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Engsh Gammar

1. Ch ng (sub|ect). 7
1.1 Danh t m c v khng m c.
1.2 Oun t a (an) v the
1.3 Cch s dng Other v another.
1.4 Cch s dng tter/ a tter, few/ a few
1.5 S hu cch
1.6 Some, any
2. ng t ( verb)
2.1 Hn t (present)
2.1.1 Hnt n gn (smpe present)
2.1.2 Hn t tp dOn (present progressve)
2.1.3 Present perfect ( hn t hon thnh)
2.1.4 Hn t hon thnh tp dOn ( preset perfect
progressve)
2.2 Ou kh ( Past)
2.2.1 Ou kh n gn (smpe past)
2.2.2 Ou kh tp dOn (Past progresve).
2.2.3 Ou kh hon thnh (past perfect).
2.2.4 Ou kh hon thnh tp dOn (past perfect
progressve).
2.3 T ng a
2.3.1 T ng a n gn (smpe future)
2.3.2 T ng a tp dOn ( future progressve)
2.3.3 T ng a hon thnh (future perfect)
Student: Hoang Vet
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Engsh Gammar
3. S ho hp ga ch ng v ng t.
3.1 Ch ng ng tch kh ng t.
3.2 Cc danh t un h ng t v t s t.
3.3 Cch s dng none, no
3.4 Cch s dng cEu trc ether ... or v nether ... nor.
3.5 Cc danh t tp thO
3.6 Cch s dng A number of/ the number of
3.7 Cc danh t un dng s nhOu.
3.8 Cch dng cc thnh ng There s, there are
4. t
4.1 t nhn x ng ch ng (Sub|ect pronoun)
4.2 t nhn x ng tn ng
4.3 TYnh t s hu
4.4 t s hu
4.5 t phn thn (reexve pronoun)
5. ng t dng m tn ng
5.1 ng t nguyn thO m tn ng
5.2 V-ng dng m tn ng
5.3 3 ng t c bt
5.4 Cc ng t ng ng sau g t
5.5 VEn O t tr c ng t nguyn thO hoc Vng
m tn ng.
6. Cch s dng ng t bn khm khuyt need v dare
6.1 Need
6.2 Dare
7. Cch dng ng t to be + nntve
8. Cu h
8.1 Cu h yes v no
Student: Hoang Vet
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Engsh Gammar
8.2 Cu h thng bo
8.2.1 who v what m ch ng.
8.2.2 Whom v what tn ng ca cu h
8.2.3 Cu h dnh cho cc b ng (when, where, why,
how)
8.3 Cu h gn tp (embedded questons)
8.4 Cu h c u
9. L n ph ho khVng nh v ph nh.
9.1 L n ph ho khVng nh.
9.2 L n ph ho ph nh
10. Cu ph nh
11. Mnh nh thc
11.1 Mnh nh thc trc tp.
11.2 Mnh nh thc gn tp.
12. ng t khm khuyt.
12.1 DOn t th t ng a.
12.2 DOn t cu Ou kn.
12.2.1 Ou kn c thO thc hn c th hn t.
12.2.2 Ou kn khng thO thc hn c th hn t.
12.2.3 Ou kn khng thO thc hn c th qu kh.
12.2.4 Cc cch dng c bt ca W, woud v soud trong
cc mnh O f
13. Cch s dng thnh ng as f, as though.
13.1 Th hn t.
13.2 Th qu kh.
14. Cch s dng ng t To hope v to wsh.
14.1 Th t ng a.
14.2 Th hn t
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Engsh Gammar
14.3 Th qu kh.
15. Cch s dng thnh ng used to v get/be used to
15.1 used to.
15.2 get / be used to.
16. Cch s dng thnh ng Woud rather
16.1 Lo cu c mt ch ng.
16.2 Lo cu c 2 ch ng
17. Cch s dng Woud Lke
18. Cch s dng cc ng t khm khuyt O dOn t
cc trng th hn t.
18.1 Coud/may/mght.
18.2 Shoud
18.3 Must
19. Cch s dng cc ng t khm khuyt O dn t
cc trng th th qu kh.
20. tYnh t v ph t (ad|ectve and adverb).
21. ng t n.
22. So snh ca tYnh t v danh t
22.1 So snh bng.
22.2 So snh hn, km
22.3 So snh hp
22.4 Cc dng so snh c bt
22.5 So snh a b
22.6 So snh kp (cng ....th cng)
22.7 No sooner ... than (va m ... th; chVng bao u ...
th)
23. Dng nguyn, so snh hn v so snh hn nhEt.
24. Cc danh t m chc nng tYnh t
Student: Hoang Vet
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Engsh Gammar
25. Enough v tYnh t, ph t v danh t
26. Cc t n ch nguyn nhn
26.1 Because/ because of
26.2 Mc Ych v kt qu (so that- O)
26.3 Cause and ehect
27. Mt s t n mang tYnh Ou kn
28. Cu b ng
29. ng t gy nguyn nhn
29.1 Have/ get / make
29.2 Let
29.3 Hep
30. Ba ng t c bt
31. CEu trc phc hp v t quan h thay th
31.1 That v Whch m ch ng ca cu ph
31.2 That v wch m tn ng ca cu ph
31.3 Who m ch ng ca cu ph
31.4 Whom m tn ng ca cu ph
31.5 Mnh O ph bt buc v mnh O ph khng bt
buc
31.6 Tm quan trng ca dEu phEy trong mnh O ph
31.7 Cch s dng A / both/ severa / most ... + of + whom
/ whch
31.8 What v whose
32. Cch o b cc mnh O ph
33. Cch s dng phn t 1 trong mt s tr ng hp c
bt
34. Cch s dng nguyn mu hon thnh
35. Nhng cch s dng khc ca that
Student: Hoang Vet
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Engsh Gammar
35.1 That v t cch ca mt n t (rng)
35.2 Mnh O c that
36. Cu g nh
36.1 Cu g nh dng woud rather that
36.2 Cu g nh dng v ng t trong bng.
36.3 Cu g nh dng v tYnh t
36.4 Dng v mt s tr ng hp khc
36.5 Cu g nh dng v t s tme
37. L n bao hm
37.1 Not ony ... but aso (khng nhng ... m cn)
37.2 As we as (cng nh , cng nh )
37.3 Both ... and ( c ... n )
38. Cch s dng to know v to know how
39. Mnh O nh ng b
39.1 Despte / n spte of (mc d)
39.2 athough, even though, though
40. Nhng ng t dO gy nhm n
41. Mt s ng t c bt khc.
Phn II Phn II
Tng Anh vt Tng Anh vt
I. Cc th ng gp trong tng anh vt
42. S ho hp ca th ng t
43. Cch s dng to say, to te
44. T tr c O g thu
45. t nhn x ng one v you
46. Cch s dng phn t m u cho mnh O ph
46.1 V+ng m u mnh O ph
Student: Hoang Vet
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Engsh Gammar
46.2 Phn t 2 m u mnh O ph O ch b ng
46.3 ng t nguyn thO ch mc Ych m u cho
mnh O ph
46.4 Ng danh t hoc ng g t m u mnh O ph
ch s t ng ng
47. Phn t dng m tYnh t
47.1 Dng phn t 1 m tYnh t
47.2 Dng phn t 2 m tYnh t
48. Tha (redundancy)
49. CEu trc cu song song
50. Thng tn trc tp v thng tn gn tp
50.1 Cu trc tp v cu gn tp
50.2 Ph ng php chuyOn t cu trc tp sang cu
gn tp
50.3 ng t v tn ng trc tp v tn ng gn tp
51. Ph t o n u cu
52. Cch chn nhng cu tr ng
53. Nhng t dO gy nhm n
54. Cch s dng g t
54.1 Durng - trong sut (hnh ng xy ra trong mt
qung th gan)
54.2 From (t) >< to (n)
54.3 Out of (ra kh) >< nto (d vo)
54.4 by
54.5 In ( trong, t) - ngha xc nh hn at
54.6 on
54.7 at - t (th ng bn ngo, khng xc nh bng n)
55. Ng ng t
Student: Hoang Vet
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Engsh Gammar
56. S kt hp ca cc danh t, ng t v tYnh t v cc
g t
GRAMMAR REVIEW
Cu trc cu ting Anh
Sub|ect + Verb as predcate + Compement + Moder.
Ch ng ng t v ng tn ng b ng
1. Ch ng (subject)
ng u cu m ch ng v quyt nh vc cha ng t.
Ch ng c thO 1 cm t, 1 ng t nguyn thO (c to), 1 V+ing, song
nhOu nhEt vn 1 danh t v 1 danh t c n quan t nhng vEn O sau:
1.1 Danh t m c v khng m c.
- Danh t m c c thO c dng v s m do c hnh th s Yt, s
nhOu. N c thO dng c dng v a (an) v the.
- Danh t khng m c khng dng c v s m do n khng c hnh
th s nhOu. Do , n khng dng c v a (an).
- Mt s cc danh t m c c hnh th s nhOu c bt vY d:
person - peope woman -
women
mouse - mce foot -
Student: Hoang Vet
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Engsh Gammar
feet
tooth - teeth man -
men.
-Sau y mt s danh t khng m c m ta cn bt.
Sand soap physcs mathematc
s
News mumps Ar potcs
meases nformaton Meat homework
food economcs advertsng

money
* Mc d advertising danh t khng m c, nhng advertisement danh
t m c.
VY d:
There are too many advertsements durng teevson shows.
There s too much advertsng durng teevson shows.
- Mt s danh t khng m c nh food, meat, money, sand, water, c -
c dng nh cc danh t m c O ch cc dng khc nhau ca o danh t .
VY d:
Ths s one of the foods that my doctor has forbdden me to eat.
(ch ra mt o thc n c bt no )
He studes meats
( chVng hn pork, beef, lamb. vv...)
Bng sau l cc nh ng dng c vi danh t m c v khng m
c.
Danh t m c (with count
noun)
Danh t khng m c (with non-count
noun)
a (an), the, some, any
ths, that, these, those,
none,one,two,three,...
many
a ot of
penty of
a arge number of
a great number of, a great many
of.
(a) few
the, some, any
ths, that
non
much (thng dng trong cu ph nh hoc
cu h
a ot of
a arge amount of
a great dea of
(a) tte
Student: Hoang Vet
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Engsh Gammar
few ... than
more ... than
ess ... than
more ... than
- Danh t time nu dng v ngha th gan khng m c nhng nu dng v
ngha s n hoc th danh t m c.
VY d:
We have spent too much tme on ths homework.
She has been ate for cass sx tmes ths semester.
1.2 Qun t a an! v th"
1- a v an
an # c dng$
- trc 1 danh t s Yt m c bt u bng 4 nguyn m (vowe) a, e, ,
o
- ha bn nguyn m u, y
- cc danh t bt u bng h cm.
vY d: u : an unce.
h : an hour
- hoc trc cc danh t vt tt c c nh 1 nguyn m.
VY d: an L-pate, an SOS, an MP
a $ c dng$
- trc 1 danh t bt u bng ph m (consonant).
- dng trc mt danh t bt u bng uni.
a unversty, a unform, a unversa, a unon.
- trc 1 danh t s Yt m c, trc 1 danh t khng xc nh c thO vO
mt c Om, tYnh chEt, v trY hoc c nhc n n u trong
cu.
- c dng trong cc thnh ng ch s ng nhEt nh.
VY d : a ot of, a coupe, a doen, a great many, a great dea of.
- dng trc nhng s m nhEt nh, c bt ch hng trm, hng
ngn.
VY d: a hundred, a thousand.
- trc half kh n theo sau 1 n v nguyn vn.
VY d: a ko and a haf v cng c thO c one and a haf kos.
%h& ': 1 /2 kg haf a ko ( khng c a trc half).
- dng trc half kh n v 1 danh t khc to thnh t ghp.
VY d : a haf-hoday na k ngh, a haf-share : na c phn.
- dng trc cc t s nh 1/3, 1 /4, 1/5, a thrd, a quarter, a fth hay one
thrd, one fourth, one fth .
Student: Hoang Vet
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Engsh Gammar
- Dng trong cc thnh ng ch g c, tc , t .
VY d: ve doars a ko; four tmes a day.
- Dng trong cc thnh ng trc cc danh t s Yt m c, dng trong cu
cm thn.
VY d: Such a ong queue What a pretty gr
Nhng: such ong queues What pretty grs.
- a c thO c t trc MrMrsMiss + tn h (surname):
VY d: a Mr Smth, a Mrs Smth, a Mss Smth.
a Mr !mith ngha ng"i #$n %ng #&c g'i l$ !mith v ng ng ta
ng v ng n. Cn nu khng c a tc ng n bt ng
!mith.
2- The
- c s dng kh danh t c xc nh c thO vO tYnh chEt, c Om, v trY
hoc c nhc n n th 2 trong cu.
# (h" ) n*un ) +,"+*siti*n ) n*un.
VY d : the gr n bue; the man wth a banner; the guf of Mexco; the nted
States of Amerca.
# (h" ) danh t ) -i t .uan h/ ) m/nh 0 +h1
VY d: the boy whom I met; the pace where I met hm.
- Trc 1 danh t ng ch mt vt rng bt.
VY d: She s n the garden.
- The + tYnh t so snh bc nhEt hoc s t th t hoc only way.
VY d : The rst week; the ony way.
- (he + dt s Yt tng trng cho mt nhm th vt hoc vt th c thO b the
v danh t sang s nhOu.
VY d: The whae Whaes, the shark sharks, the deep-freee deep -
freees.
Nhng v danh t man (ch o ng) th khng c qun t (a, the) ng
trc.
VY d: f o suppes run out, man may have to fa back on the horse.
- (h" ) danh t s2 3t ch thnh vn ca mt nhm ng nhEt nh.
VY d: the sma shopkeeper s ndng fe ncreasngy dcut.
- (h" ) ad4 dn cho 1 p ng, n khng c hnh th s nhOu nhng c co
1 danh t s nhOu v ng t sau n ph c cha ng th 3 s nhOu.
VY d: the od ng g n chung; The dsabed nhng ng tn tt; The
unempoyed nhng ng thEt nghp.
- Dng trc tn cc khu vc, vng n tng vO mt a hoc ch s.
VY d: The Shahara. The Netherands. The Atantc.
- (h" ) 5ast 6 7"st6 8*uth6 9*,th ) n*un.
VY d: the East/ West end.
Student: Hoang Vet
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Engsh Gammar
The North / South Poe.
Nhng khng c dng the trc cc t ch phng hng ny, nu n km v tn
ca mt khu vc a .
VY d: South Afrca, North Amerca, West Germany.
- (h" ) t:n cc ; h+ <ng= cc dn nh-c c> i?n= cc @an nh-c +h>
thng.
VY d: the Bach chor, the Phadenpha Orchestra, the Beates.
- (h" ) t:n cc tA @* ln6 cc c*n tBu @i?n6 khinh kh3 cBu.
VY d: The Ttanc, the Tme, the Great Brtan.
- (h" ) t:n hC D s2 nhi0u c ngha ga nh h nh ...
VY d: the Smths Mr and Mrs Smth (and ther chdren) hay cn g ga
nh nh Smth.
- (h" ) (:n D s2 3t ) c1m t6 m/nh 0 c thO c s dng O phn bt
ng ny v ng khc cng tn.
VY d: We have two Mr Smths. Whch do you want I want the Mr Smth who
sgned ths etter.
- hng dng the trc 1 s danh t nh )ome, church, bed, court, hospital, prison,
school, college, university kh n v ng t v g t ch chuyOn ng
(ch t m mc Ych chYnh).
VY d: He s at home. I arrved home before dark. I sent hm home.
to bed ( O ng)
to church (O cu nguyn)
to court (O kn tng)
We go to hospta (cha bnh)
to prson ( t)
to schoo / coege/ unversty (O hc)
Tng t
n bed
at church
We can be n court
n hospta
at schoo/ coege/ unversty
We can be / get back (hoc be/ get home) from schoo/ coege/unversty.
eave schoo
We can eave hospta
be reeased from prson.
V mc Ych khc th ph dng the.
VY d:
I went to the church to see the staned gass.
Student: Hoang Vet
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Engsh Gammar
He goes to the prson sometmes to gve ectures.
Student go to the unversty for a cass party.
ea
Go to sea (thy th bOn)
to be at the sea (hnh khch/ thu th trn bOn)
Go to the sea / be at the sea to go to/ be at the seasde : tm bOn, ngh
mt.
We can ve by / near the sea.
!"r# an$ "%ce&
Work (n m vc) c s dng khng c the trc.
Go to work.
nhng o*ce ph c the.
Go to the oce.
VY d:
He s at / n the oce.
Nu to be n oce (khng c the) ngha ang g chc.
To be out of oce - th g chc.
T"'n
(he c thO b kh n vO th trEn ca ng n hoc ca ch thO.
VY d:
We go to town sometmes to buy cothes.
We were n town ast Monday.
+o to town to be in town - V mc Ych chYnh mua hng.
Bng dng th" v khng dng th" t,*ng mEt s2 t,Ang h+ Fc @i/t.
()ng the *h+ng $)ng the
Trc cc dng, sng ng, bOn,
vnh v cc h s nhOu.
VY d:
The ed sea, the Atantc Ocean,
the Persan Guf, the Great Lackes.
Trc tn cc dy n.
VY d:
The ockey Moutans.
Trc tn 1 vt thO duy nhEt trn th
g hoc v tr.
VY d:
The earth, the moon, the Great Wa
Trc !choolcollegeuniversity + of +
noun
Trc tn 1 h (hay cc h s Yt).
VY d:
Lake Geneva, Lake Ere
Trc tn 1 ngn n
VY d:
Mount Mckney
Trc tn cc hnh tnh hoc cc chm
sao
VY d:
Venus, Mars, Earth, Oron.
Trc tn cc trng ny kh trc n 1
Student: Hoang Vet
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Engsh Gammar
VY d:
The nversty of Forda.
The coege of Arts and Scences.
Trc cc s th t + noun.
VY d:
The rst word war.
The thrd chapter.
Trc cc cuc chn tranh khu vc v
Ou kn tn cc khu vc ph
c tYnh t ho.
VY d:
The orean war.
Trc tn cc nc c t 2 t tr n.
Ngo tr +reat ,ritain.
VY d:
The nted States, the nted
ngdom, the Centra Afrca
epubc.
Trc tn cc nc c co 1 qun
o.
VY d: The Phpn.
Trc cc t u hoc s kn mang
tYnh ch s.
VY d: The consttuton, the Magna
Carta.
Trc tn cc nhm dn tc thOu s.
VY d:
The Indans, the Atecs.
Nn dng trc tn cc nhc c.
VY d:
To pay the pano.
Trc tn cc mn hc c thO.
VY d:
The apped Math.
The theoretca Physcs.
tn rng.
VY d:
Coopers Art schoo, Stetson
nversty.
Trc cc danh t m sau n 1 s
m.
VY d:
Word war one
chapter three.
hng nn dng trc tn cc cuc
chn tranh khu vc nu tn khu vc
O nguyn.
Trc tn cc nc c 1 t nh : !weden,
Vene-uela v cc nc c ng trc
b new hoc tYnh t ch phng h-
ng.
VY d: New eaand, South Afrca.
Trc tn cc c a, tOu bang,
tnh, thnh ph, qun, huyn.
VY d: Europe, Caforna.
Trc tn bEt c mn thO thao no.
VY d:
Base ba, basket ba.
Trc tn cc danh t mang tYnh tru
tng tr nhng trng hp c bt.
VY d: Freedom, happness.
Trc tn cc mn hc chung.
VY d:
Mathematcs, Socoogy.
Trc tn cc ngy O, tt.
VY d:
Chrstmas, thanksgvng.
1.3 %ch sG d1ng Hth", v an*th",.
Ha t ny tuy gng nhau vO mt ng ngha nhng khc nhau vO mt ng
php.
./ng v0i danh t1 #2m #&c ./ng v3i danh t1 kh%ng #2m #&c
another + dt
2
s t 1 c na, 1
c khc, 1 ng na, 1 ng khc.
the other + dt
2
s Yt ng cu
cng, c cu cng ca 1 b, 1 nhm.
Student: Hoang Vet
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Engsh Gammar
VY d: another penc
other + dt
2
s nhOu mEy c
na, mEy c khc, mEy ng na,
mEy ng khc.
VY d: other pencs some more.
the other + dt
2
s nhOu nhng
c cu cng, nhng ng cu cng
cn .
VY d: the other pencs a
remanng pencs
other + dt khng
2
1 cht na.
VY d: other water some more
water.
other beer some more
beer.
the other + dt khng
2
ch cn
st .
VY d:
The other beer the remanng
beer. (ch ba cn )
- 4nother v other khng xc nh trong kh the other xc nh. Nu danh
t hoc ch ng trn c hOu hoc c nhc n, ch cn dng another
v other nh 1 t .
VY d:
I dont want ths book. Pease gve me another.
- Nu danh t c thay th s nhOu th other c s dng theo 1 trong 2
cch (other + nouns hoc others) m khng bao g c s dng (others +
DTSN).
- C thO dng t thay th one hoc ones cho danh t sau another, the other
v other.
Lu rng this v that c thO dng v t one nhng these v those tuyt
khng dng v ones.
1.4 %ch sG d1ng litt",6 a litt",= I"J6 a I"J
- Kittl" ) dt khng m c : rEt Yt, hu nh khng.
VY d:
There s tte water n the botte.
I have tte money, not enough to buy groceres.
- L littl" ) dt khng m c: c 1 cht, O dng.
VY d:
I have a tte money, enough to buy a tcket.
- I"J ) dt m c s2 nhi0u : c rEt Yt, khng .
VY d:
She has few books, not enough for references.
- a I"J ) dt m c s2 nhi0u : c mt Yt, O.
VY d:
She has a few books, enough to read.
- Nu danh t trn c nhc n th d ch cn dng (a) few v (a) little
nh 1 t .
VY d:
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 015
Engsh Gammar
Are you ready n money es, a tte.
- qute a few qute a ot qute a bt kh nhOu.
- ony a few ony a tte c rEt Yt ( nhEn mnh).
1.5 8D hu cch
(h" ) n*uns ) n*un.
- Ch c dng trong cc danh t ch ng hoc ng vt, khng dng cho bEt
ng vt.
VY d:
The students book.
The cats egs.
- Nu c 2 danh t cng ng s hu cch th danh t no ng gn danh t
b s hu nhEt s mang dEu s hu.
VY d:
Tom and Marks house.
- v nhng danh t s nhOu c s th ch cn t dEu .
VY d:
The students books.
- Nhng v nhng danh t c s nhOu c bt khng c s t u vn ph
dng nguyn dEu s hu.
VY d:
The chdrens toys.
- N c dng cho th gan (nm thng, th k, thn nn k.)
VY d:
The 1980 events.
The 21
st
centurys prospect.
- N c dng cho cc ma trong nm ngo tr ma un v ma Thu. Nu dng s
hu cch cho ma un v ma Thu tc ta ang nhn cch ho ma .
VY d:
The summers hot days.
The wnters cod days.
The sprngs comng back Nng un ang tr vO.
The autunms eavng s ra ca Nng Thu.
Trng hp ny hn nay Yt dng. v mt s danh t bEt ng vt ch dng
trong 1 s trng hp tht c bt kh danh t nm trong cc thnh ng.
VY d:
A stones throw.
- kh v nhng danh t ch n chn hoc a Om ch cn dng s
hu cch cho danh t m khng cn danh t theo sau.
VY d:
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 016
Engsh Gammar
At the hardressers
At the butchers
1.6 8*m"= anM
s",e v an- ngha 1 s hoc 1 ng nhEt nh. Chng c s dng v
(hoc thay th) cc danh t s nhOu hoc danh t khng m c.
+ ",e dng s nhOu ca a.an v "ne:
VY d: Have a bscut/some bscuts. I ate a date/ some dates.
/ s",e0 an- "1 / the. this. these. th"se. 23i t4 ri5ng. 23i t4 s6 hu&
VY d: Some of the stah can speak apaneses.
Dd any of your photos come out we
+ s",e c s dng v :
- Cc ng t thO khVng nh.
VY d:
They bought some honey.
- Trong cc cu h m c cu tr yes.
VY d:
Dd some of you seep on the oor ( Ng n ch cu tr yes)
- Trong cc cu O ngh v yu cu:
VY d:
Woud you ke some wne
Coud you do some typng for me
+ an- c s dng:
- V ng t thO ph nh
VY d:
I havent any matches.
- V har$7-0 bare7-0 scare7- ( cc ph t ny Ou mang ngha ph
nh)
VY d:
I have hardy any spare tme.
- V 'ith"ut kh 'ith"ut an- ... 'ith n" ...
VY d:
He crossed the fronter wthout any dcuty/ wth no dcuty.
- V cc cu h
Have you got any sh
Dd he catch any sh
- Sau if/ whether cc thnh ng mang tYnh ngh ng.
VY d:
If you need any more money, pease et me know.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 017
Engsh Gammar
I dont thnk there s any petro n the tank.
2. 89ng t4 ( verb)
ng t trong tng Anh cha m 3 th chYnh:
- Ou kh.
- Hn t.
- Tng a.
M th chYnh cha ra m nhOu th nh O xc nh chYnh xc th gan
ca hnh ng.
2.1 Ni/n t-i +,"s"nt!
2.1.1 Hnt n gn (smpe present)
h cha ng t ng th 3 s Yt, ph c s u v vn ph c c
n.
VY d:
ohn waks to schoo everyday.
- N dng O dOn t 1 hnh ng xy ra th Om hn t, khng xc
nh c thO vO mt th gan v hnh ng p p c tYnh quy ut.
- N thng dng v 1 s ph t nh: now, present day, nowadays. c bt 1 s
ph t ch tn suEt hot ng: often, sometimes, always, fre5uently.
VY d:
They understand the probem now.
Henry aways swms n the evenng. (th quen)
We want to eave now.
our cough sounds bad.
2.1.2 Hn t tp dOn (present progressve)
am
Sub|ect + s + verb
+ng ...
are
- N dng O dOn t 1 hnh ng ang xy ra th hn t. Th gan c
xc nh c thO bng cc ph t nh now, right now, presently.
- N dng O thay th cho th tng a gn.
VY d:
He s earnng n the S.
K u ': O phn bt tng a gn v hnh ng ang xy ra cn cn c vo ph
t trong cu)
VY d:
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 018
Engsh Gammar
The commttee members are examnng the matera now. ( hn t ang kOm
tra)
George s eavng for France tomorrow. (tng a gn - s r t Php vo ngy
ma)
2.1.3 Present perfect ( hn t hon thnh)
Have + P2
- Dng O dOn t 1 hnh ng xy ra trong 1 qu kh ko d v chEm dt
hn t. Th gan trong cu hon ton khng xc nh.
- Ch 1 hnh ng xy ra nhOu n trong qu kh ko d t hn t.
- Dng v 2 g t for v since + th gan.
- Dng v already trong cu khVng nh, already c thO ng sau have nhng
n cng c thO ng cu cu.
have
Sub|ect + + already
+ P2
has
VY d:
We have aready wrtten our reports.
I have aready read the entre book.
Sam has aready recorded the resuts of the experment.
- Dng v yet trong cu ph nh v cu ngh vEn ph nh, yet thng xuyn
ng cu cu, cng thc sau:
have
Sub|ect + not + P2 ...+
yet ...
has
VY d:
ohn hasnt wrtten hs report yet.
The presdent hasnt decded what to do yet.
We havent caed on our teacher yet.
- Trong 1 s trng hp yet c thO o n ng sau to have v ng php c thay
. 6ot mEt v phn t 2 tr vO dng nguyn thO c to.
have
Sub|ect + + yet + verb n
smpe form ...
has
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 019
Engsh Gammar
VY d:
ohn has yet to earn the matera. ohn hasnt earned the matera yet.
We have yet to decde what to do wth the money. We havent decded what to
do wth the money yet.
7h8 9: CEn thn s dng yet trong mu cu ko nhm v yet trong mu cu c
yet m t n mang ngha nhng
VY d:
I dont have the money, yet I reay need the computer.
My neghbors never have the tme, yet they aways want to do somethng on
Saturday nghts.
2.1.4 Hn t hon thnh tp dOn ( preset perfect progressve)
Have been + verbng.
- Dng gng ht nh present perfect nhng hnh ng khng chEm dt hn t
m vn ang tp tc xy ra. N thng xuyn c dng v 2 g t for, since +
tme.
VY d:
ohn has been vng n the same house for ten years. ohn has ve n the same
house for ten years.
:9t s; th< $=
orge has aready waked to schoo. (th gan khng xc nh)
He has been to Caforna three tmes. (hn 1 n)
Mary has seen ths move before. (th gan khng xc nh)
They have been at home a day.
We havent gone to the store yet. (th gan khng xc nh).
ohn has worked n Washngton for three years.
Hoc
ohn has been workng n Washngton for three years.
(vn cha kt thc - ohn vn ang m vc Washngton).
>hn bi?t c@ch $)ng gia 2 thAi
Present perfect Present perfect progressve
Hnh ng chEm dt hn t, do Hnh ng vn tp tc tp dOn
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 020
Engsh Gammar
c kt qu r rt.
VY d:
I have wated for you for haf an
hour (now I stop watng)
hn t do vy khng c kt qu r
rt.
VY d:
I have been watng for you for haf
an hour.
(and continue waiting hoping that
you will come)
2.2 Qu khO Past!
2.2.1 Ou kh n gn (smpe past)
Verb + ed
- Mt s ng t trong tng Anh c qu kh c bt v ng th cng c
phn t 2 c bt.
- Mt s cc ng t c c 2 dng:
VY d:
Lght - ghted - ghted
t - t
Ng Anh a dng qu kh thng kh cha ng t v phn t 2 c bt.
VY d:
He ghted the cande on hs brthday cake.
N thp ngn nn trn chc bnh snh nht
Nhng
I can see the t house from a dstance.
T c thO nhn thEy t xa ng nh sng nh n.
N dng O dOn t 1 hnh ng xy ra dt Om trong qu kh, khng
n quan g t hn t.
Th gan hnh ng trong cu rEt r rng, n thng dng v mt s ph t
ch th gan nh: yesterday, at that moment, last + th gan nh:
Last nght
month
week vv...
; u 9: Nu th gan trong cu khng r rng th ph dng present perfect.
VY d:
ohn went to Span ast year.
Bob bought a new bcyce yesterday.
Mara dd her homework ast nght.
Mark washed the dshes after dnner.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 021
Engsh Gammar
We drove to grocery store ths afternoon.
George cooked dnner for hs famy Saturday nght.
2.2.2 Ou kh tp dOn (Past progresve).
Was / were + Vng
- N c dng O dOn t 1 hnh ng ang xy ra vo 1 th Om nhEt
nh trong qu kh khng n h g t hn t. Th Om trong cu c xc
nh bng cc ph t ch th gan nh:
At + th gan qu kh.
VY d:
He was eatng dnner at 7 P.M Last nght.
- N c dng kt hp v 1 simple past thng qua 2 n t <hen v while O ch
1 hnh ng ang xy ra trong qu kh th 1 hnh ng khc t ngt xen
vo (tng ng v cu Tng Vt =hi #ang ... th> b?ng).

Sub|ect1 + smpe past + while + sub|ect 2 + past
progressve.
VY d:
Somebody ht hm on the head whe he was gong to hs car.
Sub|ect1 + past progressve + when + sub|ect 2 +
smpe past.
VY d:
He was gong to hs car when someone ht hm on the head.
; u 9: Mnh O c when v while c thO ng bEt k n no trong cu nhng
sau when nhEt tht ph 1 simple past v sau while nhEt tht ph 1 past
progressive.
- Dng O dOn t 2 hnh ng song song cng 1 c, n v nhau bng n t
while.
Sub|ect1 + past progressve + while + sub|ect 2 + past
progressve.
VY d:
He was readng newspaper whe hs wfe was preparng the dnner n the ktchen.
( M@nh #A kh%ng c3 while c3 thB #&c chuyBn sang simple past nhng hi2m khi
v> s& nhCm lDn v0i E)
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 022
Engsh Gammar
VY d:
ose was wrtng a etter to hs famy when hs penc broke.
Whe oan was wrtng the report, Henry was ookng for more nformaton.
When Mark arrved, the ohnsons was havng dnner, but they stopped n order to
tak to hm.
2.2.3 Ou kh hon thnh (past perfect).
Had + P2
- Dng O dOn t 1 hnh ng xy ra trc 1 hnh ng khc trong qu kh.
(trong cu bao g cng c 2 hnh ng: 1 trc v 1 sau.
- Dng kt hp v 1 simple past thng qua 2 g t ch th gan before v after.
Sub|ect + past perfect + before + sub|ect + past
smpe
VY d:
I had gone to the store before I went home.
The professor had revewed the matera before he gave the qu.
Before A went to seep, he had caed hs famy.
George had worked at the unversty for forty-ve years before he retred.
The doctor had examned the patent thoroughy before he prescrbed the
medcaton.
Sub|ect + past smpe + after + sub|ect + past
perfect
VY d:
ohn went home after he had gone to the store.
After the commttee members had consdered the consequences, they voted on
the proposa.
- Mnh O c before v after c thO ng u hoc cu cu nhng sau before
nhEt tht ph 1 simple past v sau after nhEt tht ph 1 past perfect.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 023
Engsh Gammar
- ,efore v after c thO c thay bng when m khng s b nhm n v trong
cu bao g cng c 2 hnh ng: 1 trc v 1 sau.
VY d:
The poce cars came to the scene when the robbers had gone away.
( trong cu ny when c ngha after v sau when past perfect.)
2.2.4 Ou kh hon thnh tp dOn (past perfect progressve).
Sub|ect + had + been + Verb
+ ing...
N c dng gng ht nh past perfect nhng hnh ng khng dng m tp
tc tp dOn cho n th Om simple past. N thng c kt hp v 1 simple
past thng qua ph t before. Trong cu thng c since hoc for + th gan.
- Th ny hn nay Yt dng v c thay th bng past perfect.
VY d:
Henry had been vng n New ork for ten years before he moved to Caforna.
George had been workng at the unversty for forty-ve years before he retred.
2.3 ( Qng lai
2.3.1 T ng a n gn (smpe future)
<ill / shall
+ Verb n smpe
form
7an / may.
- Ngy nay ng php hn , c bt M dng will cho tEt c cc ng cn
shall ch c dng trong cc trng hp sau:
M mc ng khc 1 cch ch s.
VY d:
Sha we go out for unch
Sha I take your coat
O ngh gp ng khc 1 cch ch s.
VY d:
Sha I gve you a hand wth these packages.
Dng O ng g kh mua bn, mc c.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 024
Engsh Gammar
VY d:
Sha we say : fteen doars
- N dng O dOn t 1 hnh ng s xy ra vo th Om nhEt nh trong
tng a. Th Om ny khng c xc nh r rt. Cc ph t thng dng
tomorrow, neFt + th gan, in the future.
Near future. (t ng a gn)
To be gong to do smth - sp m g.
- Dng O dOn t 1 hnh ng s xy ra trong 1 tng a gn, th gan s c
dOn t bng 1 s ph t nh : in a moment (t na), tomorrow.
VY d:
We are gong to have a meetng n a moment.
We are gong to get to the arport at 9 am ths mornng.
- Ngy nay, c bt trong vn n ng ta thng dng Gresent progressive O
thay th.
- Dng O dOn t 1 s vc chc chn s xy ra d rng khng ph t ng a
gn.
VY d:
Next year we are gong to take a TOEFL test for the score that enabes us to earn
n the S.
2.3.2 T ng a tp dOn ( future progressve)
<ill / shall
+ be +
verb + ng
7an / may.
- N dOn t 1 hnh ng s ang xy ra 1 th Om nhEt nh ca tng
a. Th Om ny c xc nh c thO bng ngy, g.
VY d:
I w be dong a test on Monday mornng next week.
- N c dng kt hp v 1 present progressive O dOn t 2 hnh ng song
song xy ra, 1 hn t, 1 tng a.
VY d:
Now we are earnng Engsh here but by the tme tomorrow we w be workng at
the oce.
2.3.3 T ng a hon thnh (future perfect)
<ill have + P2
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 025
Engsh Gammar
- N c dng O dOn t 1 hnh ng s ph c hon tEt 1 th Om no
trong tng a. Th Om ny thng c dOn t bng : by the end of, by
tomorrow.
VY d:
We w have taken a TOEFL test by the end of ths year.
; u 9 : Th ny ph c do c bt m s dng.
3. B h"C hDE gia ch ng vC 29ng t4&
Thng thng th ng t ng On ngay v ch ng v ph cha theo ng ch
ng. Song c nhng trng hp khng ph nh vy.
3.1 %hR ng Ong tch khSi Eng t.
- ng xen vo ga ch ng v ng t 1 ng g t ( 1 g t m u kt
hp v cc danh t theo sau). Ng g t ny khng quyt nh g n vc
cha ng t. ng t ph cha theo ch ng chYnh.
Sub|ect + ngH gi0i t1 +
verb
VY d:
The study of anguages s very nterestng.
Snguar sub|ect snguar verb
Severa theores on ths sub|ect have been proposed.
Pura sub|ect pura verb
The vew of these dscpnes vares from tme to tme.
Snguar sub|ect snguar verb
The danger of forest res s not to be taken ghty.
Snguar sub|ect snguar verb
The ehects of that crme are key to be devastatng.
Pura sub|ect pura verb
The fear of rape and robbery has caused many peope to ee the ctes.
Snguar sub|ect snguar verb
- Cc thnh ng trong bng d y cng v cc danh t ng sau n to nn
hn tng ng ch ng. Cm ng ch ng ny ph ng tch bt ra kh
ch ng chYnh v ng t bng 2 dEu phEy v khng c nh hng g t vc
cha ng t.
Together wth aong
wth
accompaned
by
as we as
VY d:
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 026
Engsh Gammar
The actress, aong wth her manager and some frends, s gong to a party
tonght.
Snguar sub|ect snguar verb
Mr. obbns, accompaned by hs wfe and chdren, s arrvng tonght.
Snguar sub|ect snguar verb
K u 'F - Nu 2 ng ch ng n v nhau bng n t and th ng t p tc
ph cha ng th 3 s nhOu (they).
VY d:
The actress and her manager are gong to a party tonght.
- nhng nu 2 ng ch ng n v nhau bng n t or th ng t s
ph cha theo danh t ng sau or. Nu danh t s Yt th ph cha
ng th 3 s Yt v ngc .
VY d:
The actress or her manager s gong to a party tonght.
3.2 %c danh t lun Ti hSi Eng t v -i t s2 it.
cc ng t trong bng sau:
any + danh t s
Yt
no + danh t s
Yt
Some + danh t s
Yt
anybody nobody somebody
anyone no one someone
anythng nothng somethng
every + danh t s t each + danh t s Yt
everybody
everyone ether
everythng nether
Ether v ether s Yt nu n khng c s dng v or v nor.
Lu :
- either (1 trong 2) ch dng cho 2 ng, 2 vt. Nu 3 ng, 3 vt tr n ph dng
any.
VY d:
If ether of you takes a vacaton now, we wont be abe to nsh ths work.
If any of students n ths cass s absent, he or she must have the permsson of
the nstructor.
- 6either (khng 1 trong 2) ch dng cho 2 ng, 2 vt. Nu 3 ng, 3 vt tr n
ph dng not any).
VY d:
Nether of two hs casses gets an c
Not any of those pars of shoes ts me.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 027
Engsh Gammar
3.3 %ch sG d1ng n*n"= n*
none of the : c s dng ty theo danh t ng ng sau n.
- nu danh t khng m c th ng t ph cha ng th 3 s Yt.
6one + of the + non-count noun + snguar verb
VY d:
None of the counterfet money has been found.
- nu sau none of the 1 danh t m c s nhOu th ng t ph cha
ng th 3 s nhOu.
6one + of the + pura noun + pura verb
VY d:
None of the students have nshed the exam yet.
6o c s dng cng tu theo danh t ng sau n.
- nu sau no danh t s Yt hoc khng m c th ng t ph cha
ng th 3 s Yt.
Snguar noun
6o + +
snguar verb
non-count noun
VY d:
No exampe s reevant to ths case.
- nhng nu sau no 1 danh t m c s nhOu th ng t ph cha ng
th 3 s nhOu.
6o + pura noun + pura
verb
VY d:
No exampes are reevant to ths case.
3.4 %ch sG d1ng cUu t,&c "ith", ... *, v n"ith", ... n*,.
Ou cn u nhEt kh s dng cp thnh ng ny ng t sau ph cha
theo danh t sau or hoc nor. Nu danh t s Yt th ng t ph cha
ng th 3 s Yt v ngc .
6either nor
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 028
Engsh Gammar
+ noun + snguar noun +
snguar verb
either or
VY d:
Nether ohn nor B s gong to the beach today.
Snguar noun snguar verb
Ether ohn or B s gong to the beach today.
Snguar noun snguar verb
6either nor
+ noun + pura noun +
pura verb
either or
VY d:
Nether Mara nor her frends are gong to cass today.
Pura pura
; u 9 :
h ch ng 1 verbing th ng t ph cha ng th 3 s Yt.
3.5 %c danh t tV+ th?
nhng danh t trong bng d y dng O ch mt nhm ng hoc 1 t
chc. Cho d vy, chng vn c xem danh t s Yt v do , cc ng t v
t cng v chng ph ng th 3 s Yt.
congress famy group commtte
e
cass
organat
on
team army cub crowd
governme
nt
|ury ma|orty

mnorty pubc
- Nu ng t ng sau nhng danh t ny cha ng th 3 s nhOu th n
m ch cc thnh vn ca t chc hoc nhm ang hot ng rng r.
VY d: The congress votes for the b.
The congress are dscussng the b (some agree but some dont).
(TOEFL khng bt ny)
Ma|orty
Danh t ny c dng tu theo danh t ng sau n.
(he maIority + snguar verb
(he maIority of the pura noun + pura
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 029
Engsh Gammar
verb.
VY d: The ma|orty beeves that we are n no danger.
The ma|orty of the students beeve hm to be nnocent.
K u ': Danh t police un c co danh t ng th 3 s nhOu do vy ng t
ng sau n ph cha ng th 3 s nhOu.
VY d:
The poce come to the crme scene at good tme and arrested a suspect.
WEt s2 th3 d1$
The commttee has met, and t has re|ected the proposa.
The famy was eated by the news.
The crowd was wd wth exctement.
Congress has ntated a new pan to combat naton.
The organaton has ost many members ths year.
Our team s gong to wn the game.
Cc cm t trong bng d y ch mt nhm ga sc ng vt cho d danh t
ng sau g t of c s nhOu th ng t sau vn ph cha ng th 3
s Yt.
ock of brds,
sheep
herd of
catte
pack of
dogs
schoo of
sh
prde of
ons
VY d:
The ock of brds s crcng overhead.
The herd of catte s breakng away.
A schoo of sh s beng attacked by sharks.
K u ': TEt c cc danh t tp hp ch th gan, tOn bc, s o Ou h cc
ng t - t - b ng cng n ph ng s Yt.
(TOEFL bt ny).
VY d:
He has contrbuted 50 and now he wants to contrbute another fty.
Twenty-ve doars s too much to pay for that shrt.
Ffty mnutes snt enough tme to nsh ths test.
Twenty doars s a I can ahord to pay for that recorder.
Two mes s too much to run n one day.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 030
Engsh Gammar
3.6 %ch sG d1ng L num@", *I6 th" num@", *I
a number of + danh t s nhOu + ng t
s nhOu
- a num@", *I : mJt sK l&ng l0n nhLng... . v danh t s nhOu v ng t ph
cha ng th 3 s nhOu.
- th" num@", *I : mJt sK.... v danh t s nhOu nhng ng t ph cha
ng th 3 s Yt.
the number of + danh t s nhOu +
ng t s Yt
VY d:
A number of appcants have aready been ntervewed.
The number of resdents who have been questoned on ths matter s qute sma
3.7 %c danh t lun dng D s2 nhi0u.
Cc danh t sau y un ph dng dng s nhOu.
Trousers eyegasses tongs - c kp
shorts scssors- c
ko
tweeers- c
nhYp
eans pants- qun pers - c km
VY d:
The pants are n the drawer.
A par of pants s n the drawer.
Cc danh t trn thng xuyn dng s nhOu v chng bao gm 2 thc thO, do
vy cc ng t v t cng chng ph ng th 3 s nhOu.
VY d:
The pers are on the tabe.
These scssors are du.
- Nu mun bn chng thnh s Yt dng a pair of ... v c ng t v t
cng v chng ph ng th 3 s Yt.
VY d:
Ths par of scssors s du.
The par of pers s on the tabe.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 031
Engsh Gammar
3.8 %ch dng cc thnh ng (h"," is= th"," a,"
Thnh ng ny ch s tn t ca ng hoc vt t 1 n no . Ph phn
bt chng v ng t to have.
There s
There are
To have ch s s hu (possession)
To possess (get, hold instinctively).
- Ch ng tht ca thnh ng ny ng sau ng t to be. Nu danh t
s nhOu th ng t cha s nhOu v ngc .
- M bn vO th v thO Ou nhm vo ng t to be cn phn t 2 th
da vo tr ng t to have has been.
there is
there was + snguar
sub|ect ...
there has been ( hoc non-
count)
there are
there were + snguar
sub|ect ...
there have been ( hoc non-
count)
VY d:
There s a storm approachng.
snguar snguar
There have been a number of teephone cas today.
Pura pura
There was an accdent ast nght.
snguar snguar
There were too many peope at the party.
Pura pura
There has been an ncrease n the mportaton of foregn cars.
Pura pura
There was water on the oor where he fe.
Pura non-count
4. 83i t4
t trong tng Anh cha 5 o c cc chc nng rng bt.
4.1 X-i t nhYn < ng chR ng 8u@4"ct +,*n*un!
Gm :
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 032
ch s tn t
(eFistance)
Engsh Gammar
I we
you you
he they
she
t
7hLc nMng:
- ng u cu m ch ng trong cu v quyt nh vc cha ng t.
- ng ng sau ng t to be.
VY d: The teachers who were nvted to the party were George, Batty.
- ng ng sau cc ph t so snh nh than, as. Tuyt khng c dng t
nhn xng tn ng trong trng hp ny.
VY d: He s taer than I (am) - khng c dng me.
She s as beautfu as my grfrend.
- v cc t nhn xng ch ng nh we, you v t nhn xng tn ng
nh us c thO dng 1 danh t s nhOu ngay sau .
VY d: We students, you teachers, us workers.
Cc t nh all, both c thO c dng theo ny v cc ng s nhOu.
we
you a/ both
they
VY d:
I am gong to the store.
We have ved here for twenty years.
It was she who caed you. (sau ng t be)
George and I woud ke to eave now.
We students are gong to have a party.
4.2 X-i t nhYn < ng tYn ng
me us
you you
hm
them
her
t
- n ng ngay sau ng t hoc cc g t m nhm v ca mt tn ng.
- v cc ng t nhn xng tn ng s nhOu c thO dng all hoc both
ngay sau .
us
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 033
Engsh Gammar
you a / both
them
VY d:
They caed us on the phone.
compement
The teacher gave hm a bad grade.
compement
ohn tod her a story.
compement
The poceman was ookng for hm.
sau g t

To us, t seems ke a good bargan

sau g t

K u ': Nn nh rng nhOu g t c thO c chc nng nh cc thnh phn khc
trong cu, chVng hn nh ph t hoc n t. V vy, ta cn ph xc nh cc
xem chng ng va tr g - cn da vo ng cnh ch khng ph da vo s
hOu bt bnh thng vO chc nng ca chng.
VY d:
anet w make her presentaton after hm.
preposton compement pronoun
anet w make her presentaton after he nshes hs speech.
con|uncton sub|ect pronoun
cause
( mt mnh O (clause) gm 1 ch ng v 1 ng t. Trong mnh O trn, he
ch ng v Nnishes ng t).
4.3 (3nh t sD hu
my our
your your
hs
her ther
ts
- N ng ngay trc danh t v ch s s hu ca ng hoc vt v danh t
ng ng sau.
VY d:
ohn s eatng hs dnner.
Ths s not my book.
The cat has n|ured ts foot.
The boy broke hs arm yesterday..
She forgot her homework ths mornng.
My food s cod.
K u ': Ots khc v Ots. Ots c ngha it is hoc it has.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 034
Engsh Gammar
4.4 X-i t sD hu
mne ours
yours yours
hs
hers thers
ts
- Dng O thay th cho tYnh t s hu v danh t c nhc n trn.
possessve pronoun + possessve
ad|ectve + noun
- N c thO c ng m ch ng trong cu.
- ng ng sau ng t to be.
- N c thO m tn ng kh sau 1 ng t hoc sau 1 g t.
Do you remember to take your money
- ng ng sau cc ph t so snh nh than, as.
our book s as good as mne.
WEt s2 th3 d1$
Ths s my book Ths s mne.
our teacher s the same as hs teacher ours s as the same as hs.
Her dress s green and my dress s red Hers s green s green and mne s red.
Our books are heavy Ours are heavy.
Ther coasts are too sma. Thers are too sma.
I forgot my homework I forgot mne.
4.5 X-i t +hn thYn ,"Z"<iv" +,*n*un!
mysef
ourseves
yoursef
yourseves
hmsef
themseves
hersef
tsef
K u ': cc ng s nhOu, u - self bn thnh - selves.
%hOc n[ng$
- Ch ch ng m vc g cho chYnh mnh. Trong trng hp ny n ng
ngay sau ng t hoc ng cu cu sau g t for hoc to.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 035
Engsh Gammar
VY d:
He sent the etter to hmsef.
ou can see the dherences for yourseves.
- Ch ch ng t thn m Ey 1 vc g. Trong trng hp ny n ng ng
sau ch ng hoc cu cu kh n.
VY d:
I mysef beeve that the proposa s good.
He hmsef set out to break the ong dstance yng record.
She prepared the nne-course mea hersef.
The students themseves decorated the room.
ou yoursef must do ths homework.
ohn hmsef bought ths gfts.
G- / "ne-se71 H a7"ne&
VY d:
ohn washed the dshes by hmsef ohn washed the dshes aone.
5. 89ng t4 $)ng 7C, tn ng
- hng ph bEt c ng t no trong tng Anh cng h 1 danh t hoc
t theo sau n m tn ng. C mt s ng t yu cu tn ng sau n
ph mt ng t khc. Chng cha m 2 o sau:
5.1 XEng t nguM:n th? lm tYn ng
Bng sau nhng ng t h tn ng sau n ph mt ng t khc.
Chng tun theo mu cu nh sau:
agree to do somethng.
desre to do somethng.
decde to do somethng.
agree
desre
hope
pan
strve
attemp
t
expect
ntend
prepar
e
tend
cam
fa
earn
preten
d
want
decd
e
forget
need
refuse
wsh
deman
d
hestat
e
oher
seem
VY d:
ohn expects to begn studyng aw next semester.
Mary earned to swm when she was very young.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 036
Engsh Gammar
The budget commttee decded to postpone ths meetng.
The presdent w attempt to reduce naton n the next your years.
The soders are preparng to attack a vage.
Cyntha has agreed to act as a ason between the two countres.
5.2 \ing dng lm tYn ng
- Bng sau 1 s cc ng t h tn ng sau n 1 Ving theo cc mu
cu sau:
admt dong somethng (th nhn m g)
VY d: He admtted havng done wrong.
En|oy dong somethng (thYch th kh m Ou g)
admt
deay
mss
report
suggest
apprecat
e
deny
postpone
resent
avod
en|oy
practce
resst
cant
hep
nsh
qut
resume
consde
r
mnd
reca
rsk
K u ' : Trong bng trn c mu ng t:
cant hep
cant resst
VY d:
Wth such good oranges, we cant hep (resst) buyng 2 kos at a tme.
K u ': Nu mun t ph nh cho cc trng hp ny t not trc nguyn thO
b to hoc Ving. Tuyt khng c cEu to dng ph nh ca ng t
chYnh.
VY d:
ohn decded not to by the car.
We regretted not gong to the party ast nght.
WEt s2 th3 d1$
ohn admtted steang the |ewes.
We en|oy seeng them agan after so many years.
ou shoudnt rsk enterng that budng n ts present condton.
Mchae was consderng buyng a new car unt the prce went up.
The Coast Guard reported seeng another shp n the Forda Strats.
Woud you mnd not smokng n ths oce
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 037
+ (against) dong smth : khng thO dng c, khng thO
nhn c ...
Engsh Gammar
Cc ng t bng sau nhng ng t m tn ng ca chng c thO
ng t nguyn thO hay Vng m ng ngha ca chng khng thay .
VY d:
begn to do smth begn dong smth.
begn
hate
regret
cant
stand
ke
start
contnu
e
ove
try
dread
prefer
K u '$ Trong bng trn c mu ng t :
to do smth
dong smth
VY d:
watng such a ong tme.
to wat such a ong tme.
I hate to rde her bcyce to schoo I hate rdng her bcyce to schoo.
5.3 ] Eng t Fc @i/t
cc ng t m ng ngha ca chng thay kh tn ng sau n 1
nguyn thO hoc 1 Ving.
Stop to do smth : dng O m g.
VY d:
He stops to get gasone.
Stop dong smth : dng vc g ang m .
VY d:
He stops wrtng and goes out.
emember to do smth : nh s ph m g.
VY d:
I remember to send a etter at the post oce.
emember dong smth : nh m g.
VY d:
I remember ockng the door before eavng but I cant nd the key.
Forget to do smth : qun s ph m g.
VY d:
He forgets to ca hs frend ths afternoon.
Forget dong smth : qun m g.
VY d:
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 038
( hng thO chu ng c kh ph m
g)
cant
stand
I cant stand
Engsh Gammar
I forget dong the homework yesterday.
K u ': ng t forget trong mu cu mang ngha ph nh.
I forget gettng to the arport to meet my gr-frend ths mornng.
5.4 %c Eng t Ong ^ng sau gii t
- TEt c cc ng t ng ng sau g t Ou ph dng Vng.
verb
ad|. + preposition + Vng
noun
XEng t ) gii t ) \ing
Bng sau gm cc ng t + g t.
approve of: tn
thnh
gve up: t b
rey on: ph thuc
vo
worry about: o
ng vO
be better oh:
nsst on: n n
succeed n: thnh cng
trong
count on rey on
keep on
contnue
thnk about
thnk of
depend on
put oh: tr hon
Danh t ) gii t ) \ing @ng sau!
possbty
of
choce of
method of
ntenton
of
method
for
excuse
for
reason
for
VY d:
George has no excuse for droppng out of schoo.
There s a possbty of acqurng ths property at a good prce.
There s no reason for eavng ths eary.
Conne has deveoped a method for evauatng ths probem.
(3nh t ) gii t ) \ing @ng sau!
accustomed
to
ntent on
afrad of
nterested
n
capabe of
successfu
n
fond of
tred of
VY d:
Mtch s afrad of gettng marred now.
We are accustomed to seepng ate on weekends.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 039
Engsh Gammar
ean s not capabe of understandng the predcament.
Avaro s ntent on nshng schoo next year.
Crag s fond of dancng.
We are nterested n seeng ths m.
- hng ph bEt c tYnh t no trong tng Anh cng h ng sau n ph
1 g t, c mt s tYnh t h ng sau n mt ng t nguyn thO
(xem bng sau).
anxous
eager: ho
hc
peased
usua
borng
easy
prepare
d
commo
n
dangero
us
good
ready
dcut
hard
strang
e
abe
eager to do smth: ho hc m g.
hard to do smth : kh m g.
abe :
abe capabe
unabe ncapabe
VY d:
These students are not yet abe to hande such dcut probems.
These students are not yet capabe of handng such dcut probems.
WEt s2 th3 d1$
Mohammad s eager to see hs famy.
It s dangerous to drve n ths weather
We are ready to eave now.
It s dcut to pass ths test.
It s uncommon to nd such good crops n ths secton of the country.
tsuko was peased to be admtted to the coege.
K u '$
- Mt s cc ng t tng Anh thng c g t km phYa sau. hng c
nhm n g t v to ca ng t nguyn thO. ChVng hn mt s ng t
trong bng sau:
ob|ect to: phn

ook forward to : mong

confess to : th nhn
m g
VY d:
ohn gave up smokng because of hs doctors advce.
Mary nssted on takng the bus nstead of the pane.
Fred confessed to steang the |ewes.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 040
to do smth

of dong smth
Engsh Gammar
We are not ookng forward to gong back to schoo.
Henry s thnkng of gong to France n August.
ou woud be better oh eavng now nstead of tomorrow.
5.5 \Un 0 -i t i t, c Eng t nguM:n th? h*Fc \ing lm
tYn ng.
- ng trc 1 ng t nguyn thO m tn ng th dng ca t ph tn
ng.
Pronoun
Sub|ect + verb + compement form +
to + verb ...
noun
Sau y bng cc ng t h t (hay danh t ) sau n ph
dng tn ng.
aow
nvte
remnd
ask
order
urge
beg
perm
t
want
convnc
e
persuad
e
expect
nstruct
prepare
promse
VY d:
oe asked Mary to ca hm when he woke up.
We ordered hm to appear n court.
I urge you to consder your decson.
They were tryng to persuade hm to change hs mnd.
The teacher permtted them to turn ther assgnments n ate.
ou shoud prepare your son to take ths examnaton.
Tuy nhn, ng trc 1 Ving m tn ng th dng ca danh t hoc t ph
dng s hu.
dng s hu ca danh t
Ch ng + ng t + +
verb + ng ...
tYnh t s hu
VY d:
We understand your not beng abe to stay onger.
He regrets her eavng.
We are ookng forward to ther comng next year.
We dont approve of ohns buyng ths house.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 041
Engsh Gammar
We resent the teachers not announcng the test sooner.
We ob|ect to ther cang at ths hour.
6. C@ch sI $=ng 29ng t4 b@n #hi, #hu-t nee$ vC $are
6.1 n""d
ng t ny c s dng ra sao cn ph thuc vo danh t ng ng sau n
ng vt hay bEt ng vt.
- kh ch ng ng vt (living thing)
Sub|ect as a vng thng + need +
to + verb
(cn ph m g)
VY d:
I need to cean my house.
ohn and hs brother need to pant the house.
My frend needs to earn Spansh.
He w need to drve aone tonght.
-Tuy nhn kh ch ng mt bEt ng vt (unliving thing) th ng t sau
need s khc.
Sub|ect as unvng thng + need +
Verb + ing
to
be + P2
VY d:
The grass needs to be cut. Hoc The grass needs cuttng.
The teevson needs reparng. Hoc The teevson need to be repared.
The composton needs rewrtng. Hoc The composton needs to be
rewrtten.
K u '$
need to be in need of +
noun
to be n need of + noun c thO thay th cho c 2 cng thc trn.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 042
Engsh Gammar
VY d:
s n need of money needs money.
The roof s n need of repar The roof needs to be repared.
The organaton was n need of vounteers The organaton needed
vounteers.
6.2 Dare
- .are khng c dng nhOu khVng nh. N ch c dng ph nh v
ngh vEn. ng t sau n theo thuyt c to nhng trn thc t thng b to. N
c thO dng v tr ng t to do hoc dng trc tp.
He doesnt dare (to) say anythng
He dares not (to) say anythng.
Does he dare (to) say anythng Dares he (to) say anythng.
- .are khng c dng thO khVng nh tr trng hp - O dare say mang 2
ngha:
- (%i cho l$.
VY d: I dare say there w be a restaurant car at the end of the tran.
- (%i c%ng nhPn l$.
VY d: I dare say you are rght. T tha nhn anh ng.
- How dare (dared) + sub|ect ... (sao dm).
VY d:
How dare you open my etter Sao cu dm bc th ca t ra th
- .are cn c dng nh 1 ngo ng t mang ngha dm, thch theo mu cu
sau:
To dare smb to do
smth
(thch a m g)
They dare the boy to swm across the rver n the cod weather.
7. C@ch $)ng 29ng t4 t" be / inJnitive
BE + INFINITIVE
- N c dng O truyOn t nhng mnh nh hoc nhng ch dn tt ng
th nhEt qua ng th 2 t ng th 3.
VY d:
No one s to eave ths budng wthout the permsson of the poce.
(khng a c php r to nh ny m khng c php ca cnh st).
He s to stay here unt we return.
(n ph y cho t kh bn tao quay ).
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 043
Engsh Gammar
- Dng v mnh O if mang tYnh bt buc hoc mnh nh.
VY d:
Somethng must be done qucky f extnct brds are to be saved
He sad f he fa aseep at the whee, we were to wake hm up.
- O truyOn t mt d nh.
VY d:
She s to be marred next month.
(c Ey s c vo thng t)
The expedton s to start n a weeks tme.
CEu trc ny rEt thng dng trong bo chY v nu n ta O bo th ng ta
b be O tt km ch.
VY d:
The Prme Mnster s to make a statement tomorrow.
The Prme Mnster to make a statement tomorrow.
- Was/ were + nntve
O dOn t 1 tng vO s mnh.
VY d:
They sad good bye wthout knowng that they were never to meet agan.
(h cha tay nhau m khng bt rng s chVng bao g h gp nhau)
- To be about to + verb near future to be n the pont of Vng.
8. Cu hKi
8.1 %Yu hSi M"s v n*
S d g nh vy v trong cu tr c thO dng yes hoc no u cu.
Nn nh rng:
es + postve verb
No + negatve verb.
hng c nhm n dng cu tr tng vt.
auFiliary
be + sub|ect
+ verb ...
do, does, did
Is Mary gong to schoo today
Was Mary sck yesterday
Have you seen ths move before
W the commttee decde on the proposa today
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 044
Engsh Gammar
Do you want to use the teephone
Does George ke peanut butter
Dd you go to cass yesterday
8.2 %Yu hSi thng @*
L o cu h m trong cu tr ngo yes hoc no ra cn ph thm mt s
cc thng tn khc. Cc cu h ny dng v mt s cc t ngh vEn.
8.2.1 who v what m ch ng.
<ho
+ verb + (compement) +
(moder)
what
Who opened the door (someone opened the door)
What happened ast nght (somethng happened ast nght.)
%h& '$ hng ng kh n :
Who dd open the door
What dd happen ast nght
8.2.2 Whom v what tn ng ca cu h
whom auxary
+ + sub|ect + verb
+ ( moder)
what do, does, did
%h& '$
Mc d trong vn n, nhOu ng s dng who thay cho whom trong o cu h
ny nhng tuyt khng c dng nh vy trong vn vt ( c bn)
VY d:
Whom does Ahmad know from Veneuea ( Ahmad know someone from
Veneuea)
What dd George buy at the store ( George bought somethng at the store)
8.2.3 Cu h dnh cho cc b ng (when, where, why, how)
when
where
why
how
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 045
Auxary
+ be + sub|ect + verb +
(compement) + (moder)
do, does, did
Engsh Gammar
When dd ohn move to acksonve
Where does Mohamad ve
Why dd George eave so eary
How dd Mara get to schoo today
Where has Henry gone
When w Bertha go back to Mexco
8.3 %Yu hSi gin ti+ "m@"dd"d .u"sti*ns!
L o cu h c cc c Om sau:
- Cu c 2 thnh phn n v nhau bng 1 t ngh vEn.
- ng t mnh O 2 ph ng xu sau ch ng khng c cEu to cu h
thnh phn th 2.
- t ngh vEn khng ch bao gm 1 t m nhOu kh c thO 2 hoc 3 t
chVng hn: whose + noun, how many, how much, how long, how often, what
time, v what kind.
Sub|ect + verb ( phrase) + queston word +
sub|ect + verb
VY d:
Cu h : Where w the meetng take pace
Cu h gn tp: We havent ascertaned where the meetng w take pace.
O word sub|ect verb phrase
Cu h: Why dd the pane and at the wrong arport
Cu h gn tp : The authortes cannot gure out why the pane anded at the
wrong arport.
O word sub|ect phrase
auxary + sub|ect + verb + queston word +
sub|ect + verb
Do you know where he went
Coud you te me what tme t s
WEt s2 th3 d1$
The professor ddnt know how many students woud be n her afternoon
cass.
I have no dea how ong the ntervew w take.
Do they know how often the bus runs at nght
Can you te me how far the museum s from the coege
I te you what knd of ce cream tastes best.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 046
Engsh Gammar
The teacher asked us whose book was on hs desk.
8.4 %Yu hSi c_ ui
h s dng o cu h ny nn nh rng n khng nhm mc Ych h m
nhm O khVng nh kn ca bn thn mnh bt.
- Cu cha m 2 thnh phn tch bt nhau b dEu phEy.
- Nu ng t phn chYnh thO khVng nh th phn u ph nh
v ngc .
- ng t to be c dng trc tp, cc ng t thng dng tr ng t to do, cc
ng t th kp: future, perfect, progressive dng v chYnh tr ng t ca
th .
- Cc thnh ng there is, there are v it is dng phn u.
- ng t to have trong tng Anh ca ng M ng t thng do n s dng
v tr ng t to do.
VY d:
There are ony twenty-eght days n February, arent there
Its ranng now, snt t It snt ranng now, s t
The boys dont have cass tomorrow, do they
ou and I taked wth the professor yesterday, ddnt we
ou wont be eavng for another hour, w you
and oe have been to Mexco, havent they
ou have two chdren, dont you
(Trong tng Anh, th s dng havent you)
K u '$
Trong cc b th TOEFL nu ng t chYnh have th ng sau ph dng tr
ng t do.
VY d:
She has an exam tomorrow, doesnt she
9. L;i nMi Eh= h"3 #hNng 2Onh vC Eh 2Onh&
9.1 K2i n_i +h1 h*- kh`ng nh.
- Dng O ph ho khVng nh ca mt ng khc tng ng v cu tng
vt cQng th2 v ng ta s dng so v too trong cEu trc ny.
- ng t to be c php dng trc tp, cc ng t thng dng v tr ng t to
do, cc ng t th kp (future, perfect, progressive) dng v chYnh ng t
ca n.
- h be c s dng trong mnh O chYnh th th ca ng t be s dng
trong cu ph ho cng ph cng th v be mnh O chYnh.
Sub|ect + verb(be)
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 047
Engsh Gammar
+ too
Armatve statement (be) + and +
!o + verb(be) +
sub|ect
VY d:
I am happy, and you are too.
I am happy, and so are you.
- h mt ng t thO kp (auxary + verb), vY d, will go, should do, has
done, have written, must eFamine, vv... xuEt hn trong mnh O chYnh th tr
ng t ca mnh O chYnh c s dng dng khVng nh, v ch ng v
ng t ph ho hp.
Sub|ect + auxary ony +
too
Armatve statement + and +
(ng t thO kp) !o + auxary
ony + sub|ect
VY d:
They w work n the ab tomorrow, and you w too.
They w work n the ab tomorrow, and so w you.
Sub|ect +do, does, or did +
too.
Armatve statement + and +
(ng t n tr be) !o + do, does, or did
+ sub|ect
VY d:
ane goes to that schoo, and my sster does too.
ane goes to that schoo, and so does my sster.
ohn went to the mountans on hs vacaton, and we dd too.
ohn went to the mountans on hs vacaton, and so dd we.
I w be n New Mexco n August, and they w too.
I w be n New Mexco n August, and so w they.
He has seen her pays, and the grs have too.
He has seen her pays, and so have the grs.
We are gong to the moves tonght, and Suy s too.
We are gong to the moves tonght, and so s Suy.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 048
Engsh Gammar
She w wear a costume to the party, and we w too.
She w wear a costume to the party, and so w we.
9.2 K2i n_i +h1 h*- +hR nh
- Dng O ph ho ph nh ca ng khc, tng ng v cu tng vt
cQng kh%ng.
- CEu trc dng cho o cu ny either v neither.
Nn nh rng: 6ot ... either 6either ... positive verb.
Cc trng hp dng gng ht cng thc khVng nh.
Sub|ect + negatve auxary or be +
either .
Negatve statement + and +
6either + postve auxary or
be + sub|ect.
VY d:
I ddnt see Mary ths mornng. ohn ddnt see Mary ths mornng.
I ddnt see Mary ths mornng, and ohn ddnt ether.
I ddnt see Mary ths mornng, and nether dd ohn.
She wont be gong to the conference. Her coeagues wont be gong to the
conference.
She wont be gong to the conference, and her coeagues wont ether.
She wont be gong to the conference, and nether w her coeagues.
ohn hasnt seen the new move yet. I havent seen the new move yet.
ohn hasnt seen the new move yet, and I havent ether.
ohn hasnt seen the new move yet, and nether have I.
10. Cu Eh 2Onh
O thnh p cu ph nh ng ta t not vo sau ng t to be, tr ng t
to do ca ng t thng, v cc tr ng t ca ng t th kp.
- t any ng trc danh t O nhEn mnh cho ph nh.
- Trong mt s trng hp O nhEn mnh cho danh t ng sau b ph nh, ng
ta O ng t nguyn thO v t no trc danh t. ( no R not at all).
Nagatve + nagatve Postve
VY d:
Its reay unbeevabe that he has no money.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 049
Engsh Gammar
Nagatve + comparatve Superatve
VY d:
Professor Baker coudnt be more hepfu Pr. Baker was the most hepfu.
We coudnt have gone to the beach on a better day. Tc : Today s the best day
to go to the beach.
Nagatve ..., much ess + noun.
(khng m cng khng)
VY d:
He ddnt ke to read noves, much ess text books.
Its reay unbeevabe how he coud have survved, after such a free fa, much
ess ve to te about t on TV.
MJt sK ph3 t1 trong ti2ng 4nh mang nghSa phT #Unh, khi #V d/ng n3 trong cWu
tuy@t #Ki kh%ng #&c d/ng phT #Unh cTa #Jng t1 nHa.
VY d:
Hardy
Scarcey Hu nh khng ( Amost no)
Barey
Hardy ever
arey Hu nh khng bao g ( amost never).
Sedom
Cng thc dng v cc ph t trn.
Sub|ect + nagatve + adverb +
postve verb
; u 9: ,arely v scarcely kh mang ngha va , va son (Iust enough).
Ph cn c theo ng cnh ca cu hoc cc cu tr d phn nghe O tm
ra ngha ng.
VY d:
He scarcey has money for the tuton fee and not any cons eft.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 050
Engsh Gammar
(N va tOn O tr hc phY v khng cn xu no c.)
11. :?nh 7?nh thPc
Cha m 2 o trc tp v gn tp.
11.1 W/nh l/nh thOc t,ac ti+.
Mnh nh thc trc tp cu m mt ng ra nh cho mt ng khc m
vc g . N c thO c please trc. Ch ng c hOu you. S dng dng
n gn ca ng t (Nguyn thO b to).
VY d:
Cose the door. Open the wndow.
Leave the room. Pay your rent.
Pease turn oh the ght. Be quet.
Dng mnh nh thc ph nh c thnh p nh cng thm dont trc ng t.
Dont cose the door.
Pease dont turn oh the ght.
Dont open the wndow, pease.
( Glease c thO ng u hoc cu cu mnh nh thc m cho cu tr nn
ch s hn).
11.2 W/nh l/nh thOc gin ti+.
Thng dng v 4 ng t sau:
to order
to ask
to te
to say
VY d:
ohn tod Mary to cose the door.
ack asked to turn oh the ght.
The teacher tod Chrstopher to open the wndow.
Pease te ame to eave the room.
ohn ordered B to cose hs book.
The poceman ordered the suspect to be quet.
; u 9:
u ca Lets ...., sha we.
VY d:
Lets go out for unch, sha we
hc v let us trong cu mnh nh thc.
VY d:
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 051
to do somethng.
not to do somethng
smb
Engsh Gammar
Lets go now (chng ta th) khc v Let us go, pease. ( xn hy O cho chng
t )
12. 89ng t4 #hi, #hu-t&
S d g nh vy v ng t ny mang nhng c tYnh nh sau:
- hng c tOu t to ng trc.
- ng t no sau n cng ph b to.
- hng bao g 2 ng t khm khuyt cng v nhau, nu c th bt buc
ng t th 2 ph chuyOn sang mt dng khc.
VY d:
W have to
must
W be abe to
can
W be aowed to
may
ng t khm khuyt c s dng v cc chc nng sau:
12.1 Dibn -t thAi t Qng lai.
12.2 Dibn -t cYu i0u ki/n.
12.2.1 Ou kn c thO thc hn c th hn t.
<ill/shall
Of + Sub|ect + smpe present + sub|ect + +
verb n smpe form
can/ may
VY d:
If I have the money, I w buy a new car.
If you try more, you w mprove your Engsh.
We w have penty of tme to nsh the pro|ect before dnner f t s ony ten
ocock now.
Of + sub|ect + smpe present tense + sub|ect + ... +
smpe present tense
Mu cu ny cn c dng O dOn t mt th quen.
VY d:
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 052
Engsh Gammar
If the doctor has mornng oce hours, he vsts hs patents n the hospta n the
afternoon (khng c ng t khuyt thu.)
ohn usuay waks to schoo f he has enough tme.
Of + Sub|ect + smpe present tense ... + command
form ...
Nn nh rng mnh nh thc dng n gn ca ng t. ( simple form)
Mu cu trn c ngha nh a, ra nh cho a m g.
VY d:
If you go to the Post Oce, pease ma ths etter for me.
Pease ca me f you hear from ane.
12.2.2 Ou kn khng thO thc hn c th hn t.
Woud/shoud
If + Sub|ect + smpe past + sub|ect + + verb
n smpe form
coud/ mght
VY d:
If I had enough money now, I woud buy ths house
( but now I dont have enough money.)
If I had the tme, I woud go to the beach wth you ths weekend.
(but I dont have the tme.) ( Im not gong to the beach wth you.)
He woud te you about t f he were here.
( he wont te you about t.) ( He s not here).
If he ddnt speak so qucky, you coud understand hm.
(He speaks very qucky.) (ou cant understand hm.)
; u 9:
ng t to be sau if mu cu ny ph cha m were tEt c cc ng.
I... they were.
VY d:
If I were you, I woudnt do such a thng.
(but Im not you.)
12.2.3 Ou kn khng thO thc hn c th qu kh.
<ould/should
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 053
Engsh Gammar
If + Sub|ect + past perfect + sub|ect + +
have + P2
could / might
VY d:
If we hadnt ost the way we coud have been here n tme.
(but n fact we ost the way, so we were ate.)
If we had known that you were there, we woud have wrtten you a etter.
(We ddnt know that you were there.) ( we ddnt wrte you a etter.)
She woud have sod the house f she had found the rght buyer.
(She ddnt se the house.) (She ddnt nd the rght buyer.)
If we hadnt ost the way, we woud have arrved sooner.
(We ost our way.) (we ddnt arrve eary.)
7Wu #iAu ki@n kh%ng phXi l8c n$o cQng tuWn theo #8ng c%ng thLc trYn, trong
mJt sK tr"ng h&p Z v2 cTa cWu #iAu ki@n [ 5u\ khL c]n mJt v2 l^i [ hi@n t^i do
th"i gian cTa t1ng m@nh #A 5uy #Unh.
VY d:
If she had caught the ght she woud be here by now.
; u 9:
Trong mt s trng hp cu Ou kn khng thO thc hn c th
qu kh, ng ta b if v o had n u cu nhng ngha vn g nguyn.
)ad + sub|ect + verb n past partcpe ...
VY d:
Had we known you were there, we woud have wrtten you a etter.
Had she found the rght buyer, she woud have sod the house.
Hadnt we ost the way, we woud have arrved sooner.
12.2.4 Cc cch dng c bt ca W, woud v soud trong cc mnh O
f
Thng thng nhng ng t ny khng c dng ng sau if nhng nu c
dng n s mang ngha sau:
Of you will /would.
Thng c dng trong cc yu cu ch s ( <ould ch s hn)
VY d:
If you woud wat a moment, I w see f Mr ohn s here.
(Nu c vu ng ch mt cht, t s xem u ng ohn c y khng.)
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 054
Engsh Gammar
I woud be very gratefu f you w/ woud make an arrangement for me.
Of you could + verb n smpe form.
Nu ng vu ng - Ng n cho rng ng ka s ng nh mt
tEt nhn
VY d:
If you coud n ths form.
If you coud open your books.
Of + subIect + will / would.
Nu ... chu - DOn t t nguyn
VY d:
If he w (woud) sten to me, I can hep hm.
Nu n chu nghe theo t th t c thO gp n.
Of + subIect + will.
DOn t s ngoan c.
VY d:
If you w earn Engsh ths way, a faure for TOFEL test s sure awatng you.
Nu cu m c hc tng Anh theo cch ny th trt k th TOFEL chc chn
ang ch n cu.
Of + subIect +should.
DOn t mt hnh ng d rEt c thO c song kh nng rEt Yt v kh n ng
n khng tn s vc c thO xy ra.
VY d:
If you shoudnt know how to use ths TV set, pease ca me up ths number.
Nu anh khng bt cch s dng chc tv ny, hy g n cho t s my ny.
(N vy nhng ng n khng cho rng anh ta khng bt s dng chc tv
.)
If you shoud have any dcutes whe dong these exercses, pease fee free to
ask me.
(Ng thy khng cho rng cu hc snh khng m c nhng b tp -
v chng rEt dO hoc cu hc tr rEt thng mnh)
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 055
Engsh Gammar
- Trong mt s trng hp ng ta b if v o should n u cu m ng
ngha khng thay .
VY d:
Shoud you have any dcutes whe dong these exercses, pease fee free to
ask me.
Shoud t be coudy and gray, the groundhog w supposedy wander around for
food - a sgn that sprng s near.
Nu tr c nhOu my v bu tr xm xt th ng ta cho con sc Et s
ang thang km n - dEu hu ca ma un ang t gn. Thc ra, kh s
dng cEu trc ny th tc g cho rng kh con sc Et chu ra th rEt hm kh
tr c nhOu my v bu tr xm - c thO do kt qu thng k.
13. C@ch sI $=ng thCnh ng as i10 as th"ugh&
(C ngha : dng nh , nh thO )
- Mnh O ng sau 2 thnh ng ny thng hay dng Ou kn khng thO
thc hn c v cha m 2 th:
13.1 (hAi hi/n t-i
Nu ng t mnh O trc cha simple present th ng t mnh O sau
ph cha simple past, ng t to be s ph cha were tEt c cc ng.
as if
Sub|ect + verb (smpe present) + + sub|ect + verb
(smpe past)
as though
VY d:
The od ady dresses as f t were wnter even n the summer.
Hn t qu kh
(It s not wnter.)
Angeque waks as though she studed modeng.
Hn t qu kh
(She ddnt study modeng)
He acts as though he were rch.
Hn t qu kh
(He s not rch)
13.2 (hAi .u khO.
Nu ng t mnh O trc cha simple past th ng t mnh O 2 ph
cha past perfect.

Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 056
as if
as
though
Engsh Gammar
Sub|ect + verb (smpe past) + + sub|ect + verb
(past perfect)

VY d:
Betty taked about the contest as f she had won the grand pre.
Past smpe past perfect
(She ddnt wn the grand pre.)
eh ooked as f he had seen a ghost.
Past smpe past perfect
(She ddnt see a ghost.)
He ooked as though he had run ten mes.
Past smpe past perfect
(He ddnt run ten mes.)
C 2 dng cha sau as if Ou dOn t Ou kn khng thO thc hn -
c.
K u '$
Trong mt s trng hp nu Ou kn c tht th 2 cng thc trn khng c
tun theo. ng t tr vO dng bnh thng theo dOn bn ca cu.
VY d:
He ooks as f he has nsh the test.
14. C@ch sI $=ng 29ng t4 T" h"Ee vC t" 'ish&
Ha ng t ny tuy ng ngha nhng khc nhau vO mt ng php.
+ ng sau ng t to hope mt cu dOn bn bnh thng.
VY d:
I hope that they w come. ( I dont know f they are comng.)
( T hy vng h s t.)
We hope that they came yesterday. ( We dont know f they came.)
+ Nhng ng t to wish h ng sau n ph mt Ou kn khng
thO thc hn c. Ou kn ny cha m 3 th.
14.1 (hAi t Qng lai.
ng t mnh O sau s ph <ould could + verb hoc were + Ving.
Coud + verb
Sub|ect + wsh + (that) + Sub|ect + woud +
verb + ...
were + Vng
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 057
Engsh Gammar
Sub|ect : c thO cng hoc khc ch ng v ch ng trong mnh O chYnh.
VY d:
We wsh that you coud come to the party tonght. (ou cant come.)
I wsh that you woud stop sayng that. (ou probaby wont stop.)
She wsh that she were comng wth us. ( She s not comng wth us.)
14.2 (hAi hi/n t-i
ng t mnh O 2 s cha simple past. ng t to be ph cha m were
tEt c cc ng.
Sub|ect + wsh + (that) + Sub|ect + verb n smpe past ...
VY d:
I wsh that I had enough tme to nsh my homework. ( I dont have enough tme.)
We wsh that he were od enough to come wth us. ( He s not od enough.)
They wsh that they ddnt have to go to cass today. ( They have to go to cass.)
14.3 (hAi .u khO.
ng t mnh O sau s ph cha Gast perfect hoc 7ould have + G_
Past perfect
Sub|ect + wsh + (that) + Sub|ect +
Coud have + P2
VY d:
I wsh that I had washed the cothes yesterday. ( I ddnt wash the cothes
yesterday.)
She wsh that she coud have been there. ( She coudnt be there.)
We wsh that we had had more tme ast nght. ( We ddnt have more tme.)
K u '$
ng t wish ch c thO nh hng n mnh O ng sau n bng cch
buc mnh O ph Ou kn khng thO thc hn c. Nhng Ou kn
th no do th gan ca mnh O quyt nh khng hO ph thuc
vo th ca ng t to wish.
VY d:
He wshed that he coud come to the party next week.
Ou kh Ou kn tng a Tng a
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 058
Engsh Gammar
Ph hp vO th
The photographer wshed that we stood coser together than we are standng
now.
Ou kh Ou kn hn t hn t
Ph hp vO th
- Ph phn bt v to wish dng cu ny v ngha c g, mong g v
to wish trong mu cu sau:
To wsh somebody somethng
VY d:
I wsh you a happy brthday.
15. C@ch sI $=ng thCnh ng use$ t" vC get.be use$ t"
15.1 us"d t*.
sed to + Verb n smpe form... ( Thng hay, tng)

Ch mt th quen, hnh ng thng xuyn xy ra p p trong qu kh.
VY d:
When Davd was young, he used to swm once a day. ( Th quen trong qu kh)
%huM?n sang cYu nghi vUn$
Dd + Sub|ect + use to + Verb
sed + Sub|ect + to + verb.
VY d:
When Davd was young, dd he use to swm once a day
used he to swm once a day
%Yu +hR nh$
Sub|ect + ddnt + use to + Verb
Sub|ect + used not to + verb.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 059
()
Engsh Gammar
VY d:
When Davd was young, he ddnt use to swm once a day.
he used not to swm once a day.
15.2 g"t 6 @" us"d t*.
BE / GET SED TO + VING
( tr nn quen v) (noun)
Lu : Trong cng thc () c thO thay used to <ould nhng dO nhm n.
16. C@ch sI $=ng thCnh ng !"u7$ rather
Woud rather ... than Prefer ... to
(ThYch ... hn ; th ... hn )
ng sau would rather ph mt ng t nguyn thO b to (bare inNnitive)
nhng ng sau prefer ph mt verb+ing.
VY d:
ohn woud rather drnk Coca-Coa than orange |uce.
ohn prefer drnkng Coca-Coa to drnkng orange |uce.
K u '$
Vc s dng thnh ng ny cn tu thuc vo s ch ng v ngha ca cu
16.1 K*-i cYu c_ mEt chR ng.
o cu ny ch dng <ould rather (khng c than) v cha m 2 th :
c. (hAi hi/n t-i.
ng t sau <ould rather nguyn thO b to. Nu mun dng ph nh t
not trc ng t nguyn thO b to ( cng thc 1)
Sub|ect + <ould rather + (not) bare nntve
VY d:
m woud rather go to cass tomorrow
Trong cu ny ng n mun n m thYch n p vo ngy ma (ch hm nay
m khng mun)
d. (hAi .u khO.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 060
(1)
Engsh Gammar
th qu kh sau would rather have + past participle (hay cn g phn t
2 - P2) - Cng thc 2.
Sub|ect + would rather + have + (P2)
VY d:
ohn woud rather have gone to cass yesterday than today ( ohn thYch hc
vo ngy hm qua hn ngy hm nay).
16.2 K*-i cYu c_ d chR ng
o cu ny thnh ng c s dng s <ould rather that (c g, mong
g) v cha m nhng mu cu nh sau:
c. %Yu gi nh
L o cu dOn t ng th nhEt mun ng th 2 m mt vc g ,
nhng m hay khng cn tu thuc vo vo phYa ng th 2. Do vy cEu trc
ng t sau ch ng 2 ph nguyn thO b to - Cng thc 1.
Sub|ect1 + <ould rather that + Sub|ect2 + bare
nntve
VY d:
I woud rather that ones ca me tomorrow ( T mun ohnes g n cho t
vo ngy ma - Nhng ones c g n cho ng n hay khng cn tu vo
ones).
We woud rather that he take ths tran. (p chuyn tu hay khng cn tu
vo anh Ey - H ch mun vy).
d. Xi0u ki/n khng thac hi/n c D hi/n t-i nghea cRa cYu t,i vi thac
t!.
ng t sau ch ng 2 s cha !imple past, ng t to be s ph c cha thnh
<ere tEt c cc ng - Cng thc 2
Sub|ect1 + would rather that + Sub|ect2 + Smpe past...
VY d:
Henry woud rather that hs grfrend worked n the same department as he does
(In fact hs grfrend doesnt work n the same department.)
ane woud rather that t were wnter now.
(It s not wnter now.)
6hPn F`t:
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 061
(2)
(1)
(2)
Engsh Gammar
- Trong cc cu trn ngha ca v th 2 un tr v thc t th Om hn t.
- Nu mun thnh p thO ph nh dng
]. Xi0u ki/n khng th? thac hi/n c t,*ng .u khO 9ghea cRa cYu l
t,i vi thac t.!
Trong o cu ny ng t mnh O th 2 s ph c cha Gast
perfect - Cng thc 1.

Sub|ect1 + woud rather that + Sub|ect2 + Past perfect
VY d:
m woud rather that had gone to cass yesterday.
(nhng trong thc t th khng t p ngy hm qua v ng n ch Ey m
tOc khng t p vo ngy hm qua.)
9hVn <ft: Trn thc t ngha ca to wish v would rather that (v ngha c,
mong mun) trong trng hp trn gng nhau nhng <ish c s dng trong
tng Anh bnh dn (hng ngy). Cn <ould rather that mang kch tYnh nhOu
hn.
17. C@ch sI $=ng !"u7$ Li#e
Thnh ng ny dng O m mc ng khc mt cch ch s hoc dOn
t mong mun ca mnh mt cch nh nhn sau ph ng t nguyn
thO c to (inNnitive).
Sub|ect + would like + to + verb ...
VY d:
Woud you ke to dance wth me
I woud ke to vst Hongkong.
We woud ke to order now, pease.
The presdent woud ke to be re-eected.
They woud ke to study at the unversty.
Woud you ke to see a move tonght
Ku ' :
- Nu hnh ng c xc nh c thO vO mt th gan hoc th gan
hn t th dng ng t nguyn thO sau like.
- Nhng nu th gan khng xc nh th ph dng Verb+ing.
VY d:
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 062
Dd not + verb
Were not + verb
(1)
Engsh Gammar
Woud you ke a emonade now (th gan hn t now)
She kes watchng TV every nght. (th gan khng xc nh - ch s thYch
hobby)
Hoc I woud ke eatng a steak and saad.
18. C@ch sI $=ng c@c 29ng t4 #hi, #hu-t 2Q $iRn 23t c@c
tr3ng th@i 6 hi?n t3i&
18.1 %*uld6maM6might.

7ouldmaymight + Verb n smpe form
C thO /c .
Ch mt kh nng c thO xy ra hn t song ng n khng chc. C 3
ng t c g tr nh nhau.
VY d:
It mght ran tomorrow It w possby ran tomorrow
It may ran tomorrow O
It coud ran tomorrow Maybe t w ran tomorrow
%h& '$
Maybe s kt hp ca may v be, nhng n mt t v khng ph tr ng
t. N ng ngha v perhaps.
:9t s; v< $= vS %*uld= maM= vC mightF
The presdent sad that there mght be a strke next month.
I dont know what Im dong tomorrow. I may go to the beach or I may stay home.
(Lu ng Anh thng n stay at home nhng ng M n stay home.)
It mght be warmer tomorrow.
I may not be abe to go wth you tonght.
I dont know where ame s. He coud be at home.
18.2 8h*uld
!hould + Verb n smpe form
Ngha :
- Nn ( dOn t mt khuyn, O ngh hoc bt buc nhng khng mnh m)
- C kh - dng O dOn t mong mun Ou g xy ra.
VY d:
It shoud ran tomorrow ( I expect t to ran tomorrow)
My check shoud arrve next week. ( I expect t to arrve next week).
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 063
Engsh Gammar
Ku '$
- )ad better, ought to, be supposed to n chung ng ngha v should v
Ou kn ng t to be ph cha th hn t.
- be supposed to ngo ngha tng ng v should cn mang ngha quy nh
ph, bt buc ph.
VY d:
We are supposed to have a math test ths afternoon, but t was postponed
because the Professor had to attend a scence conference.
( Theo quy nh ....)
18.3 Wust
Must + verb n smpe form
Ngha :
- Ph - bt buc rEt mnh (ng b bt buc khng c s a chn no
khc)
VY d:
One must endorse a check before one cashes t. (ng ta ph k sau tEm
sc trc kh rt tOn).
George must ca hs nsurance agent today.
A pharmacst must keep a record of the prescrptons that are ed.
An automobe must have gasone to run.
An attorney must pass an examnaton before practsng aw.
Ths freeer must be kept at -20
0
.
- HVn - dOn t mt s suy un c ogc da trn nhng hn tng c
tht hn t.
VY d:
ohns ghts are out. He must be aseep.
(We assume that ohn s aseep because the ghts are out.)
The grass s wet. It must be ranng.
(We assume that t s ranng because the grass s wet.)
Must c thay th bng have to trong nhng trng hp sau y
- ng sau <ill th tng a.
VY d:
We w have to take a TOEFL test at the end of ths year.
- )ad to thay cho must qu kh.
VY d:
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 064
Engsh Gammar
The teacher had to attend a scence conference yesterday.
th hn t have to c thay th cho must kh:
H xem mnh c b buc ph m Ou g khng hoc dOn t s bt
buc do khch quan mang O m gm nh tYnh bt buc ca must.
VY d:
O : Do I have to eave a depost
A : No, you neednt but you have to sgn n ths regster, Im sorry but
thats the rue.
19. C@ch sI $=ng c@c 29ng t4 #hi, #hu-t 2Q $in 23t c@c
tr3ng th@i 6 thAi Tu@ #hP&
7ould May might + have +P2 (c )
Ch mt kh nng qu kh song ng n khng dm chc.
VY d:
It mght have raned ast nght, but Im not sure.
(C m qua tr ma)
The cause of death coud have been bactera.
(Nguyn nhn ca c cht c do v trng)
ohn mght have gone to the moves yesterday.
(C ohn t rp chu bng ngy hm qua)
Coud + have +P2 (c c thO - nhng thc t th
khng)
VY d:
We coud have soved ths probem at that tme (But we coudnt n fact)
(L ra c chng t c thO g quyt c vEn O ny.)
SHOLD + )4Va + P2 ( ra ph, ra nn - nhng thc t th
khng)
Thnh ng ny tng ng v Was / were / Supposed to.
MST )4Va P2 - HVn
(Ch s suy un ogc da trn nhng hn tng c tht trong
qu kh)
VY d:
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 065
Engsh Gammar
Pau dd so we n hs speech today that he coud have rehearsed t many tmes
ths past week.
(Hm nay Pau c pht bOu rEt hay, hVn tun qua n dOn tp rEt
nhOu n ).
MIGHT )4Va ,aa6 VEB+ ING - c c Ey ang
(Ch s suy un ogc da trn nhng hn tng c tht trong
qu kh)
VY d:
I ddnt hear the teephone rng, I mght have been seepng at that tme.
I ddnt watch that scene on teevson, I mght have been payng attenton to the
argument.
MST )4Va ,aa6 VEB+ ING - chc hVn c Ey ang
(Ch s suy un ogc da trn nhng hn tng c tht trong
qu kh)
VY d:
I ddnt hear you knock, I must have been seepng at that tme.
I ddnt see hm ths mornng, he must have been workng n the oce.
20. t<nh t4 vC EhM t4 (a$jective an$ a$verb)&
Mt tYnh t bao g cng b ngha cho mt danh t v ch danh t.
N ng ngay trc danh t . Trong tng Anh ch c mt danh t
duy nhEt ng sau danh t m n b ngha : galore ( nhOu,
phong ph, d do).
VY d:
There are errors gaore n the na exam.
- Mt ph t bao g cng b ngha cho:
+ Mt ng t - mt tYnh t - v mt ph t khc.
VY d:
He runs very fast.
verb

adv

adv
She s terrby beautfu.

Adv ad|
- 4dI + ly adv nhng ph cEn thn v khng ph bEt c t no c u ly Ou
ph t. Mt s cc tYnh t cng c tn cng ly.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 066
Engsh Gammar
VY d:
Lovey, frendy, oney.
- Mt s cc cm t m u bng g t O ch a Om, th gan, phng
tn hnh ng, tnh hung hnh ng cng c co ph t. VY d: n the
oce.
- Mt s cc ph t c cEu to c bt nh soon, very, almost.
- V trY cc ph t trong tng Anh tng tho m nhng cng c nhng phc
tp. C mt s quy ut nh sau:
+ Cc ph t b ng s thng xuyn ng cu cu theo th t u tn:
ch phng thc hnh ng (u ly),
ch a Om (here, there, at school...),
ch th gan,
ch phng tn hnh ng,
ch tnh hung hnh ng.
+ Mt ph t khng bao g c ng xen vo ga ng t v tn ng.
VY d:
I have terrby a headache. (cu sa v ph t ng xen ga ng
t v tn ng )
+ Nu trong cu ch c ph t ch th gan th n thO ng n u
cu.
VY d:
In 1975 I graduated but I ddnt nd a |ob.
+ Cc ph t ch tn s (always, sometimes...) thng bao g cng ng
trc ng t chYnh kh n ng t hnh ng, nhng bao g cng ng
sau ng t to be.
VY d:
- They have often vsted me recenty.
- He aways comes n tme.
Nhng: The presdent s aways n tme.
21. 89ng t4 n;i&
cc ng t trong bng sau.
become
reman
appear
sme
taste
Cc ng t trn c nhng c tYnh sau:
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 067
Engsh Gammar
hng dOn t hnh ng m dOn t bn chEt ca s vt, s vc, nh
mu sc, m v ...
ng sau chng ph mt tYnh t khng c mt ph t.
Lu : cc cp ng t
appear to happen
seem to chance ( Dng nh)
- (o appear c thO thay th cho to seem v ngc nhng khng thO thay th cho
to happen v to chance.
- 3 ng t to be, to become, to remain c nhng trng hp c mt danh t hoc
mt ng danh t theo sau, c chng mEt chc nng ng t n.
- 4 ng t to feel, to look, to smell v to taste trong mt s trng hp h
sau n danh t m tn ng v tr thnh mt ngo ng t. Lc ny chng
mEt chc nng ca mt ng t n v tr thnh mt ng t dOn t hnh
ng v c quyOn h 1 ph t b tr (chng thay vO mt ng
ngha).
- To fee s, nn, khm xt.
- to ook at : nhn
- to smee : ng.
- to taste : nm.
22. " s@nh ca t<nh t4 vC $anh t4
22.1 8* snh @^ng.
So snh bng ch ra 2 thc thO chYnh xc gng nhau (bng nhau hoc nh nhau)
v ngc nu cEu trc so snh dng ph nh.
CEu trc
As ... as
ad| noun
S + verb + as + + as +
adv
pronoun
Nu cEu trc ph nh as th nhEt c thO thay bng so.
VY d:
He s not so ta as hs father.
K u ':
Ta cn ph nh rng t sau as un dng ch ng.
Peter s as ta as I. ou are as od as she.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 068
Engsh Gammar
WEt s2 th3 d1 v0 s* snh @^ng.
My book s as nterestng as your.
TYnh t
Hs car runs as fast as a race car.
Ph t
ohn sngs as we as hs sster.
Ph t
Ther house s as bg as that one.
TYnh t
Hs |ob s not as dcut as mne. Hoc Hs |ob s not so dcut as mne.
TYnh t TYnh t
They are as ucky as we
TYnh t
Danh t cng c thO dng O so snh cho cEu trc ny nhng trc kh so snh
ph xc nh chc chn rng danh t c nhng tYnh t tng ng nh
trong bng sau:
TYnh t Danh t
heavy, ght
wde, narrow
deep, shaow
ong, short
bg, sma
weght
wdth
depth
ength
se
CEu trc dng cho o ny s the same ... as.

noun
Sub|ect + verb + the same + (noun) + as

pronoun
VY d:
My house s as hgh as hs
My house s the same heght as hs.
K u '$
- Do tYnh chEt phc tp ca o cng thc ny nn vc s dng b hp vo trong
bng trn.
- The same as >< dherent from.
My natonaty s dherent from hers.
Our cmate s dherent from Canadas.
- Trong tng Anh ca ng M c thO dng diberent than nu sau c mt
cu hon chnh (khng ph bn).
VY d:
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 069
Sub|ect + verb + +
than +
Engsh Gammar
Hs appearance s dherent from what I have expected.
Hs appearance s dherent than I have expected.
- crom c thO thay th bng to.
WEt s2 th3 d1 v0 th" sam" v dig","nt I,*m$
These trees are the same as those.
He speaks the same anguage as she.
Her address s the same as tas.
Ther teacher s dherent from ours.
My typewrter types the same as yours.
She takes the same courses as her husband.
22.2 8* snh hQn= kfm
- Trong o so snh ny, ng ta phn ra m 2 o ph t, tYnh t ngn v ph
t, tYnh t d.
- v cc ph t v tYnh t ngn, ta ch cn cng thm u ad vo tn cng.
- v nhng tYnh t ngn c 1 nguyn m kp ga 2 ph m, ta ph gEp
ph m cu O khng ph thay cch c.
VY d:
bg - bgger.
red - redder
hot - hotter
- Nhng tYnh t c tn cng bng bn nguyn m ph thnh ier (y -er)
VY d:
happy - happer
frendy - frender (hoc more frendy than)
- Trng hp ngo : strong - stronger.
- v tEt c cc ph t v tYnh t d dng more (nu hn) v dng less ( nu
km).
VY d: more beautfu, more mportant, more beevabe.
ad| + er
adv + er
noun
more + ad|/ adv
pronoun
less + ad|
c thO thm er vo tn cng ca mt s ph t nh: faster, 5uicker, sooner, v
later.
K u '$
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 070
Engsh Gammar
- ng sau ph t so snh nh than v as ph t nhn xng ch ng, khng
c php t nhn xng tn ng ( c bn).
VY d:
ohns grades are hgher than hs ssters.
Today s hotter than yesterday.
Ths char s more comfortabe than the other.
He speaks Spansh more uenty than I .
He vsts hs famy ess frequenty than she does.
Ths years exhbt s ess mpressve than ast years.
- O nhEn mnh cho tYnh t v ph t so snh ng ta dng far hoc much trc so
snh.
Sub|ect + verb
+
far
much
adv
+
ad|
+er + than
noun
+
pronoun
Sub|ect + verb
+
far
much

more
+
less
ad|
+
adv
+ than
noun
+
pronoun
- Mt s thnh ng nhEn mnh : much too much
adv adv ad|
VY d:
Harrys watch s far more expensve than mne.
That move we saw ast nght was much ess nterestng than the one on
teevson.
A watermeon s much sweeter than a emon.
She dances much more artstcay than her predecessor.
He speaks Engsh much more rapdy than he does Spansh.
Hs car s far better than yours.
Danh t cng c thO c dng O so snh trong cc cEu trc bng hoc hn,
km.
- Trong cEu trc so snh bng ch cn xc nh xem danh t m c
hay khng m c v trc chng c mt s nh ng dng v 2 o danh t
.
- Trong cEu trc so snh hn km cng cn ph xc nh xem danh t
m c hay khng m c v ng trc chng c dng fewer (cho m -
c), less (khng m c) v more dng chung cho c 2 (cng thc d y). Do
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 071
Engsh Gammar
cEu trc ny khng phc tp nn c dng rng r hn so v cEu trc so snh
bng.
many
much noun
little
pronoun
few
hoc
more noun
Sub|ect + verb + fewer + noun + than +
pronoun
less
VY d:
I have more books than she.
February has fewer days than March.
He earns as much money as hs brother.
They have as few cass as we.
Ther |ob aows them ess freedom than ours does.
Before pay-day, I have as tte money as my brother.
22.3 8* snh h+ l'
h so snh nn nh rng cc mc t dng O so snh ph tng ng v nhau vO
bn chEt ng php ( ng v ng, vt v vt). Do vy 3 mc so snh hp s :
s hu cch
that of (cho s Yt)
those of (cho s nhOu)
Cu sa: Hs drawngs are as perfect as hs nstructor (cu ny so snh drawings
v instructor)
Cu ng : Hs drawngs are as perfect as hs nstructors (nstructors
nstructors drawngs)
Cu sa: The saary of a professor s hgher than a secretary. (cu ny so snh
ga ng ca 1 ng go s v mt c th k)
Cu ng: The saary of a professor s hgher than that of a secretary. ( that of
that saary of)
Cu sa : The dutes of a poceman are more dangerous than a teacher. (cu
ny so snh ga duties v teacher)
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 072
Sub|ect + verb + as + + noun + as +
Engsh Gammar
Cu ng: The dutes of a poceman are more dangerous than those of a
teacher. (those of those dutes of).
WEt s2 th3 d1 v0 s* snh h+ l'.
ohns car runs better than Marys.
(Marys Marys car)
The cmate n Forda s as md as that of Caforna.
(that of that cmate of )
Casses n the unversty are more dcut than those n the coege.
(those n the casses n )
The basketba games at the unversty are better than those of the hgh schoo.
(those of the games of)
our accent s not as strong as my mothers.
(my mothers my mothers accent)
My sewng machne s better than anes.
(anes anes sewng machne).
22.4 %c d-ng s* snh Fc @i/t
Bng d y mt s dng so snh c bt ca tYnh t v ph t. Trong -
u rng farther dng cho khong cch, further dng cho thng tn v nhng vEn
O tru tng khc.
TYnh t v ph
t
so snh hn
km
so snh
nhEt
far
tte
much
many
good
we
bad
bady
farther
further
ess
more
better
worse
farthest
furthest
east
most
best
worst
I fee much better today than I dd ast week.
The unversty s farther than the ma.
He has ess tme now than he had before.
Mar|ore has more books than Sue.
Ths magane s better than that one.
He acts worse now than ever before.
+ further more.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 073
Engsh Gammar
VY d:
The dstance from your house to schoo s farther than that of mne.
He w come to the S for further educaton next year.
22.5 8* snh a @E
L o so snh gEp r, gEp , gEp 3. Nn nh rng trong cEu trc ny khng c
dng so snh hn km m ph dng so snh bng.
Sub|ect + verb + b s +
as +
much
+ noun +
as +
many
noun
pronoun
VY d:
Ths encycopeda costs twce as much as the other one.
At the cambake ast week, Fred ate three tmes as many oysters as Barney.
erome has haf as many records now as I had ast year.
K u '$
- h dng so snh o ny ph xc nh r danh t m c hay khng
m c v ng trc chng c much v many.
- Cc cEu trc twice that much ...
many
(gEp s )
ch c dng trong vn n, tuyt khng c dng trong vn vt.
VY d:
We had expected eghty peope at the ray, but twce that many showed up. (vn
n)
We had expected eghty peope at the ray, but twce as many as that number
showed up. (vn vt)
22.6 8* snh kf+ cng ....thh cng!
Nhng cu ny bt u bng mt cEu trc so snh hn, v do mnh O
th 2 cng ph bt u bng mt cEu trc so snh hn.
(he + comparatve + sub|ect + verb + the comparatve + sub|ect +
verb
VY d:
The hotter t s, the more mserabe I fee.
The hgher we ew, the worse Edna fet.
The bgger they are, the harder they fa.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 074
Engsh Gammar
The sooner you take your medcne, the better you w fee.
The sooner you eave, the earer you w arrve at your destnaton.
(he more + sub|ect +verb + the + comparatve + sub|ect
+ verb
The more you study, the smarter you w become.
The more he rowed the boat, the farther away he got.
The more he sept, the more rrtabe he became.
22.7 9* s**n", ... than va mi ... thhi ch`ng @a* lYu ... thh!
Nu thnh ng no sooner xuEt hn u cu th than ph u cho mnh
O 2. Lu rng tr ng t ph ng trc ch ng theo cng thc sau:
6o sooner + auxary + sub|ect + verb + than + sub|ect + verb
VY d:
No sooner had they started out for Caforna than t started to ran.
No sooner w he arrved than he w want to eave.
No sooner had she entered the budng than she fet the presence of somebody
ese.
K u '$
6o longer ngha not any more (kh%ng c]n... nHa). hng bao g c s dng
not longer trong cu m ngha ca n nh vy.
ohn no onger studes at the unversty.
(ohn doesnt study at the unversty any more).
Cyntha may no onger use the brary because her card has expred.
(Cyntha may not use the brary any more)
23. (3ng ngu-5n0 s" s@nh hUn vC s" s@nh hUn nht&
Phn n cc tYnh t dOn t (trng th, tYnh cch, v p...) Ou c 3 dng: dng
nguyn (happy), dng so snh hn (happier) v so snh hn nhEt (happiest).
Dng nguyn so snh so snh nhEt
hot
nterestng
sck
coorfu
hotter
more
nterestng
scker
more coorfu
hottest
most
nterestng
sckest
most coorfu
- Dng nguyn khng ch s so snh. N ch m t phEm chEt n thun ca 1
ng, 1 vt, hay mt nhm (ng hoc vt).
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 075
Engsh Gammar
VY d:
The house s bg.
The owers are fragrant.
- Dng so snh hn ch ra mc mnh hn hay yu hn vO s khc nhau ga
2 ng (2 vt).
VY d:
My dog s smarter than yours.
Bob s more atheetc than chard.
Spnach s ess appeang than carrots.
Ta cng c thO so snh 2 thc thO (ng hoc vt) m khng s dng than.
Trong trng hp ny thnh ng of the two s c s dng trong cu (n c thO
ng u cu v sau danh t ph c dEu phEy, hoc ng cu - em 2
cng thc d y).
Sub|ect + verb + the + comparatve + of the two +
(noun)
hoc
of the two + (noun), + Sub|ect + verb + the +
comparatve
Harvey s the smarter of the two boys.
Of the two shrts, ths one s the pretter.
Pease gve me the smaer of the two peces of cake.
Of the two andscapes that you have shown me, ths one s the more pcturesque.
Of the two books, ths one s the more nterestng.
jhi nh$
2 thc thO - so snh hn
3 thc thO tr n - so snh hn
nhEt
- cEp so snh hn nhEt, 3 thc thO tr n c so snh v nhau, mt
trong chng tr hn hoc km hn so v cc thc thO cn .
ad|+ est
Sub|ect + verb + the + most + ad| +
least + ad|
ohn s the taest boy n the famy.
Deana s the shortest of the three ssters.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 076
On + dt
2
s Yt
of + dt
2
s nhOu
Engsh Gammar
These shoes are the east expensve of a.
Of the three shrts, ths one s the prettest.
K u '$
- Sau thnh ng one of the + superatve, danh t ph O dng s nhOu v
ng t cha ng s Yt.
VY d:
One of the greatest tenns payers n the word s B|on Borg.
uwat s one of the bggest o producers n the word.
Cc ph t khng c km b -er hoc -est. M thay v , kh c dng
trong cu so snh chng cng more hoc less v cEp so snh hn, v v
most hoc least O thnh p nn dng so snh hn nhEt.
Dng nguyn So snh hn So snh hn
nhEt
carefuy
cautousy
more carefuy
ess carefuy
more
cautousy
ess
cautousy
most carefuy
east carefuy
most cautousy
east cautousy
VY d:
Sa drove more cautousy than Bob.
oe dances more gracefuy than hs partner.
That chd behaves the most careessy of a.
Irene pays the most reckessy of a.
24. C@c $anh t4 7C, chPc nVng t<nh t4
Trong tng Anh, rEt nhOu danh t c thO m chc nng tYnh t kh chng ng
trc cc danh t khc (a wool coat, a gold watch, a history teacher). Danh t ng
u ca s kt hp ng va tr mt tYnh t, m t danh t th 2 (ng va tr
danh t). TEt c cc danh t v chc nng tYnh t un dng s Yt cho d danh t
m n b ngha c s nhOu. S kt hp s - danh t un ph c dEu gch
ngang -.
VY d:
We took a tour that asted ve weeks.
(<eeks m chc nng danh t trong cu ny).
We took a ve-week tour.

Ad| noun
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 077
Engsh Gammar
Hs subscrpton to that magane s for two years.
(years : danh t)
He has a two-year subscrpton to that magane.
Ad| noun
That student wrote a report that was ten pages ong.
(pages : danh t)
That student wrote a ten-page report.
Ad| noun
These shoes cost twenty doars.
These are twenty-doar shoes.
Ad| noun
25. Wn"ugh vXi t<nh t40 EhM t4 vC $anh t4
S thay v trY ca enough tu thuc vo vc n b ngha cho 1 danh t,
1 tYnh t, hay 1 ph t. h b ngha cho 1 tYnh t hay 1 ph t, enough ng
ng sau:
ad|
+
enough
adv
Are those French fres crsp enough for you

Ad|

She speaks Spansh we enough to be an nterpreter.

Adv

It s not cod enough to wear a heavy |acket.

Ad|

h b ngha cho mt danh t enough ng ng trc.

enough + noun

Do you have enough sugar for the cake

noun
ake bought enough red pant to nsh the barn.
noun
He does not have enough money to attend the concert.
noun
K u '$
Danh t m enough b ngha kh khng cn tht c mt trong cu
m khng m thay ngha ca cu.
I forgot my money. Do you have enough
(ta hOu rng ng ca ng n enough money)
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 078
Engsh Gammar
26. C@c t4 n;i chY ngu-5n nhn
Phn ny s trnh by cch s dng mt v cng c ng php ch nguyn
nhn.
26.1 B"caus"6 @"caus" *I
,ecause ( khng c of) h ng sau n mt cu hon chnh (ph c
ch ng v ng t). ,ecause of h ng sau n mt danh t hoc 1
ng danh t ( khng c php c ng t n hp).
Sub|ect + verb
... because +
there + verb +
sub|ect
... because of + danh t ( hoc cm
danh t)
K u '$
Because of c thO thay th cho thnh ng due to.
an was worred because t had started to ran.

Sub|ect verb
an was worred because of the ran.

noun
The students arrved ate because there was a trac |am.

verb sub|ect
The students arrved ate because of the trac |am.

noun phrase
We have to cut down on our drvng because there s an o shortage.
verb sub|ect
We have to cut down on our drvng because of the o shortage.
noun phrase
26.2 W1c 3ch v kt .u s* that# ?!
Cc mnh O ch mc Ych c cng v n t so that. Sau so that mt
mnh O kt qu gm ch ng v ng t. Th gan ca mnh O kt qu
ph tng a trong m quan h v th gan ca mnh O ch mc Ych.
Sub|ect + verb + so that +
sub|ect + verb
K u '$
Mc d trong vn n c thO chEp nhn khng c that nhng trong vn vt buc
ph c that.
He studed very hard so that he coud pass the test.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 079
ad|ectve
adverb
Engsh Gammar
(n hc rEt chm ch O c thO qua c k th)
She s sendng the package eary so that t w arrve n tme for her ssters
brthday.
Damen s practcng the gutar so that he can pay for the dance.
I am earnng German so that I w be abe to speak t when I go to Austra next
summer.
Susan drove to Mam nstead of yng so that she coud save money.
W you et me know about the party so that I can make pans to attend
26.3 %aus" and "g"ct
Nhng cEu trc sau y c s dng O ch m quan h nhn qu.
Sub|ect + verb + so + + that +
sub|ect + verb
K u ': hng s dng mt danh t sau so. Cn mun dng danh t th xem cc
cEu trc d y.
The soprano sang so we that she receved a standng ovaton.
Terry ran so fast that he broke the prevous speed record.
udy worked so dgenty that she receved an ncrease n saary.
The soup tastes so good that every one w ask for more.
The tte boy ooks so unhappy that we a fee sorry for hm.
The students had behaved so bady that he was dsmssed from the cass.
%c cUu t,&c chOa cc @> ng c Ang E$
Sub|ect + verb + so + + dt
2
s nhOu +
that + sub|ect + verb
The Smths had so many chdren that they formed ther own baseba team.
I had so few |ob ohers that t wasnt dcut to seect one.
Sub|ect + verb + so + + dt khng
2
+ that
+ sub|ect + verb
He has nvested so much money n the pro|ect that he cannot abandon t now.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 080
much
little
many
few
Engsh Gammar
The grass receved so tte water that t turned brown n the heat.
Sub|ect + verb + such + a + ad|ectve + dt
2
s Yt + that ...
hoc
Sub|ect + verb + so + ad|ectve + a + dt
2
s
Yt + that ...
K u ':
!uch + a + ad|ectve thng c dng nhOu hn trong 2 cEu trc trn.
It was such a hot day that we decded to stay ndoors.
Hoc
It was so hot a day that we decded to stay ndoors.
It was such an nterestng book that he coudnt put t down.
Hoc
It was so nterestng a book that he coudnt put t down.
Sub|ect + verb + such + ad|ectve + +
that + sub|ect + verb
She has such exceptona abtes that everyone s |eaous of her.

dt m c s nhOu
They are such beautfu pctures that everybody w want one.
dt m c s nhOu
Perry has had such bad uck that hes decded not to gambe.
dt khng m c
Ths s such dcut homework that I w never nsh t.
dt khng m c
K u ': Ta khng thO s dng so trong cEu trc trn.
PhYn t3ch nghea cRa cc cUu t,&c t,:n.
vY d:
It has been such a ong tme snce Ive seen hm that Im not sure f I w
remember hm
( T khng bt u t c nhn c ra n khng v u m r t khng
gp n.)
Nguyn nhn: It has been a ong tme.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 081
dt #
_
sK
nhiAu
Engsh Gammar
t qu : Im not sure f I w remember hm.
He has so heavy a work oad that t s dcut for hm to trave.
( Tht kh v anh ta trong chuyn du ch b v anh ta c nhOu cng
vc ph m.)
Nguyn nhn: He has a very heavy work oad.
t qu : It s dcut for hm to trave.
Peter has such ong ngers that he shoud pay the pano.
(Peter nn ch n Pano b v n c nhng ngn tay d.)
Nguyn nhn: Peter has such ong ngers.
t qu : He shoud pay the pano.
Professor Sands gves such nterestng ectures that hs casses are never borng.
(cc g hc ca go s Sands chVng bao g bun t b v ng Ey thng a ra
nhng b gng ht sc th v.)
Nguyn nhn: Professor Sands gves very nterestng ectures.
t qu : Hs casses are never borng.
Ths s such tasty ce cream that I have another hepng.
(T s g mt suEt kem na v n rEt ngon.)
Nguyn nhn: The ce cream s very tasty.
t qu : I have another hepng.
27. :9t s; t4 n;i ,ang t<nh 2iSu #i?n
even if + nagatve
verb
(cho d ...)
ou must go tomorrow even f you arent ready.
<hether or not +
postve verb
(d c ... hay khng)
He kes watchng TV whether or not the show s god.
unless + postve verb f ...
not
(tr ph, nu ... khng)
If you dont start at once, you w be ate.
ou w be ate uness you start at once.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 082
Smpe
present
w + verb
Engsh Gammar
,ut for that + unrea
condton
(nu khng th ....)
Her father pays her fees, but for that she woudnt be here ( but she s here)
present Ou kn khng thc hn t
My car broke down, but for that I coud have come n tme.
qu kh Ou kn khng thc qu kh
otherwise + condtona sentence ko, nu
khng th ....
- Ou kn c thO thc hn c.
We must be back before mdnght, otherwse I w be ocked out.
- Ou kn khng thc hn c.
Her father pays her fees, otherwse she coudnt be here.
present Ou kn khng thc hn t
I used a computer, otherwse t woud have taken onger.
qu kh Ou kn khng thc qu kh
9hVn <ft.
Trong tng Anh hng ngy, ng ta dng or... else O thay th cho otherwise.
Grovided/providing (that)
(v Ou kn , mOn )
ou can camp here provded (that) you eave no mess.
!uppose/ supposng what ... f ...
(g s v sao, nu v sao)
Suppose the pane s ate what w happen f the pane s ate
- T n ny cn c s dng O em ra g .
Suppose you ask hm why dont you ask hm
<hat if Om- tao th th sao
no
a ra s thch thc
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 083
Smpe past
past perfect
Engsh Gammar
Of only + R
hope that
Hy vng ...
If ony he comes n tme (hy vng anh Ey n ng g)
If ony he w head your advce.
Of only + R
wish that
G m - tr v thc t.
If ony he ddnt smoke. (but he doesnt)
If ony she had come n tme. (but she ddnt)
f ony + woud verb - c sao,
mong sao
- dng O dOn t mt c mun hn t
If ony he woud drve more sowy (but he drve so fast)
hoc mt c mun v vng tng a.
If ony t woud stop ranng.
Mong sao tr ng ma na - nhng thc t th tr ang ma rEt to.
28. Cu bO 29ng
Cu b ng c s dng nhm O nhEn mnh vo hnh ng ca tn ng
ch khng nhEn mnh vo hnh ng ca ch ng trong cu ch ng.
be + P2
Ph Qng +h+ chuM?n >i t cYu chR Eng sang cYu @ Eng.
- a tn ng ca cu ch ng n m ch ng. Trong trng hp nu c 2 tn
ng ( 1 trc tp, 1 gn tp), mun nhEn mnh vo tn ng no th ng ta -
a n n m ch ng ( nhng thng tn ng gn tp m ch ng).
VY d:
I gave hm a book.
hay I gave a book to hm.
Trong cu ny book tn ng trc tp, him tn ng gn tp, ta :
He was gven a book by me.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 084
Engsh Gammar
- Th ca ng t cu b ng ph tun theo th ca ng t cu ch
ng.
- t by + tn ng m ng sau tEt c cc tn ng khc.
- to be made, to be made of c m bng - ch mt vt c m bng 1 th
nguyn vt u.
Ths tabe s made of wood.
- to be made from: c m bng - ch mt vt c m bng 2 th nguyn vt
u tr n.
- to be made out of: c m bng ( dng cho thc phEm)
Ths cake s made out of our, egg, butter and sugar.
- M bn vO th v thO Ou nhm vo ng t to be, cn phn t 2 g
nguyn (xem cc cng thc d y.)
Smpe present hay smpe past
am
s
are + verb n past
partcpe
was
were
Ch ng : Hurrcanes destroy a great dea of property each year.
Sub|ect present compement
B ng : A great dea of property s destroyed by hurrcanes each year.
snguar sub|ect be past partcpe
Ch ng : The tornado destroyed thrty houses.
Sub|ect past compement
B ng : Thrty houses were destroyed by the tornado.
pura sub|ect be past partcpe
present progressve hay Past progressve
am
s
are + being + verb n past partcpe
was
were
Ch ng : The commttee s consderng severa new proposas.
Sub|ect present progressve compement
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 085
Engsh Gammar
B ng : Severa new proposas are beng consdered by the commttee.
pura sub|ect auxary be past partcpe
Ch ng : The commttee was consderng severa new proposas.
Sub|ect past progressve compement
B ng : Severa new proposas were beng consdered by the commttee.
pura sub|ect auxary be past partcpe
present perfect hay Past perfect
has
have + been + verb n past
partcpe
had
Ch ng: The company has ordered some new equpment.
sub|ect present perfect compement
B ng : Some new equpment has been ordered by the company.
Snguar sub|ect auxary be past partcpe
Ch ng : The company had ordered some new equpment before the strke
began.
sub|ect past perfect compement
B ng : Some new equpment had been ordered by the company before the
strke began.
Snguar sub|ect auxary be past partcpe
ng t khm khuyt (moda)
moda + be + verb n past
partcpe
Ch ng : The manager shoud sgn these contracts today.
Sub|ect moda + verb compement
B ng : These contracts shoud be sgned by the manager today.

Sub|ect moda be past partcpe
moda + perfect
moda + have + been + verb n past
partcpe
Ch ng: Somebody shoud have caed the presdent ths mornng.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 086
Engsh Gammar
Sub|ect moda + perfect compement
B ng : The presdent shoud have been caed ths mornng.
Sub|ect moda have be past partcpe
29. 89ng t4 g- ngu-5n nhn
ng t gy nguyn nhn c s dng O ch ra mt ng gy cho ng th ha
m mt vc g cho ng th nhEt. Mt ng c thO gy cho a ph m
c g cho anh ta hoc cho ch ta qua vc ch tr tOn, yu cu, hoc cng
p ng . Cc ng t gy nguyn nhn : have, get, make.
29.1 Nav"6 g"t 6 mak"
Mnh O theo sau have hoc get c thO dng ch ng hoc b ng.
To have smb do smth to get smb to
do smth
(Sa a, khn a, bo a m g)
Mary had ohn wash the car (ohn washed the car.)
Mary got ohn to wash the car. (ohn washed the car.)
To have / get smth done
(a c g m...)
- Bn thn mnh khng m c nn nh 1 ng khc m.
VY d:
Mary got the car washed. (The car was wash by somebody.)
Mary had the car washed. (The car was wash by somebody.)
I have the aundry washed. (the aundry s washed by someone)
To want / like somethng done
Mu cu h ca 2 ng t ny s :
- What do you want done to ... Anh mun m g v ....
VY d:
- What do you want done to your motorbke
- Id ke t repared and ceaned
hoc I want t repared and ceaned.
To make smb do smth to force smb to
do smth
( buc a ph m g.)
VY d:
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 087
Engsh Gammar
The robber forced the teer to gve hm the money.
The robber made the teer gve hm the money.
ng t to make v to cause cn c dng theo mu sau:
To make/ to cause
+ P2
(m cho a, c g b m sao)
VY d:
Workng a nght on Frday made me tred on Saturday.
The hurrcane caused many water front houses damaged.
# X^ng sau Eng t t* mak" cTn c_ th? dng c t3nh t.
To make smb / smth +
ad|ectve
VY d:
Wearng owers made her more beautfu.
theo hng ny th ng t to Nnd c thO dng theo cng thc:
To nd + smb/ smth + ad|ectve
(P1- P2)
Nu phn t 1 s mang tYnh ch ng cn phn t 2 mang tYnh b ng.
VY d:
I found her qute nterestng to tak to.
My sster found snakes frghtenng - con rn ng s.
We found the boy frghtened - bn thn thng b s.
29.2 K"t
;et thng c b sung v danh sch cc ng t gy nguyn nhn trong cc
sch ng php. Nhng thc chEt th n khng ph ng t gy nguyn nhn.
N ngha allow hay permit. Ta hy u s khc nhau vO mt ng php kh s
dng to let v to allow hay permit.
Let sb do smth to sb
to do smth
(cho php a, O a m g)
VY d:
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 088
permt
aow
smb
smth
Engsh Gammar
ohn et hs daughter swm wth her frends.
(ohn aowed hs daughter to swm wth her frends.)
(ohn permtted hs daughter to swm wth her frends.)
The teacher et the students eave cass eary.
The poceman et the suspect make one phone ca.
Dr. ones s ettng the students hand n the papers on Monday.
Mrs. Bnon et her son spend the nght wth a frend.
We are gong to et her wrte the etter.
Mr. Brown aways ets hs chdren watch cartoons on Saturday mornngs.
29.3 N"l+
)elp thc chEt cng khng ph mt ng t gy nguyn nhn, nhng n
chung c xem xt cng v cc ng t gy nguyn nhn trong cc sch ng
php. N thng v ng t dng simple form (tc ng t nguyn thO b
to), nhng c thO v ng t nguyn thO trong mt s trng hp.
To hep smb - gng nhau
vO ngha.
(gp a m g)
VY d:
ohn heped Mary wash the dshes.
orge heped the od woman wth the packages (to) nd a tax.
The teacher heped Carona nd the research materas.
- Nu tn ng sau help mt t v nhn xng mang ngha ng ta th ng
ta b v v b un c to ca ng t ng sau.
VY d:
Ths wonderfu drug heps (peope to) recover more qucky.
- Nu tn ng ca hep v tn ng th 2 ca ng t ng sau trng hp nhau
th ng ta b tn ng sau hep v b un c to ca ng t ng sau.
VY d:
The body fat of the bear w hep (hm to) keep hm ave durng hbernaton.
30. Ga 29ng t4 2Zc bi?t
- nhng ng t m ngha ca chng s h bn nu ng t ng
sau tn ng ca n mt nguyn thO b to hay verbng.
hear
to watch somebody do somethng - Hnh ng trn vn t u t cu.
see
hear
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 089
to do
smth
do smth
Engsh Gammar
to watch somebody dong somethng - Hnh ng c tYnh nhEt th, khng
trn vn.
see
VY d:
I ddnt hear the teephone rng.
I ddnt hear the teephone rngng.
I see her sng./ I see her sngng.
31. Cu trc EhPc hDE vC 23i t4 Tuan h? tha- th
Tng Anh c 2 o cu :
- cu n gn : cu ch c mt thnh phn v ch mt thnh phn cng
ngha.
vY d:
She s standng n the way.
- Cu phc hp cu c 2 thnh phn chYnh v ph n v nhau bng 1 t
g t quan h thay th.
31.1 (hat v 7hich lm chR ng cRa cYu +h1
Chng ng u cu v m ch ng ca cu ph, thay th cho danh t bEt
ng vt ng trc n. Do vy, n nhEt tht ph c mt trong cu.
31.2 (hat v Jich lm tYn ng cRa cYu +h1
Chng vn ng u cu ph v thay th cho danh t bEt ng vt ng tr-
c n nhng m tn ng. Do vy, n c thO b c.
VY d:
George s gong to buy the house that we have been thnkng of buyng.
Ngo ra, trong mt s trng hp ng ta bt buc ph dng that.
(he + tYnh t so snh bc nhEt + danh t + that +
mnh O ph
VY d:
Ths s the best book that I have ever read before.
A/ every/ tte/ no/ none/ smth + that + dependent
cause
VY d:
A the appes that fa are eaten by the pgs.
Thats somethng that ooks terrbe.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 090
Engsh Gammar
31.3 7h* lm chR ng cRa cYu +h1
N thay th cho danh t ch ng hoc ng vt ng trc n v m ch ng
ca cu ph. Do , n khng thO b c.
K u ': Tuyt khng c dng that thay cho who trong trng hp ny mc d n
c thO c chEp nhn trong vn n.
31.4 7h*m lm tYn ng cRa cYu +h1
N thay th cho danh t ch ng hoc ng vt ng ngay trc n nhng m
tn ng ca cu ph. Do , n c thO b c.
VY d:
The man (whom) I dont ke are angry.
K u ': Tuyt khng c dng who thay th cho whom trong vn vt mc d
trong vn n c thO c chEp nhn.
- Nu whom tn ng ca 1 ng ng t bao gm 1 ng t + 1 g t, th
vt hon chnh nhEt a g t n trn whom.
VY d:
He s the man to whom I taked yesterday.
Hoc
The man to whom you have |ust taked s the charman of the company.
- Tuy nhn, nu whom tn ng ca 1 ng ng t bao gm 1 ng t + 2
g t, th ut trn khng c tun theo. Ha g t vn ph t ng sau
ng t.
VY du:
The man whom you are ookng forward to s the charman of the company.
31.5 W/nh 0 +h1 @kt @uEc v m/nh 0 +h1 khng @kt @uEc
- Mnh O ph bt buc o mnh O bt buc ph c mt trong
cu, nu khng cu s mEt hVn ngha ban u. Trong trng hp ny
khng c dng which ch ng ca cu ph m ph dng that mc d
which vn c thO c chEp nhn. Cu ph s ng xen vo ga cu
chYnh v khng tch ra kh n bng bEt c 1 dEu phEy no.
VY d:
Hurrcanes that are born oh the coast of Afrca often prove to be the most
deady.
Sub|ect dependent cause man verb
(TOEFL khng bt ny)
- Mnh O ph khng bt buc o mnh O mang thng tn ph trong cu,
nu b n th cu cng khng b mEt ngha ban u. Do bt buc
ph dng which m ch ng, khng chEp nhn dng that. <hich cho d c tn
ng ca cu ph cng khng c b , cu ng xen vo ga mnh O
chYnh v tch ra kh mnh O bng 2 dEu phEy.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 091
Engsh Gammar
VY d:
Ths rum, whch I bought n the Vrgn Isand, s very smooth.
(TOEFL bt ny)
31.6 (Bm .uan t,Cng cRa dUu +hlM t,*ng m/nh 0 +h1
- Trong mnh O ph bt buc, kh n ngn cch ga mnh O chYnh
bng bEt c dEu phEy no th danh t dng trc mnh O ph b g
hn (tng ng v cu tng vt ch c).
VY d:
The traveers who knew about the ood took another road.
(ony the traveers who knew about the ood ...)
The wne that was n the cear was runed.
(ony the wne that n the cear ...)
- Trong mnh O ph khng bt buc, danh t ng ng trc t quan h
thay th b ngn cch v n b 1 dEu phEy khng b xc nh hoc g hn b
mnh O ph (tng ng v ngha tng vt tEt c).
VY d:
The traveers, who knew about the ood, took another road.
(a the traveers knew about the ood...)
The wne, that was n the cear, was runed.
(a the wne n the cear ...)
31.7 %ch sG d1ng Lll 6 @*th6 s"v",al 6 m*st ... ) *I ) Jh*m 6
Jhich.
hng c s dng t nhn xng tn ng trong o cu ny.
VY d:
Her sons, both of whom are workng abroad, rng her up everynght.
The buses, a of whch are fu of passngers, begn pung out of the staton.
31.8 7hat v Jh*s"
+ <hat (the thing the things that) c thO m tn ng ca cu chYnh v ng
th m ch ng ca cu ph.
VY d:
What we are expectng s hs exam resut.
+ whose (ca ng m, ca con m)
- Thay th cho danh t ch ng hoc ng vt ng trc n v ch s s hu
ca ng hoc ng vt v danh t ng sau.
VY d:
I found the cat whose eg was broken.
- v bEt ng vt vn c thO dng whose trong nhng trng hp bnh thng.
Tuy nhn, trong nhng trng hp tng Anh quy chuEn nn dng of which.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 092
Engsh Gammar
VY d:
Checkng accout, of whch nterest s qute hgh, s common now.
32. C@ch 7"3i bK c@c ,?nh 2S Eh=
- Trong nhng mnh O ph bt buc, ng ta c thO o b t quan h
thay th v ng t bo be (cng v cc tr ng t ca n nu c) trong nhng
trng hp sau y:
h n ng trc mt mnh O ph m cEu trc ng t thO b ng.
VY d:
Ths s the vaue whch was obtaned from the tabe areas under the norma
curve.
Hoc
Ths s the vaue obtaned from the tabe areas under the norma curve.
Trc mt ng g t (mt g t m u kt hp v cc danh t theo sau).
VY d:
The beaker that s on the counter contans a souton.
Hoc
The beaker on the counter contans a souton.
Trc mt cEu trc ng t thO tp dOn.
VY d:
The gr who s runnng down the street mght be n troube.
Hoc
The gr runnng down the street mght be n troube.
Ngo ra, trong mt s trng hp ng ta c thO o b t quan h thay th
v ng t chYnh, thay vo bng Z Ving nu nh t quan h ng st
ngay danh t m n b ngha.
VY d:
Weeds that oat on the surface shoud be removed before they decay.
Weeds oatng on the surface shoud be removed before they decay.
- v mnh O ph khng bt buc ta c thO o b t quan h v ng
t to be kh n ng trc mt ng danh t, nhng phn ng danh t cn vn
ph ng trong 2 dEu phEy.
VY d:
Mr. ackson, who s a professor, s traveng n the Mdeast ths year.
hoc
Mr. ackson, a professor, s traveng n the Mdeast ths year.
- Ngo ra, ta cn c thO o b t quan h v ng t chYnh v thay vo
bng 1 Ving kh n b ngha cho 1 tn ng.
VY d:
The presdent made a speech for the famous man who vsted hm.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 093
Engsh Gammar
Hay
The presdent made a speech for the famous man vstng hm.
33. C@ch sI $=ng Ehn t4 1 tr"ng ,9t s; tr Ang hDE 2Zc bi?t
- h 2 hnh ng xy ra song song cng mt c th hnh ng th 2 dng
Ving. Ha hnh ng ny khng ngn cch v nhau b bEt k 1 dEu phEy no.
VY d:
He drves away and whstes He drves away whstng.
- h hnh ng th 2 hoc cc hnh ng tp theo sau 1 phn trong
tn trnh ca hnh ng th nhEt th hnh ng th 2 v cc hnh ng theo
sau dng Ving. N ngn cch v hnh ng chYnh bng 1 dEu phEy.
VY d:
She went out and sammed the door she went out, sammng the door.
- h hnh ng th 2 hoc cc hnh ng theo sau n kt qu ca hnh
ng th nhEt th hnh ng th 2 s dng Ving.
VY d:
He red two shots, kng a robber and woundng the other.
- Hnh ng th 2 khng cn ph c chung ch ng v hnh ng th nhEt, n
ch cn kt qu ca hnh ng th nhEt th cng dng Ving.
VY d:
The pane crashed, ts bombs expodng when t ht the ground.
K u ': Cc trng hp trn y thng c dng trong vn vt.
34. C@ch sI $=ng ngu-5n ,[u h"Cn thCnh
To have + P2
Shoud ke
woud ke
(DOn t c mun nhng khng thnh.)
VY d:
I woud (shoud) ke to have passed the test ast week.
Shoud ke
woud ke
woud
shoud
(but he coudnt)
- N dng v mt s ng t : To seem/ appear/ happen (dng nh) / pretend (g
v).
- Nn nh rng hnh ng ca nguyn mu hon thnh xy ra trc hnh ng ca
mnh O chYnh.
VY d:
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 094
+ to have +
P
2
He to have seen the
photos
He have ked to see
the photos
Engsh Gammar
He seems to have been an athete It seems that he has been an athete.
He pretended not to have known about that.
He pretended that he hadnt known about that.
Dng vi s*,,M.
To be sorry + to have + P2
Hnh ng ca nguyn mu hon thnh xy ra trc.
The gr were sorry to have mssed the rock concert.
The gr were sorry that they had mssed the rock concert.
Dng vi mEt s2 cc Eng t sau YM D th? @ Eng.
(o acknowledge, to belive, to understand, to consider, to Nnd, to know, to report,
to say, to suppose, to think.
- nn nh hnh ng ca mnh O ph xy ra trc hnh ng ca mnh O
chYnh.
VY d:
He s sad to have been out of the country.
It s sad that he has been out of the country.
9_ cTn c sG d1ng vi mEt s2 Eng t $ cam/ expect/ hope/ promse.
- Trong trng hp ny, hnh ng ca nguyn mu hon thnh xy ra sau hnh
ng ca mnh O chYnh dng tng a hon thnh.
VY d:
He expects to have nshed the homework tonght.
He expects that he w have nshed the homework tonght.
He promsed to have tod me about that event.
He promsed that he woud have tod me about that event.
6eednt + have
+ P2
( ra khng cn ph)
VY d:
ou neednt have hurred, we st have enough tme now.
35. \hng c@ch sI $=ng #h@c ca that
35.1 (hat vi t cch cRa mEt li:n t ,^ng!
- h that ng sau 4 ng t : say, tell, think, believe ng ta c thO b n .
VY d:
ohn sad that he was eavng next week.
Hay
ohn sad he was eavng next week.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 095
Engsh Gammar
Henry tod me that he had a ot of work to do.
Hay
Henry tod me he had a ot of work to do.
- Tuy nhn, sau 4 ng t : mention, declare, report, state th that khng thO b
, bt buc ph c.
VY d:
The mayor decared that on une the rst he woud announce the resuts of the
search.
George mentoned that he was gong to France next year.
The artce stated that ths souton was ammabe.
35.2 W/nh 0 c_ that
L o mnh O bt buc ph c that trong cu, n c thO dng v ch ng
hnh thc it, hoc ng u cu m ch ng.
It + to be + ad| + that + sub|ect
+ verb ....
That + sub|ect + verb +... + to be
+ ad|
VY d:
It s we known that many resdents of thrd word countres are dyng.
Hay
That many resdents of thrd word countres are dyng s we known.
K u ': Nu mt cu bt u bng 1 mnh O that, ta ph chc chn rng c
2 mnh O cng cha 1 ng t.
It surprses me that ohn woud do such a thng.
Hay
That ohn woud do such a thng surprses me.
It wasnt beeved unt the fteenth century that the earth revoves around the
sun.
hay
That the earth revoves around the sun wasnt beeved unt the fteenth century.
It s obvous that the Wams boy s abusng drugs.
Hay
That the Wams boy s abusng drugs s obvous.
9hVn <ft: Ch ng g it thng c dng trong vn n cn that ng u cu
c dng trong vn vt.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 096
Engsh Gammar
36. Cu gi] 2Onh
L o cu m ng th nhEt mun ng th 2 m mt vc g cho mnh, nhng
m hay khng cn tu thuc vo phYa ng th 2.
36.1 %Yu gi nh dng J*uld ,ath", that
em thnh ng would rather trang 49 - o cu c 2 ch ng.
36.2 %Yu gi nh dng vi Eng t t,*ng @ng.
Bng sau mt s ng t bt buc ng t sau n ph dng g nh.
advse
ask
comman
d
decree
deman
d
nsst
move
order
prefer
propose
recomme
nd
request
requre
stpuat
e
sugges
t
urge
- Trong cu nhEt nh ph c that.
- ng t sau ch ng 2 dng nguyn thO b to.
Sub|ect
1
+ verb + that + sub|ect
2
+ verb n
smpe form ...
VY d:
We urge that he eave now.
Nu b that ch ng 2 s tr thnh tn ng, ng t tr vO dng nguyn thO
c to, cu s mEt ngha g nh v tr thnh cu bnh thng.
VY d:
We urge hm to eave now.
K u ' : Trong tng Anh ca ng Anh (,ritish anglish), trc ng t nguyn thO b
to c should. Nhng trong tng Anh ca ng M (4merican anglish) ng ta b n
.
WEt s2 v3 d1
The |udge nssted that the |ury return a verdct mmedatey.
The unversty requres that a ts students take ths course.
The doctor suggested that hs patent stop smokng.
Congress has decreed that the gasone tax be aboshed.
We proposed that he take a vacaton.
I move that we ad|ourn unt ths afternoon.
36.3 %Yu gi nh dng vi t3nh t
Cc tYnh t dng trong cu g nh gm cc tYnh t trong bng d y.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 097
Engsh Gammar
advsed
mportant
mandator
y
necessar
y
obgator
y
propose
d
recommend
ed
requred
suggested
urgent
mperatv
e
Trong cng thc sau, adIective ch nh mt trong cc tYnh t c trong bng
trn.
t + be + ad|ectve + that + sub|ect + verb n
smpe form ...
( any tense)
WEt s2 v3 d1$
It s necessary that he nd the books.
It was urgent that she eave at once.
It has been proposed that we change the topc.
It s mportant that you remember ths queston.
It has been suggested that he forget the eecton.
It was recommended that we wat for the authortes.
Trong mt s trng hp c thO dng danh t tng ng v cc tYnh t trn theo
cng thc sau.
t + be + noun + that + sub|ect + verb n smpe
form ...
( any tense)
VY d:
It s a recommendaton from a doctor that the patent stop smokng.
36.4 Dng vi mEt s2 t, Ang h+ khc
- Cu g nh cn dng c trong mt s cu cm thn, thng bao hm cc
th c su nhn.
VY d:
God save the queen . Cha ph h cho n hong.
God be wth you good bye (kh cha tay nhau)
Curse ths frog : cht tt con cc ny
- Dng v mt s thnh ng:
Come what may: d c chuyn g na.
VY d:
Come what may we w stand by you.
If need be : nu cn
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 098
Engsh Gammar
VY d:
If need be we can take another road.
- Dng v if this be trong trng hp mun nu ra mt g nh t phYa ng n
nhng khng tht chc chn m vO kh nng.
VY d:
If ths be proven rght, you woud be consdered nnocent.
36.5 %Yu gi nh dng vi it is tim"
It s tme (for smb) to do smth : n c ph m g. (th gan va vn,
khng a ra g nh)
VY d:
It s tme for me to get to the arport (|ust n tme).
Nhng:
It s tme
It s hgh tme sub|ect + smpe past ( n c - g nh th gan
n trO mt cht)
It s about tme
9hVn <ft: )igh about c dng trc time O thm vo nhEn mnh.
VY d:
Its hgh tme I eft for the arport.
(t s a tte bt ate)
37. L;i nMi ba" hC,
n kt hp 2 trong cu m mt thng qua mt s thnh ng.
37.1 9*t *nlM ... @ut als* khng nhng ... m cTn!
Cc thnh phn sau 2 thnh ng ny ph tng ng v nhau vO mt ng
php, tc danh - danh, tYnh t - tYnh t...
Noun noun
ad| ad|
Sub|ect + verb + not only + adv + but also + adv
ng g t ng g t
Sub|ect + not only + verb + but also + verb
K u ': Thng thng thnh phn sau but also s quyt nh thnh phn sau not
only.
VY d:
He s not ony handsome but aso taented.

tYnh t tYnh t
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 099
Engsh Gammar
Beth pays not ony the gutar but aso the von.
Danh t danh t
He wrtes not ony correcty but aso neaty.

Adv adv
Mara exces not ony n mathematcs but aso n scence.

Ng g t ng g t
Pau Anka not ony pays the pano but aso composes musc.

ng t ng t
37.2 Ls J"ll as cmng nh = cmng nh l!
Cc thnh phn ng trc v ng sau thnh ng ny ph tng ng v
nhau vO mt t o theo cng thc d y:
noun
noun
ad|
ad|
adv
adv
ng g t
ng g t
hoc
sub|ect + verb + as well as +
verb ...
VY d:
obert s taented as we as handsome.
TYnh t tYnh t
Beth pays the gutar as we as the von.
anh t danh t
He wrtes correcty as we as neaty.
ph t ph t
Marta exces n mathematcs as we as n scence.
Ngg t ng g t
Pau Anka pays the pano as we as composes musc.
ng t ng t
Lu : hng c nhm n thnh ng ny v as well as ca hn tng ng ch
ng mang ngha cng v. N cng v cc thnh phn ng sau n O to
thnh 1 cm t, tch ra kh mnh O chYnh bng 2 dEu phEy v khng nh h-
ng g n vc cha ng t.
VY d:
The teacher, as we as her students, s gong to the concert.
My cousns, as we as Tm, have a test tomorrow.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 0100
Sub|ect + verb + not only + +
but also +
Engsh Gammar
37.3 B*th ... and c ... lnn !
Cng thc ny dng gng ht nh trng hp 6ot only ... but also.
Lu : ,oth ch c dng v and khng c dng v as well as.
VY d:
obert s both taented and handsome.
TYnh t tYnh t
Beth pays both the gutar and the von.
anh t danh t
He wrtes both correcty and neaty.
ph t ph t
Marta exces both n mathematcs and n scence.
Ngg t ng g t
Pau Anka both pays the pano and composes musc.
ng t ng t
38. C@ch sI $=ng t" #n"' vC t" #n"' h"'
Nhng cng thc sau y n quan t cch s dng ng t know. =now how
un c s dng O ch mt a c k nng hay kh nng m vc g. V
vy, n thng c theo b mt ng t, v kh , ng t ph dng
nguyn thO c to.
Sub|ect + know how to do smth : bt cch m g
nh th no.
Tuy nhn sau to know cn c thO mt danh t, mt ng g t hoc mt cu
hon chnh.
danh t
sub|ect + know + ng g
t
cu
Tuy nhn ng sau to know how vn c thO dng 1 mnh O hon chnh O
ch kh nng g quyt hoc vc bt buc ph m.
VY d:
At a gance, he knew how he coud sove ths math probem.
Seeng the weather map, the pot knew how he had to y at whch ne.
WEt s2 th3 d1$
B knows how to pay tenns we.
Magge and her sster know how to prepare Chnese food.
Do you know how to get to errys house from here
ason knew the answer to the teachers queston.
No one knows about oys acceptng the new poston.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 0101
Engsh Gammar
I ddnt know that you were gong to France.
39. :?nh 2S nh Dng b9
L o mnh O dOn t 2 tr ngc trong cng mt cu thng qua mt s
thnh ng.
39.1 D"s+it" 6 in s+it" *I mFc d!
ng sau 2 thnh ng ny ch c php s dng mt ng danh t, khng c s
dng mt cu hon chnh.
On spite of
+ ng danh
t
.espite
VY d:
Despte hs physca handcap, he has become a successfu busnessman.
In spte of hs physca handcap, he has become a successfu busnessman.
ane w be admtted to the unversty despte her bad grades.
ane w be admtted to the unversty n spte of her bad grades.
39.2 alth*ugh= "v"n th*ugh= th*ugh
ng sau 3 thnh ng ny ph dng mt cu hon chnh khng c dng mt
ng danh t.
4lthough
even though + Sub|ect + Verb +
(compement) ...
though
VY d:
Athough he has a physca handcap, he has become a successfu busnessman.
ane w be admtted to the unversty even though she has a bad grades.
K u ': Nu though ng cu cu, tch ra kh cu bng 1 dEu phEy. h n
h dng mt cht, c n tng ng v ngha tuy nhn (however).
VY d:
He promsed to ca me, but t now I havent receved any ca from hm, though.
WEt s2 th3 d1 @> t,
In spte of the bad weather, we are gong to have a pcnc.
The chd ate the cooke even though hs mother had tod hm not to.
Athough the weather was very bad, we had a pcnc.
The commttee voted to ratfy the amendment despte the ob|ectons.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 0102
Engsh Gammar
Though he had not nshed the paper, he went to seep.
She attended the cass athough she dd not fee aert.
40. \hng 29ng t4 $R g- nh^, 7[n
nhng ng t trong bng sau:
N ng t
rs
e
e
st
rose
ay
sat
rsen
an
sat
rsng
yng
sttng
Ngo ng t
ase
ay
set
rased
ad
set
rased
ad
set
rasng
ayng
settng
Cc ng t ny rEt dO gy nhm n vO mt ng ngha, chYnh t hoc pht
m, cn phn bt chng bng ng cnh trong cc cu c thO.
T_ `aW - t dng n (ng t ny khng cn tn ng)
VY d:
The sun rses eary n the summer.
When the be rngs, the students rse from ther seats.
When o and water mx, o rses to the top.
m rose eary so that he coud pay gof before the others.
It must be ate; the moon has rsen.
Prces have rsen more than ten percent n a very short tme.
T_ `AaW (smb, sth) - Nng a, c g n - ng t h 1 tn ng.
VY d:
The students rase ther hands n cass.
The weghfter rases the barbe over ts head.
The crane rased the car out of the ake.
After studyng very hard, ohn rased hs grades substantay.
Mr. Danes has rased hs tenants rent another fteen doars.
The OPEC have rased the prce of o.
T_ LaW : t , nm.
- To e n : t n no.
- To e down : nm xung
- To e on : nm trn.
ng t ny rEt dO nhm n v to lie (n d) ph phn bt n v to lie trong
mu cu : To e to smb.
VY d:
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 0103
Engsh Gammar
The unversty es n the Western secton of town.
If the chdren are tred, they shoud e down for a nap.
Mara Eena ay on the beach for three hours yesterday sunbathng.
( trong cu ny hnh ng sunbath xy ra song song v vc nm trn b bOn
nn dng sunbathing - nh phn thuyt trn trnh by)
The od dog |ust ay on the grass watchng the chdren at pay.
( 2 hnh ng nm v xem xy ra ng th nn dng watching....)
Dont dsturb Mary; she has an down for a rest.
That od rug had an n the corner for many years before t was put n the garage.
T_ LAb (smth, smb): t, O a , c g n trn bO mt
- To ay on : t trn.
- To ay n : t vo.
- To ay down : t xung.
Ku ': Nguyn thO v hn t ca ng t ny rEt dO nhm n v th qu kh
ca ng t to lie, cn phn bt chng theo ng cnh.
VY d:
Dont ay your cothes on the bed.
The boy ays hs books on the tabe every day.
The enemy soders ad down ther weapons and surrendered.
The enemy soders ad down ther weapons surrenderng.
The chdren ad ther toys on the oor when they had nshed usng them.
The students had ad ther composton on the teachers desk before the be
rang.
The nurse ad the baby n crb.
T_ aT : ng
- To st n : ng trong, ng .
- To st on : ng trn.
- To st down : ng xung.
VY d:
We are gong to st n the fth row at the opera.
Bught fans st n the shade because t s coo.
Because the weather was nce, we sat on the pato.
After swmmng, Bob sat on the beach to dry oh.
Nobody has sat through as many borng ectures as Peter has.
They have sat n the same poston for 2 hours.
K u ': hng c nhm n ng t ny v to seat ( c sc cha, c ch ng)
VY d: Ths studum can seat 100.000 peope.
T_ WT : t O ( tng ng v to put).
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 0104
Engsh Gammar
K u ' : ng t ny rEt dO n pht m v simple past ca to sit ( sat).
VY d:
The tte gr heps her father (to) set the tabe every nght.
The carpenters set ther toos n the box at noon and go to unch.
The botanst set her pants n the sun so that they woud grow.
After carryng her son from the car, the mother set hm n hs crb.
Dont set the chocoate near the oven or t w met.
No sooner had they set the roast n the oven, than the eectrcty went out.
:9t s; thCnh ng $)ng vXi c@c 29ng t4 nC-&
To ay oh (workers, empoyees) - Dn th, cho ngh bt, cho tm ngh.
To set (broken bone) n : b xng gy vo trong ...
To set ones aram for + tme: O ng h bo thc vo c.
VY d:
I set my aarm for 6 am everyday.
To set re to (smth) : m chy.
VY d:
Whe payng wth matches, the chdren set red to the sofa.
To rase ( pants, anmas) for a vng: Trng cy, nu ga sc O km sng.
VY d :
That farmer rases chckens for a vng.
41. :9t s; 29ng t4 2Zc bi?t #h@c&
Agree to do smth ( ng m g)
Agree to smbs dong smth (ng v vc m g ca a).
VY d:
He agrees to my eavng eary tomorrow mornng.
Mean to do smth: c nh m g.
VY d:
I mean to get to the top of the mount before sunrse.
It means dong smth: bao gm c vc m g.
VY d:
He s determned to get tcket for Saturdays game f t means standng n the
ne a nght.
Propose to do smth: c nh m g.
VY d:
I propose to start tomorrow.
Propose dong smth: O ngh m g.
VY d:
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 0105
Engsh Gammar
I proposed watng unt the poce came.
Go on dong smth: Tp tc m vc g ( ang b b d)
VY d:
He goes on takng about hs accdent.
Go on to do smth: Tp tc m g (vn cng mt ch O nhng chuyOn sang
mt khYa cnh khc).
VY d:
He goes on to te about hs accdent on the trp.
He shows the poston of the Isand on the map and goes on to tak about ts
cmate.
Try to do smth: c gng m g.
VY d:
He tres to mprove hs Engsh.
Try dong smth : th m g.
VY d:
They try puttng wse nettng a around the garden to stop enterng of the
vestock.
>h^n aa
Tng Anh vt. Tng Anh vt.
I. Cc th ng gp trong tng Anh vt.
Tng Anh vt khc v tng Anh n mc h ng php v s dng t
vng mt cch cht ch O to thnh tng Anh quy chuEn (cormal written
anglish).
42. B h"C hDE ca thAi 29ng t4&
Trong mt cu tng Anh c 2 thnh phn th th ca ng t 2 thnh phn
ph ho hp v nhau. Th ca ng t mnh O chYnh s quyt nh
th ca mnh O ph.
MAIN CLASE DEPENDENT CLASE
8im+l" +,"s"nt P,"s"nt +,*g,"ssiv"
Hnh ng ca mnh O ph xy ra song song v hnh ng ca mnh O
chYnh.
VY d:
I see that Harret s wrtng her composton.
Do you know who s rdng the bcyce
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 0106
Engsh Gammar
8im+l" +,"s"nt 7ill6 can6 maM ) v",@
@" g*ing t*
Hnh ng ca mnh O ph xy ra sau hnh ng ca mnh O
chYnh trong mt tng a khng xc nh ( hoc tng a gn).
VY du:
He says that he w ook for a |ob next month.
I know that she s gong to wn that pre.
Mary says that she can pay the pano.
8im+l" +,"s"nt 8im+l" +ast
Hnh ng ca mnh O ph xy ra trc hnh ng ca mnh O chYnh trong
mt qu kh c xc nh c thO vO mt th gan.
VY d:
I hope that he arrved safey.
They thnk he was here ast nght.
8im+l" +,"s"nt P,"s"nt +",I"ct +,*g,"ssiv"!
Hnh ng ca mnh O ph xy ra trc hnh ng ca mnh O chYnh trong
mt qu kh khng xc nh c thO vO mt th gan.
VY d:
He tes us that he has been to the mountans before.
We know that you have spoken wth Mke about the party.
8im+l" +ast Past +,*g,"ssiv"
8im+l" +ast
Hnh ng ca mnh O ph xy ra song song v hnh ng ca mnh O
chYnh.
VY d:
I gave the package to my sster when she vsted us ast week.
Mke vsted the Prado Art Musum whe he was studyng n Madrd.
8im+l" +ast 7*uld 6 c*uld 6 might ) v",@
Hnh ng ca mnh O ph xy ra sau hnh ng ca mnh O chYnh.
VY d:
He sad that he woud ook for a |ob next month.
Mary sad that she coud pay the pano.
8im+l" +ast Past +",I"ct
Hnh ng ca mnh O ph xy ra trc hnh ng ca mnh O chYnh
su vo trong qu kh.
VY d:
I hoped he had arrved safey.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 0107
Engsh Gammar
They thought he had been here ast nght.
43. C@ch sI $=ng t" sa-0 t" te77&
Nu khng c mt tn ng no m n n t that ngay th ph dng
ng t to say.
Sub|ect + say + (that) + sub|ect +
verb ...
Nhng nu c mt tn ng gn tp r m n n t that th ph dng
to tell.
Sub|ect + tell + nderect ob|ect + (that) + sub|ct
+ verb ...
VY d:
He tes me that he w be very busy today.
Tuy nhn ng sau ng t to tell cn c mt s tn ng trc tp d trong bEt
c tnh hung no.
a story
a |oke
Te a secret
a e (es)
the truth
(the) tme
44. T4 2i tr Xc 2Q giXi thi?u
Trong mt cu c 2 thnh phn nu mt trong 2 thnh phn c dng n
t nhn xng d bEt c o t no th mnh O cn ph c mt
danh t g thu cho n. Danh t g thu ph hp v t vO gng (c,
c), s ( Yt nhOu).
Ch c php c mt danh t g thu cho t, nu c 2 s gy nn nhm
n.
%c v3 d1 v0 -i t khng c_ ti0n sG$
Cu sa: Henry was dened admsson to graduate schoo because they dd not
beeve that he coud hande the work oad.
(Trong cu ny t nhn xng they khng c tOn s trong cu.
+raduate school mt n v s Yt, v cc thnh vn trong khoa ca
n khng c O cp t.)
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 0108
Engsh Gammar
Cu ng: The members of the admssons commttee dened Henry admsson
to graduate schoo bexause they dd not beeve that he coud hande the
work oad.
(Trong cu ny, they m ch cc thnh vn ca u ban.)
Hoc
Henry was dened admsson to graduate schoo because the members
of the admssons commttee dd not beeve that he coud hande the
work oad.
Cu sa : George dskes potcs because he beeves that they are corrupt.
( t they khng c tOn s trong cu ny. Golitics s t, v vy they
khng thO m ch t n.)
Cu ng: George dskes potcs because he beeves that potcans are
corrupt.
Hoc
George dskes ptcans because he beeves that they are corrupt.

%c v3 d1 v0 -i t c_ ti0n sG khng ,o ,ng$
Cu sa : Mr. Brown tod Mr. Adams that he woud have to work a nght n order
to nsh the report.
(hng r rng he m ch t Mr. Brown hay Mr. Adams.)
Cu ng : Accordng to Mr.Brown, Mr. Adams w have to work a nght n order
to nsh the report.
Hoc
Mr. Brown sad that, n order to nsh the report, Mr. Adams woud have
to work a nght.
Cu sa : anet vsted her frend every day whe she was on vacaton.
( t she c thO m ch t c anet n bn ca c Ey)
Cu ng : Whe anet was on vacaton, she vsted her frend every day.
45. 83i t4 nhn c ng "ne vC -"u
C 2 t ny Ou mang ngha ng ta nhng cch s dng khc nhau.
- Nu trn dng t t one th cc t tng ng d cng ph one,
ones hoc he, his.
VY d:
If one takes ths exam wthout studyng, one s key to fa.
If one takes ths exam wthout studyng, he s key to fa.
One shoud aways do ones homework.
One shoud aways do hs homework.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 0109
Engsh Gammar
Mt s ng cEn thn trnh phn bt nam n dng he hoc she ( his hoc
her) nhng Ou khng cn tht.
Nu trn s dng t you th cc t tng ng d ph you hoc
your.
you
ou + verb... + +
(verb) ...
your
VY d:
If you take ths exam wthout studyng, you are key to fa.
ou shoud aways do your homework.
Tuyt khng c dng one v you n n.
%c v3 d1 v0 cYu sai$
If one takes ths exam wthout studyng, you are key to fa.

Ng th 3 Ng th 2
If one takes ths exam wthout studyng, they are key to fa.

S Yt S nhOu
%c v3 d1 @> t, ch* c d d-ng$
One shoud never te hs secrets to a gossp f he wshes them to reman secret.
ou shoud aways ook both ways before you cross the street.
If ones knowedge of Engsh s compete, he w be abe to pass TOEFL.
If you do not want your test scores reported, you must request that they be
canceed.
One shoud aways remember hs famy.
46. C@ch sI $=ng Ehn t4 ,6 2^u ch" ,?nh 2S Eh=
Trong mt cu tng Anh c 2 thnh phn chung mt ch ng ng ta c thO s
dng:
phn t 1 (Verbing) m u cho mnh O ph O cho 2 hnh ng xy ra
song song,
hoc phn t 2 m u cho mnh O ph (ch b ng),
hoc ng t nguyn thO m u cho mnh O ph ( ch mc Ych) v
ng danh t hoc ng g t m u cho mnh O ph O ch s tng
ng.
K u ': h s dng o cu ny cn ht sc u rng ch ng ca mnh O
chYnh ng th cng ch ng ca mnh O ph.
VY d:
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 0110
Engsh Gammar
Incorrect: After |umpng out of a boat, the shark bt the man.
(Ta hOu ch ng tht ca ng t |umpng the man; nh vy, ngay
sau dEu phEy ta ph O cp t the man.)
Correct : After |umpng out of the boat, the man was btten by a shark.
46.1 \)ing mD Bu m/nh 0 +h1
Thng thng c 5 g t m u cho mnh O ph ng trc Ving :
By : bng cch, b
after, upon : sau kh
before : trc kh
whe : trong kh
when : kh
VY d:
After preparng the dnner, Mchee w read a book.
After Mchee nshes preparng the dnner, he w read a book.
By workng a ten-hour day four days, we can have a ong weekend.
Because we work a ten-hour day four days, we can have a ong weekend.
Whe revewng for the test, Marca reased that she had forgotten to study the
use of partcpa phrases.
Whe Marca was revewng for the test, she reased that she had forgotten to
study the use of partcpa phrases.
Nu being hoc having m u cu ph th ng trc chng En g t
because.
VY d:
Havng a terrbe toothache, Fepe had to ca hs dentst for an appontment.
Because Fepe had a terrbe toothache, he had to ca hs dentst for an
appontment.
Nu mun dng ph nh t not trc verbing sau g t (xem cng thc).
(Preposton) + (not ) +verb + ng ... + noun
+verb ...
Nn nh rng th ca hnh ng mnh O chYnh s quyt nh th ca
hnh ng mnh O ph. Ha hnh ng xy ra song song cng mt c (cng
thc trn).
VY d:
Hn t: Practcng her swng everyday, Trca hopes to get a |ob as a gof
nstructor.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 0111
Engsh Gammar
Ou kh : Havng a terrbe toothache, Fepe caed the dentst for an
appontment.
Tng a : Fnshng the etter ater tonght, Say w ma t tomorrow mornng.
Trong trng hp hnh ng ca mnh O chYnh n mnh O ph Ou xy ra
qu kh m hnh ng ca mnh O ph xy ra trc hnh ng ca mnh O
chYnh th cng thc s :
(not) + having + P2 ..., Sub|ect +
smpe past
ng trc c En 2 g t because v after, vc hOu 2 g t ny tu thuc vo
ng cnh ca cu.
VY d:
Havng nshed ther supper, the boys went out to pay.
(After the boys had nhed ther supper, they went out to pay.)
Havng wrtten hs composton, Loue handed t to hs teacher.
(After Loue had wrtten hs composton, he handed t to hs teacher.)
Not havng read the book, she coud not answer the queston.
(Because she had not read the book, she coud not answer the queston.)
Nu hnh ng ca mnh O ph thO b ng th cng thc s :
(not) + having been + P2 ..., Sub|ect +smpe
past
VY d:
Havng been noted by the court, Messa reported for |ury duty.
(After Messa had been noted, she reported for |ury duty.)
Havng been deayed by the snowstorm, ason and I mssed our connectng ght.
(After we had been deayed by the snowstorm, we mssed the connectng ght.)
Not havng been noted of the change n meetng tmes, George arrved ate.
(Because George had not been noted of the change n meetng tmes, he
arrved ate.)
46.2 PhYn t d mD Bu m/nh 0 +h1 ? chp @ Eng
uEt pht t cEu trc trn ( thO b ng ) ng ta b having been v ch g
Gast participle (P2)
Incorrect : Found n Tanana by Mary Leaky, some archaeoogsts estmated that
the three mon year od fosss were the odest human remans to be
dscovered.
Correct : Found n Tanana by Mary Leaky, the three mon year od fosss were
estmated to be the odest human remans to be dscovered.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 0112
Engsh Gammar
Incorrect : Attacked by an angry mob, the gashes n the boys throat were fe-
threatenng.
(Lu rng attacked c cng ngha v having been attacked. Ch ng
thc ca ng t attacked the boy; v vy, vc m ch t n ph
xuEt hn ngay sau dEu phEy.)
Correct : Attacked by an angry mob, the boy suhered fe-threatenng gashes n
hs throat.
46.3 XEng t nguM:n th? chp m1c 3ch mD Bu ch* m/nh 0
+h1
VY d:
Incorrect : To prevent cavtes, denta oss shoud be used day after brushng
ones teeth.
Correct : To prevent cavtes, one shoud use denta oss day after brushng
ones teeth.
46.4 9g danh t h*Fc ng gii t mD Bu m/nh 0 +h1 chp sa
t Qng Ong.
VY d:
Incorrect : A compettve sport, gymnast has to perform before a pane of |udges
who use ther knowedge to determne whch partcpant w wn.
Correct : In a compettve sport, gymnast has to perform before a pane of
|udges who use ther knowedge to determne whch partcpant w wn.
Ou cn u nhEt kh s dng o mu cu ny ch ng ca mnh O chYnh
ph ch ng ca mnh O ph.
47. >hn t4 $)ng 7C, t<nh t4
47.1 Dng +hYn t c lm t3nh t
Phn t 1 c dng m tYnh t kh n p ng y cc Ou kn sau:
ng ngay trc danh t m n b ngha.
ng t khng h mt tn ng no (n ng t).
Hnh ng ph th ch ng
Hnh ng ang thO tp dOn.
47.2 Dng +hYn t d lm t3nh t
Phn t 2 c dng m tYnh t kh n p ng y nhng Ou kn sau:
ng ngay trc danh t m n b ngha
Hnh ng ph thO b ng
Hnh ng ph xy ra trc hnh ng ca mnh O chYnh.
K u ': Mt s cc ng t nh to interest, to bore, eFcited v$ frighten. h dng
ph cEn thn xem hnh ng ch ng hay b ng.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 0113
Engsh Gammar
48. Th4a (re$un$anc-)
Mt cu trong thng tn trong cu c p m khng cn tht c g
tha. Sau y mt s cm t tha m ta cn bt O trnh s dng.
Advance forward
Proceed forward
Progress forward
return back
revert back
sucent enough
compete together
reason ... because
on together.
epeat agan
new nnovatons
matnee
performance
same dentca
two twns
the tme when
the pace wherre
advance, proceed, v progress tEt c ngha tn n
phYa trc. V vy, forward khng cn tht (tha)
return v revert ngha tr vO hoc tr v vy
back khng cn tht (tha)
cc t ny ng ngha. Nn s dng 1 trong 2.
Bn thn t compete ngha tham ga vo cuc th
Eu v nhng ng khc
Cc t ny ch ra cng 1 vEn O. Mu chuEn reason...
that.
eoin c ngha em cho nhau, st cnh bn nhau,
hay tr thnh 1 b phn hay thnh vn ca .... nn
together y tha.
Bn thn repeat c ngha n n na, (re - un
c ngha again) nn y tha again.
Bn thn innovation c ngha 1 tng m, 1 sng
kn m
matinee ngha bu bOu dOn ban chOu. Nn
performance tha.
Cc t ny ng ngha.
(wins ngha ha anh em hay 2 ch em
Ng Anh khng n the time when m ch dng 1 trong 2.
VY d: It s the tme you must eave.
Ng Anh khng n the place where m ch dng 1 trong
2.
VY d: It s the pace I was born.
WEt s2 v3 d1$
The army advanced after the bg batte.
Hay
The army moved forward after the bg batte.
The peace taks advanced.
Hay
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 0114
Engsh Gammar
The peace taks progressed.
We have sucent money to buy the new dress.
They have enough tme to eat a sandwch before gong to work.
The teacher proceeded to expan the esson.
ohn and hs brother are competng n the runnng games.
The teacher asked us to |on the students who were ceanng the room.
Mary repeated the queston sowy so that m woud understand.
Besdes the two evenng showngs, there w aso be a matnee.
The reason I want to take that cass s that the professor s supposed to be very
eoquent.
(L do t tham d vo p hc ng go s rEt c t hng bn.)
Ths s where I eft hm.
That was the tme I ht a home run.
49. Cu trc cu s"ng s"ng
h thng tn trong mt cu c a ra d dng t k ra hng ot th cc thnh
phn c t k ph tng ng v nhau vO mt ng php (danh - danh, tYnh
t - tYnh t).
Nn nh rng thng th ng th thnh phn u tn sau ng t s quyt nh
cc thnh phn cn .
Tuy nhn nu th gan trong cu khc nhau th cc hnh ng trong cu ph
theo quy ut th gan v nguyn tc song song khng c p dng.
VY d:
She s a senor, studes every day, and w graduate a semester eary.
50. Th+ng tin trBc tiE vC th+ng tin gi@n tiE
50.1 %Yu t,ac ti+ v cYu gin ti+
Trong cu trc tp thng tn t ng th nhEt n ng th 2.
VY d:
He sad I bought a new motorbke for mysef yesterday
Cn trong cu gn tp, thng tn t ng th nhEt qua ng th 2 v n ng-
th 3. Do vy c s bn vO mt ng php.
VY d:
He sad he had bought a new motorbke for mysef the day before.
50.2 Ph Qng +h+ chuM?n >i t cYu t,ac ti+ sang cYu gin ti+
h chuyOn t cu trc tp sang cu gn tp cn ph:
Ph b ngoc kp, chuyOn ton b cc t nhn xng theo ng ch
ng th nhEt sang t nhn xng ng th 3.
L ng t v th 2 xung 1 cEp so v mc ban u ( vO th).
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 0115
Engsh Gammar
ChuyOn tEt c cc t ch th, ph t ch th gan theo bng quy
nh.
G]ng 2di 29ng t4
DIECT SPEECH INDIECT SPEECH
Smpe present Smpe past
Present progressve Past progressve
Present perfect
(Progressve)
Past perfect
(Progressve)
Smpe past Past perfect
w /sha woud / shoud
Can / may Coud / mght
Bng >i cc l*-i t khc.
Ths, these That, those
here, overhere there, overthere
today that day
yesterday the day before
the day before yesterday two days before
tomorrow the foowng day/ the next day
the day after tomorrow n two days tme
next + th gan (week, year ...) the foowng + th gan (week, year...)
ast + th gan (week, year ...) the prvous + th gan (week, year...)
th gan + ago th gan + before/ the prvous +th
gan
- Nu n v thut xy ra trong cng mt ngy th khng cn ph th
gan.
VY d:
At breakfast ths mornng he sad I w be very busy today
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 0116
Engsh Gammar
At breakfast ths mornng he sad he woud be very busy today.
- Vc Ou chnh ogc tEt nhn cn tht nu n c thut sau 1
hoc 2 ngy.
VY d:
th 2 ack n v Tom:
Im eavng the day after tomorrow. (tc th 4 ack s r )
Nu Tom thut n ca ack vo ngy hm sau (tc th 3) th Tom s n:
ack sad he was eavng tomorrow.
Nu (om thut n ca eack vo ngy tp theo (ngy th 4) th (om s n:
ack sad he was eavng today.
50.3 XEng t vi tYn ng t,ac ti+ v tYn ng gin ti+.
Trong tng Anh c nhng o ng t (trong bng sau)c 2 tn ng v
ng th cng c 2 cch dng.
Brng
bud
buy
cut
draw
feed
te
nd
get
gve
hand
eave
end
wrte
mak
e
oher
owe
pant
pass
pay
promss
read
se
send
show
teach
- Cch dng gn tp t tn ng trc tp sau ng t r n g t for, to
v tn ng gn tp (cng thc sau.)
for
Sub|ect + verb + tn ng trc tp + + tn
ng gn tp
to
- Cch dng trc tp t tn ng gn tp ngay sau ng t v sau n
tn ng trc tp, g t to v for mEt , cng thc sau:

Sub|ect + verb + tn ng gn tp + tn
ng gn tp

- Nu c 2 tn ng Ou t nhn xng th khng c dng cng thc trc
tp (tc cng thc th nhEt c s dng).
VY d:
Correct : They gave t to us.
Incorrect: They gave us t.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 0117
Engsh Gammar
- ng t to introduce v to mention khng bao g c dng cng thc trc tp
m ph dng cng thc gn tp.
To ntroduce sb/smth to sb
to menton smth to sb
:9t s; th< $= bd trD
ohn gave the essay to hs teacher.
ohn gave hs teacher the essay.
The tte boy brought some owers for hs grandmother.
The tte boy brought hs grandmother some owers.
I xed a drnk for Mara.
I xed Mara a drnk.
He drew a pcture for hs mother.
He drew hs mother a pcture.
He ent hs car to hs bother.
He ent hs brother hs car.
We owe severa thousand doars to the bank.
We owe the bank severa thousand doars.
51. >hM t4 2]" 75n 2^u cu
Trong tng Anh c nhng trng hp ph t khng ng v trY bnh thng ca
n m o n ng u cu nhm nhEn mnh vo hnh ng ca ch ng.
Trong trng hp ng php c thay , ng sau ph t ng u cu
tr ng t r m n ch ng v ng t chYnh (cng thc sau).
hardly
rarely
seldom + auxary + sub|ect +
verb ...
never
only ...
VY d :
Never have so many peope been unempoyed as today.
Ph t tr ng t ch ng ng t
(so many peope have never been unempoyed as today.)
Hardy had he faen aseep when he began to dream of far-away ands.
Ph t tt ch ng ng t
(He had hardy faen aseep when he dream of far-away ands.)
arey have we seen such an ehectve actor as he has proven.
Ph t tr ng t ch ng ng t
(we have rarey seen such an ehectve actor as he has proven.)
Sedom does the cass et out eary.
Ph t tr ng t ch ng ng t
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 0118
Engsh Gammar
Ony by hard work w we be abe to accompsh ths great task.
Ph t tr ng t ch ng ng t
(We w be abe to accompsh ths great task ony by hard work.)
:9t s; c@c EhM t4 2Zc bi?t 2Png 2^u cu
IN/ NDE NO CICMSTANCES : D trong hon cnh no cng khng.
VY d:
In / under no crcumstances shoud you end hm the money.
(d trong bEt c trng hp no anh cng khng nn cho n vay tOn.)
ON NO ACCONT : D bEt c do no cng khng.
VY d:
On no account must ths swtch be toughed.
(d v bEt c do no anh cng khng c ng vo cm ny)
SO + AD + AILIA + S + V + THAT. .... n n m ....
VY d:
So dcut dd she get a |ob that she had to stay home for an year.
So sure of ths were the owners that they provded feboats for ony 950 of ts
possbe 3,500 passengers. (Nhng ng ch ca con tu qu tn tng n n
m h ch trang b xung cu m cho 950 trong s 3,500 hnh khch m con
tu c thO t c - chYch trong b c vO tu Ttanc).
(C Ey km c vc m mt cch kh khn n n c Ey ph ng nh 1
nm tr)
ONL IN THIS WA : Ch c bng cch ny.
VY d:
Ony n ths way coud you sove the probem.
(Ch c bng cch ny th cu m g c vEn O hc ba ny.)
NAGATIVE, ... , NO + AILIA + S + V.... ( ... m cng chVng/ m cng
khng ...)
VY d:
He ddnt have any money, nor dd he know anybody from whom he coud borrow.
( N chVng cn ng no c m n cng chVng bt a m n c thO h vay.)
52. C@ch chen nhng cu tr] 7Ai 2ng&
Mt trong 2 b th ng php ca TOEFL c a ra d dng mt cu cho sn cn
b d v d 4 cu O On vo. Trong 4 cu ch c 1 cu ng. O
chn c cu ng ta cn tn hnh cc bc sau:
1. Ph kOm tra cc ng php, bao gm:
a- S ho hp ga ch ng v ng t.
b- Vc s dng cc tYnh t v ph t.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 0119
Engsh Gammar
c- V trY ca cc b ng theo th t:
+ ch phng thc hnh ng
+ ch a Om
+ ch th gan
+ ch phng tn hnh ng
+ hon cnh hnh ng.
d- S ph hp ga cc th ca ng t.
e- em xt vc s dng hp cc t.
f- CEu trc cu song song.
2. Ph o b nhng cu tr mang tYnh rm r
a- Ph o b nhng cu tr bao gm 1 thnh ng tuy khng sa nhng d,
trong kh c 1 t khc ngn hn O thay th.
Nhng u rng c nhng ph t khng c hnh thc u ly hoc nu c s
mang ngha khc, nn ph dng theo cch : mt cm thnh ng ( nhng tYnh
t c u ly)
VY d:
Freshy khc v n a fresh mener (t).
Mnh ho
Ths food s ony decous when eaten n a fresh mener (kh n t).
He had a doen fresh-ad egges (trng va m )
b- Ph trnh nhng cu tr c 2 t mang cng mt ngha (dedundancy)
3. Ph trnh nhng cu tr c nhng t vng khng khp v ngha ca cu.
c bt cc ng ng t.
4. Trnh nhng cu tr c tng ng.
53. \hng t4 $R g- nh^, 7[n
nhng t rEt dO gy nhm n vO mt ng ngha, chYnh t hoc cch
pht m.
ANGEL (n) : Thn thn.
ANGLE (n) : Gc.
CITE (v) : TrYch dn. In her term paper, ans had to cte many references.
SITE (n) : hu Et ( O xy dng). The corner of North Man and Mmosa Streets
w be the ste of the new shoppng center.
SIGHT (n) : 1- he ngm, tm ngm. Through the sght of the re, the soder
spotted the enemy.
(n) 2- cnh tng. Whatchng the andng of the spaces capsue was a
peasant sght.
(v) 3- ThEy, quan st thEy We sghted a shp n the bay.
COSTME (n) Oun o, trang phc O h.
VY d:
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 0120
Engsh Gammar
It s a custom n Western Europe for tte boys to wear shorts pants to schoo.
DECENT (ad|) : 1- ng n, tO chnh.
2- tm tEt, tt
VY d:
When one appears n court, one must wear decent cothng.
DESCENT (n) : 1- eo xung, tro xung.
VY d:
The mountan cmbers found ther descent more haardous than ther ascent.
2- ngun gc, dng d.
VY d:
Vadmr s of ussan descent.
DESSET (n) : Mn trng mng.
VY d:
We had appe pe for dessert ast nght.
DESET (n) : sa mc.
VY d:
It s dcut to ve n the desert wthout water.
DESET (v) : b, b mc.
VY d:
After desertng the post, the soder ran away from the camp.
LATE (adv) : sau , sau y, r th (thng dng v cu tng a).
Ngc ngha v n earer (c dng smpe past).
VY d:
We went to the moves and ater had ce cream at Dary Ise.
THE LATTE >< THE FOME
C th 2, ng th 2 >< c th nhEt, ng th nhEt.
VY d:
Germany and Engand both deveoped drgbes for use durng Word war II, the
atter prmary for coasta reconnassance. (atter Engand).
LOOSE (ad|) : ng >< tght : cht
VY d:
after detng, Marcy found that her cothes had become so oose that she had to
buy a new wardrobe.
LOSE (v) : 1- nh mEt, thEt c.
VY d:
Mary ost her gasses ast week.
2- thua, thEt b.
VY d:
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 0121
Engsh Gammar
If Harry doesnt practce hs tenns more, he may ose the match.
Passed (v - qu kh ca pass) :
1- tr qua, qua .
VY d:
Fve hours passed before the |ury reached ts verdct.
2- qua, ngang qua.
VY d:
Whe we were sttng n the park, severa of our frends passed us.
3- thnh cng, vt qua c.
VY d:
The students are happy that they passed ther exams.
PAST (ad|) : 1- qua, d vng.
VY d:
Ths past week has been very hectc for the students returnng to the unversty.
2- trc y.
VY d:
In the past, he had been a cook, a teacher, and a hstoran.
PEACE (n) : ho bnh, s trt t, s yn n, s yn ng, s thanh bnh.
VY d:
Peace was restored to the communty after a week of rotng.
PIECE (n) : Mt mEu, 1 mnh.
VY d:
Hed ate a pece of chocoate cake for dessert.
PINCIPAL (n) : 1- hu trng (trng tOu hc v trung hc).
VY d:
The prncpa caed a facuty meetng.
(ad|) 2- chYnh, ch yu.
VY d:
An anthropoogst, who had worked wth the ndgenous trbes n Austraa, was
the prncpa speaker at Frdays uncheon.
PINCIPLE (n) : Nguyn tc, ut .
VY d:
Mr. Connors s a man who beeves that truthfuness s the best prncpe.
OIET (ad|) : yn ng, yn , m ng,tnh mch.
VY d:
The nght was so quet that you coud hear the breee bowng.
OITE (adv) : 1- hon ton.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 0122
Engsh Gammar
VY d:
Louse s qute capabe of takng over the househod chores whe her mother s
away.
2- h, mt cht.
VY d:
He was qute tred after hs rst day of casses.
OIT (v) : dng.
VY d:
Herman qut smokng on hs doctors advce.
STATIONA (ad|) : c nh, khng d chuyOn, tnh t.
VY d:
The weatherman sad that the warm front woud be statonary for severa days.
STATIONE (n) : GEy vt c bt, vn phng phEm.
VY d:
Luce used ony monogrammed statonary for correspondence.
THAN (n t) : c s dng trong cu so snh hn.
VY d:
Todays weather s better than yesterdays.
THEN (ad|) : sau ( c dng sau 1 th Om c O cp).
VY d:
Frst, ue ed out her schedue; then, she pad her fees.
THEI (ad|) : tYnh t s hu s nhOu.
VY d:
Ther team scored the most ponts durng the game.
THEE (adv) : 1- , ng ka.
VY d:
Look over there between the trees.
2- c s dng v be O ch ra s hn dn, s c mt, s tn t.
VY d:
There s a book on the teachers desk.
THEE ( t + ng t): vt tt ca they are.
VY d:
Theyre eavng on the noon ght to urch.
TO (g t) : t, cho t, t tn c.
VY d:
Go to the backboard and wrte out the equaton.
TWO (n hoc ad|) - ha.
VY d:
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 0123
Engsh Gammar
Two theores have been proposed to expan that ncdent.
TOO (adv) 1- qu.
VY d:
Ths mornng was too cod for the chdren go to swmmng.
2- cng, cng vy.
VY d:
ane went to the move, and we dd too.
WEATHE (n): th tt.
VY d:
Our ght was deayed because of bad weather.
WHETHE (n t): nn chng (ch ra 1 a chn).
VY d:
Because of gas shortage, we do not know whether we w go away for our
vacaton or stay home.
WHOSE ( t) - tYnh t hay t quan h s hu.
VY d:
The person whose name s drawn rst w wn the grand pre.
WHOS ( t quan h + ng t) : vt tt ca who + s hoc who + has.
VY d:
Whos (who s) your new boogy professor
Scott s the attorney whos (who has) been revewng ths case.
O (ad|) - s hu ca you.
VY d:
We are a happy about your acceptng the poston wth the company n
Batmore.
OE ( t + ng t) - Vt tt ca you + are.
VY d:
oure gong to en|oy the panorama from the top of the h.
Cc t c Om gng nhau dO nhm n.
ACCEPT (v) : chEp nhn.
VY d:
Professor Pere w accept the charmanshp of the humantes department.
ECEPT (gt) : ngo tr (1 vt hay 1 ng).
VY d:
Everyone s gong to the conventon exept Bob.
ACCESS (n) : sn c, cch truy cp vo.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 0124
Engsh Gammar
VY d:
The teacher had no access to the studentses, whch were ocked n the
prncpas oce.
ECESS (ad|) : 1- d do, phong ph, d tha.
We pad a surcharge on our excess baggage.
(n) 2- Lng b xung, ph.
VY d:
The demand for funds was n excess of the actua need.
ADVICE (n) : khuyn, t vEn.
VY d:
If you heed the teachers advce, you w do we n your studes.
ADVISE (v) : a ra khuyn, hoc t vEn.
The Congress advsed the presdent aganst sgnng the treaty at
that tme.
AFFECT (v) : Tc ng.
VY d:
The doctors wanted to see how the medcaton woud ahect the patent.
EFFECT (n) : 1- t qu hoc hu qu.
VY d:
The chdren suhered no ehects from ther ong pane rde.
(v) 2- To hu qu.
VY d:
To ehect a change n cty government we must a vote on Tuesday.
Agan (adv): 1 n na, p ( 1 hnh ng).
VY d:
Mke wrote to the pubshers agan, nqurng about hs manuscrpt.
AGAINST (g t) : 1- chng , phn a hoc c g .
VY d:
The athetc drector was aganst our dancng n the new gym.
2- kO bn, bn cnh.
VY d:
The boy standng aganst the pano s my cousn B.
ALEAD (adv) : sn sng.
VY d:
ans pane had aready anded before we got to the arport.
ALL EAD (noun + ad|): chEn b sn sng O m g.
VY d:
We are a ready to go boatng.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 0125
Engsh Gammar
AMONG (g t): Ch ra m quan h trong (hoc s a chn t) 3 hay nhOu ng-
(nhOu vt) - trong s.
VY d:
It was dcut to seect a wnner from among so many contestants.
BETWEEN (g t) : ch ra m quan h (s a chn) ga 2 thc thO.
VY d:
Between wrtng her book and teachng, Mary Een had tte tme for anythng
ese.
Lu : cEu trc between ... and cng c thO c dng O ch v trY chYnh xc
ca 1 quc ga nm ga cc quc ga khc.
VY d:
Vtnam es between Chna, aos and camboda.
BESIDE (g t) : bn cnh .
VY d:
There s a sma tabe besde the bed.
BESIDES (g t hoc ph t): ngo ra, cng, hn na.
VY d:
I have ve hstory books here besdes the four that I eft at home.
ASIDE (adv) : t sang 1 bn.
VY d:
Harry sets money asde every payday for hs daughters educaton.
COMPAE (V) + WITH: so v (O ch ra s gng nhau, s tng ng).
VY d:
Sue compared her new schoo wth the ast one she had attended.
CONTAST (V) + WITH: ch ra s tng phn (khc nhau).
VY d:
In her composton, Marta chose to contrast fe n a bg cty wth that of a sma
town.
CONSECTIVE (ad|) : Ln tc ( khng c tYnh ngt qung).
VY d:
Today s the tenth consecutve day of unbearabe heat wave.
SCCESSIVE (ad|) : n tc (c tYnh ngt qung).
VY d:
The nted States won god medas n two successve Oympc Games.
CONSIDEABLE (ad|): ng kO.
VY d:
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 0126
Engsh Gammar
Even thought Marge had consderabe experence n the ed, she was not hred
for the |ob.
CONSIDEATE (ad|): ch s, n cn, chu o, hay quan tm t ng khc.
VY d:
It was very consderate of Harry to send hs hostess a bouquet of owers.
CEDIBLE (ad|) : c thO tn c.
VY d:
Hs expanaton of the rescue at sea seemed credbe.
CEDITABLE (ad|) : v vang, ng ca ng, ng khen.
VY d:
The remans darng rescue of those trapped n the burnng was a credtabe
deed.
Vc ng Ynh cu ho dm xng vo cu nhng ng b nht trong m chy
vc m ng khen ng.
CEDLOS (ad|): c tn, nh da.
VY d:
ta s so creduous that she w accept any excuse you oher.
DETACT (v) : m gm (g tr, uy tYn).
VY d:
Moys nervousness detracted from her sngng.
DISTACT (v) : m ng qun, m mEt tp trung.
VY d:
Pease dont dstract your father whe he s baancng the chequebook.
DEVICE (n): mt pht mnh hay 1 k hoch, tht b, dng c, my mc.
VY d:
Ths s a cever devce for ceanng sh wthout gettng pnched by the scaes.
DEVISE (v) : ngh ra, sng ch ra.
VY d:
The genera devsed a pan for attackng the enemy camp at nght whe the
soders were ceebratng.
ELICIT (v) : rt ra, mo ra, thu h , rt
VY d:
The prosecutors barrage of questons nay ected the truth from the wtness.
ILLICIT (ad|) : bEt hp php.
VY d:
The potcans ct deangs wth organed crme caused hm to ose hs
government poston.
EMIGANT (n) : ng d c (ng t Emgrate from : d c t).
VY d:
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 0127
Engsh Gammar
After word war II, many emgrants eft Europe to go to the nted States.
IMMIGANT (n) : ng nhp c (ng t Immgrate nto ).
VY d:
The nted States s a country composed of mmgrants.
EAMPLE (n) : thY d, dn chng.
VY d:
Pcassos Guermca s an exceent exampe of expressonsm n art.
SAMPLE (n) : mu.
VY d:
My nece oves to go to supermarket because the dary ady aways gves her a
sampe of cheese.
FOMEL (adv) : trc y.
VY d:
He formery worked as a professor, but now he s a physcst.
FOMALL (ad|) 1- tO chnh (n mc).
VY d:
At the resort we were requred to dress formay for dnner every nght.
n ng ng ng ta yu cu chng t n mc chnh tO vo tEt c cc ba
n t.
2- chYnh thc.
VY d:
She has formay requested a name change.
HAD (ad|): 1- kh.
VY d: The test was so hard that nobody passed.
2- cng.
VY d: The stadums seats were hard, so we rented a cushon.
3- (ph t) chm ch, rEt n c.
VY d: They worked hard on the pro|ect.
HADL (adv) : hu nh khng.
VY d: He had so much work to do after the vacaton that he hardy
knew where to begn.
HELPLESS (ad|) : V vng, tuyt vng.
I coud not speak ther anguage, I fet hepess tryng to understand the toursts
pght.
SELESS (ad|) : v dng.
An umbrea s useess n a hurrcane.
s tr nn v dng trong trn bo.
HOSE (n) v Home (n) : nhOu kh c s dng n n, nhng c s khc bt vO
ng ngha.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 0128
Engsh Gammar
1- House m ch t to nh hoc cng trnh kn trc.
The Chapmans are budng a new house n Buckngham Estates.
2- Home m ch t bu khng khY trong ng nh. Home n tr
tm .
IMAGINA (ad|): Tng tng, khng c tht.
Snce aph has no brother or ssters, he has created an magnary paymate.
IMAGINATIVE (ad|) : phong ph trY tng tng, gu trY tng tng.
Star Wars was created by an hghy magnatve wrter.
IMMOTAL (ad|) : bEt t.
The mmorta works of Shakespeare are st beng read and en|oyed three
centures after ther wrtng.
IMMOAL (ad|) : tr v un thng o , b.
Ther mmora behavor n front of the students cost the teachers ther |obs.
IMPLICIT (ad|) : ngm, En tng, tOm tng, tuyt , hon ton.
Our supervsor has mpct fath n our abty to nsh the pro|ect on tme.
Ng gm st d n c nOm tn tuyt vo kh nng hon tEt d n ng th
hn ca chng t.
EPLICIT (ad|) : r rng, chYnh xc.
The professor gave expct nstructons for carryng out the research pro|ect.
INDSTIAL (ad|) : thuc cng nghp.
Pau had an ndustra accdent and wa n the hospta for three months.
INDSTIOS (ad|): cn c, sng nng.
Mark was such an ndustrous student that he receved a four-year schoarshp to
the unversty.
INFLICT (v) : kt n, bt ph chu.
Because the prsoners had created a rot and had assauted severa guards, the
warden ncted severa punshments on a the partcpants.
AFFLICT (v) : m su no, m au kh.
Durng the Mdde Ages, mons of peope were acted by the pague.
(vo th trung c, hng tru ng b ng bnh v nn dch.)
INSPIATION (n): cm hng (sng to, hc tp, khm ph).
Thomas A. Edson, nventor of the phonograph, sad that an dea was nnety-nne
percent perspraton and one percent nspraton.
(Thomas A. Edson, nh pht mnh ra chc kn, n rng 1 tng 99 m h
cng sc v ch 1 cm hng sng to).
ASPIATION (n) : 1- kht vng, nguyn vng.
Gas feong aspraton has been that of becomng a doctor.
2- s hYt th.
To pronounce certan words, proper aspraton s necessary.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 0129
Engsh Gammar
INTELLIGENT (ad|) : thng mnh.
Dan was so ntegent that he receved good grades wthout ever havng to study.
INTELLIGIBLE (ad|) : dO dng, dO hOu.
The scence teachers expanatons were so ntegbe that students had no
probems dong ther assgnments.
INTELLECTAL (n) :1- trY thc.
Because Faban s an nteectua, he nds t dcut to
assocate wth hs cassmates who are ess ntegent.
2- (ad|): khn ngoan, t trY, uyn bc.
ohn was nvoved n an nteectua conversaton wth hs od
professor.
INTENSE (ad|) : mnh, d d, mnh t.
Last wnters ntense cod amost depeted the natura gas suppy.
INTENSIVE (ad|) : mnh, su, tp trung.
Before gong to Mexco, Ph took an ntensve course n Spansh.
LATE (ad|, adv): 1-khng ng g, mun.
Professor Carmchae hates to see hs students arrve ate.
2- (ad|) qu c.
Her ate husband was the author of that book.
LATEL (adv) : gn y.
I havent seen Burt atey. He must be extremey busy wth hs research.
LEAN (v) : hc.
The new casher had to earn how to operate the computersed cash regster.
TEACH (v) : dy.
The nstructor s teachng us how to program computers.
LEND (v) v LOAN (v) : cho vay - c thO dng n c.
oaned (end) me her red dress to wear to the dance.
BOOW (v) : vay.
I borrowed s red dress to wear to the dance.
LIOEF (v) : tan ra, chy ra.
The ce cream began to quefy n the ntense heat.
LIOIDATE (v) : tr kh, thanh ton, thanh .
The foregn agent tred to qudate the trator before he passed the nformaton to
hs contacts.
LONEL (ad|) : c n..
After her husbands death, Debbe was very oney and wthdrawn.
Sau c cht ca chng, Debbe rEt c n v kh tYnh.
ALONE (ad|) : mt mnh.
After osng n the Oympc tryouts, Ph asked to be eft aone.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 0130
Engsh Gammar
Near (g t hoc ph t): gn.
My boogy cass meets near the Student non.
Neary (adv): hu ht, gn nh, sut na.
We were neary ht by the speedng car on the turnpke.
Chng t sut na th b mt xe tc cao hc vo trn xa .
Observaton (n): s quan st, s theo d.
The ancent Egyptans observaton of the heaventy bodes heped them know
when to pant and harvest.
Observance (n): s tun theo, s tun th, ngh thc, ngh O.
There w be numerous parades and dspays of the reworks n observance of
Independece Day.
Persecute (v) : ngc , hnh h.
Throughout hstory many peope have been persecuted for ther regous beefs.
Prosecute (v): truy t.
Shopfters w be prosecuted to the fuest extent of the aw.
Preceed (v): ng trc.
Weather Servce warnngs preceeded the hurrcane.
Proceed (v): tp tc (mt cng vc b b d).
After the re dr, the teacher proceeded to expan the experment to the physcs
cass.
Ouantty (n) : s ng (c dng v danh t khng m c).
A arge quantty of sand was removed before the archeoogsts found the
prehstorc anma bones.
Number (n): s ng (c s dng v danh t m c).
A number of artefacts were found at the excavaton ste.
emember (v) : nh , nh, ngh vO.
I do not remember what tme he asked me to ca. ou dont remember, do you
emnd (v) : nhc nh a, m cho nh .
Pease remnd me to ca Henry at 7 ocock tonght.
Henry remnds me of my unce.
Sensbe (ad|) : c c phn on tt.
When t s ranng hard, sensbe peope stay ndoors.
Senstve (ad|) : nhy cm.
Stephen cannot be out n the sun very ong because he has very senstve skn
and burns easy.
Speca (ad|) : c bt.
Meyers Department Store w have a speca sae for ther charge customers.
Especay (adv) : c bt.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 0131
Engsh Gammar
ta s especay tatented n the ne arts. She has a speca taent for payng
musc by ear.
se (n): p dng, s dng.
The saesman sad that reguar use of ferter woud ensure a greener, heather
awn.
sage (n) : cch s dng.
Norm Crosbys usage of Engsh vocabuary n hs comedy routne s harous.
54. C@ch sI $=ng giXi t4&
Vc s dng g t rEt kh v hu ht cc kh nm vO g t Ou c nhng
ngo . Cch tt nhEt O hc chng mnh ho bng hnh nh xem chng
thc hn chc nng nh th no so v cc g t khc v O hc nhng ng dng
chung nhEt nh v nhng thnh ng s dng cc g t khc nhau.
S d y s em cho bn 1 nm chung vO cch s dng g t. Tuy
nhn, n khng gp c bn hOu nhng thnh ng cha g t nhEt nh.
v nhng thnh ng m t n khng n n ngha ca n th ngha ca n s
ph hc thuc. Nghn cu cc cu vY d O hOu ngha ca m thnh ng.
Cc g t v thnh ng ny rEt quan trng trong tEt c cc phn ca TOEFL.
Above, over
on
to from
through
nto out of
by
Beow, under
54.1 Du,ing # t,*ng su2t hnh Eng <M ,a t,*ng mEt .uqng thAi
gian!
durng for + tme (ch trng th).
VY d:
Durng our vacaton, we vsted many reatves across the country.
Durng the summer, we do not have to study.
54.2 r,*m t! st t* n!.
Dng cho th gan v a Om.
From a tme to a tme
a pace a pace
He ved n Germany from 1972 to 1978.
We drove from Atanta to New ork n one day.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 0132
Engsh Gammar
From tme to tme : thnh thong, kh.
VY d:
We vst the art museum from tme to tme.
54.3 Hut *I ,a khSi! st int* di v*!
be (run) out of + danh t : ht, khng cn.
be out of town : vng.
Mr. Adams cannot see you ths week because he s out of town.
be out of date (c, th) >< be up to date (m, cp nht, hp th)
Dont use that dctonary. It s out of date. Fnd one that s up to date.
be out of work : thEt nghp.
I have been very unhappy snce I have been out of work.
be out of the queston : khng thO c.
our request for an extenson of credt s out of the queston.
be out of order: hng.
We had to use our neghbours teephone because ours was out of order.
54.4 @M
ng t ch chuyOn ng + by ngang qua.
ng t tnh + by gn, bn.
by + th gan c thO : trc c.
VY d: We usuay eat supper by sx ocock n the evenng.
,y c dng trong cu b ng O ch ra ch thO gy hnh ng.
VY d: omeo and uet was wrten by Wam Shakespeare.
By + phng tn gao thng (bus/ pane/ tran/ car/ shp/ bke).
VY d: We traveed to Boston by tran.
By then : trc c .
VY d: I w graduate from the unversty n 1997. By then, I hope to have
found a |ob.
By way of va : theo ng.
VY d: We are drvng to Atanta by way of Baton ouge.
By the way : 1- tnh c.
VY d: By the way, Ive got two tckets for Saturdays game. Woud you ke to
go wth me
2- nhn y, tn y.
By far + tYnh t so snh : (dng O nhEn mnh).
VY d: Ths book s by far the best on the sub|ect.
By accdent / by mstake : tnh c. >< on purpose (c tnh).
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 0133
Engsh Gammar
VY d: Nobody w receve a check on Frday because the wrong cards were put
nto the computer by accdent.
54.5 un D t,*ng= D t-i! # nghea <c nh hQn at
In a room/ budng/ drawer/ coset : bn trong ...
VY d: our socks are n the drawer.
In + nm/ thng.
VY d: Hs brthday s n Apr. I w begen cass n 1998.
In tme : ng g -va vn.
VY d: We arrved at the arport n tme to eat before the pane eft.
In the street: d ng ng.
VY d: The chdren were warned not to pay n the street.
In the mornng / afternoon/ evenng : vo bu sng/ bu chOu/ bu t.
VY d: I have a denta appontment n the mornng, but I w be free n the
afternoon.
In the past/ future: trong qu kh/ tng a.
VY d: In the past, attendance at schoo was not compusory, but t s today.
In future : t nay tr .
VY d: I w spend much tme on earnng Engsh n future because the TOEFL
test s comng.
In the begnnng/ end. : thot u/ rt cuc at rst/ at ast.
VY d: Everyone seemed unfrendy n the begnnng but n the end everyone
made frends.
In the way : chn ngang , ngay .
VY d: He coud not park hs car n the drveway because another car was n
the way.
Once n a whe : thnh thong, kh.
VY d: Once n a whe, we eat dnner at Chness restaurant.
In no tme at a: trong nhy mt, trong 1 thong.
VY d: George nshes hs assgnment n no tme at a.
In the meantme meanwhe : trong c .
VY d: We start schoo n severa weeks, but n the meantme, we can take a
trp.
In the mdde : ga (a Om).
VY d: Grace stood n the mdde of the room ookng for her frend.
In the army/ ar force/ navy. Trong qun / trong khng c/ trong h qun.
In the + s th t + row : hng gh th.
VY d: We are gong to st n the fteen row of the audtorum.
In the event that : trong trng hp.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 0134
Engsh Gammar
VY d: In the event that you wn the pre, you w be noted by ma.
In case : O phng kh, O ng nh.
VY d: I w gve you the key to the house so you w have t n case I arrve a
tte ate.
Be/ get n touch/ contact wth : tp xc, n c, gp g v a.
VY d: Its very dcut to get n touch wth enny because she works a day.
54.6 *n
On + th trong tun/ ngytrong thng.
VY d: I w ca you on Thursday. Hs brthday s on February 3.
On + a/the + phng tn gao thng (bus/ pane/ tran/ shp/ bke).
VY d: Its two ate to see ane; shes aready on the pane. I came to schoo
ths mornng on the bus.
On a street : t ph.
VY d: I ves on 1
st
Ngc khnh.
On + the + s th t + oor: tng th.
VY d: My grfrend ves on the fourth oor of an od budng by my house.
On tme : ng g (bEt chEp hon cnh bn ngo).
VY d: Despte the bad weather, our pane eft on tme.
On the corner (of two street) : gc ga 2 ph.
VY d: My house s on the corner of Ngc khnh street and Trm cp street.

On the corner at the corner n the corner
On the sdewak : trn va h.
VY d: Dont wak n the street, wak on the sdewak.
On the way : trn ng t >< on the way back to: trn ng tr vO.
VY d: We can stop at the grocery store on the way to ther house.
On the rght/ eft : bn tr/ bn ph.
VY d: Pau sts on the eft sde of the room and Dave sts on the rght.
On teevson/ (the) rado: trn truyOn hnh/ trn pht thanh.
VY d: The presdents State of the non Address w be on teevson and
on the rado tonght.
On the teephone (on the phone): n trn n tho, g n tho, nh c
mc n tho.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 0135
Engsh Gammar
VY d: Is your house on the teephone - nh cu c mc n tho khng
anet w be here soon; she s on the teephone.
On the whoe n genera : n chung.
VY d: On the whoe, the rescue msson was we executed.
On the other hand: tuy nhn.
on the one hand ... on the other hand : mt mt ... mt khc.
VY d: The present perfect aspect s never used to ndcate a specc tme;
on the other hand, the smpe past tense s.
On sae 1- for sae : c bn, O bn.
2- bn h g.
VY d: The house w go on sae ths weekend.
The reguar prce of the rado s 39.95, but today ts on sae for 25.
On foot: b.
VY d: My car woud not start so I came on foot.
54.7 at # D t-i th Ang l @:n ng*i= khng <c nh @^ng in!
VY d: ane s at the bank.
At + s nh.
VY d: George ves at 565 16
th
Avenue.
At + th gan c thO.
VY d: The cass begn at 5:15.
At + home/ schoo/ work : nh/ trng/ ang m vc.
VY d: Chares s at work and hs roommate s at schoo. At nght, they are
usuay at home.
At + noon/ nght: vo ban tra/ vo ban m.
at noon (M) : ng 12h tra.
At east : t thOu >< at most : t a.
VY d: We w have to spend at east two weeks dong the experments.
At once : ngay p tc.
VY d: Pease come home at once.
At tmes : th thong, kh.
VY d: At tmes, t s dcut to understand hm because he speaks too fast.
At present/ the moment now + th tp dOn.
K u ': 2 g t trn tng ng v presently nhng ph cEn thn kh s dng ph
t ny v nhng v trY khc nhau s mang nhng ngha khc nhau.
!entence + presently : Ngay tc th, chVng bao u.
VY d: She w be here presenty : c Ey s t y ngay by g.
Gresently + sentence : Ngay sau .
Student: Hoang Vet
Page : 0136
Engsh Gammar
VY d: Presenty he heard her vng home.
!ubIect + presently + verb : Hn nay.
VY d: She s presenty workng on her PhD degree. - Hn nay c Ey ang
m un n tn s trt hc.
VY d: She s studyng at the moment.
At rst : thot u >< at ast : vO sau.
VY d: ane was nervous at rst, but ater she fet more reaxed.
At the begnnng/ at the end of : u/ cu ( dng cho a Om/ th
gan).
WEt s2 thnh ng Fc @i/t dng vi gii t.
On the beach: trn b bOn.
VY d: We waked on the beach for severa hours ast nght.
In pace of nstead of : thay cho, thay v.
VY d: Sam s gong to the meetng n pace of hs brother, who has to work.
Ku ': On place of khng thay th c cho instead kh instead mt mnh ng
cu cu.
VY d: She was supposed to come ths mornng, but she went to the ab
nstead.
For the most part : ch yu.
VY d: The artce dscuses, for the most part, the possbty of fe n other
panets.
In hopes of + Vng hopng to + verb hopng that + sentence.
VY d: ohn caed hs brother n hopes of ndng somebodyto watch hs
chdren.
Of course : chc chn, tEt nhn.
VY d: If you study the matera very thoroughy, you w have no troube on
the examnaton.
Oh and on : da dVng, t h, tng chp mt.
VY d: It raned oh and on a day yesterday.
A of a sudden: bEt thnh nh.
VY d: When we were wakng through the woods, a of a sudden, we heard a
strange sound.
For good for ever : vnh vOn, m m.
VY d: Heen s eavng Chcago for good.
55. \g 29ng t4&
nhng ng t kt hp v 1,2 hoc kh 3 g t. h kt hp dng nh
vy, ng ngha ca chng thay hVn so v ngha ban u.
To break oh: chEm dt, ct t, on tuyt.
Student: Hoang Vet
Page: 0137
Engsh Gammar
VY d: As a resut of the recent, unprovoked attack, the two countres broke
oh ther dpomatc reatons.
To brng up: nu ra, a ra.
VY d: The country commssoner brought up the heated ssue of restrctng
on-street parkng.
Ca on : 1- yu cu.
VY d: The teacher caed on ames to wrte the equaton on the backboard.
2- gh thm, n thm.
VY d: The new mnster caed on each of the fames of hs church n order
to become better acquanted wth them.
Care for: 1- thYch (take care of).
VY d: Because Marta doesnt care for dark coors, she buys ony brghty
coored cothes.
2- trng nom, sn sc (take care for).
VY d: My neghbors asked me to care for ther chdren after schoo.
Check out : 1- Mn sch (th vn).
VY d: I went to the brary and checked out thrty books ast nght for my
research paper.
2- xem xt, Ou tra.
VY d: Ths photocopy machne s not workng propery. Coud you check out
the probem
Check out of : m th tc (O ra kh khch sn, sn bay, nh ga) >< check
nto : m th tc O vo sn bay, khch sn...
Check (up) on : Ou tra.
VY d: The nsurance company decded to check up on hs drvng record
before nsurng hm.
Cose n on : tn gn, chy gn.
VY d: In hs haucnatory state, the addct fet that the was were cosng n
on hm.
Come aong wth: cng v.
VY d: une came aong wth her supervsor to the budget meetng.
Come down wth : Mc ph 1 cn bnh.
VY d: Durng the summer, many peope come down wth ntestna dsorders.
Count on depent on rey on : trng cy vo, da vo, nh vo.
VY d: Mara was countng on the grant money to pay her way through
graduate schoo.
Do away wth emnate get rd of : tng kh, o b, tr kh.
VY d: Because of the ncreasng number of brobems created after the
footba games, the drector has decded to do away wth a sports actvtes.
Student: Hoang Vet
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Engsh Gammar
Draw up : son tho (1 hp ng, 1 k hoch).
A new advertsng contract was drawn up after the terms had been decded.
Drop out of : b (c bt b hc ga chng).
VY d: Ths organaton has done a great dea to prevent young peope from
droppng out of schoo.
56. B #t hDE ca c@c $anh t40 29ng t4 vC t<nh t4 vXi c@c giXi
t4
Et nhOu danh t, ng t, v cc tYnh t c km v cc g t nhEt nh.
Tuy nhn, cng c nhOu ngo . Sau y s t k mt s danh t, ng t,
v tYnh t m chng thng xuyn hn dn v cc g t km theo.
Nouns + prepostons
equvaent
of
quaty of
par of
number
of
reason
for
sampe of
exampe of
excepton
for
possbty of
Cc danh t cho trong bng sau c thO v hoc for hoc of.
fear metho
d
hatre
d
need mean
s
VY d:
The quaty of ths photograph s poor.
I saw a sampe of her work and was qute mpressed.
They have yet to dscover a new method of/ method for anayng ths
nformaton.
ng t + g t.
Decde on
detract
from
emerge
from
partcpate
n
pan on
engage n
escape
from
remove
from
depend on
approve of
succeed n
mnge wth
rey on
Student: Hoang Vet
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Engsh Gammar
conde n pay for
Ch : hng c nhm n ga to ca mt ng t nguyn thO v g t to. Mt
s ng t c thO hoc
Student: Hoang Vet
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