15 minutes.
Varieties of HID lamps include
Mercury Vapour Lamp
Metal Halide Lamp
Sodium Vapour Lamp

3.5 LED Lamp

LED lamps are the newest addition to the list of energy efficient light sources. LEDs emit light in a very small
band of wavelengths. But general-purpose lighting needs white light. To emit white light from LEDs requires
either mixing light from red, green, and blue LEDs, or using a phosphor to convert some of the light to other
colors.
RGB white LEDs uses multiple LED chips, each emitting a different wavelength, in close proximity to generate
the broad spectrum of white light. The advantage of this method is that the intensity of each LED can be
adjusted to "tune" the character of the light emitted. But colour rendering of these lights are poor and has high
production cost.
Phosphor converted LEDs uses one short-wavelength LED (usually blue, sometimes ultraviolet) in combination
with a phosphor which absorbs a portion of the blue light and emits a broader spectrum of white light. The
major advantage is the low production cost. The color rendering index can range from less than 70 to over 90,
and color temperatures in the range of 2700 K up to 7000 K are available. This is the most widely used LED.

Efficiency of LED devices continues to improve, with some chips able to emit more than 100 lumens per watt.
LEDs do not emit light in all directions, and their directional characteristics affect the design of lamps. Thus
illuminating a flat defined area requires less Lumen compared to light sources which would need reflectors or
lenses to do the same. For illuminating an 360 orbit, the benefits of LED are much smaller.
LEDs are degraded or damaged by operating at high temperatures, so LED lamps typically include heat
dissipation elements such as heat sinks and cooling fins. A single LED is a low-voltage solid-state device and
cannot be directly operated on standard high-voltage AC power without circuitry to control the current flow
through the lamp.
Assemblies of high power light-emitting diodes can be used to replace incandescent or fluorescent lamps. Some
LED lamps are made with identical bases so that they are directly interchangeable with incandescent bulbs.
Compared to Incandescent or CFL bulbs, LED bulbs are more efficient and offer lifespan of 30,000 or more
hours, reduced if operated at a higher temperature than specified. Several companies offer LED lamps for
general lighting purposes. The technology is improving rapidly and new energy-efficient consumer LED lamps
are available. LED lamps are more environmental friendly as they didnt contain mercury and energy efficient.
Also they didnt generate much heat as other lights such as HID and incandescent.

Typical Features
Luminous Efficacy - 30-100 lm/W
Life - 15000h-60000h
Available power range - 1-5 W
CCT -2685K-6500K
CRI - 40-85
Dimming - Easy


8
Advantages
Small size (heat sink can be large)
Physically robust
Long lifetime expectancy (with proper thermal
management)
Switching has no effect on life, very short rise
time
Contains no mercury
Excellent low ambient temperature operation
High luminous efficacy (Developing fast)
New luminaire design possibilities
Possibility to change colors
No optical heat on radiation
Disadvantages
High price
Low luminous flux / package
CRI can be low
Risk of glare due to high output with small
lamp size
Need for thermal management
Lack of standardization


3.6 Improving Technologies
OLED (Organic LED) : - Organic semiconductor materials are used instead of inorganic semiconductors. They
are very thin lights and used for digital displays and television screens. Still it is developing technology. They
have luminous efficacy about 10-30 lm/W which is higher than incandescent. Life time is about 5000h and has a
good colour rendering index about 75.
Induction Lamps: - Induction lamps are essentially gas discharge lamps that do not have electrodes. Instead the
electric field in the lamp is induced by an induction coil that is operating at high frequency. The only types of
induction lamps that are currently in production are based on fluorescent lamp technology. They are, however,
slightly less efficient. The big advantage with this type of lamp is long life about 60000h.

4. STRATEGIES FOR ENERGY EFFICIENT LIGHTING
The challenge in lighting design is to provide sufficient light where it is required at the times when it is required,
without providing excess light. If this is done using the most appropriate light sources and fittings, and
combined with an effective control system, then substantial energy savings can be achieved.

4.1 Define light requirements

For energy efficient lighting, it is best to define the light requirements of the lighting location at different times
to avoid lighting levels that are higher than actually needed which causes energy wastage.











Table 2: recommended illuminance levels (source:SLEMA)
9
4.2 Choose efficient light sources, best suitable for the purpose

Designing lighting in a low carbon building requires specifying the right light source for the job, which includes
not only energy efficiency but a number of other considerations. An efficient but inappropriate (e.g.
photometrically or start-up time) lamp cannot be considered to be sustainable. Important parameters that should
be considered prior to select a light source are

Cost (operating & capital cost)
Luminous Efficacy
Colour Rendering Index
Colour Temperature
Lamp life
Run up time
Dimming possibility
Environment effects
For domestic purposes main competitors are Incandescent, CFL and LED lamps. LEDs are still
developing technology and new lamps with new features are coming to the market.
Cost Effectiveness
To compare the cost effectiveness of these three light sources, widely available characteristics of the
lamps in the market are considered. Total monthly cost of a bulb in a typical house, works 5 hours per
day is compared among these three technologies.
To calculate the operating cost, unit electricity cost is taken as Rs10.50 (according to the domestic
tariff rates if the units consumed are lee than 90).
Incandescent CFL LED
Lumen output (lm) 650 650 650
Power (W) 60 11 9
Efficacy (lm/W) 11 60 70
Life time (h) 1000 8000 50000
Cost of one lamp (Rs.) 45 350 1500
Monthly Capital cost (Rs.)
(for 5h/day)
6.75 6.50 4.50
kWh consumed
(for 5h/day)
9.0 1.65 1.35
Monthly Operating cost (Rs.)
(for 5h/day)
94.50 17.33 14.18
Monthly Total cost (Rs.)
(for 5h/day)
101.25 23.83 18.68
Net Saving over Incandescent 76% 81%


Hence both CFL and LEDs are cost effective light sources. Many governments have introduced measures to ban
the use of Incandescent bulbs due to their poor efficiency.
Lamp life of LEDs is much higher than CFLs. Number of Switching cycles affect the lamp life of CFLs very
much. Most CFL lights operate for 30000 switching cycles according to the manufacturers data sheets. Life
time of the compact discharge tube of CFL lights have less life time than the electronic circuitry of the lamp.
But it is not possible to replace it in integrated CFL lights. LED lights are much durable than CFL and have
good lumen maintenance.
Also CFL bulbs properly work under the temperatures within 10 45
0
C only. But the operation of LED lights
is not temperature dependant.
Table 3: Cost comparison of light sources
10
CFL bulbs contain about 1g of mercury and it is hazardous to the environment and humans. Hence disposing
requires special concern. CFL generates UV radiation but didnt allow them to radiate outside. But there is some
risk associated with it. LEDs are much environmental friendly than CFL as they are mercury free.
But still CFL lights are the most popular energy saving lamp because LEDs are still developing.
Energy Labeling
Energy labeling makes the consumer aware of the energy consumption levels and energy efficiency rating of
energy appliances in their purchasing; shortly it enables the consumer to identify whether that product saves
energy or is an energy guzzler. SLSEA is the authoritative agency and SLSEA in collaboration with the SLSI
implement the energy standards and labeling program. The first Energy Label introduced in Sri Lanka was for
Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFLs) in the year 2000. CFL was selected as the first item for energy labeling
program since it required heavy promotion.
Upon the value for the performance grading Star Ratings are assigned. The higher the number of stars, the more
the energy efficiency of the CFL. Efficacy of the lamp contributes 90% for the performance grading.
















4.3 Select Best Light fitting, suitable for the purpose
It is important to use suitable light fittings to direct light from the source to the working area. Luminaire
includes reflectors, refractors, diffusers and filters to direct the light to the task surface with maximum
efficiency without resulting in direct glare, veiling reflections or excessive brightness ratios. It is essential to use
luminaire for fluorescent tubes.
Different lamp technologies and different lighting environments require different luminaire
construction principles and features. Most HID lamps and LED lamps require thermal control
mechanism to control the internal temperature of the luminaire for proper working of the lamp.
Source : SLSEA
11
Although some amount of energy is lost and reduces the efficiency of lamp due to the optic
controlling, luminaire helps to provide good quality light output for required purpose. Some times
luminaires are used only for the decorative purposes without considering about other factors. This
cause in vain energy lost.












4.4 Lighting Maintenance
Maintenance is vital to lighting efficiency. Light levels decrease over time because of aging lamps and
dirt on fixtures, lamps and room surfaces. Together, these factors can reduce total illumination by 50
percent or more, while lights continue drawing full power. The following basic maintenance suggestions
can help prevent this.
Clean fixtures, lamps and lenses every 6 to 24 months by wiping off the dust.
Replace lenses if they appear yellow.
Clean or repaint small rooms every year and larger rooms every 2 to 3 years. Dirt collects on
surfaces, which reduces the amount of light they reflect.
Consider group re-lamping. Common lamps, especially incandescent and fluorescent lamps, lose 20
per cent to 30 per cent of their light output over their service life. Many lighting experts recommend
replacing all the lamps in a lighting system at once. This saves labor, keeps illumination high and
avoids stressing any ballasts with dying lamps.

4.5 Maximum use of day light
Physically, daylight is just another source of electromagnetic radiation in the visible range. Physiologically,
daylight is an effective stimulant to the human visual system and the human circadian system. Psychologically,
daylight and a view out are much desired and, in consequence, may have benefits for human well-being.
As a tropical country Sri Lanka get daylight more than 10 hours per day without seasonal variation. Day light is
a natural and free light source and lighting for day time can be achieved from daylight which reduces the cost of
lighting. But solar radiation contains heat energy and it causes thermal discomfort or increasing the load on
cooling system. Glare occurs when a bright light source such as the sun is in the field of view of users. It can
also occur when reflections of the sun are in the field of view.

Figure 5: Different types of luminaires
12
Windows are the typical daylight provider for the buildings. Size and position of the windows has a great
influence on daylight condition inside the building. Heat generation and glare can be reduced by reducing the
direct sun light in to the building. This can be done by
Avoid placing the windows on east and west of buildings
Use shadings such as external overhangs








Double glazed windows can be used to reduce the heat entering with solar radiation. It reduces the
heat transmission between inside and outside while allowing light to transmit. But they are expensive
Roof lights can also used to increase the day light entering the building. Roof lights are a glazed opening in the
roof of a building.




Light Pipes is another method to increase day light in the building. In this method Sunlight is
collected by fixed mirrors or by sun tracking mirrors (heliostats) and transported into the building
through light pipes which can also transport and distribute the electrical lighting from a
centrally located electrical light source.

4.6 Lighting Control
Controlling the light output of a Lighting system is essential for the efficiency of the system. This controlling
can be on-off controlling or light output level controlling. Also Light control can be done automatically or
manually.
Light output level variation is accomplished by using a rheostat in the past but it is very inefficient as there is a
power loss in the rheostat too. In modern controllers they use solid state devices such as SCR (Silicon
Controlled Rectifiers) and operate by turning the lights on and off 120 times a second. The proportion of on-
time determines the wattage and the apparent brightness.

Automated lighting control can be done depending on
The occupancy
Day light level

If there is no lighting control system, the output is same for all time even if there is considerable amount of sun
light inside the room. This is misspend of electrical energy. It can be reduce by using a light controller which is
sensitive to the day light intensity. Photo sensors such as photo resistors, photo transistors and photo cells can be
used as sensors to detect day light level.
Figure 6: External overhangs to reduce direct sunlight
Figure 7: Roof light
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And some times the occupants of the buildings forgot to switch off the light when they leave the building. This
wastage can be reduced by using controllers sensitive to the occupancy. IR based occupancy sensors can be used
to detect the occupancy of the room.
Timers can also be used to control the lights.

In modern control systems available in the market all two features are available. They control the light output
depending on the occupancy and the day light intensity inside the room.

4.7 Other methods to improve the efficiency of the lighting system
Decorate rooms with light colours. Light coloured walls, ceilings, tiled floors reflect light than dark
colours.
Use task lighting where ever as possible. Directing the light output to the working surface increases
the efficiency
Use Electronic ballasts instead of electromagnetic ballasts



5. CONCLUSIONS

Efficient lighting system should contain

Efficient light source best suitable for the purpose
Luminaire best suitable for the purpose
Light control system

LED and CFL bulbs are more efficient and cost effective than Incandescent lamps and Incandescent
lamps should replace with CFL or LED lights
LED lamps are more environment friendly than the CFL lights, because they didnt contain mercury
Fluorescent tubes or non integrated CFL lights are more cost effective than integrated CFL lights
because their ability to replace the discharge tube.
Fluorescent tubes are more suitable for the commercial and industrial buildings

Efficiency of the lighting system can be improved by

Proper maintenance of lighting system
Maximum use of day light as much as possible with the architectural concern at the design of
the building
Controlling the electrical lighting output with respect to the day light
Hybrid use of day light and electric lighting














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REFERENCES

1. Lighting Handbook, 2009 by Society of Light & Lighting
2. Guide book energy efficient electric lighting for buildings by ECBCS
3. Lighting Reference Guide by Natural Resources Canada
4. Code of practice for energy efficient buildings in Sri Lanka 2008 by SLSEA
5. The lighting handbook for utilities from RCL (Regional Center for Lighting)
6. Lighting Fundamentals Handbook from RCL
7. Light and the Environment by Osram
8. Lighting Handbook by Illuminating Engineering society of North America
9. OLED technology by Osram
10. http://www.rclsa.net
11. http://www.energy.gov.lk (Sri Lanka Sustainable Energy Authority)
12. http://www.slema.org.lk (Sri Lanka Energy Managers Association)
13. http://www.wikipedia.org




ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The author gratefully acknowledges the contributions of Dr. Udayange Hemapala, Department of Electrical
Engineering, for his advices on this project. And also for Mr.Janaka Aluthge, Product Development Engineer
of Kevilton Electrical Products (PVT) LTD and Mr Lalith Dissanayaka and Miss Paboda from Orel MFG (PVT)
LTD for their support providing the data relevant to the project.
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