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7-i Vol.

2
TABLE OF CONTENTS

PART 7 CONSTRUCTION PRACTICES AND SAFETY
Chapter 1 CONSTRUCTIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES AND PRACTICES
1.1 INTRODUCTION 7-1
1.2 SCOPE 7-1
1.3 TERMINOLOGY 7-1
1.4 PLANNING 7-2
1.4.1 Responsibilities 7-3
1.4.2 First Aid Attendant 7-3
1.4.3 Temporary Construction 7-3
1.4.4 Preconstruction Phase 7-3
1.4.5 Construction Phase 7-4
1.5 CONSTRUCTION CONTROL 7-5
1.5.1 General 7-5
1.5.2 Professional Services and Responsibilities 7-5
1.5.3 Construction of all Elements 7-5
1.5.4 Construction Using Bamboo 7-5
1.5.5 Low Income Housing 7-6
1.5.6 Site Preparation 7-6
1.5.7 Use of New /Alternative Construction Techniques 7-6
1.5.8 Permits 7-6
1.5.9 Tests and Inspections 7-7
1.6 CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT 7-7
1.6.1 Time Management 7-7
1.6.2 Quality Management 7-7
1.6.3 Health, Safety and Environment 7-7
1.6.4 Cost Management 7-7
1.7 PROTECTION OF PUBLIC AND WORKERS 7-8
1.7.1 General 7-8
1.7.2 Adjoining Property 7-8
1.7.3 Protective Fences and Railings 7-8
1.7.4 Canopies, Overhangs and Platforms 7-9
1.7.5 Protection of Utilities 7-9
1.7.6 Use of Road and Footpath 7-9
1.7.7 Protective Devices 7-10
1.7.8 Notices and Signs 7-10
1.7.9 Watchman and Auditory Signal 7-10
1.7.10 Safe Load 7-10
1.8 ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION 7-10
1.8.1 Protection of Existing Drainage Systems and Utilities 7-10
1.8.2 Protection of Soil, Aquifers, and Water Channels against Pollution 7-11
1.8.3 Protection of Air Quality from Obnoxious Emissions 7-11
1.8.4 Protection from Sound Pollution 7-11
PERSONAL COLLECTION OF
ENGR. PRANOY BARUA
BANGLADESH STEEL RE-ROLLING MILLS LTD
pranoy.barua@gmail.com
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7-ii Vol. 2
1.8.5 Site Reinstatement 7-12
Chapter 2 STORAGE, STACKING AND HANDLING PRACTICES
2.1 GENERAL PRACTICES 7-13
2.1.1 General Requirements and Restrictions on Storage and Handling: 7-13
2.1.2 Manual Handling 7-13
2.1.3 Protection against Fire 7-13
2.1.4 Housekeeping 7-14
2.2 STORAGE REQUIREMENT BY CLASSIFICATION OF MATERIALS 7-14
2.2.1 Climatically Sensitive Materials 7-14
2.2.2 Durable Materials 7-16
2.2.3 Materials Vulnerable to Rough Handling 7-18
2.2.4 Inflammable and/or Fire-Sensitive Materials 7-21
2.2.5 Hazardous Materials 7-22
2.3 MISCELLANEOUS 7-25
2.4 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS 7-25
2.5 LOADING AND UNLOADING OF MATERIALS 7-26
Chapter 3 SAFETY DURING CONSTRUCTION
3.1 GENERAL 7-27
3.1.1 Scope 7-27
3.1.2 Safety Management 7-27
3.2 TERMINOLOGY 7-27
3.2.1 Safety of Workmen 7-28
3.2.2 Site Precautions 7-28
3.2.3 Site Amenities 7-28
3.3 EXCAVATION AND FOUNDATION WORK 7-28
3.3.1 General 7-28
3.3.2 Excavating Machinery and Tools 7-29
3.3.3 Excavated Materials and Surcharges 7-29
3.3.4 Ground Water 7-29
3.3.5 Ground Condition 7-29
3.3.6 Overhang, Slopes and Cavities 7-30
3.3.7 Blasting and Vibration 7-30
3.3.8 Health Hazards during Excavation 7-30
3.3.9 Safety of Materials 7-30
3.3.10 Piling and Deep Foundation 7-31
3.3.11 Working in Compressed Air 7-31
3.3.12 Adjoining Properties and Service Lines 7-32
3.4 PILE RIG 7-32
3.4.1 Erection of Pile Rig 7-32
3.4.2 Operation of Pile Rig 7-32
3.4.3 Piles 7-33
3.4.4 Inspection and Tests 7-33
3.5 CONSTRUCTION OF WALLS 7-33
3.5.1 General 7-33
3.5.2 Scaffold 7-33
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3.5.3 Ladders 7-34
3.5.4 Opening in Walls 7-34
3.5.5 Projection from Walls 7-34
3.5.6 Common Hazards During Walling 7-35
3.6 CONSTRUCTION OF FLOORS 7-35
3.6.1 General 7-35
3.6.2 Use of Sheets 7-35
3.6.3 Platforms 7-36
3.6.4 Flat Roof 7-36
3.6.5 Openings and Holes 7-36
3.6.6 Skeleton Construction 7-36
3.7 CONCRETE WORK 7-36
3.7.1 General 7-36
3.7.2 Prestressed Concrete 7-36
3.7.3 Concrete Mixers 7-37
3.7.4 Concrete Truck and Buckets 7-37
3.8 FORMWORK AND SCAFFOLD 7-37
3.8.1 Scaffold and Centering Materials 7-37
3.8.2 Formwork for Concrete 7-38
3.8.3 Load Capacity 7-38
3.8.4 Bamboos 7-38
3.8.5 Timber Posts 7-39
3.8.6 Steel Centering 7-39
3.9 ERECTION OPERATIONS 7-39
3.9.1 Erection and Hoisting 7-39
3.9.2 Small Articles 7-40
3.9.3 Hoist Protection 7-40
3.9.4 Lifting Gear 7-40
3.9.5 Cranes 7-41
3.9.6 Slings 7-41
3.9.7 Inspection 7-41
3.10 ELECTRIFICATION, EQUIPMENT AND OPERATIONS 7-42
3.10.1 Wiring System 7-42
3.10.2 Guarding of Cables 7-42
3.10.3 Lifts 7-42
3.10.4 Construction Machinery 7-42
3.10.5 Heating of Bitumen and Tar 7-42
3.10.6 Flame Cutting and Welding 7-43
3.10.7 Riveting Operation 7-44
3.11 CONSTRUCTION HAZARDS 7-44
3.11.1 General 7-44
3.11.2 Fire Hazards 7-44
3.11.3 Health Hazards 7-46
3.11.4 Skin Hazard 7-46
3.11.5 Noise Hazard 7-46
3.12 ADDITIONAL SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR ERECTION OF CONCRETE FRAMED 7-47
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STRUCTURES (HIGH RISE BUILDINGS)
3.12.1 Handling of Plant 7-47
3.12.2 Formwork 7-47
3.12.3 Ramps and Gangways 7-48
3.12.4 Materials Hoists 7-48
3.12.5 Prestressed Concrete 7-49
3.12.6 Erection of Prefabricated Members 7-50
3.12.7 Heated Concrete 7-50
3.12.8 Structural Connections 7-50
3.13 MISCELLANEOUS 7-50
3.13.1 Stair , Ramp and Gangway 7-50
3.13.2 Fragile Fixture 7-51
3.13.3 Hand Tools 7-51
3.13.4 Steel Structure 7-51
3.13.5 Finish Works 7-52
Chapter 4 DEMOLITION WORK
4.1 PRELIMINARY PROCEDURE 7-53
4.1.1 General 7-53
4.1.2 Planning 7-53
4.1.3 Protection of Adjoining Property 7-53
4.1.4 Precautions prior to Demolition 7-53
4.1.5 Protection of Public 7-54
4.1.6 Sidewalk Shed and Canopies 7-54
4.2 PRECAUTIONS DURING DEMOLOTION 7-54
4.2.1 General 7-54
4.2.2 Sequence of Demolition Operation 7-54
4.2.3 Wall 7-55
4.2.4 Floor 7-56
4.2.5 Special Elements 7-56
4.2.6 Mechanical Demolition 7-58
4.2.7 Miscellaneous 7-58
4.3 BLASTING OPERATION AND USE OF EXPLOSIVES 7-58
4.3.1 General 7-58
4.3.2 Code of Signal 7-58
4.3.3 Supervision and Responsibility 7-58
4.3.4 Protection of site Personnel and Installations 7-59
4.3.5 Safety of Third Parties 7-59
4.3.6 Use of Explosives 7-59
4.3.7 Blasting Accessories 7-60
4.4 LOWERING, REMOVAL AND DISPOSAL OF MATERIALS 7-60
4.4.1 General 7-60
4.4.2 Use of Chutes 7-60
4.4.3 Removal of Debris 7-61
4.4.4 Disposal of Materials 7-61
4.4.5 Regularization of Plots 7-61
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Chapter 5 MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT, REPAIRS, RETROFITTING AND
STRENGTHENING OF BUILDINGS
5.1 MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT 7-63
5.2 TERMINOLOGY 7-63
5.3 BUILDING MAINTENANCE 7-63
5.3.1 General 7-63
5.3.2 Factors Affecting Maintenance 7-64
5.3.3 Maintenance Policy 7-64
5.3.4 Maintenance Work Programmes 7-65
5.3.5 Maintenance Guides 7-65
5.3.6 Planning of Maintenance Work 7-65
5.3.7 Feed Back 7-65
5.3.8 Means of Effecting Maintenance 7-66
5.4 ACCESS 7-66
5.4.1 General 7-66
5.4.2 Access Facilities 7-66
5.4.3 Access to Confined Spaces 7-66
5.5 RECORDS 7-67
5.5.1 General 7-67
5.5.2 Use of Building Records
7-67
5.5.3 Mechanical Records 7-68
5.5.4 Electrical Records 7-68
5.6 INSPECTIONS 7-69
5.6.1 General 7-69
5.6.2 Frequency of Inspection 7-69
5.6.3 Inspection of Engineering Services 7-69
5.7 MAINTENANCE OF ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES
7-70
5.7.1 Planning of Maintenance Work
7-70
5.8 OPERATING AND MAINTENANCE MANUALS
7-71
5.9 PREVENTION OF CRACKS
7-71
5.10 REPAIRS AND SEISMIC STRENGTHENING OF BUILDINGS
7-71
5.10.1 Non-structural/Architectural Repairs
7-71
5.10.2 Structural Repairs
7-72
5.10.3 Seismic Strengthening
7-72
5.10.4 Seismic Retrofitting
7-73
5.10.5 Strengthening or Retrofitting Versus Reconstruction
7-73
5.11 MAINTENANCE MANUAL
7-73

Part 7
Construction Practices and Safety 7-1
Chapter 1
CONSTRUCTIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES AND
PRACTICES
1.1 INTRODUCTION
This part of the Code provides the minimum requirements for safe constructional operations, constructional
planning, management and practices in buildings; as well as for storage, stacking and handling of materials and
resources used in buildings. It describes precautionary measures to be adopted to ensure the safety of public,
environment & infrastructure, property, workmen, materials, services, plant and equipment. It also covers
guidelines relating to maintenance management, repairs, retrofitting and strengthening of buildings.
1.2 SCOPE
The regulations stated in this part cover the constructional responsibilities and practices in building sites; safe
storing, stacking and handling of materials, equipments and other resources; and safety of personnel during
construction operations. The provisions of this part shall apply to all construction operations viz. erection,
alteration, repair, removal or demolition of buildings and structures.
Nothing herein contained shall be construed to nullify any rules, regulations, safety standards or those
contained in the various act of the Government of Bangladesh, statutes governing the protection of the public
or workers from any hazard involved in manufacturing, mining and other processes and operations which
generate toxic gases, dust or other elements dangerous to the respiratory system, eye sight or health.
1.3 TERMINOLOGY
This section provides an alphabetical list of the terms used in and applicable to this part of the Code. In case of
any conflict or contradiction between a definition given in this section and that in any other part, without
prejudice to provisions arising from laws, statutes and recourses provided under such laws, statutes and
covenants of GOB and trade bodies. The meaning provided in this part shall govern for interpretation of the
provisions of this part. References shall be made to other part of this Code for terms not defined in this section.
AUTHORITY: The Authority which has been created by a statute and which, for the purpose of administering this
Code or part thereof, may authorize a committee or an official to act on its behalf. (This definition of Authority
shall apply to all appearances of the term in this Code written with a capital A).
EMPLOYER: The Employer is the party named who employs the Consultant and/or Contractor to carry out the
Works
CONSULTANT: The Consultant is the organisation/person whose proposal to perform the Services like design,
supervision or other technical and/or management services has been accepted by the Owner/Client and has a
Contract Agreement to execute the service.
PROFESSIONALS: Professionals means technical personnel and support staff provided by the Consultant or by
any Sub-Consultant and assigned for supervising the execution and completion of the Works and administering
the Contract
CONTRACTORS: Contractor means the natural person, private or government enterprise, or a combination of
the above, whose Tender to carry out the Works has been accepted by the Employer and is named as such in
the Contract Agreement, and includes the legal successors or permitted assigns of the Contractor.
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WORKMEN/ LABOURERS: Workmen means any natural person, who has a Contract with the Contractor to carry
out a part of the work in the Contract, which includes work on the Site.
AUTHORIZED OFFICER: An officer appointed by the Government by notification in the Official Gazette to
exercise in any area the functions of an Authorized Officer.
BLAST AREA: The area in which danger may arise during or prior to demolition including the potential area
affected by preparation, handling and use of explosives.
BLASTING: The operation of disintegrating rock, structure etc. by firing an explosive charge.
CARTRIDGE: A wrapped or otherwise protected cylinder of defined size of a homogeneous explosive material.
CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT: All equipment, machineries, tools and temporary retaining structures and working
platforms, such as derricks, concrete pump, staging, scaffolds, runways, ladders and all material handling
equipment including safety devices.
DETONATOR: An instantaneous or delay initiator for explosive materials and containing a charge of high
explosive fired by means of a flame, spark or electric current.
EXPLOSIVE: Any substance, whether or not contained in a device, used or manufactured with a view to
producing an effect by explosion.
FLOOR HOLE : An opening in any floor, platform, pavement, or yard, measuring less than 300 mm but more than
25 mm in its least dimension, through which materials but not persons may fall; e.g. a belt hole, pipe opening or
slot opening.
FLOOR OPENING : An opening in any floor, platform, pavement or yard bigger than a floor hole measuring 300
mm or more in its least dimension, through which a person may fall; e.g. hatchway, stair or ladder opening,
hopper mouth pit or large manhole.
GUARD RAILING: A barrier erected along exposed edges of an open side, floor opening, wall opening, ramp,
platform or catwalk or balcony, etc. to prevent the fall of persons.
HOISTS: A platform, bucket or similar enclosure made of steel frames, struts and timber planks used for the
lifting or lowering of construction material and workmen, the hoists being operated from a point outside the
conveyance.
MAGAZINE: Any building or structure used for the storage of explosives with approval of the Authority.
PILE RIG: The complete pile driving equipment comprising piling frame, leader, hammer, extractor, winch and
power unit. Complete pile driving rig may be mounted on rafts or pontoon or rails. Pile rig may also be a mobile
unit mounted on trailers or trucks, or a special full revolving rig for raking piles.
PLATFORM: A working space for persons, elevated above the surrounding floor or ground, e.g. balcony or
platform for the operation of machinery and equipment.
PRIMER: A cartridge cord or container of explosive into which a detonator or detonating cord is inserted or
attached and is designed to initiate a larger charge.
SALVAGE: An act of saving and utilization of reusable scrap materials conforming to the requirements of this
Code.
SCAFFOLD: A temporary erection of timber or metal work used to support or to allow the hoisting and lowering
of workmen, tools and materials during construction, alteration or demolition of a building
SHOTFIRER: The person in immediate control of the use of explosives.
TOE BOARD: A vertical barrier erected along exposed edge of a floor opening, wall opening, platform, catwalk or
ramp at floor level to prevent fall of materials or persons.
WALL HOLE: An opening in any wall or partition having a height of more than 25 mm to less than750 mm and
having no restriction in width.
WALL OPENING: An opening in any wall or partition having a height of at least 750 mm and a width of at least
450 mm.
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Bangladesh National Building Code 2012 7-3
1.4 PLANNING
Construction planning aspects aim to identify and develop various stages of project execution on site which shall
be consistent with the management considerations. Planning aspects evolve out of the objectives of project and
requirements of the final completed constructed facility. These objectives can relate to the final constraints,
cost considerations, quality standards, safety standards as well as both environmental and health
considerations. Construction practices shall, then have to satisfy these objectives during construction phase of
the project. Having established objectives of the construction phase, planning determines processes, resources
(including materials, equipments, human and environmental) and monitoring system to ensure that the
practices are appropriately aligned. Adequate knowledge about pre-construction phase evolution of project,
especially related to customers requirements, is an essential prerequisite for construction planning.
1.4.1 Responsibilities
In a construction or demolition work, the terms of contract between the owner and the contractor, and
between a consultant and the owner, shall be clearly defined and put in writing. These, however, will not
absolve the owner from any of his responsibilities under the various provisions of this Code, and other
applicable regulations and bye-laws.
The terms of contract between the owner and the contractor will determine the responsibilities and liabilities of
either party in the concerned matters, within the provisions of the relevant acts and codes (e.g. the Employer's
Liability Act 1938, the Factories Act 1965, the Fatal Accident Act 1955 and Workmen's Compensation Act 1923).
The owner, or the professional appointed by him to supervise the work, shall ensure the quality of materials
used, soundness of the work and observance of all precautionary measures.
1.4.2 First Aid Attendant
Depending on the scope and nature of the work, at least one person trained in first aid for every 100 workers
shall be available at work site to render and direct first aid to casualties. The first aid attendant shall have a
refresher course every five years and certificates renewed.
A telephone shall be made available to first aid assistant with emergency telephone numbers prominently
displayed. Record/reports of all accidents and actions taken thereon shall be kept by the first aid attendant and
forwarded to appropriate authorities when asked.
1.4.3 Temporary Construction
Plan, layout, design and specification of all temporary constructions, e.g. workers' shed, toilet, site store, site
office, runway, trestle, foot bridge, guard shed etc., which are likely to interfere with right-of-way or utility
services provided by various agencies, shall be submitted to the respective authorities for approval before
commencement of any construction operation.
Temporary structures shall be constructed from inflammable materials, but they shall be so located as not to
cause any fire hazard to adjoining structures or works and neighboring properties.
1.4.4 Preconstruction Phase
Besides the design aspects, preconstruction phase should also address all the issues related to the
implementation of the design at the site through suitable construction strategy. During the design stage, the site
conditions should be fully understood with anticipated difficulties and avoid the risk of subsequent delays and
changes after the construction has started.
The selection of construction methods, building systems and materials, components, manpower and
equipments and techniques are best done in the preconstruction phase. Such selection is influenced by the local
conditions like terrain, climate, vulnerability for disasters, etc.
Construction in busy localities of cities needs special considerations and meticulous planning due to restricted
space, adjoining structures, underground utilities, traffic restrictions, noise and other environmental pollution
and other specific site constraints,
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The constructability aspects of the proposed construction methods needs to be carefully evaluated at the
planning stage to ensure ease of construction besides optimizing the construction schedule and achieving
quality, reliability and maintainability of the constructed facilities.
Constructional practices in hilly regions needs to take into considerations the problem of landslides, slope
stability, drainage, etc, besides ensuring no adverse impact on the fragile environmental conditions.
Durability of constructions in corrosive atmospheric conditions like coastal regions and aggressive ground
situations with high chlorides and sulphates should also be taken care of with appropriate constructional
practices.
Constructional practices in disaster prone areas need specific planning. The type of construction, use of
materials, construction techniques require special considerations in such areas.
Adverse weather conditions have strong bearing on construction phase. Situations wherein constructions are to
be carried out in adverse weather conditions, such as heavy and continuous rain fall, extreme hot or cold
weather, dust storms, etc, the practices have to address the relevant aspects. Accordingly, suitable design and
field operations should be adapted or redefined in anticipation of these aspects. Some of these aspects are:
a) Site layout which enables accessibility in adverse weather.
b) Adequate protected storage for weather sensitive materials/equipments.
c) Protections to personnel from extreme hot/control conditions.
d) Scheduling to allow maximization of outdoor activities during fair weather conditions.
e) Special design and construction provisions for activities in extreme temperature conditions like hot
or cold weather concreting, staple of false work in extreme wind conditions (gusts).
f) Adequate lighting for shorter days in winter/night work.
g) Design for early enclosure.
h) Adjacent historically important structure shall be given highest care against any damage during
construction process.
All sanitary facilities shall be kept in a hygienic condition. Temporary toilets shall be enclosed, screened and
weather proofed and shall be installed and maintained in accordance with the relevant part of the Code.
1.4.5 Construction Phase
1.4.5.1 Organizational structure
The site management should be carried out through suitable site organization structure with roles and
responsibilities assigned to the construction personnel for various construction related functions. Safety
management is one of the important components of site management.
1.4.5.2 Site layout
The layout of the construction site shall be carefully planned keeping in view the various requirements to
construction activities and the specific constraints in terms of its size, shape, topography, traffic and other
restrictions, in public interest. The site layout shall take into considerations the following factors:
a) Easy access and exit, with proper parking of vehicle and equipments during construction.
b) Properly located material stores for easy handling and storage
c) Adequate stack areas for bulk construction materials.
d) Optimum location of plants and equipments (batching plants, etc).
e) Layout of temporary services (water, power, power suppression unit, hoists, cranes, elevators, etc).
f) Adequate yard lighting and lighting for night shifts.
g) Temporary buildings; site office and shelter for workforce with use of non-combustible materials as
far as possible including emergency medical aids
h) Roads for vehicular movement with effective drainage plan.
i) Construction safety with emergency access and evacuations and security measures.
j) Fabrication yards for reinforcement assembly, concrete casting and shattering materials.
k) Fencing, barricades and signage.
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Bangladesh National Building Code 2012 7-5
1.4.5.3 Access for firefighting equipment vehicles
Access for firefighting equipment shall be provided to the construction site at the start of construction and
maintained until all construction work is completed.
Free access from the street to fire hydrants/static water tanks, where available, shall be provided and
maintained at all times.
No materials for construction shall be placed within 3m of hydrants/static water tanks.
During building operations, free access to permanent, temporary or portable first-aid firefighting equipment
shall be maintained at all times.
In all buildings over two stories high, at least one stairway shall be provided in usable condition at all times. This
stairway shall be extended upward as each floor is completed. There shall be a handrail on the staircase.
1.4.5.4 Construction strategy and construction sequence
Construction strategy and construction methods are to be evolved at the planning and design stage specific to
the conditions and constraints of the project site and implemented by the site management personnel to ensure
ease of construction and smooth flow of construction activities.
Sites of high water table conditions with aggressive chemical contents of subsoil needs special design
considerations. Buildings with basement in sites of high water table should be planned with dewatering scheme
with appropriate construction sequence, Duration of dewatering shall continue till sufficient dead loads are
achieved to stabilize the buoyancy loads with adequate factor of safety. The construction sequence should be
planned taking into consideration the following aspects:
a) Availability of resources (men, material and equipment);
b) Construction methods employed including prefabrication;
c) Planned construction time;
d) Design requirements and load transfer mechanism;
e) Stability of ground like in hilly terrain;
f) Ensuring slope stability with retaining structure before the main construction;
g) Installation and movement of heavy equipments like cranes and piling equipments;
h) Effect of weather; and
i) Minimum time to be spent below ground level working.
j) Protection against ground water seepage.
1.5 CONSTRUCTION CONTROL
1.5.1 General
All construction including extension, alteration and demolition shall require a permit from the Authority.
Permits shall also be obtained from relevant organizations for service connections and other facilities. The
construction work shall conform to the plan approved by the Authority.
The owner shall make arrangements for obtaining the required approvals.
All new work or alteration shall be planned, designed, supervised and executed by competent professionals of
relevant discipline.
1.5.2 Professional Services and Responsibilities
The responsibility of professionals with regard to planning designing and supervision of building construction
work, etc and that of the owner shall be in accordance with the relevant part of the Code and professional
practice. Employment of trained workers shall be encouraged for building construction activity.
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1.5.3 Construction of all Elements
Construction of all elements of a building shall be in accordance with good practice. It shall also be ensured that
the elements of structure satisfy the appropriate fire resistance requirements as specified in Part 4 Fire
Protection, and quality of building materials/components used shall be in accordance with Part 5 Building
Materials.
1.5.4 Construction Using Bamboo
Bamboo being a versatile resource characterized by high strength, low mass and ease of working with simple
tools, it is desirable to increasingly make appropriate use of this material. Design of structures using bamboo
shall be done in accordance with Part 6 Structural Design, Section 4 Bamboo, Chapter 11 Timber.
For construction using bamboo, some of the important constructional provisions given below shall be followed.
Bamboo can be cut and split easily with very simple hand tools. Immature bamboos are soft, pliable and can be
molded to desired shape. It takes polish and paint well.
While it is possible to work with bamboo simply using a machete, a few basic tools, such as, machete, hack saw,
axe, hatchet, sharpening tools, adze, chisel (20 mm), chill, wood rasps, steel rod, and pliers, will greatly increase
the effectiveness of the construction process.
For providing safety to the structure against fire, bamboo may be given fire retardant treatment using following
chemicals; a few drops of concentrated HCL shall be added to the solution to dissolve the precipitated salts:
Ammonium phosphate 3 parts
Boric acid 3 parts
Copper sulphate 1 part
Zinc chloride 5 parts
Sodium dichromate 3 parts
Water 100 parts
Bamboo indirect contact with ground, bamboo on rock or preformed concrete footing, bamboo incorporated
into concrete or bamboo piles may form the foundation structure.
The floor of bamboo may be at ground level with covering of bamboo matting, etc. In elevated floors, bamboo
members become an integral part of structural framework of building. The floor will comprise structural
bamboo elements and bamboo decking.
The jointing techniques in construction using bamboo shall be in accordance with Part 6 Structural Design,
Section 4 Bamboo, Chapter 11 Timber.
1.5.5 Low Income Housing
For low income housing, appropriate planning and selection of building materials and techniques of
construction have to be judiciously done and applied in practice. Requirements of low income housing specified
in Part 3 General Building Requirements, shall be followed. However, all requirements regarding structural
safety, health safety and fire safety shall be in accordance with this Code.
1.5.6 Site Preparation
While preparing the site for construction, bush and other wood, debris, etc, shall be removed and promptly
disposed of so as to minimize the attendant hazards. Temporary buildings for construction offices and storage
shall be so located as to cause the minimum fire hazards and shall be constructed from noncombustible
materials as far as possible.
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Bangladesh National Building Code 2012 7-7
1.5.7 Use of New /Alternative Construction Techniques
The provisions of this part are not intended to prevent use of any construction techniques including any
alternative materials, nonspecifically prescribed by the Code, provided any such alternative has been approved.
The Authority may approve any such alternative such as ferrocement construction, row-lock (rat trap) bond in
masonry, stretcher bond in filler slab and filler slab provided; that the proposed alternative is satisfactory and
conforms to the provisions of relevant parts regarding material, design and construction of this Code. The
material or method or work offered as alternative is, for the purpose intended, at least equivalent to that
prescribed in the Code in quality, strength, compatibility, effectiveness, fire and water resistance, durability and
safety.
1.5.8 Permits
The owner of a building shall obtain permission from the Authority for the work to be undertaken in accordance
with the provisions of the relevant part of this Code.
Special permits shall be obtained from relevant authorities before commencement of a particular construction
work for the following items and for any other item as decided by the Building Official:
a) storing materials on roads and sidewalks;
b) using water, electricity, gas, sewerage or other public utilities;
c) digging roads or interfering with the drainage system;
d) storing and handling of explosives; and
e) affecting any structure having historical association and antiquity.
1.5.9 Tests and Inspections
The Authority shall notify both the owner and the contractor of any unsafe, unlawful or unethical situation
discovered during inspection and direct them to take necessary remedial measures to remove the hazard or
rectify the violation.
Where the strength or adequacy of any scaffold or other device or construction equipment is in doubt, or where
any complaint is lodged, the Authority shall inspect such equipment and shall prohibit its use until tested safe or
until all danger is removed.
1.6 CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT
Employer and Management shall be responsible for optimizing Construction Planning, resource utilization, and
scope, time, quality, health, safety and environment and cost for implementation, monitoring and control for
their effectiveness. This may be preferably in line with proven National/International documentation system
covering all aspects of monitoring and controls. Various parameters to be managed during construction are as
below.
1.6.1 Time Management
The project shall be completed in the defined time schedule to get its fruitful benefits. The system planned shall
cover total schedule of completion with one or more construction agencies, number of vendors, identification of
total resources, timely availability of all inputs, including critical ones, its processing during construction of a
project. The system shall include a periodic review of a project with all parameters as well as catch up plans in
case of delay identified for controls and reporting from time to time. The system planned shall preferably be
computer friendly and simple to follow for implementation, monitoring and controls and for reporting from
time-to-time.
1.6.2 Quality Management
Quality of a project shall be planned for all activities from inception to completion. It is desirable that the system
planned gives adequate assurance and controls that it shall meet project quality objectives. The system shall
cover review of existing requirements, subcontracting, materials, processes and controls during process,
auditing, training of personnel, final inspection and acceptance. All activities shall be planned and controlled.
Quality systems approach may be referred for planning, suitable to a particular project for implementation.
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1.6.3 Health, Safety and Environment
Each project affects the safety and health of the workmen and surroundings during construction. Various
activities having impact on health, safety and environment need to be identified with their likely effect and
proposed preventive corrective actions, together with the concerned statutory obligations. The system planned
for health, safety and environment shall address and cover the above including use of personnel protective
equipments by all concerned and reporting on their monitoring and controls during project implementation.
1.6.4 Cost Management
To keep the project under viable proposition, it is desired that cost of the project during construction are
monitored and controlled through a documentation system. The various parameters which may affect the basic
cost, escalations, cost due to variation in scope and quantities, etc need to be monitored at a defined frequency.
The system planned shall be in line with a proven cost control method or similar in nature and cost incurred vis-
a-vis cost sanctioned and cost anticipated to be reported and controlled from time to time.
1.7 PROTECTION OF PUBLIC AND WORKERS
1.7.1 General
Erection, alteration, renovation, remodeling, repairing, removal or demolition of a building or structure shall be
conducted in a safe manner. Suitable protection for the general public and workers employed thereon shall be
provided according to the various provisions of this Code.
All existing and adjoining public and private property shall be protected from any damage due to construction
operations. Whenever requested, site plans, construction details, and specification shall be submitted for review
by the concerned agency.
All equipment and safeguard required for the construction work such as temporary stair, ladder, ramp, scaffold,
hoist, runway, barricade, chute, lift etc. shall be substantially constructed and erected so as not to create any
unsafe situation for the workmen using them or the workmen and general public passing under, on or near
them.
Public walkway shall not be occupied to carry out work under a building permit unless the pedestrians are
protected as specified in this section. Any material or structure temporarily occupying public property, including
fences and walkways, shall be adequately lighted at night.
1.7.2 Adjoining Property
The owner of the building shall preserve all adjoining structures and walls from damage. He shall support the
adjoining building or structure by proper foundations to comply with the Code.
Necessary permissions to preserve and protect the adjoining plot, building or structure shall be obtained by the
owner of the building to be constructed. Adjoining property shall be completely protected from any damage
due to the building operation when the owner of the adjoining property permits free access to the adjoining site
and building.
If required, the owner of the adjoining plot, building or structure shall be granted necessary permission to enter
the construction site to make his own property safe.
No part of any structure, except signs, shall project beyond the property line of the site. Sidewalk sheds,
underpinning and other temporary protective guards and devices may project beyond the property lines if
approved by the Authority. Where necessary, the permission of the adjoining property owner shall also be
obtained.
Where a construction or demolition is undertaken at a level higher than the adjacent structure, the roof, roof
outlets, skylights and other roof structures of adjoining buildings shall be protected against damage. This shall
be ensured by the owner of the construction site at his own expense.
Where the grade of the adjoining plot is lower than the site level, a retaining wall shall be erected, if necessary,
at the owner's expense and on his site. Design and construction of retaining wall shall conform to the structural
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requirements for such walls, and may have a railing or fence at the top to provide a total height of not less than
1 m above the finished grade of the higher plot.
If the owner, lessee or tenant of the adjoining building refuses permission to have the roofs and skylights of the
adjoining building protected, the responsibility and expense for the said protection shall transfer to the person
refusing such permission.
During any demolition or excavation work, the structure or the wall shall be maintained structurally safe by
adequate temporary props and lateral supports.
1.7.3 Protective Fences and Railings
Pedestrian traffic on the adjacent road or footpath, or the walkway constructed shall be protected by a railing or
fence. Protective railing or fence shall also be placed adjacent to excavations. Railings shall be at least 1m in
height and when adjacent to excavations, shall be provided with a mid-rail.
All construction work within 1.5 m from the road shall be enclosed with a fence not less than 2.4 m high from
the grade. If the work is more than 1.5 m away from the road, a fence or other barriers shall be erected at least
on the side of the site nearest to the footpath/road. The fence shall extend over the entire length of the side.
Openings in fences may have doors which normally shall be kept closed.
All fences shall be of adequate strength to resist wind pressure and other load as specified in relevant part of
the Code. All fences shall be well braced. The side of any fence/handrail adjacent to a road or sidewalk shall be
kept smooth. Fences, barriers, or temporary structures of any kind located on public roads shall not obstruct
vision at the intersection of streets.
1.7.4 Canopies, Overhangs and Platforms
Protective canopy shall have a clear height of 2.4 m over the walkway. Walkways under the canopy shall be not
less than 1.2 m wide in the clear. However, the Building Regulatory Authority may instruct differently regarding
the clear width in congested areas.
Every canopy shall have a fence built along its entire length on the construction side. If materials are stored or
work is done on the roof of the canopy, edges of the canopy roof shall have a tight curb board not less than 200
mm high and a railing not less than 1 m high. The entire structure shall be designed to carry the loads to be
imposed.
The posts or other supporting members of any temporary structure on the road side shall be designed for the
load due to vibration generated by the street traffic. The framework supporting the covering shall be well
braced and designed to support at least 7 kpa. However the top deck shall be designed to carry load not less
than 10 kpa.
The roof covering shall be of a width sufficient to cover the entire walkway or side walk and shall be made
watertight. Covered walkways shall be provided with adequate lights at all times.
Cantilevered platforms or other substitute protection in lieu of sidewalk sheds shall not be used unless
approved by the authority and deemed adequate to insure public safety.
Materials shall not be stored on overhangs unless these are designed for the load. Such storage shall in no case
exceed a day's supply. All materials shall be piled in an orderly manner and height to permit removal without
endangering the stability of the pile and canopy.
1.7.5 Protection of Utilities
Protective frame and boarding shall be built around and over every street lamp, utility box, fire and police alarm
box, fire hydrant, catch basin and manhole that may be damaged by any construction work. The protection shall
be maintained while such work is being done; and shall not obstruct the normal functioning of the device.
Building material, fence, shed etc. shall not obstruct free access to any fire hydrant, lamppost, manhole, fire
alarm box, or catch basin, or interfere with the drainage of the site. Protective covers shall be provided to such
utility fixtures during the progress of the work without obscuring their identity.
Precaution shall be taken during construction to prevent concrete, mortar washing or any other material from
entering and blocking a sewer.
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1.7.6 Use of Road and Footpath
Road and footpath spaces may be used only temporarily during construction subject to the following conditions:
a) permissions shall be obtained from relevant authorities for all such uses;
b) the allocated space or any portion thereof shall be more than 1.5 m away from a railway track;
c) a walkway shall be constructed in the outer portion of the road space permitted to be occupied in
conformity with Sec 1.4.2 and 1.4.3;
d) an 1 m clear passage shall be maintained along the building site;
e) person(s) who has been issued a permit to use road and footpath spaces shall furnish a bond with
the relevant authority of such type and amount as may be deemed advisable by the authority as
protection from all liabilities;
f) the permittee shall repair any damages done to the adjacent road due to its use for construction
work at his own expense; the bond money shall stand forfeited if the permittee fails to comply with
this requirement; and
g) it shall be used in a manner that will not deface it or create a nuisance. The owner, upon the
completion of the building, shall immediately remove all temporary walkways, debris and all other
obstruction and leave such public property in as good a condition as it was before such work
commenced.
1.7.7 Protective Devices
No structure, fire protection or sanitary safeguard or device shall be removed or made inoperative unless
instructed by the Authority. Pedestrian protection required by all relevant regulations shall be maintained in
place and kept in good order as long as pedestrians may be endangered. Every protection, fence, canopy and
other protective devices shall be removed within 7 days after such protection is no longer required.
1.7.8 Notices and Signs
Every walkway adjacent to a construction, demolition or excavation site shall be kept well-lighted at night. The
outer edge of the occupied space of the street or footpath shall have red lights placed thereon which shall flash
continuously day and night.
Boards with caution signs, along with safety regulations and emergency instructions painted in bright colour,
preferably red, shall be erected near the entry and in prominent places of the site. It shall describe appropriate
measures for the elimination or control of the danger and the conduct and course of action to be taken. Red
caution marks shall also be placed on the building, equipment and utility connections.
1.7.9 Watchman and Auditory Signal
A watchman shall be employed to warn the general public when intermittent hazardous operations are
conducted. Audible signal shall be used in case of extreme danger. It shall be such that any person in the
reception area can recognize and react to the signal as intended. An auditory emergency evacuation signal shall
take precedence concerning recognition over all auditory signals.
1.7.10 Safe Load
No structure, temporary support, scaffolding, sidewalk, footpath and drain covers, shed, other devices and
construction equipment shall be loaded in excess of its safe working capacity.
Whenever the structural quality or strength of scaffolding plank or other construction equipment is in doubt,
these shall be replaced or be subject to a strength test to two and half times the superimposed live load; the
member may be used if it sustains the test load without failure.
Requirements of Sec 3.8 shall be observed regarding design loads in scaffolds.
1.8 ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
The following provisions shall be met during construction for environmental protection.
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The construction and operation of the work/project shall comply with relevant national environmental
legislation including environmental quality standards. The basic responsibility of the contractor/owner towards
the environment shall be:
a) requires the Contractor/Owner to take all reasonable steps to protect the environment and avoid
damage and nuisance arising because of his/her operations.
b) the Contractor/Owner to comply with all status and regulations concerning the execution of works
c) the Contractor/Owner shall be responsible for familiarizing himself with all legislation relating to
environmental protection that is relevant to his activities. Reference to national environmental
quality guidelines shall be made.
d) the Contractor/Owner shall be responsible for the costs of cleaning up any environmental pollution
resulting from his/her activities during construction.
1.8.1 Protection of Existing Drainage Systems and Utilities
During construction work all excavation and/or filling work shall be taken as to ensure safety to the existing
underground utility lines and drainage system. The Contractor/Owner shall obtain written permission from the
respective authorities before excavation or filling in such areas.
1.8.2 Protection of Soil, Aquifers, and Water Channels against Pollution
Construction activities are likely to generate waste in various forms. This shall be dealt with adequately to avoid
pollution. The following measures shall be taken during construction of work:
a) The Contractor/Owner shall, all times, maintain all sites under his control in a clean and tidy
condition and shall provide appropriate and adequate facilities for the temporary storage of all
wastes before disposal.
b) The Contractor/Owner shall be responsible for the safe transportation and
disposal of all wastes generated because of his/her activities in such a manner as to not cause
environmental pollution or hazards to health in any form. In the event of any third party being
employed to dispose of wastes, the Contractor/Owner shall be considered to have discharged
his/her responsibilities from the time the wastes leave sites under his/her control, providing that
he/she has exercised due diligence in ascertaining that the proposed transport and disposal
arrangements are such as to not cause pollution or health hazards.
c) The Contractor/Owner shall not allow waste oils or other petroleum derived wastes to be used as
dust suppressants and that all reasonable precautions shall be taken to prevent accidental spillage
of petroleum products, their contact with soil or discharge into water courses.
d) The Contractor/Owner shall be responsible for the provision of adequate sanitary facilities for the
construction workforce (including those employed under subcontracts) at all construction and
camp sites. The Contractor/Owner shall not knowingly allow the discharge of any untreated
sanitary wastes to ground water or surface water. Before mobilization of the construction
workforce, the Contractor/Owner shall provide details of sanitary arrangements. The detail shall
include maintenance and operation plans and generally be sufficient to assess whether the
proposed facilities are adequate.
e) where abstraction from a borehole by the Contractor/Owner results in adverse effects on
groundwater, which at the time of commencement of the contract was being used by local people,
the Contractor/Owner shall arrange supplies of equivalent quality and quantity of water to that
previously available.
1.8.3 Protection of Air Quality from Obnoxious Emissions
To cover the unlikely event that dust blow becomes a nuisance, to the following effect shall be taken:
The Contractor/Owner shall take all reasonable measures to minimize dust-blow arising from any sites under
his/her control by regular watering of any stockpiles, bare soil, and haul roads. Unsurpassed traffic areas and
any sources of fugitive dust, when conditions require dust suppression.
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1.8.4 Protection from Sound Pollution
The management shall be responsible for confining all construction and transportation activities in Residential
and mixed Residential Areas strictly to normal business hours, so as not to cause emission of such sound and
noise which is considered detrimental to human health. Such noisy activities shall not be carried out from 1800
hours in the evening to 0600 hours in the morning and on non-working days and holidays.
Noise nuisance shall be minimized through adequate machine maintenance and good site practices. However, a
degree of unavoidable noise nuisance from construction is expected. Control vibration from piling operations is
not possible without incurring an unreasonable financial cost.
The following noise control measures shall be taken during construction work:
a) All vehicles and plant operated by the contractor or (including subcontractors) shall be maintained
according to the original manufacturer's specifications and manuals, with particular regard to the
control of noise emissions The Consultant/Authority shall have the right to require the Contractor
to replace or rectify any vehicle or plant that he thinks emits excessive noise, within 48 hours of
notice in writing.
b) The contractor shall make every reasonable effort to reduce noise nuisance caused by construction
activities, including suing of crusher and ancillary plant in locations where the distance between
them and residential areas is such that it results in attenuation of noise at existing residential areas.
1.8.5 Site Reinstatement
The construction sites-shall be reinstated to an acceptable level to the following effect shall be included:
Upon completion of construction the contractor/owner shall remove equipment, surplus material, rubbish and
temporary works of every kind, and the site in clean condition to the satisfaction of the appropriate authority.
Part 7
Construction Practices and Safety 7-13
Chapter 2
STORAGE, STACKING AND HANDLING
PRACTICES
2.1 GENERAL PRACTICES
2.1.1 General Requirements and Restrictions on Storage and Handling
Materials required in construction operations shall be stored, and handled in a manner to prevent deterioration
and damage to the materials, ensure safety of workmen in handling operations and non-interference with
public life including safety of public, prevention of damage to public property and natural environment.
Materials shall be stored and placed so as not to endanger the public, the workers or the adjoining property.
Materials shall be stacked on well -drained, flat and unyielding surface. Material stacks shall not impose any
undue stresses on walls or other structures.
Materials shall be separated according to kind, size and length and placed in neat, orderly piles. High piles shall
be staggered back at suitable intervals in height. Piles of materials shall be arranged so as to allow a minimum
800 mm wide passageway in between for inspection and removal. All passageways shall be kept clear of dry
vegetation, greasy substance and debris.
For any site, there should be proper planning of the layout for stacking and storage of different materials,
components and equipments with proper access and proper maneuverability of the vehicles carrying the
material. While planning the layout, the requirements of various materials, components and equipments at
different stages of construction shall be considered.
Stairways, passageways and gangways shall not become obstructed by storage of building materials, tools or
accumulated rubbish.
Materials stored at site, depending upon the individual characteristics, shall be protected from atmospheric
actions, such as rain, sun, winds and moisture, to avoid deterioration.
Special and specified care should be taken for inflammable and destructive chemicals and explosive during
storage.
2.1.2 Manual Handling
When heavy materials have to be handled manually each workman shall be instructed by his foreman or
supervisor for the proper method of handling such materials. Each workman shall be provided with suitable
equipment for his personal safety as necessary. Supervisors shall also take care to assign enough men to each
such job depending on the weight and the distance involved.
2.1.3 Protection against Fire
Timber, Bamboo, coal, paints and similar combustible materials shall be kept separated from each other. A
minimum of two dry chemical powder (DCP) type fire extinguishers shall be provided at both open and covered
locations where combustible and flammable materials are stored.
Flammable liquids like petrol, thinner etc., shall be stored in conformity with relevant regulations.
Explosives like detonators, gun powder etc. shall be stored in conformity with the fire protection provisions set
forth in this Code so as to ensure desire safety during storage. Stacks shall not be piled so high as to make them
unstable under fire fighting conditions and in general they shall not be more than 4.5 m in height.
Materials which are likely to be affected by subsidence of soil like precast beams, slabs and timber of sizes shall
be stored by adopting suitable measures to ensure unyielding supports.
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Materials liable to be affected by floods, tides, etc shall be suitably stored to prevent their being washed away
or damaged due to floods, tides, etc.
2.1.4 Housekeeping
Stairways, walkways, scaffolds, gangways and access ways shall be kept free of building material, tools,
accumulated rubbish and obstructions.
Materials or equipment stored on the street, footpath and other public places with permission from the proper
Authority, and conforming to Sec 1.5.3, shall not interfere with vehicular traffic or pedestrians on the highway
or street. The piles shall be arranged to leave a safe walkway unobstructed for its full length, and adequately
lighted at night and at all other necessary times.
Material and equipment shall not be located within 7.5 m of a street intersection. These shall neither be so
placed as to obstruct normal observation of traffic signals nor to hinder the use of public transit loading
platforms.
2.2 STORAGE REQUIREMENT BY CLASSIFICATION OF MATERIALS
Stored materials shall be separately stored under following classifications, with appropriate care necessary
precautions to each Classification:
a) Climatically Sensitive Materials
b) Durable Materials
c) Materials Vulnerable to Rough Handling
d) Inflammable and/or Fire Sensitive Materials
e) Hazardous Materials
Under each classification a list of commonly used materials are listed below. Other materials used but not
mentioned here shall be treated under one or more of the above listed classifications which most closely match
the unlisted material.
2.2.1 Climatically Sensitive Materials
Such material shall be stored in properly constructed sheds which must be stored in cool dry and well ventilated
and confines, ensuring its storage without deterioration and without contact to ground and structural members,
without exposure to moisture and heat, and away from direct sun.
Materials requiring breathing, such as timber and other natural products, shall be allowed ample air flow
between successive layers of stacking.
Materials subject to deformation under stress shall be supported uniformly so as not to subject it to bending
load or excessive vertical load.
Materials subject to loss of quality through moisture shall be kept within impermeable wrapping, if not used
within a reasonable period.
2.2.1.1 Cement
Cement shall be stored at the work site in a building or a shed which is dry, leak proof and moisture proof. The
building or shed shall have minimum number of windows and close fitting doors which shall be kept closed at all
times except during loading and unloading.
Cement received in bags shall be prevented from coming into contact with any dampness or moisture. Cement
bags shall be stacked on wooden planks maintaining a minimum clearance of 200 mm from the floor. A
minimum clear space of 450 mm shall be provided between the stacks and any exterior wall.
Maximum height of the stack shall be 15 bags and the width not more than four bags or 3m. In stacks more than
8 bags high, the bags shall be arranged alternate length and crosswise. The bags shall be stacked closely as to
minimize the surface area exposed to air.
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During monsoon and for storage for more than 2 months, the stack shall be kept completely enclosed by a
waterproofing membrane such as polyethylene sheet which shall close on top of the sack. Care should be taken
to see that waterproofing membrane is not damaged any time during the use.
Heavy containers of cement shall not be stacked more than two tiers high. Cement shall be used in the order
they are received; storage shall facilitate this requirement.
Hooks shall not be used for handling cement bags unless permitted by the supervisor. Workers handling cement
shall put on protective hand and face coverings and use skin protective. They shall be instructed to the need of
cleanliness from time to time.
When entering a silo or bin for any purpose, the workman shall wear a lifeline attended by another workman
outside. The ejection system shall be shut down and locked out during such operation.
In case cement is received in silos, the silos shall be placed near the concrete batching plan. Proper access shall
be provided for the replacement of silos.
Different types of cements shall be stacked and stored separately. In similar manner cements in gunny bags,
paper bags and polythene sheets shall be stored separately.
2.2.1.2 Lime
Quicklime shall be slaked as soon as possible. If unavoidable, it may be stored in compact heaps having only the
minimum of exposed area. The heaps shall be stored on a suitable platform under a roof protected from rain
and wind. A minimum space of 300 mm shall be provided all-round the heaps to avoid bulging of walls.
Unslaked lime shall be stored in a watertight place and shall be separated from combustible materials.
Hydrated lime shall be supplied either in containers or sacks, such as jute bags lined with polyethylene or high
density polyethylene woven bags lined with polyethylene or craft paper bags.
It shall be stored in a dry room to protect the lime from dampness and to minimize warehouse deterioration.
The building should be with a concrete floor and having least ventilation to eliminate draughts through the walls
and roof. In general, the recommendations given in storing of cement shall be applicable for hydrated lime.
When air movement is reduced to a practical minimum, hydrated lime can be stored for up to three months
without appreciable change.
When dry slaked lime is to be used within a few days, it shall be stored on a covered platform and protected
from rain and wind. It shall be kept in a dry and air-tight go down when immediate use is not required.
However, it shall never be stored for more than two months.
Workmen handling bulk lime shall wear protective clothing, respirators, and goggles, shall be instructed in the
need of cleanliness to prevent dermatitis, and shall be provided with hand cream, petroleum jelly, or similar
protectors.
a) Handling of Cement and Lime
Bulk cement stored in silos or bins may fail to feed to the ejection system. When necessary to enter a silo or
bin for any purpose, the ejection system employed shall be shutdown and locked out electrically as well as
mechanically, when necessary for a workman to enter such storage area, he shall wear a life -line, with
another workman outside the silo or hopper attending the rope.
Workmen, handling bulk cement or lime shall wear protective clothing, respirators, and goggles; shall be
instructed in the need of cleanliness to prevent dermatitis, and shall be provided with hand cream,
petroleum jelly, or similar preparation for protection of exposed skin.
2.2.1.3 Timber
Timber shall be stored in stacks on well treated and even surfaced beams, sleepers or brick pillars so as to be at
least 200 mm above the ground level. Contact with water shall be avoided under all circumstances. Members
shall be stored separately in layers according to lengths and materials of equal lengths shall be piled together in
layers with crossers or wooden battens of sound wood, straight and uniform thickness.
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In any layer a 25 mm air space shall be kept between adjacent members. The longer pieces shall be placed in the
bottom layers and shorter pieces in the top layers. At least one end of the stack shall be in true vertical
alignment. The crossers themselves in different layer shall be in vertical alignment.
The recommended width and height of a stack are 1.5 m and 2.0 m respectively. Minimum distance between
two stacks shall be 800 mm. In case stacking with battens is not possible, the timber may be close piled in
heaps, and the precautions specified above observed.
All timbers to be stored for a year or more, the ends of members shall be coated with coal tar, aluminum leaf
paints (hardened gloss oil), microcrystalline wax or other suitable material.
The stacks of timbers shall be protected from hot dry wind, direct sun and rain. Heavy weights may be placed on
top of the stacks to prevent warping of timber. Nails, metal straps, etc. attached to used timber, particularly
planks and formwork for shuttering shall be removed before stacking.
Care must be taken that handler or workmen are not injured by rails, straps, etc, attached to the used timber.
This applies particularly to planks and formwork for shuttering.
2.2.1.4 Bamboo
The site shall be properly inspected and termite colonies or mounds if detected shall be destroyed. All refuse
and useless cellulosic materials shall be removed from the site. The ground may then be disinfected by suitable
insecticides. The area should have good drainage.
Bamboo may preferably be stacked on high skids or raised platform at least 300 mm above ground, Storage
under cover reduces the liability to fungal attack. Good ventilation and frequent inspection are important.
Bamboo dries by air-seasoning under cover in the storage yards from 6 to 12 weeks time.
Prophylactic treatment of bamboo during storage prevents losses due to fungi and insects even under open
storage. Following chemicals are found suitable at the coverage rate of 24 liters per ton.
Sodium pentachlorophenate : 1 percent solution
Boric acid + borax (1:1) : 2 percent solution
Sodium pentachlorophenate + boric
acid + borax (5:1:1)
: 2.5 percent solution
A mixture of these compounds yields the best results.
NOTE for better protection of structural bamboo, (if stored outside) repetition of the treatment after four to
six months is desirable.
2.2.1.5 Particle Board
See Article 2.2.3.9
2.2.2 Durable Materials
2.2.2.1 Steel Bars and Sections
Steel reinforcement bars and structural steel shall be stored in a way to prevent distortion, corrosion, scaling
and rusting. Reinforcement bars and structural steel sections shall be coated with cement wash before stacking,
especially in humid areas. In case of long time storage or storage in coastal areas, reinforcement bars and steel
sections shall be stacked at least 200 mm above ground level.
Steel sections shall be stacked upon platforms, skids or any other suitable supports. Bars of different types, sizes
and lengths and structural steel sections shall be stored separately to facilitate issues in required sizes and
lengths without cutting from standard lengths. Ends of bars and sections of each type shall be painted with
separate designated colors.
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Tag lines shall be used to control the load in handling reinforcing bars or structural steel when a crane is used.
Heavy steel sections and bundles of reinforcing bars shall be lifted and carried with the help of slings and
tackles.
2.2.2.2 Bricks and Masonry Blocks
Bricks shall be stacked on dry firm ground in regular tiers. For proper inspection of quality and ease in counting,
the stacks shall be 50 bricks long and 10 bricks high and not more than 4 bricks in width, being placed on edge
two at a time along the width of the stack. Clear distance between adjacent stacks shall be not less than 800
mm.
Bricks of each truckload shall be put in one stack. Bricks of different types, such as, clay bricks, clay fly ash bricks,
fly ash lime bricks, sand lime (calcium silicate) bricks shall be stacked separately.
Bricks of different classifications from strength consideration and size consideration (such as, conventional and
modular) shall be stacked separately. Also bricks of different types, such as, solid, hollow and perforated shall be
stacked separately.
Bricks made of clay containing lime shall be thoroughly soaked in water (docked) while in stack.
Bricks of different types shall be stacked separately. Concrete blocks, stone blocks and other masonry blocks
shall be stored in stacks of such height as not to damage the blocks in the lower layers or topple.
Bricks shall be loaded or unloaded with care, and shall not be thrown or dumped. They shall be carried from the
stack to the site of placement in small batches as and when necessary.
Brick stacks shall be placed close to the site of work so that least effort is required to unload and transport the
bricks again by loading on pallets or in barrows. Unloading of building bricks or handling in any other way likely
to damage the corners or edges or other parts of bricks shall not be permitted.
Blocks are available as hollow and solid concrete blocks, hollow and solid light weight concrete blocks, autoclave
aerated concrete blocks, concrete stone masonry blocks and soil based blocks. Blocks shall be unloaded one at a
time and stacked in regular tiers to minimize breakage and defacement. These shall not be dumped at site. The
height of the stack shall not be more than 1.2 m, the length of the stack shall not be more than 3.0 m, as far as
possible and the width shall be of two or three blocks. Normally blocks cured for 28 days only should be
received at site. In case blocks cured for less than 28 days are received, these shall be stacked separately. All
blocks should be water cured for 10 to 14 days and air cured for another 15 days; thus no blocks with less than
28 days curing shall be used in building construction. Blocks shall be placed close to the site of work so that least
effort is required for their transportation. The date of manufacture of the blocks shall be suitably marked on the
stacks of blocks manufactured at factory or site.
2.2.2.3 Stones
Stones of different sizes, types and classification shall be stored separately. Stones shall be stacked on dry firm
ground in a .regular heap not more than 1 m in height.
Veneering stones shall be stacked against vertical support on a firm dry ground in tiers up to a height of 1.2 m. A
distance of about 0.8 m shall be kept between two adjacent stacks.
2.2.2.4 Aggregates
Aggregates shall be stored at site on a hard, dry and level ground. If such a surface is not available, a platform of
planks or old corrugated iron sheets, or a floor of bricks, or a thin layer of lean concrete shall be used. Contact
with clay, dust, vegetable and other foreign matters shall be avoided.
Fine and coarse aggregates shall either be stored separately or heaps be separated by dividing walls. Fine
aggregate shall be stored in a place and manner where loss due to the effect of wind is minimum, viz. in the
leeward side behind a wall, or by covering with a polyethylene sheet.
On a large job it is desirable to construct dividing walls to give each type of aggregates its own compartment.
Fine aggregates shall be stacked in a place where loss due to the effect of wind is found minimum.
When withdrawals are made from heaps, no overhang in the original heap shall be permitted. Employees
required to enter hoppers shall be equipped with safety belts and life -lines, attended by another person.
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Machine driven hoppers, feeders, and loaders shall be locked in the off position prior to entry electrically as well
as mechanically.
2.2.2.5 Water
Water to be used in construction shall be stored in tanks, bottom and the sides of which shall be constructed
with brick or concrete. Contact with any organic impurities shall be prevented.
The total capacity of the storage tank shall be determined after taking into account the water required for fire
fighting. Also See Part 4, Sec 4.2.
The tank shall be so located as to facilitate easy storage and filling in, and supply both for construction work and
for fire fighting. Passage of water to the water tank shall not be blocked at any time.
2.2.3 Materials Vulnerable to Rough Handling
2.2.3.1 Aluminum Sections
Aluminum sections of different classification, sizes and lengths shall be stored separately, on a level platform
under cover.
The aluminum sections shall not be pulled or pushed from the stack nor shall be slided over each other, to
protect the anodizing layer.
2.2.3.2 Pulverized Fuel Ash/Fly Ash
Fly ash shall be stored in such a manner as to permit easy access for proper inspection and identification of each
consignment. Fly ash in bulk quantities shall be stored in stack similar to fine aggregates, avoiding any intrusion
of foreign matter. Fly ash in bags shall be stored in stacks not more than 10 bags high.
Handling: See Sec. 2.2.1.2
2.2.3.3 Cinder
Cinder shall be stored in bulk quantities in stacks similar to coarse aggregates avoiding any extrusion of foreign
matter.
2.2.3.4 Pipes and Tubing
Pipes shall be stored in stacks with stoppers provided at the bottom layer to keep the pipe stack stable. The
stack, particularly of smaller diameter pipes, shall be in pyramid shape. Pipes shall not be stacked more than 1.5
m high.
Each stack shall have pipes of the same type and size only. Removal of pipes shall start from the top layer and by
pulling from one end. A pipe shall not be stored inside another pipe. The pipes may also be placed alternately
length and crosswise.
Asbestos cement pipes shall be unloaded at location, for example near trenches. Cast iron detachable joints and
fittings shall be stacked under cover and separated from the asbestos cement pipes and fittings. Rubber rings
shall be kept clean and away from grease, oil, heat and light.
Pipe shall be carried one at a time on shoulders by at least two workmen. Pipe fittings and joints shall be
handled individually.
Black polyethylene pipes may be stored either under cover or in the open. However, natural coloured
polyethylene pipes shall be stored under cover only and protected from direct sunlight.
Coils of tubing shall be stored either on edge or stacked flat one on top of the other; in either case they shall not
be allowed to come into contact with hot water or steam pipes and should be kept away from hot surface.
Straight lengths of unplasticized PVC pipes shall be stored on horizontal racks supported throughout their
lengths on a reasonably flat surface free from stones and sharp projections. Pipes shall not be stacked in large
piles, especially under warm conditions. Socket and spigot pipes shall be stacked in layers with sockets placed at
alternate ends of the stack to avoid top sided stack.
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PVC pipes shall be stored in a shaded area. The ends of pipe, particularly those specially prepared for jointing,
shall be protected from abrasion. Damaged portion of a pipe shall be cut out completely.








Pipes of conducting materials shall be stacked on solid level sills and contained in a manner to prevent spreading
or rolling of the pipe. For storage in large quantity, suitable packing shall be placed between the layers. During
transportation, the pipes shall be so secured as to prevent displacement/rolling.
In stacking and handling of pipes and other conducting materials, the following minimum vertical safety
distances from overhead power lines shall be provided
Handling - Removal of pipes from a pile shall be accomplished by working from the ends of the pipe. During
transportation, the pipes shall be so secured as to ensure against displacement.
2.2.3.5 Timber Piles and Poles
Piles and poles shall be stacked on solid and level sills so as to prevent rolling or spreading of the stack. The
storage area shall be maintained free of vegetation and flammable materials.
Removal of piles and poles shall start from the top layer and by pulling from one end. Tag lines shall be used to
control movement of piles and poles. In stacking and handling of piles and poles, precautions as laid down in Sec
2.2.3.4 shall be followed.
2.2.3.6 Sanitary Appliances
All sanitary appliances shall be stored under cover to prevent damage. In receiving and storing appliances
consideration shall be given to the sequence of removal from the store to the assembly positions. Vitreous
fittings shall be stacked separately from the metal ones.
Bigger sanitary appliances shall be handled one at a time. Traps, water seals and gullies shall be handled
separately. Sanitary fittings shall be protected from any oil spillages; hands of the workers shall be free of any
oily substance. The supporting brackets, pedestals etc. shall be checked before lowering the appliances in their
position.
2.2.3.7 Doors, Windows, Ventilators and Grilles
Metal and plastic doors, windows and ventilators shall be stacked upright (on their sills) on level ground
preferably on wooden battens and shall not come in contact with dirt or ashes. If received in crates they shall be
stacked according to manufacturers instructions and removed from the crates as and when required for the
work. Metal and plastic frames of doors, windows and ventilators shall be stacked upside down with the kick
plates at the top. These shall not be allowed to stand for long in this manner before being fixed so as to avoid
the door frames getting out of shape and hinges being strained and shutters drooping. During the period of
storage of aluminum doors, windows and ventilators, these shall be protected from loose cement and mortar by
suitable covering, such as tarpaulin. The tarpaulin shall be hung loosely on temporary framing to permit
circulation of air to prevent moisture condensation. All timber and other lignocellulosic material based frames
and shutters shall be stored in a dry and clean covered space away from any infestation and dampness. The
storage shall preferably be in well-ventilated dry rooms. The frames shall be stacked one over the other
distances to keep the stack vertical and straight. These cross battens should be of uniform thickness and placed
vertically one above the other. The door shutters shall be stacked in the form of clean vertical stacks one over
11 KV and below 1.40 m
Above 11 KV and below 33 KV 3.60 m
Above 33 KV and below 132 KV 4.70 m
Above 132 KV and below 230 KV 5.70 m
Above 275 and below 400 kV 6.50 m
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the other and at least 80 mm above ground on pallets or suitable beams or rafters. The top of the stack shall be
covered by a protecting cover and weighted down by means of scantlings or other suitable weights. The shutter
stack shall rest on hard and level surface. If any timber or other lignocellulosic material based frame or shutter
becomes wet during transit, it shall be kept separate from the undamaged material. The wet material may be
dried by stacking in shade with battens in between adjacent boards with free access of dry air. Separate stacks
shall be built up for each size, each grade an each type of material. When materials of different sizes, grades and
types are to be stacked in one stack due to shortage of space, the bigger size shall be stacked in the lower
portion of the stacks. Suitable pallets or separating battens shall be kept in between the two types of material.
Precast concrete door and window frames shall be stored in upright position adopting suitable measures against
risk of subsidence of soil support.
While unloading, shifting, handling and stacking timber or other lignocellulosic material based, metal and plastic
door and window frames and shutters, care shall be taken that the pieces are not dragged one over the other as
it may cause damage to their surface particularly in case of the decorative shutters. The pieces should be lifted
and carried preferably flat avoiding damage to corners or sides.
Metal frames of doors, windows and ventilators shall be stacked with the kick plates at the top. They shall not
be kept in this manner for long, and should be taken to the fixing position as soon as possible.
2.2.3.8 Floors, Wall and Roof Tiles
Floor, wall and clay roof tiles of different types, such as, cement concrete tiles (plain, colored and terrazzo) and
ceramic tiles (glazed and unglazed) shall be stacked on regular platform as far as possible under cover in proper
layers and in tiers and they shall not be dumped in heaps. In the stack, the tiles shall be so placed that the
mould surface of one faces that of another. Height of the stack shall not more than 1000 mm. Tiles of different
quality, size and thickness shall be stacked separately to facilitate easy removal for use in work. Tiles when
supplied by manufacturers packed in wooden crates shall be stored in crates. The crates shall be opened one at
a time as and when required for use.
Ceramic tiles and roof tiles are generally supplied in cartons which shall be handled with care to avoid breakage.
It is preferable to transport these at the site on platform trolleys.
2.2.3.9 Sheets and Boards
For storing and handling of sheets and boards, such as asbestos sheets, CGI sheets, particle boards, gypsum
boards etc., the following requirements shall be fulfilled:
a) sheets and boards shall be stacked to a height of not more than 1 m on dry, clean, firm and level
ground with timber or other packing beneath them;
b) bottom of the stack shall be raised adequately from the ground level where there is a risk of water
coming on the floor;
c) sheets and boards shall be stacked under cover and protected from damage due to wind, rain and
sun;
d) at least one edge of the stack shall be in true vertical alignment; the top sheet in each stack shall be
suitably weighed down;
e) damage to the corners and surface of sheets and boards shall be prevented and damaged sheets
shall not be stacked with sound materials;
f) sheets shall not be pushed forward against the lower sheet for more than one-fourth of the sheet
length;
g) they shall be lifted into position by two workmen, if necessary;
h) sheets and boards shall be lowered or raised gently and not thrown; and suitable hand protection
like gloves, jelly etc. shall be provided to the workmen wherever necessary.
CGI sheets shall be stacked in not more than 100 bundles per stack built solidly. Corrugations of sheets in one
stack shall run in the same direction. One end of the stack shall be raised by at least 100 mm to drain
accumulated water, if any. Sheets not for immediate use shall be stacked under roof.
Plywood, fiber board, particle board, block board etc. shall be stacked on a flat dunnage on top of which a
wooden frame shall be constructed with battens of suitable size in such a way that it supports all four corners
and edges of the boards. For boards up to a length of 2 m, minimum of one intermediate batten and for boards
longer than 2 m, at least two intermediate battens shall be provided to avoid warping.
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Decorative plywood and laminated and decorative boards shall be stacked in pairs facing each other. Sheets
shall not be dragged one over another.
Specification laid out in BDS 1159 shall be followed for packaging of plywood, particle board, hard board and
flush doors.
2.2.3.10 Cast Iron, Galvanized Iron and Asbestos Cement Pipes and Fittings
The pipes shall be unloaded where they are required, when the trenches are ready to receive them. Storage
shall be provided at the bottom layer to keep the stack stable. The stack shall be in pyramid shape or the pipes
placed length-wise and cross-wise in alternate layers. The pyramid stack is advisable in smaller diameter pipes
for conserving space in storing them. The height of the stack shall not exceed 1.5 m. Each stack shall contain
only pipes of the same class and size. Each stack shall contain only pipes of same class and size, with
consignment or batch number marked on it with particulars or suppliers wherever possible. Cast iron
detachable joints and fittings shall be stacked under cover and separated from the asbestos cement pipes and
fittings. Rubber rings shall be kept clean, away from grease, oil, heat and light.
Pipes in the top layer shall be handled first. At a time only one pipe shall be handled by two laborers while
conveying to the actual site and shall be carried on shoulders. Fittings shall be handled individually.
2.2.3.11 Glass Sheets
All glass sheets shall be kept dry and stored in a covered space. Glass sheets shall be lifted and stored upright on
their long edges and put into stacks of not more than 25 sheets. They shall be supported at two points at about
300 mm from each end by fillets of wood.
The bottom of each stack shall be about 25 mm clear from the base of the wall and other support against which
the stack rests. The whole stack shall be as close to upright as possible. Smooth floors shall be covered with
gunny bags.
Workmen handling glass sheets, remnants and waste glass pieces, and fibre glass shall be provided with gloves,
jelly and other suitable hand protections. In removing glass sheets from crates, great care shall be taken to avoid
damages from breakage. Glass edges shall be covered or protected to prevent injuries to workmen.
2.2.4 Inflammable and/or Fire-Sensitive Materials
Materials under this classification shall be stored within fire-preventive confines, furnished with fire fighting
provisions. Buckets containing sand shall be kept ready for use. A 5 kg dry powder fire extinguisher conforming
to accepted standards shall be kept at an easily accessible position. Besides the areas shall be close to fire
hydrants.
2.2.4.1 Plastic and Rubber sheets
Plastic and rubber sheets shall be stored within fire proof confines according to manufacturer's instructions.
Sheets shall be stored in the coolest of the store rooms available. The room shall be well ventilated and kept
dark; direct sun light shall not be allowed to fall on the stored sheets.
The sheets shall be stored away from electric generators, electric motors, switchgears and other such electrical
equipment.
Contamination of the sheets with vegetable and mineral oil, grease, organic solvents, acid and their fumes,
alkalis, dust and grit shall be prevented. All greasy contamination shall be removed immediately with kerosene
or similar liquid, and the sheets thoroughly wiped dry and dusted with French chalk.
Undue stretch and strain, kinks, sharp bends or folds of the sheets shall be avoided in case of long time storage.
The sheets shall be turned over periodically and treated with fresh chalk.
In addition, safety precautions common for all types of sheets, as laid down in Sec 2.2.3.9, shall be followed.
2.2.4.2 Paints, Varnishes, Thinners, Bitumen and Road Tar
Paints, varnishes, lacquers, thinners and other inflammable materials shall be kept in properly sealed or closed
containers. The containers shall be kept in a well ventilated location, free from excessive heat, smoke, sparks or
flame. The floor of the paint store shall have 100 mm thick loose sand on it.
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Paint materials in quantities other than required for daily use shall be kept stocked in the regular storage place.
The manner of storage shall facilitate removal and use of lots in the same order in which they are received.
Temporary electrical wiring and fittings shall not be installed in the paint store. When electric lights, switches or
electrical equipment are necessary to be stored or used in the same room, the room shall be designed in a way
to reduce explosion risk.
Sources of ignition, such as open flame and exposed heating elements, shall not be permitted in paint store, nor
shall smoking be allowed there.
Drums or containers containing bitumen, road tar, asphalt, etc. shall be stacked vertically on their bottoms in up
to 3 tiers. Leaky drums shall be either totally removed or separated. Empty drums shall be stored in pyramidal
stacks neatly in rows.
Bituminous roofing felts shall be stored away from other combustible or flammable materials. They shall be
handled gently to prevent cracking and damages.
Workers engaged on jobs involving handling of hot bitumen, tar, and bituminous mixtures shall use protective
wears, such as boots and gloves, preferably of asbestos or otherwise of rubber, goggles and helmet. No workers
shall be permitted to handle such materials without wearing the needed protective covering.
Bitumen/tar shall not be heated beyond the temperature recommended by the manufacturer of the product.
While discharging heated binder from the boiler, workers shall not stand opposite to the jet so as to avoid the
possibility of hot binder falling on them. The container shall be handled only after closing the control valve.
While handling hoi bitumen/tar, workers shall exercise scrupulous care to prevent accidental spillage thereof.
The buckets and cans in which the hot material is carried from boiler shall be checked before use to ensure that
they are intact and safe. Mops and other applicators contaminated with bituminous materials shall not be
stored inside buildings.
Outdoor storage of drums containing flammable materials like hydraulic brake and transmission fluid, gasoline
and lubricants shall be such that contamination from moisture and dirt is avoided.
The storage shall be free of spilled products, debris and other hazardous material.
Compressed gases and petroleum products shall not be stored in the same building or close to each other.
Proper identification by markings, tags etc. shall be used for petroleum products delivered to the job site and
stored there in drums.
Highly flammable liquids shall be stored in fire resisting containers in a special store room secluded from the
main working site. For uses of up to 50 litres, liquids can be stored in the workroom in fire resistant cupboards
or bins. Stores of liquids shall be clearly marked highly flammable. All empty containers shall be returned to the
store.
The workmen shall dispose off any clothing or apparel spilled over by or soaked in flammable materials
immediately. They shall not be allowed to continue work unless affected clothing and apparels are changed.
2.2.5 Hazardous Materials
Materials under this category are (a) those posing health hazard through breathing, such as asbestos, glass fibre,
etc. or injurious and/or intoxicating fluids of various kinds, (b) materials corrosive to living bodies and (c)
materials likely to explode under heat or pressure. These should be stored in a manner specific to its properties,
so as to prevent hazards of all kinds.
2.2.5.1 Asbestos-based Materials
Whenever possible, materials which do not contain asbestos shall be used. Special precautions as specified by
the following sub-sections shall be taken while handling asbestos containing materials to minimize the risk of
inhaling asbestos. Handling shall be limited to as few workers as possible.
a) Handling of Asbestos-based Materials:
When cutting, sawing or machining takes place in confined place efficient local dust extraction
equipment shall be installed. Alternatively, a wet method of machining by water type dust suppressed
powered tools shall be used.
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The best standards of good housekeeping and hygiene shall apply to cutting areas which shall be
segregated and used for no other purpose. Waste materials and dust shall not be allowed to
accumulate in working area or store.
A vacuum cleaning device with a high efficiency filter shall be used to keep floors, walls and fixtures
free from dust accumulation. Alternatively all surfaces shall be cleaned with a wet rag and floors
washed by gently spraying water. Dry sweeping or compressed air blowing shall never be used.
Asbestos insulation boards shall preferably be supplied precut and drilled from the workshop using a
suitable dust control equipment. On-site preparations shall be performed in the open.
Polyethylene sheet shall be used to screen a work area in an enclosed space. Only authorized workers
shall be allowed access to such areas. Appropriate signs shall mark an asbestos working area and warn
against inhaling asbestos dust.
A guillotine or knife die cutter shall be used to cut sheets. The use of hammer and chisel shall be
avoided.
At the end of each work shift, dust shall be either collected by a vacuum cleaner or swept up after
being wetted. The dust shall then be put into a sealable container. Any rejected material shall also be
placed in an impermeable bag.
b) Removal and disposal Asbestos-based Materials:
Spray method shall be used for removal of asbestos -based materials which is not covered or coated
by other materials. For removing thick asbestos-based materials, soaking method with total saturation
shall be used. Dry method shall only be used where the spray or soaking method cannot be used.
All moveable furniture and fittings shall be removed from the work area and other nonremovable
items covered with plastic sheets. Air conditioning systems shall either be isolated from the asbestos
removal area or closed down.
Before removal or stripping the asbestos, insulation coatings shall be thoroughly soaked with water or
steam. In case of dry demolition of asbestos, a portable exhaust extraction plant shall be used.
Transport and storage containers shall be labeled of the contents. Waste shall be kept in strong
enclosed containers or in strong sealed impervious bags. These shall not be overfilled; care shall be
taken to avoid damage or spillage before disposal.
The filter bags used in a dust extracting system shall be impermeable and capable of being readily
sealed and disposed off without further treatment.
c) Protective Clothing and Equipment:
Workmen engaged in works using asbestos-based material, shall wear a full body coveralls with
pockets, and close fitted cuffs and necks together with a head cover. Protective clothing shall also be
worn by all persons in an area into which asbestos dust is liable to escape.
The clothing shall be made of synthetic fiber. Wet weather overalls which can be hosed down may be
used.
The use of suitable working clothing shall not be necessary when minor handling of asbestos
containing insulation is carried out provided adequate dust control techniques are employed.
Whenever, work methods create asbestos dust, suitable protective respirator shall be used.
Respiratory protective equipment shall be properly maintained and regularly cleaned and serviced.
Every person required to use protective equipment shall be fully instructed and trained in its use.
Protective clothing and equipment shall be regarded as the means of last resort and used as a back-up
of other techniques, or where effective asbestos dust control cannot be achieved by other means.
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d) Personal Hygiene:
Changing room and shower facilities shall be provided for the exclusive use of persons working in an
asbestos working area. Locker accommodation shall be provided for every person required to wear
respirators and coveralls.
Lockers for work clothes shall be separated from others. Contaminated clothing shall be placed in a
dustproof container immediately on removal. Contaminated clothing or belongings shall not be
shaken or brushed. These shall be superficially cleaned by vacuum cleaning or hosing down with
water.
Food and drinks shall not be handled, stored or consumed in the asbestos work area. Smoking shall be
prohibited.
Workmen shall take shower before changing back into their own clothing; work clothing shall not be
taken home. Parts of the body exposed to asbestos dust shall be thoroughly washed after completion
of the job or before taking any meal.
Asbestos workers shall have a full size chest X-ray before commencement of work and also yearly. The
reports shall be kept properly by the contractor for ready reference.
2.2.5.2 Acids and Other Corrosive Materials Working with Acid/Chemicals
When working with acids, bases, or other chemicals, one shall wear the proper clothing. The following are the
five clothing items that shall be used while working with chemicals.
a) Safety glasses/goggles: Should completely cover your eye at all times.
b) Safety face shield: Wear over the top of any safety glasses or goggles.
c) Full-length acid smock: Wear over the clean-room clothing.
d) Rubber gloves: Wear with a two-inch cuff. This prevents acid from running down your arm. Also,
inflate with nitrogen and submerse in water to check for pinhole leaks before using.
e) Hard leather or other non-porous shoes
2.2.5.2.1 Transporting Acid/Chemical
The acid/chemicals used in work shall be stored in glass or plastic bottles. Transport of these chemicals shall be
made by hand in a rubber or plastic bucket. If the bottle breaks or the lid leaks, the chemical will be contained in
the bucket.
While transporting Acid/Chemical following rules shall be followed:
a) DO
Use the appropriate size container for the job.
Get help when needed.
Clean containers after use with deionized water.
Work under a fume hood
Use a funnel when pouring chemicals into a small container.
Open bottles slowly to avoid spilling and allow vapors to escape.
Know what type of reactions to expect.
Remember to triple-A (AAA): Always Add Acid to water.
b) DON'T
Reuse containers (adverse chemical reaction may occur).
Eat, drink, smoke, or touch any body part before washing your hands when working with chemicals.
Be afraid to ask questions.
Pour leftover chemicals back in its source container, contamination may result.
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Put your face close to the bottle when pouring.
Puncture cap or lid of any bottle.
2.2.5.2.2 Storage of Acid/Chemical
Proper storage of the acid/chemicals will ensure everyones safety. Therefore when storing acid/chemical the
following care shall be taken:
a) Store acids and bases in separate cabinets.
b) Keep acids and solvents in different cabinets.
c) Label shelves for quick chemical identification.
d) Make sure that incompatibles are not stored on the same shelf.
e) Keep same shaped bottles on the same shelf to conserve shelf space.
f) Never store chemical containers anywhere except in designated cabinets.
When need to use the acid/chemicals:
a) Take the oldest container whose shelf life has not expired.
b) Make sure the container is sealed when you return it.
c) Always return the container to its labeled shelf.
2.2.5.3 Explosives
a) Transportation of Explosive:
Loading, unloading and handling of explosives will be supervised by competent personnel. The safety
provisions of Chapter 4, Sec 4.1 and Sec 4.3 also apply for the present case.
Where the magazine is located near the construction site and blasting operations continue daily,
actual requirements of explosives shall be issued from the magazine and transported to the site.
Any leftovers shall be returned to the magazine after every use.
For carrying up to 5 kg of explosives, insulated containers constructed of minimum 50 mm thick
finished wood or 6 mm thick plastic or 10 mm thick pressed fiber shall be used. The containers shall
have no metal parts, be waterproof and provided with a lid and nonconductive carrying device.
Vehicles transporting explosives shall have a wooden or nonsparking metal floor with high sides and
ends. In open-bodied vehicles, the explosives shall be covered with a waterproof and fire-resistant
tarpaulin. Electric wiring in vehicle shall be fully insulated. The nature of cargo in the vehicle shall be
properly indicated on its body.
Metal, flammable, or corrosive substances shall not be transported with explosives. Explosive and
detonators or blasting caps shall not be transported in the same vehicle; they shall be transported in
original containers or in securely locked separate nonmetallic containers.
Smoking shall be prohibited in the vehicle carrying explosives.
b) Storage of Explosives:
Explosives shall only be stored in remote and isolated structures of substantial construction and blast-
release isolated yards. The storage area shall be clean, dry, well ventilated, and cool. The material
shall not be stored near oil, gasoline, cleaning solutions, radiators, steam pipes, or other sources of
heat.
Storage shall require bullet and fire-resistant magazine. Blasting caps or primers shall not be stored
with explosives.
Smoking, matches, fire or flame shall not be allowed near a magazine. No leaves, grass, bush or debris
shall be allowed to accumulate within 8 m of an explosive magazine. No sparking metal or tools shall
be stored in a magazine. Persons shall put off shoes with metal nails before entering a magazine.
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If nitroglycerine leaks down on the floor, the floor shall be immediately desensitized by washing
thoroughly with an agent obtained beforehand from the supplier of the explosives.
c) Handling of Explosives:
No package containing explosives shall be dragged, dropped or handled roughly. These shall be
opened only at a safe distance and properly shielded from the packages of explosives in bulk storage.
The covers of the explosive cases or packages shall be replaced every time after taking out part of the
contents.
Sparking metal tools shall not be used to open kegs or cases of explosives. Smoking or carrying
matches, fire, flame or devices capable of producing fire or flame, shall not be permitted while
handling or using explosives. Explosives shall not be carried in the pockets of any clothing or on any
person.
d) Disposal of Explosives:
No explosives shall be abandoned. They shall be disposed off in accordance with the approved
methods; manufacturers or the appropriate authority shall be consulted in this matter.
Explosives caps or packing shall not be left lying around. Paper of fiber materials used in packing
explosives shall not be put in any subsequent use. Such materials shall be destroyed by burning.
2.3 MISCELLANEOUS
Small articles like screws, bolts, nuts, door and window fittings, polishing stones, protective clothing, spare parts
of machinery, linings, packing, water supply and sanitary fittings, and electrical fittings, insulation board. etc.
shall be kept in suitable and properly protected containers, boxes or store rooms.
Valuable small materials shall be kept under lock and key.
Polymeric materials such as coating, sheeting, reflective surfacing/sheeting, etc shall be stored as per the
manufacturers instructions. Special precautions shall be taken in case of storage, handling and usage of toxic
materials.
2.4 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS
Materials constantly in use shall be relatively nearer the place of use.
Heavy units like precast concrete members shall be stacked near the hoist or the ramp.
Materials which normally deteriorate during storage shall be kept constantly moving, by replacing old materials
with fresh stocks. Freshly arrived materials shall never be placed over materials which had arrived earlier.
Appropriate types of fire extinguishers shall be provided at open sites where combustible materials are stored
and for each storage shed room where flammable/combustible materials are stored. For guidance regarding
selection of the appropriate types of fire extinguishers reference may be made to good practice. It is desirable
that a minimum of two extinguishers are provided at each such location.
Workers handling excavated earth from foundation, particularly if the site happens to be reclaimed area or
marshy area or any other infected area, shall be protected against infection affecting their exposed body
portions.
2.5 LOADING AND UNLOADING OF MATERIALS
a) Loading and Unloading Rail Road Wagons and Motor Vehicles
Each workman shall be instructed for the proper method of loading and unloading from rail wagons
and motor vehicles, and provided with necessary equipment for safety. Supervisors shall ensure that
the required number of workmen based on the weight and the distance involved in each job is
available and engaged for the particular job.
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Warning signals shall be displayed to indicate that the rail-wagons must not be coupled or moved
while loading and unloading are carried out. The wheels of wagons and vehicles shall always be
sprigged or chained while these are being unloaded; brakes alone shall not be relied upon.
Special lever bars, rather than ordinary crowbars, shall be used for moving rail wagons. Where
gangplanks are used, either cleats at lower end of gangplank or pin through end of gangplanks shall be
used to prevent sliding and slipping. If the gangplank is on a slope, cleats or abrasive surface shall be
provided for the entire length.
When rail road wagons and motor vehicles are being loaded or unloaded near passageways or
walkways, adequate warning signals shall be placed on each end of the way.
b) Manual Handling
Loading and unloading of heavy items shall be done with cranes or gantries, if available. The workmen
shall stand clear of the path of the material being moved by mechanical equipment. The slings and the
ropes used shall be of adequate load carrying capacity.
For loading heavy and long components manually into motor vehicles, rail wagons, trailer etc., either
wooden sleepers or steel rails of sufficient length and properly secured in position shall be put against
the body of the wagon/vehicle at three or four places. The slope of such makeshift ramp shall be less
than 30o with horizontal.
Long items shall be dragged, one by one, gently and uniformly along the ramps by means of ropes
(tag). Workmen pulling long items shall anchor their feet against a firm surface.
Loaded items may be shifted by crowbars and other suitable leverage mechanism in their right
position. These shall not be pushed or moved by hand. Similar procedures as outlined above shall be
followed for manual unloading of long or heavy items.
For regular and frequent handling, the maximum load a single workman is subject to carry shall be
limited to 20 kg. Workmen to carry heavier loads shall be specially selected, and if necessary, trained.
While lifting a load, the body shall be kept upright; weight shall be distributed evenly and supported
on the bone structure, and held close to the body. Advantage shall be taken of any device provided
for assistance.
Part 7
Construction Practices and Safety 7-29
Chapter 3
SAFETY DURING CONSTRUCTION
3.1 GENERAL
3.1.1 Scope
The provisions of this chapter shall apply to the safety of life and property during construction
/erection/alteration of various parts of a building or any other structures. Nothing stated herein shall be
construed to nullify any rules, regulations, safety standards or statutes of the local authority, Corporations, or
those contained in the various Acts of the Government of Bangladesh. The specific rules, regulations and acts
pertaining to the protection of the public or workmen from health and other hazards wherever specified by the
local Authority/Corporation etc. or by the Act/Ordinance of the Government shall take precedence over
whatever is herein specified.
3.1.2 Safety Management
The safety of personnel engaged in building construction shall be ensured through a well planned and well
organized mechanism. For this, depending on the size and complexity of building construction project, safety
committee shall be constituted to efficiently manage all safety related affairs. The site in-charge or his nominee
of a senior rank shall head the committee and a safety officer shall act as Member Secretary. The safety
committee shall be organized a training program for the personals and workers to train up them about safety
issues involved in the construction process and also organize meeting of the committee regularly say fortnightly
or monthly depending on the nature of the project, however, emergency meetings shall also be called as and
when required. The safety committees shall deal with all the safety related issues through well structured
agenda, in the meetings and all safety related measures installed at the site and implementation thereof shall
be periodically reviewed.
3.2 TERMINOLOGY
For the purpose of this Part the following definitions shall apply.
Authority Having Jurisdiction: The Authority which has been created by a statute and which for the purpose of
administering the Code/Part, shall authorize a committee or an official to act on its behalf; hereinafter called the
Authority.
Construction Equipment: All equipment, machinery, tools and temporary retaining structures and working
platforms, that is, tools, derricks, staging, scaffolds, runways, ladders and all material, handling equipment
including safety devices.
Floor Hole: An opening measuring less than 300 mm but more than 25mrn in its least dimension, in any floor,
platform, pavement, or yard, through which materials but not persons may fall; such as, a belt hole, pipe
opening or slot opening.
Floor Opening: An opening measuring 300 mm or more in its least dimension, in any floor, platform, pavement
or yard through which person may fall; such as hatch way, stair or ladder opening, pit or large manhole.
Guard Railing: A barrier erected along exposed edges of an open side floor opening, wall opening, ramp,
platform, or catwalk or balcony, etc, to prevent fall of persons.
Materials Handling Hoists: A platform, bucket or similar enclosure exclusively meant for the lifting or lowering of
construction material the hoists being operated from a point outside the conveyance.
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Pile Rig: The complete pile driving equipment comprising piling frame, leader, hammer, extractor winch and
power unit. Complete pile driving rig shall be mounted on rafts or pontoon or rails. Pile rig shall also be a mobile
unit mounted on trailers or trucks, or a special full revolving rig for raking piles.
Platform: A working space for persons, elevated above the surrounding floor or ground, such as balcony or
platform for the operation of machinery and equipment.
Scaffold: A temporary erection of timber, bamboo or metal frame work used in the construction, alteration or
demolition of a building, to support or to allow the hoisting and lowering of workmen, their tools and materials.
Toe Board: A vertical barrier erected along exposed edge of a floor opening, wall opening, platform, catwalk or
ramp to prevent fall of materials or persons.
Wall Hole: An opening in any wall or partition having height of less than 750 mm but more than 25 mm and
width unrestricted.
Wall Opening: An opening in any wall or partition having both height of at least 750 mm and width of at least
450 mm.
3.2.1 Safety of Workmen
Helmets conforming to BDS 1265 and BDS 1266 shall be worn by the workmen and other personnel at all times
during the work. Safety goggles of accepted standard (BDS 1360) shall be used by individuals engaged in drilling,
cutting, welding and all such works which cause hazard to the eye. The welders and gas cutters shall be
equipped with proper protective equipment like gloves, safety boots, aprons and hand shields having filter glass
of accepted standard and suitable to the eyes of the particular worker.
3.2.2 Site Precautions
Construction site shall be delineated, in absence of boundary walls, by fences. During the erection of tall
buildings, nylon net shall be put around the building periphery 3 to 4 meters below the working level.
Warning signs shall be displayed, where necessary, to indicate hazardous areas like high voltage zone, area of no
smoking etc. Hand lamps shall be of low voltage, preferably 24V. All electrically operated hand tools shall be
provided with double earthing.
3.2.3 Site Amenities
Toilet facilities shall be provided at all construction sites. If sewer connection is not available, temporary wells
shall be used. The wells shall be provided with proper covers, bad smell protector and have to clean regularly.
Men and women workers shall be provided with separate sanitary and washing facilities.
The toilet facilities shall be located at a corner of the site so as to avoid any obstruction. Protection from bad
weather and falling object, and proper privacy shall be provided to the toilet users.
Temporary toilets shall be dismantled, all wells filled up, and the whole area made level, dressed and restored
back to proper grade at the end of the project. All temporary sewer connections shall be removed and the
sewer capped.
Washing facilities provided at the site shall be connected to the available running water supply.
Drinking water shall be supplied to the site. In absence of any water supply facility at the site, hand tube wells
shall be sunk to meet the requirements of drinking and washing.
Numbers of the sanitary and plumbing facilities required in a construction site shall be regulated by the 1965
Factories Act, and Part 8 Chapters 5 and 6.
Proper accommodation for taking meals and for taking shelter during interruption of work in night time and due
to adverse weather condition with amenities of sleeping bed including provision for lights and fans have to
provide.
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3.3 EXCAVATION AND FOUNDATION WORK
3.3.1 General
The requirements of this section shall be satisfied in addition to those of Sec 3.12 of Part 6 for all excavation and
foundation works.
The distribution of the supporting foundation shall be such as to avoid any harmful differential settlement of the
structure. The type and design of the foundation adopted shall ensure safety to workmen during construction
and residents of the neighboring property. Sufficient care shall be taken in areas, where withdrawal of ground
water from surrounding areas could result in damages to such foundations. During the construction of the
foundation, it shall be ensured that the adjoining properties are not affected by any harmful effects.
The process of excavation, filling in, pumping etc. shall avoid endangering the strength or stability of the
partially completed structure. The partially completed structure shall be capable of carrying loads previously
taken by temporary works which, as part of the construction procedure, have to be transferred before the
completion of the work.
Excavation with intervals on any site shall be avoided. If such excavation is unavoidable, the excavated site shall
be properly fenced and warning signals.
Excavation of interrupted or temporarily suspended construction shall be either backfilled or barricaded.
During construction, inspection shall be made by the engineer-in-charge to ensure that all protective works
carried out to safe-guard the adjoining property are sufficient and in good order to ensure safety.
Arrangements for safe movement of workers and inspectors in the trench have to be planned and provided.
Before carrying out any excavation work/pile driving, the position, depth and size of underground structures,
such as water pipes, mains, cables or other services in the vicinity to the proposed work, shall be obtained from
the appropriate Authority to prevent accidents to workmen engaged in excavation work and calamities for the
general public. Prior to commencement of excavation detailed data of the type of soils that are likely to be met
with during excavation shall be obtained and the type of protective works by way of shoring timbering, etc, shall
be decided upon for the various strata that are likely to be encountered during excavation. For detailed
information regarding safety requirements during excavation reference shall be made to good practice.
3.3.2 Excavating Machinery and Tools
Heavy equipment, such as excavating machinery, shall be kept away from the trenches by a distance at least
equal to the depth of trench to a maximum of 6 meters. All excavating tools shall be kept far away from the
edge of trench.
3.3.3 Excavated Materials and Surcharges
Excavated materials shall be kept away from the edges of the trench to provide a clear berm of safe width.
Where this is not feasible, the design of protection for the trenches shall include the additional load due to the
materials.
Proximity of buildings, piles of lumber, crushed rocks, sand and other construction materials, large trees, etc.
may impose surcharges on the side of the trench to cause bulging, sliding, etc.
Additional protective measures shall be taken to support the sides of the trenches under these conditions. The
objects creating such threat shall be removed if possible before excavation starts.
3.3.4 Ground Water
Where deep excavation is required, the location of water-bearing strata shall be determined and the water
pressure observed to take necessary precautions. Direction of natural drainage shall be determined to facilitate
the design of intercepting drains to prevent the influx of ground water.
In areas where the ground water or soil contains constituents in amounts sufficient to cause damage to cement
or buried metals, a chemical analysis of samples of ground water and soil shall be obtained and necessary
precautions taken.
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Basements or pits below ground water level, which rely on the weight the superstructure for their stability
against floatation, shall be pumped day and night. Protective filters shall be used during heavy pumping in
excavations. The water shall be drawn away from the excavation rather than through the ground towards the
excavation.
3.3.5 Ground Condition
Adequate precautions, depending upon the type of strata met with during excavation (like quick sand, loose fills
and loose boulder) shall be taken to protect the workmen during excavation. Effect of climatic variations and
moisture content variations on the materials under excavation shall be constantly watched and precautions
taken, where necessary, immediately to prevent accidents at work site.
Where portions of the foundation are underlain by soft materials or where the layers of such materials vary in
thickness, the assessment of allowable bearing pressure shall require a settlement analysis.
Site investigations shall be sufficiently extensive to ensure that significant variations in strata thickness are
detected. If required, either the resistance of the inclined or jointed strata shall be increased or the foundations
shall be carried deep enough to prevent sliding.
Precautions, against pockets of poisonous/dangerous gases including protection to the workmen, shall be taken
during deep excavation. Effect of climatic variations and variation in moisture content of the soil shall be
constantly monitored and precautions taken immediately, when necessary.
3.3.6 Overhang, Slopes and Cavities
Overhangs in the trenches shall be supported by props. Use of heavy machinery shall be avoided under or over
this area.
Where climatic or other conditions may result in deterioration of the sides of excavation, consideration shall be
given to their support and protection. During excavation, adequate protections justified by established method
of analysis shall be taken to prevent slope instability.
3.3.7 Blasting and Vibration
Blasting for foundation of buildings is prohibited unless special permission is obtained from the Authority.
Where blasting technique is to be used, an analysis for the stability of slopes shall be carried out and steps be
taken accordingly.
Attention shall be given to the geological strata of the site to ensure that it is not liable to transmission of
ground vibration to areas where it may cause damage to property or the ground.
After blasting, overhangs or loose boulders shall be cleared off the site. In all excavation works, precautions shall
be taken to eliminate/reduce vibration generated by adjacent machinery, vehicles, railroads, blasting, piling and
other sources.
Appropriate authorities shall be notified in advance of any blasting operations when these are to take place
close to public roads and railways. Also see Sec 4.3.
3.3.8 Health Hazards during Excavation
Mechanical ventilation shall be provided where gases or fumes are likely to be present in trenches.
All personnel working there shall be provided with protective respiratory equipment. All trenches/tunnel shall
be provided with emergency exits (see Sec 3.11.2 and Sec 3.11.3).
The precautionary measures provided shall meet the requirements of the local health authority.
The owner shall ensure that all precautionary measures have been taken and been inspected by the appropriate
Authority prior to commencement of such work.
3.3.9 Safety of Materials
Materials required for excavation, like ropes, planks for gangways and walkways, ladders, etc, shall be inspected
by the Engineer-in-charge who shall ensure that no accident shall occur due to the failure of such materials (see
Part 5 Building Materials).
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Bangladesh National Building Code 2012 7-33
a) Fencing, Warning Signs and Watchman
Where excavation is going on, for the safety of public and the workmen, fencing shall be erected.
Sufficient number of notice boards and danger sign lights shall be provided in the area to avoid any member
of public from inadvertently falling into the excavation. When excavations are being done on roads,
diversion of the roads shall be provided with adequate notice board and lights indicating the diversion well
ahead. Where necessary, recourse shall be had for additional precautionary measures by way of watchmen
to prevent accident to the general public, especially during hours of darkness. If necessary, watchmen shall
be employed as an additional precautionary measure to prevent any accident, especially during the night.
b) Vibrations from Nearby Sources
Vibration due to adjacent machinery, vehicles, railroads, blasting, piling and other sources require
additional precautions to be taken.
c) Precautions While Using Petroleum Powered Equipment
At the site of excavation, where petroleum powered equipment is used, petroleum vapors are likely to
accumulate at lower levels and may cause fire explosion under favorable circumstances.
Care shall, therefore, be taken to avoid all sources of ignition in such places.
3.3.10 Piling and Deep Foundation
All piling and deep foundation operations shall be supervised by a competent foreman. He shall also be
responsible for the precautionary measures to be taken.
For work during night, lighting of at least 100 lux intensity shall be provided at the work site. In excavations
deeper than 1.5 m, ladders, ramps or other means of escape, and staging shall be provided.
Every crane driver or hoisting appliance operator shall be competent to the satisfaction of the engineer-in-
charge and no person under the age of 21 years shall be in-charge of any hoisting machine including any
scaffolding winch, or give signals to operator.
3.3.11 Working in Compressed Air
Working in compressed air, in case of deep foundations, requires several precautions to be observed to
safeguard the workmen against severe hazards to life, compressed air disease and related ailments.
Filtered compressed air shall be supplied to a working chamber sufficient to provide 0.3 m3 of fresh air per
minute per person at the pressure in the chamber. Means for the escape of foul air, as well as circulation of
fresh air in the chamber, shall be ensured.
Hot drinks shall be supplied to workmen employed in compressed air after leaving the chamber. No person shall
carry any flammable materials inside the air-lock and nobody shall be allowed to smoke inside. Only approved
type of lamps and torches shall be used. Lighting of at least 4.5 lux intensity shall be provided.
Methanometer shall be used to detect hazardous gases. Samples of air inside the well shall be taken every eight
hours and tested for the presence of hazardous gases and for deficiency of oxygen. In case any hazardous gas is
detected, it shall be immediately reported to the engineer and the work in the compressed air stopped.
The pressure in the chamber, in the first minute, after starting compression shall be increased to 35 kPa. It shall
not be further increased until the lock attendant has checked whether or not there are complaints of
discomfort. The pressure shall then be increased at a rate of 65 kPa/min. If any person complains of discomfort,
the proceeding compression shall be immediately stopped and the person evacuated unless he feels
comfortable again in a reduced pressure.
In case of airlocks where blasting is done, the workmen shall be permitted to start work only after an inspection
by a competent professional found it to be safe. Air required for pneumatic tools shall be cooled and purified in
the same way as air for working chamber.
Every man lock shall have a minimum head room of 1.8 m and at least 0.85 m3 of space per person. It shall be
suitably equipped with an accurate pressure gauge, clocks, and efficient means to convey visible or nonverbal
signals to the lock attendant outside. All electrical installations inside the airlock shall be of flame proof type.
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All equipment shall be thoroughly inspected after every 45 days of working and every time it is shifted and
reinstalled, and certified to be in a safe working condition by a competent person. A record of all such
inspections shall be kept in a register.
The receiver shall be capable of maintaining the working pressure for at least four hours. Adequate access
through the bulk heads and sufficient ladders shall be provided. Escape routes in tunnels shall be in the corner.
Whilst any person is in a working chamber, the door between such chamber and any man-lock providing egress
towards a lower pressure shall be kept open.
No person shall be in a working chamber under pressure where the wet bulb temperature exceeds 29C
measured by a thermometer using nontoxic materials.
No person shall be employed on work in compressed air unless under the supervision of a person experienced in
such work. No person shall be employed where the pressure exceeds 120 kPa unless he has, within the previous
four weeks been examined and certified to be fit for employment in compressed air. If a person is suffering from
cold in head, sore throat, earache etc., he/she shall not be employed in compressed air. Finally work in
compressed air shall carried out only by workers whose physical aptitude for such work has been established by
a medical examination and when competent person is present to supervise the conduct of the operations.
Where the pressure exceeds, a suitably constructed medical-lock shall be provided. It shall have two chambers,
and doors fitted with bulls eyes and air valve. The lock shall have couch, blanket, dry woolen garments, food
etc. The medical lock shall be supplied with air, free of oil and carbon monoxide, and capable of raising the
pressure from 0 to 520 kPa in 5 minutes.
3.3.12 Adjoining Properties and Service Lines
Where bored or driven piling works are to be carried out in the vicinity of old structures which are likely to be
damaged, tell-tales shall be fixed on such structures to monitor their behavior while piling is in progress; timely
precautions shall be taken against any adverse effect.
Steps shall be taken, if necessary, to increase the general stability of the construction site or the adjoining
site(s), before new structures are erected. In all cases, the possible effect of slopes and excavation of foundation
stability shall be carefully investigated.
Before excavation or pile driving, information on the location of underground utility connections shall be
obtained from the relevant authorities. Probable extent of all damages due to pile driving to adjoining
structures or service lines shall be ascertained in advance of operation; pile driving shall be planned accordingly,
especially in the case of pre-cast pile driving.
If excavation involves cutting through existing land drains, they shall be carefully diverted into the ground
drainage system. In addition, all other precautionary measures required by Sec 1.5 shall also be taken.
3.4 PILE RIG
3.4.1 Erection of Pile Rig
The frame of the rigs shall be structurally safe for all anticipated dead, live and wind loads.
Whenever the structural strength is in doubt, suitable test shall be carried out by the engineer and the results
recorded. No pile driving equipment shall be used until it has been inspected and found safe.
When two or more pile drivers are used at the same location, they shall be separated by a distance at least
equal to the longest leg of either rig.
Pile drivers shall be firmly supported on heavy timber sills, concrete beds or other secure foundations. If
necessary, pile drivers shall be adequately guyed. Rigs not in use shall be supported by at least three guys to
withstand wind, storm, gales and earthquake.
3.4.2 Operation of Pile Rig
Access to working platforms and top of pulley shall be provided by ladders. Working platforms shall be
protected from wind and rain. Ladder in regular use in tall driven piling rigs, or rigs of similar nature, shall be
securely fastened and extended for the full height of the rig.
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Exposed gears, flywheels, etc. shall be fully enclosed. Motor gearing, transmission, electrical wiring and other
parts of a hoisting machine which are sources of hazard shall have proper safeguards.
To operate energized electrical installations, insulating mats and wearing apparel, such as gloves, etc. shall be
used. Sheaves on pile drivers shall be guarded against workers drawn into them accidentally.
No steam or air driven equipment shall be repaired while it is in operation or under pressure.
Steam and air lines shall be controlled by easily accessible shut-off valves. These lines shall consist of armoured
hose or its equivalent.
The hose of steam and air hammers shall be securely lashed to the hammer so as to prevent it from whipping if
a connection breaks. Couplings of sections of hose shall be additionally secured by ropes or chains. When not in
use, the hammer shall remain in dropped position held in place by a cleat, timber or other suitable means.
Hoisting appliances shall be provided with means to reduce the risk of accidental descent of the load. Adequate
precautions shall also be taken to reduce the risk of any part of suspended load becoming accidentally
displaced. Care shall be taken to prevent the hammer from missing the pile.
Loads shall be adequately counter-balanced, and the tilting device secured against slipping.
Precautions in the form of securing the legs shall be taken to prevent a pile driver from overturning if a wheel
breaks. Stirrups or other means shall be provided to prevent the rope from coming out of the top pulley or
wheel. Hoisting ropes on pile drivers shall be made of galvanized steel.
Pile drivers shall not be erected in proximity to electric conductors. When electricity is used as power for piling
rig, only armored cable conforming to BDS 901 and other relevant standards shall be used. The cable shall be
thoroughly waterproofed.
3.4.3 Piles
Piles shall be prepared at a distance at least equal to twice the length of the longest pile, from the pile driver.
Workers employed in the vicinity of pile drivers shall wear helmets conforming to BDS 1265. No steam or air
shall be released until all workers are at a safe distance.
Piles shall be so slung that they do not swing or whip round. A hand rope shall be fastened to a pile hoisted to
control its movement. Long piles and heavy sheet piling shall be secured against falling. While a pile is being
guided into position in the leads, workers shall not put their hands or arms between the pile and the inside
guide or on top of the pile. Inclined piles shall rest in a guide while driven.
Maximum length of ballies (wooden piles) shall be 9 m. Ballies shall not be less than 50 mm in diameter at any
place and shall spread to 75-200 mm in diameter at the top depending on the class of ballies. Each ballie shall be
legibly and indelibly marked with information on the species of timber, suppliers name, class of ballie etc.
Whenever required, butt ends of ballies shall be preserved with creosote-fuel oil mixture 50:50.
The driving end of a ballie post shall be provided with an iron ring or cap. When creosoted ballies are driven,
adequate precautions, such as the provision of personal protective equipment and barrier creams, shall be
taken to prevent injury from splashes of creosote.
3.4.4 Inspection and Tests
Pile driving equipment shall be inspected by an engineer at regular intervals not exceeding three months. A
register shall be maintained at the site for recording the results of such inspection. Pile lines and pulley blocks
shall be inspected by the foreman before the beginning of each shift for any excess wear or other defects.
Defective parts of pile drivers, such as sheaves, mechanism slings and hose shall be repaired by only competent
technicians and duly inspected by foreman in-charge of the rig. The findings of such inspection shall be recorded
in the register.
For every hoisting machine, chain, rig, hook, shackle, swivel and pulley block used in hoisting or suspending, the
safe working loads shall be ascertained. Every hoisting machine and all gears shall be marked with the safe
working loads and the conditions under which it is applicable.
Tests shall be performed in case of doubt and half of the tested load shall be taken as the safe working load. No
part of any machine or any gear shall be loaded beyond the safe working load.
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3.5 CONSTRUCTION OF WALLS
3.5.1 General
The height of wall constructed per day shall be restricted to ensure that the newly constructed wall does not
collapse due to the lack of strength in the lower layers. Adequate number of expansion joints shall be provided
in long walls to prevent crumpling.
3.5.2 Scaffold
Properly designed and constructed scaffolding built by competent workmen shall be provided during the
construction of the walls to ensure the safety of workers. The scaffolding shall be of timber, metal or bamboo
sections and the materials in scaffolding shall be inspected for soundness, strength, etc, at site by the Engineer-
in-charge prior to erection of scaffolds. Steel scaffolds intended for use in normal building construction work
shall conform to accepted BDS standards. Bamboo and timber scaffolds shall be properly tied to the junctions
with coir ropes of sufficient strength or mechanical joints to ensure that joints do not give way due to the load
of workmen and material. Joining the members of scaffolds only with nails shall be prohibited as they are likely
to get loose under normal weathering conditions. The scaffold has to check after every 15 days in rainy season
and 30 days in dry season. In the erection or maintenance of tall buildings, scaffoldings shall be of
noncombustible material especially when the work is being done on any building in occupation. After initial
construction of the scaffolding, frequent inspections of scaffolding shall be made by the Engineer-in-charge. The
platforms, gangways and runways provided on the scaffoldings shall be of sufficient strength and width to
ensure safe passage for the workmen working on the scaffolding. The joints provided in these gangways,
platforms, etc, shall be such as to ensure a firm foot-hold to the workmen. Where necessary cross bars shall be
provided to the full width of gangway or runway to facilitate safe walking.
The Engineer-in-charge shall ensure by frequent inspections that gangways of scaffolding have not become
slippery due to spillage of material. Loose materials shall not be allowed to remain on the gangways. Where
necessary, because of height or restricted width, hand-rails shall be provided on both sides. Workers shall not
be allowed to work on the scaffolding during bad weather and high winds.
In the operations involved in the erection or maintenance of outside walls, fittings, etc, of tall buildings, it is
desirable to use one or more net(s) for the safety of the workmen when the workmen are required to work on
scaffoldings.
3.5.3 Ladders
Setting of Ladders: Rails of ladders shall extend at least 1m above the landing and shall be secured at the upper
end. As an alternative, there shall be adequate handhold at landing or side guys with anchorage at the bottom.
To prevent slipping, a ladder shall be secured at the bottom end or held by a person at the time of use. A lean-
to-ladder shall have a maximum angle of 75 with the horizontal. Ladders shall be provided with nonslip bases
on slippery or sloping floors. Ladders used in strong wind shall be securely lashed in position.
A ladder shall neither be placed against window pane, sashes or such other fragile or easy yielding objects, nor
in front of doors opening towards it. If set up in driveways, passageways or public walkways, it shall be
protected by barricades. Ladders shall not be supported on any insecure base, e.g. scaffold, planking over
trenches etc.
Use of Ladders: All ladders shall be constructed of sound material, and shall be capable of carrying the design
loads. No ladder with a missing or defective rung, or supported on nails only, shall be used. A dropped ladder
shall be inspected prior to reuse.
Ladders shall not be used as guys, braces or skids or in horizontal position as runways and catwalk. They shall
not be generally overcrowded. Ladders shall not be spliced; when unavoidable, splicing shall be done only under
the supervision of a foreman.
A user shall place his feet near the ends of the rungs rather than near the middle, and face the ladder when
using it. Both the hands shall be used in climbing a ladder.
Leaning more than 300 mm from the side in order to reach another area from a single setting of the ladder shall
not be allowed; the ladder shall be shifted to the required position.
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All joints in the ladder shall be properly constructed. Where necessary, handrails shall be provided to the
ladders. A brace shall be attached at the middle and supported from a non yielding fixed object if a ladder shows
tendency to spring. Excessive deflection of ladders shall be prevented by stiffeners.
Metal ladder shall not be used close to electrical equipment or circuits. They shall be marked with 'CAUTION DO
NOT USE NEAR ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT' signs. Overhead protection shall be provided for workers working
under a ladder.
Wooden ladders shall be inspected at least once in 6 weeks for damage and deterioration. Close visual
inspection is recommended in preference to load testing. This condition is particularly applicable to rope and
bamboo ladders where fraying of ropes and damage to bamboo is likely to occur.
3.5.4 Opening in Walls
Before making an opening in an existing wall, adequate supports against the collapse or cracking of the wall
portion above the opening or roof or adjoining walls shall be provided. Staging shall be of full length of the wall
opening.
Wall opening barriers and screens shall be capable of withstanding the intended load. Every chute, wall opening
or any other wall opening from which there is a vertical drop of more than 1200 mm shall be guarded by
barriers.
The guard shall be removable, hinged or otherwise mounted. The guards shall be kept in position regardless of
the use of the opening. In addition, a grab handle shall be provided on each side of the opening. The opening
shall have a minimum 25 mm high sill.
3.5.5 Projection from Walls
Formwork provided for horizontal projections out of the wall shall not be removed till walls, or other stabilizing
construction, over the supporting edge of the projecting slabs providing protection against overturning are
constructed.
3.5.6 Common Hazards During Walling
3.5.6.1 Lifting of Materials for Construction
Implements used for carrying materials to the top of scaffoldings shall be of adequate strength and shall not be
overloaded during the work. Where workmen have to work below scaffoldings or ladder, overhead protection
against the falling materials shall be provided. Care shall be taken in carrying large bars, rods, etc, during
construction of the walls to prevent any damage to property or injury to workmen.
3.5.6.2 Haulage of Materials
In case of precast columns, steel beams, etc, proper precautions shall be taken to correctly handle, use and
position them with temporary arrangement of guys till grouting of the base.
Manila or sisal rope shall not be used in rainy season for hoisting of heavy materials as they lose their strength
with alternate wetting and drying.
3.5.6.3 Electrical Hazards
No scaffolding, ladder, working platform, gangway runs, etc, shall exist within 3 m from any uninsulated electric
wire. The distance from high tension line for those features would be as per specification of PDB.
3.5.6.4 Fire Hazards
Gangways and the ground below the scaffolding shall be kept free from readily combustible materials including
waste and dry vegetation at all times.
Where extensive use of blow torch or other flame is anticipated scaffoldings, gangways, etc, shall be
constructed with fire resistant materials. A portable dry powder extinguisher of 3 kg capacity shall be kept
handy.
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3.5.6.5 Mechanical Hazards
Care shall be taken to see that no part of scaffolding or walls is struck by truck or heavy moving equipment and
no material shall be dumped against them to prevent any damage. When such scaffoldings are in or near a
public thoroughfare, sufficient warning lights and boards shall be provided on the scaffoldings to make them
clearly visible to the public.
3.5.6.6 Fragile Materials
During glazing operations, adequate precautions shall be taken to ensure that the fragments of fragile materials
do not cause any injury to workmen or general public in that area by way of providing covering to such material,
side protection at work site, etc.
3.6 CONSTRUCTION OF FLOORS
3.6.1 General
Platforms, catch ropes, nets etc. shall be provided during the construction of roofs. Precautions shall be taken to
employ the correct technique of hoisting materials, to use hoists of sufficient strength for the quantity of stores
to be hoisted, and to prevent overloading and overturning of hoists or buckets, etc.
Where, the floor of one storey is to be used for storage of materials for the construction of roof, it shall be
ensured that the total load does not exceed the capacity of the floor.
3.6.2 Use of Sheets
It shall be ensured that joints in corrugated galvanized iron or asbestos cement sheets are kept secured in
position and sheets do not slip. Walking on asbestos cement sheets shall not be allowed.
Tiles shall not be left loose on the roof.
Injury to passers-by due to breakage of glass or plastic sheets shall be prevented. During wet conditions, work
on sloped roof shall not be allowed unless the foreman decides that the roof is not as slippery as to pose any
risk. In slopes of more than 30 to the horizontal, ladders, waist-tie etc. shall be used.
3.6.3 Platforms
Working platform required according to the type of roof shall be provided. Additional precaution shall be taken
to construct the platform with sound material secured and fixed, and checked from time to time throughout the
period of construction.
3.6.4 Flat Roof
Formwork provided for flat concrete roof shall be designed and constructed for the anticipated loads.
During the construction of the roof, the formwork shall be frequently inspected for defects. Enough walking
platforms shall be provided in the reinforcement area to facilitate safe walking to the concreting area. Loose
wires and unprotected rod ends shall be avoided.
Formwork supporting cast-in-place reinforced and pre stressed concrete floors and roofs shall be adequately
tied or braced together to withstand all loads until the new construction has attained the required strengths.
3.6.5 Openings and Holes
Every temporary floor opening shall either have railing of at least 900 mm height, or shall be constantly
attended. Every floor hole shall be guarded by either a railing with toe board, or a hinged cover. Alternatively,
the hole shall be constantly attended or protected by a removable railing.
Every stairway floor opening shall be guarded by a railing at least 900 mm high on the exposed sides except at
entrance to stairway. Every ladder way floor opening or platform shall be guarded by a guard railing with toe
board except at entrance to opening.
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Every open sided floor or platform 1.2 m or more above adjacent floor or ground level shall be guarded by a
railing on all open sides, except where there is entrance to ramp, stairway or fixed ladder. Such entrances shall
be either guarded with a swinging gate, or so offset that a person is prevented from walking directly into the
opening. The railing shall be accompanied by a toe board at least 200 mm high.
The above precautions shall also be taken near the open edges of floors and roofs. Requirements of Sec 1.7.3
and 1.7.4 shall also be met.
3.6.6 Skeleton Construction
Temporary flooring of skeleton construction shall be provided with tightly planked timber over timber supports
to withstand all loads. The temporary flooring can also be made of metal sheet supported on timber or tubular
steel frame. No end of the timber plank or metal sheet shall remain unsupported.
A temporary safety platform or tier shall be maintained within two stories or 6 m, whichever is less, below and
directly under the portion where erection of steel or precast concrete member is required. Tiers shall extend 2.5
m beyond the edge of the work area.
3.7 CONCRETE WORK
3.7.1 General
All workmen involved in concrete work shall be provided with helmet and hand gloves, especially when
concrete pumps, concrete trucks or concrete precast elements are used. Precast piles shall be lifted and driven
by skilled workmen under the supervision of a foreman.
Temporary fencing, either with bamboo or C.I. sheet, shall be erected around heavy equipment delineating the
danger zone. All centering and shuttering materials shall be kept stacked at site before and after use.
3.7.2 Prestressed Concrete
Operating, maintenance and replacement instructions of the supplier of the prestressing equipment shall be
strictly adhered to in all relevant operations. During the jacking of any tension element, the anchor shall be kept
turned up close to anchor plate.
Thread on bolts and nuts shall be frequently checked for deterioration; choked units shall be cleaned. Hydraulic
jacks/rams, pulling-headers and other temporary anchoring devices shall be inspected before use. The
prestressing jacks shall be periodically examined for wear and tear.
No person shall stand in line with the tensioning elements and jacking equipment during the tensioning
operation. Also no one shall be directly over the jacking equipment when deflection is done. Workmen shall be
prevented from working behind the jacks when the tensioning operation is in progress by putting signs, barriers,
or protective shields.
3.7.3 Concrete Mixers
All gears, chains and rollers of mixer plants shall be guarded. If the mixer has a charging skip, the operator shall
ensure that the workmen are at safe distance before the skip is lowered. Barriers shall be provided to prevent
walking under the skip while it is being lowered.
All cables, clamps, hooks, wire ropes, gears, clutches, etc. of the mixer shall be checked and serviced once a
week. A trial run of the mixer shall be made and defects rectified before using a mixer.
While cleaning inside of the mixing drums, the power shall be shut and fuses removed.
3.7.4 Concrete Truck and Buckets
A reasonably smooth traffic surface shall be provided for concrete trucks. If possible, a loop road shall be
provided to allow continuous operation. An easy turnout shall be provided if a loop is not possible to provide.
Workmen and moving plants shall not cross the truck lines as far as practicable.
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Concrete buckets conveyed by crane or overhead cableway shall be suspended from deep throated hooks,
preferably equipped with swivel and safety latch. Closing and locking of the exit door of the concrete bucket
shall always be checked.
3.8 FORMWORK AND SCAFFOLD
3.8.1 Scaffold and Centering Materials
Scaffolds shall be made from strong bamboo poles, wooden posts, steel pipes or any other suitable materials.
They shall be adequately tied to vertical members resting on firm floor. Strong ropes shall be used to tie up
bamboo poles. In addition, cross-bracing with bamboo or wooden posts shall be provided along with ties or guys
of steel wire or rod not less than 6 mm in diameter.
Wooden planks or steel sheets shall be placed across horizontal poles to provide suitable footrest and carry
construction materials. The whole assembly shall be securely lashed together.
Deterioration of tying ropes and rotting planks shall be checked from time to time during the construction
period and changed if required.
Scaffold shall be dismantled after use piece by piece. Holes in the wall shall be filled up with the same materials
as that of the wall. Filled up holes shall have uniformity in texture and color with the surrounding surface. Crash
striking shall not be allowed.
Triangular wooden wedges shall be put under the posts for easy dismantling of the members.
Timber planks or steel sheets covering several posts at a time shall be placed below the vertical or inclined
posts.
Horizontal and inclined bracings shall be provided for posts higher than 3 meters. Spans of beam bottoms shall
be supported by posts at most 1 m apart if steel is used; instructions from the manufacturer/supplier shall be
strictly followed. Spacing of props under beams shall consider the increased load, and shall be posted closer
than those under the floor slab.
All scaffolding exceeding 20 m or six stories in height shall be constructed of noncombustible or fire-retardant
materials. Centering layout shall be planned by the Engineer, bearing capacity of the soil and the effect of
weather shall be considered in the planning.
All nails and similar projecting objects shall be removed or hammered down into the timber component of the
centering and shuttering materials immediately after stripping off.
3.8.2 Formwork for Concrete
The formwork shall be strong and rigidly braced so as not to bulge or sag when concrete is placed.
It shall be constructed in such a way that it can be dismantled without causing damage to the concrete or
disturbing the centering and shuttering of other elements.
Forms shall not be removed until the concrete has developed sufficient strength to support all predicted loads.
Workers removing formwork shall wear helmets, gloves, heavy soled safety shoes and belts if adequate footing
is not available above 2 m. In case of removal of roof shuttering, staging has to provide below the roof. While
cutting any tying wires in tension, care shall be taken against backlash.
Bolts and nuts in vertical concrete walls shall be loosened and withdrawn before initial setting of concrete. The
resulting hole shall be filled with rich mortar. The supports shall be dismantled in the order instructed by the
Engineer.
All walls, columns, slabs etc. shall have plastic or mortar spacers (round for vertical structures and flat for slab)
to be placed with the reinforcement to provide clear cover as per design. Top layers of slab reinforcement shall
be held in position by steel chairs.
The formwork shall be water-tight especially for the roof slab. Bamboo matting shall be placed on planks or
steel sheets to provide a rough surface after stripping of the formwork. Alternatively, ceilings shall be
roughened up by chiseling immediately after stripping off the formwork.
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Suitable camber shall be provided in the formwork for horizontal members. The camber for beams and slabs
shall be 1 in 250, and for cantilevers, 1 in 50 of the projected length.
Half-seasoned soft-wood, laminated board or other smooth sheet shall be used for formwork for a Fair-faced
finish. The upper surface of the formwork shall be covered with oiled soft building board or veneered particle
board. Oiled paper or polythene sheet shall never be used.
The formwork made of materials liable to absorb water shall always be sprinkled with water before laying
concrete. Water shall not be profusely used; the formwork shall be in a saturated surface dry condition.
All the forms shall be tested both individually and in combination before final use to detect any flaw or defect.
Measures shall be taken immediately to remedy any faults, if detected, before the formwork is ready for use.
The frame and its joints shall be checked from time to time for the decay in ropes, bamboos, planks etc. The
defective parts shall be replaced before the formwork is used.
3.8.3 Load Capacity
Scaffolds, formwork and components thereof shall be capable of supporting without failure, at least two times
the maximum intended load. The following loads shall be used in designing the formwork:
a) weight of wet concrete : 20 kN/m3;
b) live load due to workmen and impact of ramming or vibrating : 1.5-4.0 kPa (light duty for
c) carpenter and stone setters, medium duty for bricklayers and plasterers, heavy duty for stone
masons);
d) allowable bending stress (flexural tensile stress) in soft timbers : 8,000 kPa.
The sizes for formwork elements specified in Table 7.3.1 are applicable for spans of up to 5 m and height of up
to 4 m. In case of longer span and height, formwork and support sizes shall be determined by calculating the
load and approved by the engineer before use.
All formworks and scaffolds shall be strong, substantial and stable. All centering and props shall be adequately
braced to ensure lateral stability against all construction and incidental loads, especially in the case of floor
height more than 3.3m.
The space under the scaffold or formwork shall not be used as a working or living space. The space shall not be
used as a shelter or refuge during inclement weather or at any other time.
3.8.4 Bamboos
Good, sound and uniform bamboo shall be collected in sufficient quantities for providing scaffolding, propping,
temporary staging, ramp etc. The bamboos shall be free from any defects, firmly tied to each other and joints
made smooth. Joining members only with nails shall be prohibited.
Bamboos for vertical support shall not be less than 75 mm in diameter, and shall be straight as far as possible.
Bamboos shall be used as vertical support for up to a height of 4 meters if horizontal bracings are provided at
the centre. Splicing shall be avoided.
After stripping the formwork, the bamboo posts shall be cleaned and stacked vertically in shade protected from
rain and sun. Defective or damaged bamboo posts shall be removed from the site.

Table 7.3.1 Sizes of Timber and other Sections for Formwork
Types of Formwork Members Size in mm

Flat sheetings for slab bottoms, columns
and beam side
Beam bottoms
Vertical posts
Bamboo posts
Ballies

25 to 50

75x100 to 150x150
75x100 to 150x150
Minimum 75 dia
Not less than 100 dia at mid-length
and 80 dia at thin end
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Joist and ledgers supporting sheetings of slab
Studs for supporting vertical wall sheetings Columns yokes-
horizontal cross,
pieces supporting vertical sheetings
50 x 100 to 75 x 200
50 x 100 to 150 x 150

50 x 100 to 100 x 100

3.8.5 Timber Posts
Timber posts shall be used in supporting formwork up to a height of 6 m. The posts shall not be less than 80mm
in diameter at any place and shall spread to at least 150mm in diameter at the top.
The timber posts shall be supported on timber planks at the bottom. Either the bottom or the top of the posts
shall be wedged with a piece of triangular wood peg for easy removal. Adequate horizontal and inclined braces
shall be used for all timber centering.
All timber posts shall be carefully inspected before use and members with cracks and excessive knots and
crookedness shall be discarded. The joints shall normally be made with bolts and nuts.
No rusted or spoilt threaded bolts and nuts shall be used.
3.8.6 Steel Centering
Steel centering shall be used for any height. In case of patented material, the instructions of the manufacturer
regarding the load carrying capacities shall be followed.
Post to post supports shall be provided with wooden planks. When tubular steel and timber centering is to be
used in combination, necessary precautions shall be taken to avoid any unequal settlement.
Tubular steel centering shall be thoroughly inspected before erection. Defective members shall be discarded
and coupling pins aligned to frames. Adjustment screws shall be set to their approximate final adjustment after
assembling the basic unit, and the unit shall be level and plumb.
The centering frames shall be braced to make a rigid and solid unit. Struts and diagonal braces shall be in proper
position and secured. As erection progresses, all connecting devices shall be in place, and fastened for full
stability of joints and units.
3.9 ERECTION OPERATIONS
3.9.1 Erection and Hoisting
The erection and striking off, especially of steel structural frame, shall be done by skilled workers.
Built-up, swinging and suspended scaffolds shall also be erected by competent workers.
Care shall be taken to keep fire alarms, hydrants, cable tunnels etc. unobstructed during the construction of
scaffolding and placement of ladders etc.
Anchors for guys or ties shall be checked for proper placement. The weight of concrete in which the anchors are
embedded shall be checked for uplift and sliding. In a tall and heavy guy derrick, tension in guys shall be
controlled by hand winches.
Enough number of bolts shall be used in connecting each piece using a minimum of two bolts in a pattern to
ensure that the joint will not fail. All splice connections in columns, crane girders etc. shall be completely bolted
or riveted or welded before erection as specified in the drawings.
The top flange of a truss, girder or long beam shall be temporarily reinforced with a flat bar on top of the
member. On deep girders and large trusses, a safety bar running their full length shall be provided. The bar can
be a single 16 mm diameter wire rope through vertical stiffeners of each member about one meter above the
bottom flange and clamped at the ends with wire rope clamps. If holes cannot be provided, short eye bolts can
be welded to the webs of the girder at intervals. The bolts shall be removed, and the surface chipped to leave it
smooth after the erection is completed.
The first load lifted by a guy derrick shall be hanged at a low height for 10 minutes and the anchor inspected for
any signs or indications of failure. No load shall be allowed to rest on wire ropes.
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Ropes in operation shall not be touched. Each truss or deep girder loaded in a vehicle shall be tied back or
braced together with other trusses or girders already loaded.
The ropes shall be chemically treated to resist dew and rotting. They shall not be tied on sharp edges of steel
structures. They shall not be tied beyond the reach of safety belts complying to BDS 1359.
The proper size, number and spacing of wire rope clamps, depending on the diameter of the wire rope, shall be
used. They shall be properly fixed and checked as soon as the rope has been stretched, particularly if new. The
clamps shall be promptly tightened when expansion in rope is detected. Clamps and ropes shall be inspected
frequently to be sure that they are secured at place.
3.9.2 Small Articles
Adequate supply of bolts, washers, rivets, pins etc. of required sizes shall be maintained at all times. Foot boxes
on a guy derrick or climbing crane, shall be moved to the new working floor each time the rig is changed. On a
mobile crane, the boxes shall be moved as soon as the crane is moved.
Bolt baskets or similar containers with handles shall be provided on floats or scaffolds where small material,
such as bolts and drift pins are used. Small tools shall be gathered up and put away in tool boxes when not in
use. Rivet heaters shall have safe containers or buckets for unused hot rivets.
Materials shall not be dumped overboard when a scaffold is to be moved.
3.9.3 Hoist Protection
A material hoist shall not be used to transport workers; temporary elevators shall be installed, if necessary.
Proper protection by way of railing, footboard etc. shall be provided to the hoists.
Railing shall have a minimum height of 1 m while the toe board shall be at least 200 mm high.
Where erected on the outside of a building over 20 m or six stories in height, the hoist structure shall be built of
noncombustible or fire retardant materials. Interlocking or any other safety device shall be installed at all
stopping points of the hoists. The hoists shaft way shall be fenced in accordance with Sec 3.6.5.
No part of scaffolding or walls and openings shall be hit by crane, truck or heavy moving equipment.
3.9.4 Lifting Gear
Lifting gears shall be of good construction, sound material and adequate strength. Lifting gears must be tested
and examined by a competent person. Chains, ropes and lifting tackle shall be thoroughly examined by a
competent person every 6 months.
Special devices like cleats and hooks shall be used in erecting girders and other heavy structural members.
These shall be shop-assembled, bolted, riveted or welded to the piece and left permanently in place after the
work. A balance beam shall be used to lift laterally imbalanced pieces. Alternatively, a pair of bridle slings shall
be used at safe lifting points.
Table of safe working loads shall be posted in the tackle store and in prominent positions. No chain, rope or
lifting tackle shall be used for loads exceeding the safe working load. Wrought iron gear shall be effectively heat
treated.
All lifting gear shall be obtained from reliable manufacturers. No home-made or improvised gear shall be used.
3.9.5 Cranes
All parts of a crane must be of good construction free from defects and properly maintained.
Before the crane is used for the first time, it must be thoroughly examined and tested by a competent person.
Crane rails shall be installed and secured on firm ground. In tower cranes, the level difference between the two
rails shall remain within the limits prescribed by the manufacturer.
The safe working load shall be clearly shown on the crane; no crane shall be loaded beyond this limit. Nobody
shall be allowed to work on the wheel tracks within 6 m of a crane, or under crane where he might be struck,
unless effective steps are taken to warn him.
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Electrical wires within the site which can possibly touch the crane or any member being lifted shall be removed
or made dead. Cranes shall not be operated in proximity to a live overhead power line.
If it becomes necessary to operate the crane crossing the safe clearance from power line, the overhead power
lines shall be shut off.
Cranes shall be thoroughly examined, at least once in 9 months and the results entered in a register. The crane
operator shall not violate the safe reach limit of the crane as specified by the manufacturer. Cranes shall not be
operated at a speed which causes the boom to swing.
No person shall be lifted or transported by the crane on its hook or boom. Toe boards and limit stops shall be
provided for wheel barrows on the loading and unloading platforms. Material shall be loaded securely on the
platform with no projection.
Every crane driver or hoisting machine operator shall be competent to the satisfaction of the engineer and no
person under the age of 21 years shall be allowed to operate any hoisting machine and scaffolding winch, or
give signals to the operator. The crane driver shall have the full knowledge of controls, signals, loading, misuse,
ground and emergency regulations.
When the bucket or other members being lifted are out of sight of the crane operator, a signalman shall be
posted in clear view of the loading and unloading areas, and the crane operator. Standard hand signals shall be
used in controlling the movements of the crane; both the operator and the signalman shall be familiar with the
signals.
The crane operator shall respond to signals only from the assigned signalman but shall obey stop signal at any
time from anybody both inside and outside the site.
If a gantry crane is used, a warning bell which sounds automatically during the movement of the crane shall be
given to avoid accidents to workmen crossing or standing in the path of the moving loads.
3.9.6 Slings
Chains shall not be joined by bolting or wiring links together. Shortening the chains by tying knots shall be
prohibited. The chain shall be made free of twists and kinks. Proper eye splices shall be used to attach the chain
hooks.
Chains with locked or stretched links and which do not move freely shall not be used. Ropes shall move freely in
the sheave grooves. Sharp bends in wire ropes shall be avoided; pulley shall be used for these.
Idle and loaded slings shall not be carried together on the crane hook. In multi-legged slings, each leg shall be
evenly loaded. The slings shall be of sufficient length to avoid wide angle between the legs.
3.9.7 Inspection
Materials and joints in scaffolding shall be inspected from time to time both before and after erection for the
soundness, strength, damage due to weathering etc. Inspections shall be made for spillage of material or liquids,
loose material lying on the gangways, and proper access to the platform.
The scaffold shall be secured to the building at enough places; no ties shall be removed. Warning sign
prohibiting the use of any defective or incomplete scaffold and working in bad weather and high wind shall be
posted in a prominent place. Inspections shall be made for the observance of these requirements.
3.10 ELECTRIFICATION, EQUIPMENT AND OPERATIONS
3.10.1 Wiring System
All temporary and permanent wiring systems shall be designed by an engineer. All temporary wiring shall be
done by an electrician holding relevant license.
No scaffolding, ladder, working platform, gangway, runway, etc. shall be placed within 3 meter of an un-
insulated live electric wire. Overhead wires/cables shall be so laid that clearances as required by Sec 2.2.3.4 are
maintained.
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Protection shall be provided for all electrical wiring laid on floor which shall have to be crossed over. All flexible
wiring connecting the electrical appliances shall preferably be enclosed in a flexible metal sheath. Frayed and
bare wires shall not be used for any temporary or permanent electrical connection.
All electrical circuits, other than those required for illuminating the site at night, shall be switched off daily at
the end of the work. The main switch board shall be located in an easily accessible and prominent place. No
clothing or stores shall be kept near it. One 3 kg-4.5 kg CO2 extinguisher, or one 5-kg dry powder extinguisher,
shall be provided near the switch board.
3.10.2 Guarding of Cables
All cables and signal cords shall be guarded wherever such cables and cords pass through or cross working
spaces. Location of underground cables, if any, as well as overhead cables, shall be identified and the scaffolds,
hoists etc. shall be installed after providing proper guards to such cables.
Respective agencies shall be consulted for the proper method of providing protection to such cables, distance to
be maintained to avoid all hazards etc. Cables, especially underground, and their routes shall be marked for
future reference and use.
3.10.3 Lifts
Lifts shall be installed as per instruction of the manufacturer and under proper guidance. If necessary, guards
shall be stationed at the installation site. Building materials shall preferably not be carried in a lift.
Entry to the empty lift well shall be blocked; the blockade shall be capable of withstanding bumping of an
individual against it. Notices/signs shall be displayed in the lift lobby when the lift is not in operation.
3.10.4 Construction Machinery
Construction machinery shall conform to standards specified in the specification of works, or determined as
required on site and approved by the engineer. They shall be in running condition without any defect.
The machinery shall be operated by competent operators only. The machinery will be checked thoroughly for
any defect periodically, as well as each day before use.
Every moving part of or prime mover, and every part of electric generators, motors and rotary converters shall
be securely fenced. Fencing shall be of substantial construction, maintained in efficient working order, and kept
in position when the machine is in motion.
If machines need to be examined, oiled or adjusted while in motion, it shall be approached by certified
mechanics only. Approach to unfenced machinery is allowed only when examination, lubrication etc. cannot be
done with machinery at rest, or when machinery cannot be stopped without serious interference with the
ongoing process.
Exhaust of petrol or diesel powered air compressors, hoists, derricks, pumps and all such machinery shall be well
away from combustible materials. Exhausts opening outside the building shall have a minimum clearance of 200
mm from combustible materials. All sources of ignition like naked flame shall be banned near petroleum- fired
equipment.
3.10.5 Heating of Bitumen and Tar
Bitumen and Tar Vessels: Tanks, vats, kettles, pots, drums and other vessels for heating tar, bitumen and other
bituminous materials shall be made resistant to damage due to transportation, excessive heating etc. All such
vessels shall be capable of holding a full load without danger of collapse, bursting or distortion. They shall be
provided with a close-fitting cover suitable for smothering a fire in the vessel preventing spillage or protecting
the bituminous material from rain.
Buckets for hot bitumen, bituminous material or tar shall have the bail or handle firmly secured, and a second
handle near the bottom for tipping. Bitumen or tar boilers shall be mounted on wheels for easy transportation
or towing, and provided with hand pumps for spraying purposes.
Heated vessels shall not be left unattended. Only vessels using electricity for heating shall be used inside
buildings. Tar boilers shall never be used on a roof constructed of combustible materials.
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Bituminous material shall not be thrown into the hot vessels. Vessels shall be kept closed when not in use.
Containers shall not be filled to the brim with hot bitumen or tar. Enough space shall be left in vessels for
expansion of heated binder.
The vessel shall be leak-proof, and provided with controllable outlets. The buckets and cans in which the hot
material is carried shall be checked for any defect before use.
Heating of Bitumen and Tar: Gas and oil-fired bitumen and tar kettles or pots shall be equipped with burners,
regulators and safety devices. Heating appliances for vessels shall distribute the heat uniformly over the heating
surface. If bituminous mixtures have mineral aggregate filler, some means for stirring shall be provided.
Vessels filled with bituminous materials shall be kept at a distance from combustible materials.
When vessels are used in confined spaces, the gases, fumes and smoke generated shall be removed by exhaust
or forced ventilation.
No naked light shall be used near heated boilers. If a burner stops burning, the fuel supply shall be cut-off
immediately and the heating tube shall be thoroughly blown out by the fan.
Cutbacks shall not be heated over an open flame unless a water jacket is used. While they are being heated, the
vessel shall be kept open. Blow-lamps or similar devices shall be used for warming pipes instead of burning rags.
Bitumen and tar shall not be heated beyond the temperature recommended by the manufacturer of the
product.
Other Precautions: Indicator gauges shall be used to ascertain level and temperature of the material in the
boiler; nobody shall be allowed to peep into the boiler to ascertain the level. In small plants, dipstick shall be
used to gauge the levels in the boiling pot.
Bitumen and tar shall be kept dry. Boiler shall either have a device that prevents foam from reaching the
burners, or anti-foaming agents shall be used to control foaming. The heating shall be at low temperature till
the water entrapped, if any, is completely evaporated. Any water present in the boiler shall also be drained out
before using it.
Bitumen or tar spilled around boilers shall be promptly cleaned up. When tanks are cleaned by steam, building-
up of pressure shall be prevented. No inspection shall be made while the boiler is under use, or is pressurized.
While discharging heated binder from the boiler, workers shall not stand opposite to the jet. The container shall
be handled only after closing the valve. Bitumen and tar shall be handled in a way as not to spill.
Mops and other applicators covered with bituminous materials shall not be stored inside buildings.
3.10.6 Flame Cutting and Welding
For all arc welding work, either a helmet or a hand-held face shield conforming to BDS 1360 shall be used. See
also Sec 3.2.1.
All welding and flame-cutting operations shall be performed in protected areas; closed spaces shall be properly
ventilated. Suitable protection against the rays of the electric arc shall be provided where arc welding
operations might be viewed within normal range by persons other than the welding operators and inspectors.
When working on aluminum structures, or close to other welders, protection for the back of the head shall be
arranged. When slag is being removed from weld by clipping, the eyes shall be protected by goggles conforming
to BDS 1360.
Leather gauntlet gloves with canvas or leather cuffs, shall be worn by welders. Any visible foam near the arc
shall be rapidly dispersed. Where argon or carbon dioxide is being used as the shielding gas, particularly in
confined spaces, breathing apparatus of the airline type shall be worn.
Gas cylinders shall be kept in the upright position, and conveyed in trolleys. While being carried by cranes, the
gas cylinders shall be put in cages. The cylinder shall be marked 'full' or 'empty' as the case may be.
Gas cylinders shall be stored away from open flames and other sources of fire. Oxygen cylinders shall not be
stored near oil, grease, sources of gas and similar combustible materials.
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When the cylinders are in use, cylinder valve key or wrench shall be placed in position. Cylinder valve shall be
closed before a cylinder is moved, when the torches are being replaced or welding is stopped for some reason.
The cylinder valve and connection shall not be lubricated.
A 5 Kg CO
2
or DCP type fire extinguisher must be kept where gas cutting and welding works are done. Acetylene
cylinder which has been subject to heat must be kept completely submerged in water at least for 12 hours
before further use.
Gas cutting and welding torches shall be lighted by special lighters, not with matches. The cables from welding
equipment shall not be run over by traffic. Double earthing shall be provided to the welding machines.
If welding is to be done near combustible materials, suitable blanket shall be provided and fire extinguishers
kept nearby. Welding shall not be done in areas where flammable liquids and gases are stored.
Gas lines and compressed air lines shall be marked differently by suitable color codes. Facilities shall be provided
in approved closed containers for housing the necessary vision, respiratory and protective equipment required
in welding operations.
3.10.7 Riveting Operation
Rivets shall be carefully handled to prevent accidental fall; wooden bottom shall be provided in rivet catchers.
Chains shall not be used in riveting dollies; leather, canvas or rope sling shall be used.
Snap and plunger shall be prevented from dropping out of place by securing the pneumatic riveting hammer.
Nozzle of the hammer shall be inspected from time to time. Torn or worn wire attachment shall be renewed.
Water shall be kept ready for putting out fire during riveting operations.
Snap and plunger shall be prevented from dropping out of place by securing the pneumatic riveting hammer.
Nozzle of the hammer shall be inspected from time to time. Torn or worn wire attachment shall be renewed.
Water shall be kept ready for putting out fire during riveting operations.
3.11 CONSTRUCTION HAZARDS
3.11.1 General
Implements used for carrying materials to the top of scaffolding shall be of adequate strength and shall not be
overloaded during the work. Overhead protection against falling materials shall be provided under scaffoldings
and ladders. Care shall be taken in carrying long and heavy bars, rods, angles and other such materials.
Precautions shall be taken to correctly handle, use and position precast RC columns, piles, steel beams, joists,
angles and other heavy elements. Temporary supports with guys and props shall be provided in handling heavy
elements till the member is properly and permanently secured in position. Manila or Sisal rope shall not be used
in rainy season for hoisting heavy materials.
People suffering from asthma, chronic bronchitis, pulmonary fibrosis, or pneumoconiosis shall be screened out
from being employed in works involving the use of paints, varnishes, plastic foam, rubber, adhesives, etc. Those
having impaired lung function, hay fever, eczema, dermatitis etc. shall also be advised to avoid such work.
All construction sites shall have sufficient general and local ventilation unless otherwise required.
Adequate number of Absorptive respirators shall be provided to sites with inhalation hazard. Full breath
apparatus shall be used for works of limited period in dangerous situations.
The workers shall be made aware of personal hygiene. Regular health check up shall be arranged for works
requiring high physical fitness for prolonged period.
3.11.2 Fire Hazards
Gangways and the ground below the scaffolding shall be kept free from readily combustible materials including
waste, debris and any vegetation at all times.
Scaffoldings, gangways, etc. shall be constructed with fire resistant materials when blow torch or other
equipment producing flame is extensively used near it. A portable dry powder extinguisher of 3 kg capacity shall
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be kept near all flame producing equipment. Sec 2.1.3, Sec 2.2.4 and Sec 2.2.5.3 shall also be followed in
addition to the following requirements.
Fire Protection: Fire extinguishers, preferably of water type, shall be placed at strategic points.
Extinguishers shall always be placed in cranes, hoists, compressors and similar places. Where electrical
equipment is used, CO2 or dry powder extinguishers shall be provided.
In addition to fire extinguishers, other fire extinguishing equipment, e.g. sprinklers and hydrants shall also be
provided and conveniently located both within the building under construction and at the building site. All
extinguishers shall be maintained in a usable condition at all times in accordance to the instructions of the
manufacturer.
All workmen and supervisory staff shall be clearly briefed on the use of fire extinguishers provided at the
construction site. Free access shall be provided and maintained at all times to all firefighting equipment
including fire hose, extinguishers, sprinkler valves and hydrants.
Where the project itself requires the installation of fixed firefighting equipment, such as hydrants, stand pipes,
sprinklers and underground water mains or other suitable arrangements for the provision of water, it shall be
installed and made available for permanent use as soon as possible, in no case later than the scheduled time.
A permanent hydrant system shall be made available before the building has reached the height of 20 m. This
shall be extended with every increase in the number of floors, and securely capped at the top. Top hose outlets
shall be at all times not more than one floor below the floor under construction. All construction sites with a fire
risk shall have at least two exits.
Temporary stand pipes with required pumps shall be provided in place of permanent systems if they are
designed to furnish 400 liters of water per minute at 450 kPa pressure with a standpipe size of not less than 100
mm.
A metal box of substantial size preferably to be kept open, shall be provided and maintained near each hose
outlet. It shall contain adequate length of hose fitted with 12 or 20 mm nozzle to reach all parts of the floor.
Free access from the street to such stand pipe shall be maintained at all times. Materials shall not be stored
within 1.5 m of any fire hydrant or in the roadway between such hydrant and the centre line of the street.
Contact shall be established and maintained with the local fire authority during construction of all buildings
above 20 m in height and buildings of special occupancies like educational, assembly, institutional, industrial,
storage, hazardous and mixed occupancies having areas in excess of 500 sqm on each floor.
Telephone or other means of inter-communication system within the site shall be provided during the
construction of all buildings over 20 m in height or buildings with a plinth area in excess of 1000 sqm.
All waste, such as scrap timber, wood shavings, sawdust, paper, packing materials and oily substance,
particularly in or near vertical shaft openings like stairways, lift shaft etc. shall be collected and disposed off
safely at the end of each day's work.
An independent water storage facility shall be provided before the commencement of construction operations
for fire-fighting purposes. The tank shall be kept filled up at all times. Sec 2.2.5 shall also be followed.
Flammable Materials and Explosives: Highly flammable materials, such as gasoline, oil, paints etc. shall be stored
in approved containers. Storage of large quantities shall not be allowed unless stored in separate compartments
or enclosures of noncombustible construction.
Where cellulose or other highly flammable paint is sprayed, flame-proof exhaust ventilation equipment shall be
provided. Smoking shall be strictly controlled where highly flammable liquids are used.
Explosives like detonators, gunpowder etc. shall be stored in conformity with relevant regulations for storage
and handling of explosives. Combustible materials shall not be stored on any floor under construction until all
combustible form works are removed from the tier immediately above.
Temporary Heating: When temporary heating is used, all regulations as to the maximum temperature, distance
from combustible materials, spark arrestors, removal of noxious gases and other similar requirements shall be
fully observed. Temporary enclosure shall be provided where the source of temporary heat includes open-flame
devices.
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Steam Boiler: All temporary or permanent high pressure steam boilers shall be operated only by licensed
operators. Where located within a building or within 3 meters of combustible materials or electric power lines,
all such boilers shall be enclosed with approved noncombustible covers. Safety valves shall be adjusted to
exactly 70 kPa in excess of working pressure. Two dry chemical power (DCP) type fire extinguishers of 5 kg
capacity each shall be kept at easily accessible locations.
House Keeping: Rubbish, trash, nuts, bolts and small tools shall not be allowed to accumulate on the site and
shall be removed as soon as conditions warrant. Combustible rubbish shall be removed daily. Rubbish shall not
be burnt on the premises or in the immediate vicinity. The entire premises and area adjoining and around the
construction site shall be kept in a safe and sanitary condition.
Fire Exits: All construction sites with a fire-risk shall have at least two clearly marked fire exits.
Other means of escape as required by various sections of this Code shall be provided in a construction site. Fire
exits shall be easily operable; stores, packing materials or rubbish shall not obstruct the exit.
Fire walls and exit stairways required for a building shall be given priorities in construction schedule. Where fire
doors, with or without automatic closing devices, are to be set in the building, they shall be hung as soon as
practicable, and before fire risk is increased by way of greater use of combustible material.
3.11.3 Health Hazards
Emission: Precautionary measures shall be taken against the emission of dust, small particles, toxic gases and
other harmful substances in quantities hazardous to health. Such measures shall include local ventilation, use of
protective devices, medical check-up etc. Exhaust ventilation shall be employed in enclosed spaces.
Clothing: Clothes worn by the workmen shall not be of such nature and materials as to increase the chances of
inflicting injuries to themselves or others. Wearing of loose garments shall be strictly avoided.
Workmen using naked flames (such as in welding) shall not wear clothing of synthetic fibre or similar materials
which increases the risk of fire hazards.
Removal of Dust: Spread of dust, sand blasts and other harmful materials and chemical agents shall be
controlled at or near the source to prevent overspill to adjoining premises or streets.
Proper gear and protection as required by regulations shall be provided to the workmen.
Proper methods of handling and transportation shall be followed. Places prone to generate dust shall be
frequently cleaned. Machinery and plants shall be designed for easy cleaning.
First Aid and Ambulance: A copy of all pertinent regulations and notices concerning accidents, injury and first aid
shall be prominently displayed at the work site.
A first aid box or cupboard shall be provided for every 150 workmen and be accessible. The provision shall also
include a stretcher and cot with accessories for every 300 workmen.
In case of a site where more than 600 workmen are employed at any one time, or in which more than 300
workmen are employed at any one time and is 15 km from the nearest health service facility, provision of an
ambulance shall be made.
3.11.4 Skin Hazard
Workmen engaged in works which may splash liquid or other materials liable to injure the skin shall have
enough protective clothing to cover the body and limbs.
Whenever epoxy resins are mixed indoor, the place shall be adequately ventilated. Damaged protective gears
shall not be used, and shall be replaced. Containers of hazardous chemicals shall be kept in a clearly marked-off
area of the work space.
Spillage on and contamination of tools, equipment, or the outside of the containers shall be avoided. If spillage
or contamination occurs, the affected area shall be cleaned up immediately.
Contaminated skin/part of the body shall be washed immediately with warm soapy water. Proper barrier
creams shall be used. All contamination on part of the body shall be regularly and efficiently removed during
breaks and after finishing time.
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3.11.5 Noise Hazard
Noise shall be controlled, if possible, by soundproof shields, baffles or absorbent lined booths being fitted near
or around the source. Other general methods of control shall include silencing of machine exhaust, choice of
quite machines etc.
Protective measures shall be taken if the continuous noise level at the construction site exceeds 90 dB. For
levels up to 110 dB, properly fitted ear plugs of plastic, rubber or glass wool shall be provided. For levels up to
120 dB, ear muffs shall be used; for levels exceeding 120 dB, noise protection helmets shall be provided.
All noise control equipment shall be regularly inspected and maintained by adequately trained personnel. Care
shall be taken to prevent noise becoming a nuisance to neighbouring property.
Other precautions as specified in Part 8 Chapter 4 shall also apply.
3.12 ADDITIONAL SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR ERECTION OF CONCRETE FRAMED
STRUCTURES (HIGH RISE BUILDINGS)
Workmen working in any position where there is a falling hazard shall wear safety belts or other adequate
protection shall be provided.
3.12.1 Handling of Plant
3.12.1.1 Mixers
All gears, chains and rollers of mixers shall be properly guarded. If the mixer has a charging skip the operator
shall ensure that the workmen are out of danger before the skip is lowered. Railings shall be provided on the
ground to prevent anyone walking under the skip while it is being lowered.
All cables, clamps, hooks, wire ropes, gears and clutches, etc, of the mixer, shall be checked and cleaned, oiled
and greased, and serviced once a week. A trial run of the mixer shall be made and defects shall be removed
before operating a mixer.
When workmen are cleaning the inside of the drums, operating power of the mixer shall be locked in the off
position and all fuses shall be removed and a suitable notice hung at the place.
3.12.1.2 Cranes
See Sec 3.9.5
3.12.1.3 Trucks
When trucks are being used on the site, traffic problems shall be taken care of. A reasonably smooth traffic
surface shall be provided. If practicable, a loop road shall be provided to permit continuous operation of
vehicles and to eliminate their backing. If a continuous loop is not possible, a turnout shall be provided. Backing
operations shall be controlled by a signalman positioned so as to have a clear view of the area behind the truck
and to be clearly visible to the truck driver. Movement of workmen and plant shall be routed to avoid crossing,
as much as possible, the truck lanes.
3.12.2 Formwork
The Formwork shall conform to the shape, lines and dimensions as shown on the plans, and be so constructed
as to remain sufficiently rigid during the placing and compacting of the concrete, and shall be sufficiently tight to
prevent loss of liquid from the concrete.
Formwork shall be designed after taking into consideration spans, setting temperature of concrete, dead load
and working load to be supported and safety factor for the materials used for formwork.
All timber formwork shall be carefully inspected before use and members having cracks and excessive knots
shall be discarded.
As timber centering usually takes an initial set when vertical load is applied, the design of this centering shall
make allowance for this factor.
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The vertical supports shall be adequately braced or otherwise secured in position that these do not fall when
the load gets released or the supports are accidentally hit.
Tubular steel centering shall be used in accordance with the manufacturers instructions. When tubular steel
and timber centering is to be used in combination necessary precautions shall be taken to avoid any unequal
settlement under load.
A thorough inspection of tubular steel centering is necessary before its erection and members showing evidence
of excessive resting, kinks, dents or damaged welds shall be discarded. Buckled or broken members shall be
replaced. Care shall also be taken that locking devices are in good working order and that coupling pins are
effectively aligned to frames.
After assembling the basic unit, adjustment screws shall be set to their approximate final adjustment and the
unit shall be level and plumb so that when additional frames are installed the tower shall be in level and plumb.
The centering frames shall be tied together with sufficient braces to make a rigid and solid unit. It shall be
ensured that struts and diagonals braces are in proper position and are secured so that frames develop full load
carrying capacity. As erection progresses, all connecting devices shall be in place and shall be fastened for full
stability of joints and units.
In case of timber posts, vertical joints shall be properly designed. The connections shall normally be with bolts
and nuts. Use of rusted or spoiled threaded bolts and nuts shall be avoided.
Unless the timber centering is supported by a manufacturers certificate about the loads it can stand, centering
shall be designed by a competent engineer.
Centering layout shall be made by a qualified engineer and shall be strictly followed. The bearing capacity of the
soil shall be kept in view for every centering job. The effect of weather conditions shall be considered as dry clay
may become very plastic after a rainfall and show marked decrease in its bearing capacity.
Sills under the supports shall be set on firm soil or other suitable material in a pattern which assures adequate
stability for all props. Care shall be taken not to disturb the soil under the supports.
Adequate drainage shall be provided to drain away water coming due to rains, washing of forms or during the
curing of the concrete to avoid softening of the supporting soil strata.
All centering shall be finally, inspected to ensure that:
a) footings or sills under every post of the centering are sound.
b) all lower adjustment screws or wedges are sung against the legs of the panels.
c) all upper adjustment screws or heads of jacks are in full contact with the formwork.
d) panels are plumb in both directions.
e) all cross braces are in place and locking devices are in closed and secure position.
f) In case of balconies, the props shall be adequate to transfer the load to the supporting point.
During pouring of the concrete, the centering shall be constantly inspected and strengthened, if required,
wedges below the vertical supports tightened and adjustment screws properly adjusted as necessary. Adequate
protection of centering shall be secured from moving vehicles or swinging loads.
Forms shall not be removed earlier than as laid down in the specifications and until it is certain that the concrete
has developed sufficient strength to support itself and all loads that will be imposed on it. Only workmen
actually engaged in removing the formwork shall be allowed in the area during these operations. Those engaged
in removing the formwork shall wear helmets, gloves and heavy soled shoes and approved safety belts if
adequate footing is not provided above 2 m level. While cutting any tying wires in tension, care shall be taken to
prevent backlash which might hit a workman.
The particular order in which the supports are to be dismantled shall be followed according to the instructions
of the site engineer.
3.12.3 Ramps and Gangways
Ramps and gangways shall be of adequate strength and evenly supported. They shall either have a sufficiently
flat slope or shall have cleats fixed to the surface to prevent slipping of workmen.
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Ramps and gangways shall be kept free from grease, mud, snow or other slipping hazards or, other obstructions
leading to tripping and accidental fall of a workman.
Ramps and gangways meant for transporting materials shall have even surface and be of sufficient width and
provided with skirt boards on open sides.
3.12.4 Materials Hoists
The hoist shall be erected on a firm base, adequately supported and secured. All materials supporting the hoist
shall be appropriately designed and strong enough for the work intended and free from defects.
The size of the drum shall match the size of the rope. Not less than two full turns of rope shall remain on the
drum at all times. Ropes shall be securely attached to the drum.
All ropes, chains and other lifting gear shall be properly made of sound materials, free from defects and strong
enough for the work intended. They shall be examined by a competent person who shall clearly certify the safe
working load on each item and the system.
Hoist ways shall be protected by a substantial enclosure at ground level, at all access points and wherever
persons may be struck by any moving part.
Gates at access points shall be at least 2 m high wherever possible. Gates shall be kept closed at all times except
when required open for immediate movement of materials at that landing place.
All gates shall be fitted with electronic or mechanical interlocks to prevent movement of the hoist in the event
of a gate being opened.
Winches used for hoists shall be so constructed that a brake is applied when the control lever or switch is not
held in the operating position (dead-mans handle).
The hoist tower shall be tied to a building or structure at every floor level or at least every 3 m. The height of the
tower shall not exceed 6 m after the last tie or a lesser height as recommended by the manufacturer. All ties on
a hoist tower shall be secured using right angled couples.
The hoist shall be capable of being operated only from one position at a time. It shall not be operated from the
cage. The operator shall have a clear view of all levels or, if he has not, a clear and distinct system of signaling
shall be employed.
All hoist platforms shall be fitted with guards and gates to a height of at least 1 m, to prevent materials
rolling/falling from the platform.
Where materials extend over the height of the platform guards, a frame shall be fitted and the materials
secured to it during hoisting/lowering. (Care shall be taken to ensure that neither the frame nor materials
interfere or touch any part of the hoisting mechanism.)
The platform of a goods hoist shall carry a notice stating:
a) the safe working load; and
b) that passengers shall not ride on the hoist.
All hoist operators shall be adequately trained and competent, and shall be responsible for ensuring that the
hoist is not overloaded or otherwise misused.
All hoists shall be tested and thoroughly examined by a competent person before use on a site, after substantial
alteration, modification or repair of hoists, and at least every 6 months.
Every hoist shall be inspected at least once each week by a competent person and a record of these inspections
kept.
3.12.5 Prestressed Concrete
In pre-stressing operations, operating, maintenance and replacement instructions of the supplier of the
equipment shall be strictly adhered to.
Extreme caution shall be exercised in all operations involving the use of stressing equipment as wires/strands
under high tensile stresses become a lethal weapon.
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During the jacking operation of any tensioning element(s) the anchor shall be kept turned up close to anchor
plate, wherever possible, to avoid serious damage if a hydraulic line fails.
Pulling-headers, bolts and hydraulic jacks/rams shall be inspected for signs of deformation and failure. Threads
on bolts and nuts shall be frequently inspected for diminishing cross section.
Choked units shall be carefully cleaned.
Care shall be taken that no one stands in line with the tensioning elements and jacking equipment during the
tensioning operations and that no one is directly over the jacking equipment when deflection is being done.
Signs and barriers shall be provided to prevent workmen from working behind the jacks when the stressing
operation is in progress.
Necessary shields shall be put up immediately behind the prestressing jacks during stressing operations.
Wedges and other temporary anchoring devices shall be inspected before use.
The pre-stressing jacks shall be periodically examined for wear and tear.
3.12.6 Erection of Prefabricated Members
A spreader beam shall be used wherever possible so that the cable can be as perpendicular to the members
being lifted as practical. The angle between the cable and the members to be lifted shall not be less than 60.
The lifting wires shall be tested for double the load to be handled at least once in six months. The guy line shall
be of adequate strength to perform its function of controlling the movement of members being lifted,
Temporary scaffolding of adequate strength shall be used to support precast members at predetermined
supporting points while lifting and placing them in position and connecting them to other members.
After erection of the member, it shall be guyed and braced to prevent it from being tipped or dislodged by
accidental impact when setting the next member.
Precast concrete units shall be handled at specific picking points and with specific devices. Girders and beams
shall be braced during transportation and handled in such a way as to keep the members upright.
Methods of assembly and erection specified by the designer shall be strictly adhered to at site.
Immediately on erecting any unit in position, temporary connections or supports as specified shall be provided
before releasing the lifting equipment. The permanent structural connections shall be established at the earliest
opportunity.
3.12.7 Heated Concrete
When heaters are being used to heat aggregates and other materials and to maintain proper curing
temperatures, the heaters shall be frequently checked for functioning and precautions shall be taken to avoid
hazards in using coal, liquid, gas or any other fuel.
3.12.8 Structural Connections
When reliance is placed on bond between precast and in-situ concrete the contact surface of the precast units
shall be suitably prepared in accordance with the specifications.
The packing of joints shall be carried out in accordance with the assembly instructions.
Leveling devices, such as wedges and nuts which have no load bearing function in the completed structure shall
be released or removed as necessary prior to integrating the joints.
If it becomes necessary to use electric power for in-situ work, the same shall be stepped down to a safe level as
far as possible.
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3.13 MISCELLANEOUS
3.13.1 Stair , Ramp and Gangway
Buildings higher than two stories shall have at least one stair in usable condition at all times. This shall be
extended upward with each completed floor. Till the permanent handrails are provided, temporary provisions
like ropes, bamboo poles etc. shall be provided on stair.
Suitable precautions by way of support, formworks, etc. shall be taken to prevent any collapse of the stair
during its construction. No person shall be allowed to use such stair until they are tested by the engineer and
found fit for usage.
Where a building has been constructed to a height greater than 14 m or four stories, or where an existing
building higher than 14 m is altered, at least one temporary lighted stairway shall be provided unless one or
more of the permanent stairways are erected as the construction progresses.
Ramps and gangways shall be of adequate strength and evenly supported. They shall either have a sufficiently
flat slope (maximum 15o to horizontal), or shall have cleats fixed to the surface. They shall be kept free from
slipping hazards and obstructions.
Ramps for transporting materials shall have even surfaces, be of sufficient width and provided with 200 mm
high toe boards on open sides.
Requirements as set in Sec 3.11.2 shall also be observed.
3.13.2 Fragile Fixture
It shall be ensured that sufficient number of workmen and equipment are provided to carry the fragile fixtures
in the site like sanitary fittings, glass sheets, etc. Fragile fixtures shall be stored in a safe place away from the
normal circulation path of people, equipment and vehicle.
See Sec 2.2 for additional requirements for safe handling of fragile fixtures and materials.
3.13.3 Hand Tools
Correct tools in good condition shall be used for each type of job. All tools, particularly at heights, shall be
stowed. Wooden handles shall be made of good quality straight-grained materials. Hand tools shall be issued
through a tool room where they are stored safely and inspected periodically by competent people.
Hammer head shall be securely attached to the shaft. The head shall be in good condition and the face free
from chipped edges and not rounded from wear. The hammer shall not be used if the shaft is split, broken or
loose.
Set spanners with splayed jaws, or box spanners showing signs of splitting shall not be used. A fixed spanner of
correct size shall be preferred over an adjustable spanner. A tube shall not be used to obtain extra leverage; end
of a spanner shall never be hammered. A spanner shall not be used as a hammer, nor as a wedge.
A chisel with a mushroom head shall never be used. A chisel shall be used to cut in a direction away from the
body. Screwdriver handle shall be properly secured. A screwdriver shall never be used as a chisel.
Use of files with an exposed tang shall be avoided. Files shall not be used as levers or toggle-bar.
When a knife is used to cut greasy materials, the handle shall be such that it offers a firm grip and a shield shall
be fitted between the handle and the blade. The cut shall always be made away from the body.
3.13.4 Steel Structure
Riding on trusses while hauling them to their final position, shall not be allowed. The hauling ropes shall be load
tested before use.
Once in position, the trusses shall be kept secured with adequate temporary measures till the final fixing is
carried out. Standard safety belts conforming to BDS 1359 shall be used while fixing purlins on the trusses.
In steel construction, the entire tier of iron or steel beams shall be planked over, with the exception of
necessary hoist ways and permanent openings. Steelwork shall not advance more than six floors ahead of the
permanent floor construction.
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The proposed erection scheme of a steel work shall be analyzed and checked for safety measures undertaken;
the scheme shall cover safety aspects at all stages.
3.13.5 Finish Works
Painting: The quantity of paint and thinner required only for the day's work shall be issued from the store. All
unused containers of paint and thinner shall be closed with tight-fitting lids, and kept at a safe place away from
the work site.
Metal receptacles with pedal operated metal lids shall be kept at the work site for depositing used cotton rags
and waste. The contents of such receptacles shall be disposed off daily at a safe place, preferably by burning
under proper supervision.
All containers of paint shall be deposited in the paint store after use. Used paint brushes shall be cleaned and
deposited in the store. A 5 kg dry powder fire extinguisher shall be kept near the paint store (see Sec 2.2.16).
Adequate ventilation to prevent the accumulation of flammable vapour to hazardous level of concentration
shall be provided in all areas where painting is done. When painting is done in confined spaces where flammable
or explosive vapour may develop, required heat and power shall only be provided through covered ducts
remote from the likely source of flame.
Sources of ignition, such as open flame and exposed heating elements, shall not be permitted in areas or rooms
where spray painting is done, nor shall smoking be allowed there.
Polishing: Extra care shall be taken while handling polish consisting of acid and other chemical ingredients. Only
the quantity of polish required for the day's work shall be kept at the work spot.
All containers of polish shall be kept closed with tight fitting lids in a safe place.
Protective clothing, gloves, respiratory equipment, etc. shall be provided to the workmen applying polishes. Sec
2.2.4 shall be observed as additional requirement.
Pavements: Pavement risers shall not be higher than 225 mm. All undulating surfaces shall be smoothed. At
least a 1 m x 0.5 m area of the pavement adjacent to a vehicular road crossing shall have a checkered surface
preferably of a texture and colour different from those of the surrounding surface.
Terracing: Protective clothing, gloves and shoes shall be used in terracing work, especially while handling lime
and other ingredients. Lime and mortar stuck on the body shall be thoroughly cleaned. Other requirements for
handling lime shall be as specified in Sec 2.2.1.2.
Part 7
Construction Practices and Safety 7-57
Chapter 4
DEMOLITION WORK
4.1 PRELIMINARY PROCEDURE
4.1.1 General
The safety provisions specified in this chapter shall apply to demolition and dismantling of all types of buildings
and structures in addition to the safety requirements mentioned in Chapter 3.
4.1.2 Planning
Before commencing the demolition work, a detailed survey and study shall be made of the structure to be
demolished and the structures in its surroundings. This shall include the manner in which the various parts of
the building to be demolished are supported and how far the demolition will affect the safety of the
surrounding structures. Planning for demolition and safety of adjoining structures shall be made accordingly.
The sequence of operations shall be planned by an Engineer-in-charge recognized by the Authority as having
experience in demolition work of similar magnitude. No deviation from the approved plan shall be permitted
without the approval of the Engineer-in-charge. Before the commencement of each stage of demolition, the
foreman shall brief the workmen in detail regarding the safety aspects to be kept in view.
Demolition of buildings and structures shall be carried out under supervision of qualified Engineer and with prior
notification to the AUTHORITY as prescribed by the latter.
The Authority may require the permittee to submit the plans and a schedule of demolition. Neighbors and
public shall be notified of the intended demolition through newspaper or other media. The extent, duration and
time of the demolition shall be clearly specified in the notice.
4.1.3 Protection of Adjoining Property
A written notice shall be delivered to the owner of each potentially affected plot, building or structure at least a
week in advance of the commencement of work. The notice shall request written permission to enter the plot,
building or structure prior to the commencement of work and as and when required during the work to inspect
and preserve them from damage.
Owner of the structure to be demolished or dismantled shall under all circumstances preserve and protect the
adjoining lot, building or structure from damage or injury. This shall be done at his own expense.
In case damage to the adjoining property is imminent, the demolition operation shall be stopped forthwith and
shall not be restarted until the necessary measures to prevent such damage have been taken. All waste
materials and debris from the demolition shall be removed immediately.
If the owner of the property to be demolished is denied entry to an adjoining structure, he shall immediately
notify the Authority in writing of such denial. In this situation, the Authority may hold the adjoining property
owner fully responsible for any damage to his property.
4.1.4 Precautions prior to Demolition
Demolition of any building shall not commence until the required pedestrian protection structures in
accordance with 4.1.5 have been built. Building or structure damaged by fire, flood, explosion or earthquake,
shall be protected from collapse by way of bracing, shoring etc. before demolition is commenced.
Permission shall be secured from the Authority for using explosives. General public and owners of the adjoining
properties shall be notified beforehand of such use. All precautions as required by Sec 2.2.5.3 and Sec 4.3 shall
have to be ensured before, during and after the use of the explosives.
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Danger signs shall be posted round the property; this shall conform to the relevant sections of Part 10. All
entrances shall be barricaded or manned. At least two independent exits shall be provided at night; warning
lights shall be placed above all barricades during the night and dark hours. Even when work is not in progress,
watchmen shall be provided to prevent unauthorized entry of the public in the danger zone.
4.1.5 Protection of Public
Safe distances shall be clearly marked and prominent signs posted. Every sidewalk and road adjacent to the site
shall be either closed or protected. All public roads shall be kept open and unobstructed at all times unless
unavoidable circumstances arise.
If a covered walk is not necessary in the opinion of the Engineer-in-charge he shall issue a permit to block off
part of the sidewalk and have a temporary walk provided. Pedestrians shall be provided with diversion roads or
alternate protection as specified in Sec 1.7 and Table 7.4.1.
All utility lines shall be disconnected upon the approval of the concerned Authorities. Temporary service
connection for the demolition work shall be taken separately. See Sec 3.3.9 and 3.3.12 for other requirements.
Workmen shall be provided with all necessary safety appliances as specified in the following sections and in
Chapter 3 prior to the start of work. Safety precautions for fire shall be provided.
The site shall be thoroughly cleaned of combustible materials and debris before commencement of demolition.
4.1.6 Sidewalk Shed and Canopies
A toe board at least 1 m high above the roof of the shed shall be provided on the outside edge and ends of the
sidewalk shed. Such boards may be vertical or inclined outward at no more than
450 angle with the vertical. The side of the shed adjacent to the building shall be completely blocked by
planking/sheeting.
The roof of sidewalk sheds shall be capable of sustaining a load of 7 kPa. Impact of falling debris shall be
considered in designing and constructing the shed. Maximum load on the roof of the shed shall be maintained
below 12 kPa.
The flooring of the sidewalk shed shall consist of closely laid planks with a minimum thickness of 50 mm made
watertight. Only in exceptional cases, temporary storage on the sidewalk shed may be permitted; in such
situation, the roof of the shed shall be designed for sustaining 14 kPa.
Entrances to the building shall be protected by canopies extending at least 2.5 m from the building facade. Such
overhead protection shall be at least 600 mm wider than the entrance, and 2.5 m in height.
4.2 PRECAUTIONS DURING DEMOLOTION
4.2.1 General
The owner shall provide protection against all damages or loss of life and property during demolition. Constant
supervision shall be provided during a demolition work by a competent and experienced engineer.
The demolition site shall be provided with natural and artificial lighting and ventilation.
All existing features required during demolition operations shall be well protected with substantial covering to
the entire satisfaction of the rules and regulations of the undertakings or they shall be temporarily relocated.
For a building or structure more than 8 m or two stories high, all windows and exterior wall openings that are
within 6 m of floor opening used for the passage of debris from floors above, shall be solidly boarded. Openings
in floors below the level of demolition, not used for removal of materials or debris, shall be barricaded or
covered by planks.
4.2.2 Sequence of Demolition Operation
The demolition shall proceed in descending order and storey by storey. All work in the upper floor shall be
completed and approved by the engineer prior to disturbing any supporting member on the lower floor.
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Bangladesh National Building Code 2012 7-59
Demolition of the structure in sections may be permitted in exceptional cases only if necessary precautions are
ensured. The demolition work shall proceed within such a way that:
it causes the least damage and nuisance to the adjoining building and the members of the public, and
it satisfies all safety requirements to avoid any accidents.

Table 7.4.1: Type of Protection Required for Pedestrians near a Demolition Site
Horizontal Distance from inside
of the Sidewalk to the Structure
Height* to Horizontal
Distance Ratio
Type of Minimum
Protection Required
Less than 3m






Over 3 m to less than 4.5 m




Over 4.5 to less than 7.5 m





Over 7.5 m to less than 12 m



12 m and more
6:1 or more
4:1 to 6:1
3:1 to 4:1
2:1 to 3:1
up to 2:1


10:1 or more
6:1 to 10:1
4:1 to 6:1
3:1 to 4:1
up to 3:1

15:1 or more
10:1 to 15:1
6:1 to 10:1
4:1 to 6:1
up to 4:1

15:1 or more
10:1 to 15:1
6:1 to 10:1
up to 6:1

10:1 or more
up to 10:1
Type A
Type B
Type C
Type D
Type E


Type A
Type B
Type C
Type D
Type E

Type A
Type B
Type C
Type D
Type E

Type B
Type C
Type D
Type E

Type D
Type E

Type A: Total blockade of the road;
Type B: Temporary diversion over the entire length of the footpath adjacent to the structure;
Type C: A sidewalk shed for the entire length, in accordance with Sec 4.1.6;
Type D: A fence of tightly seated 25 mm planks, minimum height 2.5m;
Type E: A railing at least 1.5m high with mid rail and cross bracing.
* Height of the building or portion thereof to be demolished
4.2.3 Wall
Walls shall be removed part by part in reasonably level courses. No wall or any part of the structure shall be left
in a condition that may collapse or be toppled by wind, vibration etc.
Fall of the demolished wall in large chunks, which endangers the adjoining property or exceeds the safe load
capacity of the floor below, shall be avoided. Debris shall be removed at frequent intervals to avoid piling up
and overloading of any structural member.
Platforms shall be provided for demolition of walls less than one and half brick thick. Lateral bracing shall be
provided for sections of walls having a height more than 22 times its thickness, or otherwise considered
unsound. No workman shall stand on any wall to remove materials; staging or scaffold shall be provided at a
maximum of 3.5 m below the top of the wall.
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At the end of each days work, all walls shall be left stable to avoid any danger of getting overturned.
Foundation walls which serve as retaining walls shall not be demolished until the adjoining structure has been
underpinned or braced and the earth removed.
4.2.4 Floor
Support/centering shall be provided prior to removal of masonry or concrete floor. Planks of sufficient strength
shall be used in shuttering. No person shall be allowed to work in an area underneath a floor being removed;
such areas shall be barricaded.
The total area of a hole cut in any intermediate floor for dropping debris shall not exceed 25% of that floors'
area. No barricades or rails for guarding the floor hole shall be removed until the storey immediately above has
been demolished down to the floor line and all debris cleared from the floor.
In cutting holes in a floor which spans in one direction, at first, a maximum 300 mm wide slit shall be cut along
the entire length of the slab; the slit shall be increased gradually thereafter.
Planks of sufficient width, not less than 50 mm thick, 250 mm wide and 2 m long shall be provided at spacing
not greater than 400 mm for the workmen to work. These shall be so spaced as to firmly support the workmen
against any floor collapse.
4.2.5 Special Elements
4.2.5.1 Catch Platform
Catch platform shall be provided during demolition of exterior walls of structures more than 20 m in height.
These shall be constructed and maintained not more than three storeys below the storey from which exterior
wall is being demolished.
Catch platform shall not be used for storage or dumping of materials. These shall be capable of sustaining a
minimum live load of 7 kPa. The out-riggers shall not be placed more than 3 m apart.
Additional requirements of Sec 1.4.3 and Sec 4.1.6 shall also be followed.
4.2.5.2 Stairs, Passageways and Ladders
Make-shift stairs with railings, passageways, and ladders shall be left in place as long as possible, and
maintained in a safe condition. They shall not be removed from their position unless instructed by the foreman.
See also Sec 3.5.3 and Sec 3.13.1 for additional requirements.
4.2.5.3 Roof Trusses and Steel Structures
Structural frame of a pitched roof shall be removed to wall plate level by hand methods. Sufficient purlins and
bracing shall be retained to ensure stability of the remaining roof truss while each individual truss is removed
progressively. The bottom tie of roof trusses shall not be cut until the principal rafters are secured against
making outward movement.
Temporary bracing shall be provided, where necessary, to maintain stability. All trusses except the one being
dismantled shall be independently and securely guyed in both directions before work starts.
Hoisting gear suitable for the loads to be lifted shall be provided. A truss or a part thereof shall not be put on a
floor; it may be allowed to rest only temporarily on the floor below if it can be ensured that the floor is capable
of taking the load.
The steel frame may be left in place during demolition of masonry work. All steel beams/girders shall be cleared
of all loose materials as the demolition of masonry work progresses downward provided it is still strong enough
to stand as an independent structure.
4.2.5.4 Heavy Floor Beam
Heavy timber and steel beams shall be supported before cutting at the extremities. Beams shall be lowered
gently and kept in a distant place without obstructing any passageway.
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4.2.5.5 Jack Arch
Arches shall be demolished by standing on scaffolding clear of the arch. Tie rods between main supporting
beams shall not be cut until the arch or series of arches have been removed. The floor shall be demolished in
strips parallel to the span of the arch rings at right angles to the main floor beam.
4.2.5.6 Brick Arch
Abutments shall not be removed before the dead load of the spandrel fall and the arch rings are removed. A
single span arch can be demolished by hand cutting narrow segments progressively from each springing parallel
to the span of the arch until its width has been reduced to a minimum.
The remainder of the arch can then be collapsed.
The crown may be demolished by the demolition ball method progressively from edges to the centre. Explosives
may be used for a complete collapse of the structure by inserting charges into bore holes drilled in both the arch
and the abutments.
In multi-span arches, lateral restraint shall be provided at the springing level before individual arches are
removed. Demolition procedures as for single span may then be applied. Special temporary support shall be
provided in the case of skew bridges.
No partial demolition leaving unstable portion standing shall be allowed. Where debris cannot be allowed to fall
to the ground, centering capable of carrying load of the debris shall be designed and provided accordingly.
4.2.5.7 Cast-in-Situ RC
Before commencing demolition, the nature and condition of concrete and position of reinforcement and the
possibility of lack of continuity of reinforcement shall be ascertained.
Demolition of cast-in-situ RC members shall start by removing partitions and external non load bearing cladding
and other decorative features.
Reinforced concrete beams shall be demolished one at a time after the slabs have been removed.
Ties shall be attached to the beam to support the beam when suspended.
The reinforcement near the supports shall first be exposed by drilling with pneumatic drill and removing the
concrete. The reinforcement shall then be cut at both supports in such a way as to allow the beam to be
lowered to the floor or the ground under control.
RC columns and any other supporting columns of one level shall only be demolished after all other building
elements of that level have been completely removed.
The reinforcement in columns shall be exposed at the base after restraining wire guy ropes have been placed
round the member at the top. The reinforcement shall then be cut in a way to allow it to be pulled down to the
floor or the ground under control.
Reinforced concrete walls shall be cut into strips and demolished in the same way as concrete columns.
4.2.5.8 Precast RC
Supports and joints of precast RC blocks shall be removed and the member lowered to the ground or floor
below before demolition is performed. Precautions in the form of providing temporary supports or balancing
weights shall be taken to avoid toppling over of prefabricated units or any other part of the structure.
4.2.5.9 Suspended Floor, Roof and Cantilevered Structure
Suspended floor and roof slabs shall be cut into strips parallel to the main reinforcement and demolished strip
by strip. For ribbed floors, the principle of design and method of construction shall be considered and
procedures determined accordingly.
Ribs and beams shall never be cut at their mid-span and without securing by ties. Cantilevered portions,
canopies, cornices, staircases and balconies shall be demolished after providing support to the portion before
demolition of the main structure.
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4.2.6 Mechanical Demolition
Mechanical demolition shall be restricted to a height of 25 m. When mechanical devices, such as weight ball and
power shovels are used in demolition work, the area shall be barricaded up to a minimum distance of one and a
half times the height of the wall in addition to the requirements laid out in Table 7.4.1.
While the mechanical device is in operation, no person shall be allowed to enter the building.
Location of the devices shall be such that it is neither hit by falling debris nor it causes any damage to adjacent
structure, power line, etc.
4.2.7 Miscellaneous
No demolition work shall be carried out at night, or during storm or heavy rain. If demolition has to be done at
night, precautions in the form of red warning signals, sirens, working lights and watchmen shall be provided.
Auditory warning devices shall be installed at the demolition site.
Safety devices like industrial safety helmets (BDS 1265, BDS 1266), boots, gloves, goggles made of celluloid lens
(BDS 1360), safety belts (BDS 1359) etc. shall be used by the workmen.
First aid box shall be made available at all demolition sites. In fire-risk area, appropriate portable fire fighting
appliances shall be kept at hand. See also Sec 3.11.2 and Sec 3.11.3.
4.3 BLASTING OPERATION AND USE OF EXPLOSIVES
4.3.1 General
Before any work involving the use of explosives is started, a detailed survey and examination of the site,
buildings or structures and adjoining areas and property shall be made. Due care shall be taken to avoid
disruptions or damage to underground wells, tunnels, storage tanks etc.
Proximity of underground and over ground services shall be carefully considered before blasting operations are
carried out. Relevant authorities responsible for concealed underground works shall be duly consulted. Special
attention shall be paid to the presence of power cables, radio and television transmitting stations sited within 3
km of the site.
Experts shall be consulted before proceeding with any work where sources of danger like flammable gases or
liquids, sewage and drainage, unexploded missiles or mines, waste, explosive etc. are likely to be found. Also see
Sec 4.1.
4.3.2 Code of Signal
Before any blasting commences on the construction or demolition site, both audible and visual signaling
systems giving warning of blasting operations shall be established. These shall be such that they can be clearly
heard and seen by site personnel working within the site areas, and also by the general public who may be
affected.
Audible warnings shall comprise a series of readily recognizable signals with a distinctive tone. The Code of
signals, once established for a particular site, shall not be altered without good reason and adequate warning to
personnel.
Visual signs shall comprise clearly painted notices posted on all access roads to the site. Sentries shall be posted
at the entries at blasting times with clear instructions; if necessary, they shall warn personnel who failed to hear
warning signals or see signs.
4.3.3 Supervision and Responsibility
Only competent persons shall be employed as shot firers. When subcontractors are taking part in the work on
same site, the main contractor shall ensure a close liaison and collaboration with other contractors.
All site personnel present during blasting operations shall come under the control of the shotfirer.
All explosives shall be under the control of the shotfirer.
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Bangladesh National Building Code 2012 7-63
The handling of explosives on the site shall be restricted to personnel who are required to do so in the discharge
of their duties and who are authorized in writing by the engineer. All site personnel shall be warned against
maltreatment of explosives and blasting accessories.
4.3.4 Protection of site Personnel and Installations
The contractor shall provide all tools and equipment used in charging and firing blasts. The shotfirer shall inform
the engineer the necessity of replacing any item. Shot firing cables shall be examined before use for cuts or
abraded insulation.
Circuit testers and exploders shall be handled with care and used and maintained according to the
manufacturer's instructions; any malfunction shall immediately be reported and repair shall be carried out only
by a competent person.
The area where explosives are to be used shall be defined before the charging of blasts. Vehicles and other
mobile equipment shall be prohibited from entering the defined blast area, except as required to deliver or
remove explosives.
All personnel shall be instructed as to what places of shelter they are to take up during blasting operations.
Mobile plant and equipment shall be moved to a place of shelter and switched off when a blast is to be fired.
After a blast, no personnel shall be allowed to return to the danger area until the shotfirer has conducted a
general examination and declared the site safe. The shotfirer shall not return to the blasting site until at least 5
min has elapsed after firing.
Electric detonators shall only be carried in boxes made of non conducting materials, with a lid and catch. The
shotfirer shall maintain a check on the number of detonators used against number issued. The boxes shall be
kept locked until detonators are needed.
Blasting shall not be carried out in confined spaces without adequate ventilation; positive ventilation at the
working face shall be maintained at all times.
No members shall be cut until precautions have been taken to prevent it from swinging freely. All structural
steel members shall be lowered from the building and shall not be allowed to drop.
4.3.5 Safety of Third Parties
The safety of persons who reside or work in the vicinity of the site shall be considered. Where necessary, they
shall be advised to vacate their homes or offices during blasting operations. In addition to notices giving warning
of blasting on all roads and paths approaching the site, sentries shall be posted to maintain surveillance around
the site when blasting is in progress.
Blasts shall normally be fired during the hours of daylights. The blasting technique and period shall be chosen so
that any annoyance to the general public from noise, ground vibration, dust etc. is reduced to a minimum.
In heavily built-up areas, small-scale short delay blasting techniques employing light charges in small diameter
holes shall be adopted. In such situations, short holes shall be carefully placed and charge weights correctly
chosen. Sand bags, blasting mats or other screening material of suitable construction shall be placed over the
top of each hole.
4.3.6 Use of Explosives
A sketch plan with sufficient duplicate copies shall be prepared for each blast. Before the explosive is deposited
at the point of use, a check shall first be made of the depth of each shot hole. The engineer shall be informed of
any departure from the planned arrangement.
Exposure to any compressive action or severe effect of a similar kind shall be avoided and grinding, scouring or
rubbing actions eliminated. The vigorous use of stemming rods to force explosives into a hole shall be avoided.
There shall be adequate clearance to allow easy insertion of the cartridges into the shot holes. The wrapping of
the explosive cartridge shall not be removed, nor the cartridge be cut.
Primers shall not be made up in a magazine, or near excessive quantity of explosives, or in excess of immediate
use. No attempt shall be made to use fuses, blasting caps, or explosives which have been water soaked. No
attempt shall be made to soften hard set explosives by heating or rolling.
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A bore hole shall not be loaded with explosives after springing unless it is cool and does not contain any hot
metal. Temperature in excess of 65oC is dangerous. A bore hole near another hole loaded with explosives shall
not be sprung.
No attempt shall be made to slit, drop, deform or abuse the primer. No metallic device shall be used in tamping.
Wooden tamping tools with no exposed metal parts except non sparking metal connectors for jointed poles
shall be used.
4.3.7 Blasting Accessories
No person shall attempt to uncoil the wires and open out the short circuited bare leading wires of the electric
blasting cap during approach of dust storm, or near sources of large charge of static electricity or near a radio
transmitter. Firing circuit shall be kept completely insulated from the ground, other conductors, paths or stray
current.
Except at the time and for the purpose of firing the blast, there shall be no electric live wires or cables near
electric blasting caps or other explosives. All wire ends to be connected shall be bright and clean. The electric
cap wires or leading wires shall be kept short-circuited until ready to fire.
All electric blasting caps shall be tested both singly and when connected to a circuit. Electrical blasting caps
made by more than one manufacturer or electric blasting caps of different design or function, even if made by
the same manufacturer, shall not be used in the same circuit. These shall not be fired by less than the minimum
current specified by the manufacturer.
Where energy for blasting is taken from power circuits, the voltage shall not exceed 220 V. A safety switch, the
same type as the blasting switch, shall be installed between the blasting switch and the firing circuit and lead
lines at a distance not exceeding 1800 mm from the blasting switch.
Both safety switch and blasting switch shall be locked in the open position immediately after firing the shot. Key
to the switches shall remain with the shotfirer at all times. Blasting shall be carried out using suitable exploder
with 25% excess capacity.
Rubber covered or other adequately insulated copper wires shall be used for firing lines; sufficient firing line
shall be provided. Single conductor lead lines shall be used. All holes loaded on a shift shall be fired on the same
shift.
In very cold weather, the safety fuse shall be slightly warmed before using. Short fuse shall not be used. The
length of a fuse shall be at least 1200 mm and the maximum burning rate 600 mm/min.
A fuse shall not be cut until the blasting cap is ready. The fuse shall be cut squarely across about 50mm with a
clean and sharp blade to ensure a dry end.
The fuse shall not be twisted after it has been seated lightly against the cap charge. Blasting caps shall not be
crimped except by a cap crimper designed for the purpose. The cap shall be squarely crimped to the face.
The fuse shall be lighted with a fuse lighter designed for the purpose. It shall not be lighted until sufficient
stemming has been placed over the explosives. The explosives shall not be held in hands when lighting the fuse.
In case of firing with safety fuse, the number of loud reports shall be counted; in the event of misfire, no person
shall be allowed to the blasting site for at least 30 minutes. An inspection for remaining of un-detonated
explosives shall be made; all misfired shot holes shall be marked.
If the misfire is due to faulty wiring or connection, the defect shall be remedied and the shot fired.
The stemming shall be floated out by using hose water until the hole has been opened to within 600 mm of the
charge; the water shall be siphoned out thereafter and a new charge placed or, a new hole drilled 600 mm away
from the old bore and parallel to it and about 300 mm less in depth and the new hole charged and duly fired.
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Bangladesh National Building Code 2012 7-65
4.4 LOWERING, REMOVAL AND DISPOSAL OF MATERIALS
4.4.1 General
No material shall be dropped or thrown on the ground or outside the exterior walls. They shall be lowered
either in containers or by ropes, tackles, properly designed wood or metal chutes etc.
When the removal of any material causes an excessive amount of dust, it shall be wet before lowering or
dropping, if feasible. Tag lines shall be used on all materials being lowered or hoisted up and a standard signal
system shall be used and the workmen instructed on the signals. No person shall be permitted to ride the load
line.
4.4.2 Use of Chutes
Chutes, if provided, shall be at the centre of the building. It shall have an angle of more than 45o with the
horizontal, and shall be entirely closed on all sides except at the opening for receiving the material. The chute
opening shall be kept locked. The top opening of chute shall be protected with guard rails.
Debris may be dropped through holes in the floor, if absolutely necessary. Precautions shall be taken to avoid
overloading of the floor with debris. The debris dropping area shall be protected by rails.
4.4.3 Removal of Debris
Temporary stacking of demolished materials at the site shall be done in a manner ensuring fire prevention and
orderly removal. Debris shall be removed from the site as soon as possible. Materials like glass, nails, etc. shall
not be strewn about. Standard precautions to prevent fire from debris shall be taken.
4.4.4 Disposal of Materials
Demolished materials shall be disposed off according to their salvage value. Materials, which can be re-used,
shall be salvaged and re-used with the approval of the owner.
Rubbish having no salvage value shall be removed from the site and disposed off according to the local statutory
rules and regulations. Rubbish of combustible materials shall be disposed off immediately. All such operations
shall have the approval of the owner.
4.4.5 Regularization of Plots
If there is no immediate construction planned on the plot vacant after demolition, it shall be filled, graded and
maintained in conformity to the established street grades at curb level. The plot shall be maintained free from
the accumulation of rubbish and water, and all other unsafe and hazardous conditions.
Provisions shall be made to prevent damage to any foundation on the premises or on the adjoining property. All
previous service connections shall be capped.
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Chapter 5
MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT, REPAIRS,
RETROFITTING AND STRENGTHENING OF
BUILDINGS
5.1 MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT
Maintenance management of building is the art of preserving over a long period what has been constructed.
Whereas construction stage lasts for a short period, maintenance continues for comparatively very large period
during the useful life of building. Inadequate or improper maintenance adversely affects the environment in
which people work, thus affecting the overall output and also the overall service life of the building. In the post
construction stage the day to day maintenance or upkeep of the building shall certainly delay the decay of the
building structure. Though the building shall be designed to be very durable it needs maintenance to keep it in
good condition.
5.2 TERMINOLOGY
For the purpose of this Section, the following definitions shall apply.
Maintenance: The combination of all technical and associated administrative actions intended to retain an item
in or restore it to a state in which it can perform its required function.
Maintenance Management: The organization of maintenance within an agreed policy. Maintenance can be seen
as a form of steady state activity.
Building Fabric: Elements and components of a building other than furniture and services.
Building Maintenance: Work undertaken to maintain or restore the performance of the building fabric and its
services to provide an efficient and acceptable operating environment to its users.
Housekeeping: The routine recurring work which is required to keep a structure in good condition so that it can
be utilized at its original capacity and efficiency along with proper protection of capital investment, throughout
its economic life.
Owner: Person or body having a legal interest in a building. This includes freeholders, leaseholders or those
holding a sub-lease which both bestows a legal right to occupation and gives rise to liabilities in respect of safety
or building condition.
In case of lease or sub-leaseholders, as far as ownership with respect to the structure is concerned, the
responsibility of structure of a flat or structure on a plot belongs to the allotee/lessee during the leasehold.
Confined Space: Space which is inadequately ventilated for any reason and may result in a deficiency of oxygen,
or a build-up of toxic gases, e.g. closed tanks, sewers, ducts, closed and unventilated rooms, and open topped
tanks particularly where heavier than air gases or vapors may be present.
Provisions of Sec 8.1 and 8.2 of Chapter 8 Part 6 shall apply for detailing of reinforced concrete members, in
general. For reinforced concrete structures, subject to earthquake loadings in zone 2 and zone 3, special
provisions contained in Sec 8.3 of this chapter shall apply.
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5.3 BUILDING MAINTENANCE
5.3.1 General
Any building (including its services) when built has certain objectives and during its total economic life, it has to
be maintained. Maintenance is a continuous process requiring a close watch and taking immediate remedial
action. It is interwoven with good quality of housekeeping. It is largely governed by the quality of original
construction. The owners, engineers, constructors, occupants and the maintenance agency are all deeply
involved in this process and share a responsibility. Situation in which all these agencies merge into one is ideal
and most satisfactory.
There are two processes envisaged, that is, the work carried out in anticipation of failure and the work carried
out after failure. The former is usually referred to as preventive maintenance and the latter as corrective
maintenance. The prime objective of maintenance is to maintain the performance of the building fabric and its
services to provide an efficient and acceptable operating environment to its users.
Maintenance in general term can be identified in the following broad categories.
a) Cleaning and servicing This is largely of preventive type, such as checking the efficacy of rain
water gutters and servicing the mechanical and electrical installations. This covers the house
keeping also.
b) Rectification and repairs This is also called periodical maintenance work undertaken by, say,
annual contracts and including external re-plastering, internal finishing etc.
c) Replacements This covers major repair or restoration such as reproofing or re-building defective
building parts.
5.3.2 Factors Affecting Maintenance
Maintenance of the buildings is influenced by the following factors:
a) Technical factors These include age of building, nature of design, material specifications, past
standard of maintenance and cost of postponing maintenance.
b) Policy A maintenance policy ensures that value for money expended is obtained in addition to
protecting both the asset value and the resource value of the buildings concerned and owners.
c) Environmental All buildings are subject to the effects of a variety of external factors such as air,
wind precipitation, temperature etc. which influence the frequency and scope of maintenance.
The fabric of building can be adversely affected as much by the internal environment as by the
elements externally. Similar factors of humidity, temperature and pollution shall be considered.
Industrial buildings can be subject to many different factors subject to processes carried out within.
Swimming pool structures are vulnerable to the effects of chlorine used in water.
d) User The maintenance requirements of buildings and their various parts are directly related to
the type and intensity of use they receive.
5.3.2.1 Influence of design
The physical characteristics, the life span and the aesthetic qualities of any building depend on the
considerations given at the design stage. All buildings, however well designed and conscientiously built, will
require repair and renewal as they get older. However, for better performance of the building envelop, the
following are the ways to minimize troubles at the later stage:
a) Minimize defects during construction and design,
b) Detail and choose materials during construction so that the job of maintenance is less onerous
In addition to designing a building for structural adequacy, consideration shall also be given to environmental
factors such as moisture, natural weathering, corrosion and chemical action, user wear and tear, pollution,
flooding, subsidence, earthquake, cyclones etc.
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5.3.3 Maintenance Policy
The policy shall cover such items as the owners anticipated future requirement for the building taking account
of the buildings physical performance and its functional suitability. This shall lead to decisions regarding:
a) the present use of the building anticipating any likely upgrading and their effect on the life cycles of
existing components or engineering services; and
b) A change of use for the building and the effect of any conversion work on the life cycles of existing
components or engineering services.
5.3.4 Maintenance Work Programmes
The programming of maintenance work can affect an owner or his activities in the following ways:
a) Maintenance work shall be carried out at such times as are likely to minimize any adverse effect on
output or function and with due consideration to the comforts of the occupants and public and
Third Party stakeholders.
b) Programme shall be planned to obviate as far as possible any abortive work. This may arise if
upgrading or conversion work is carried out after maintenance work has been completed or if work
such as rewiring is carried out after redecoration.
c) Any delay in rectifying a defect shall be kept to a minimum only if such delay is likely to affect
output or function. The cost of maintenance increases with shortening response times.
d) Maintenance work, completed or being carried out shall comply with all statutory and other legal
requirements.
5.3.5 Maintenance Guides
An owner responsible for a large number of buildings has to established procedures for maintenance. When an
owner is responsible for the maintenance of only one building or a small number of buildings, the preparation of
a guideline manual tailored to suit each particular building, can offer significant advantages. Such a manual shall
take into account the following:
a) type of construction and residual life of the building, and
b) environment and intensity of use (see 5.3.2).
The guide shall form part of a wider manual covering operational matters.
5.3.6 Planning of Maintenance Work
Work shall take account of the likely maintenance cycle of each building element and be planned logically, with
inspections being made at regular intervals. Annual plans shall take into account subsequent years
programmed to incorporate items and to prevent additional costs. It shall be stressed that the design of some
buildings can lead to high indirect costs in maintenance contracts and therefore, careful planning can bring
financial benefits. Decisions to repair or replace shall be taken after due consideration.
5.3.7 Feed Back
Feed back is normally regarded as an important procedure of providing information about the behaviour of
materials and detailing for the benefit of the architect and engineer designing new buildings, which will result in
lessening maintenance costs. It is an equally valuable source of information for the persons responsible for
maintenance. Every maintenance organization shall develop a sample way of communicating its know-how,
firstly for benefit of others in the organization and secondly for the benefit of the building industry as a whole.
There shall be frank and recorded dialogue on an on-going basis between those who occupy and care for
buildings and those who design and construct them.
Feedback shall aim at the following:
a) User satisfaction,
b) Continuous improvement, and
c) Participation by all.
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The information on feed back can be obtained from the following:
a) Occupants,
b) Inspections,
c) Records, and
d) Discussions.
5.3.8 Means of Effecting Maintenance
Some maintenance work will be carried out by the occupier of a building or by the occupiers representative. In
the case of leasehold or similar occupation not all maintenance shall be the responsibility of occupier. The
regular maintenance shall be clearly mentioned in the tenancy agreement. Responsibility of common areas shall
be clearly defined.
Maintenance work sub-divided into major repair, restoration, periodical and routine or day-to-day operations
will be undertaken by one of the following:
a) Directly employed labour,
b) Contractors, and
c) Specialist contractors under service agreement or otherwise.
The merits of each category for typical maintenance work must be considered because optimum use of
resources appropriate to tasks in a given situation is an important element of policy.
The success of contracting out depends on the nature of the services, conditions in which contracting is
undertaken (the tendering process), how the contract is formulated and subsequent monitoring of service
quality. The important consideration in the decision to contract out is whether a contractor can ensure a socially
desirable quantity and quality of service provision at, a reasonable cost to the consumers.
5.4 ACCESS
5.4.1 General
All maintenance activities including any preliminary survey and inspection work require safe access and in some
situations this will have to be specially designed. Maintenance policy, and maintenance costs, will be much
influenced by ready or difficult access to the fabric and to building services. Special precautions and access
provisions shall also need to be taken for roof work or for entry into confined spaces such as ducts or voids.
5.4.2 Access Facilities
Permanent accessibility measures shall be provided at the design stage only for all the areas for safe and proper
maintenance. It is a matter on which those experienced in the case of the building can make an important
contribution at design stage in the interest of acceptable maintenance costs.
A wide variety of temporary access equipment shall appropriately be provided for maintenance work, ranging
from ladders to scaffoldings or powered lift platforms.
Wherever possible it is better to provide permanent access facilities such as fixed barriers, ladders, and
stairways. When such permanent access facilities are provided necessary arrangement shall be included in
maintenance plans for their regular inspection, maintenance and testing.
All personnel employed for carrying out maintenance shall be provided with the necessary protective clothing
and equipment and instructed in its use.
When physical access is not possible in situations such as wall cavities, drains etc, inspections shall be made with
the aid of closed circuit television or optical devices such as endoscopes.
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5.4.3 Access to Confined Spaces
5.4.3.1 Ventilation
Good ventilation shall be necessary in order that maintenance work can be carried out safely. This is especially
important in confined spaces. When the normal ventilation is inadequate it shall be supplemented by temporary
and forced ventilation installations. These shall provide general and spot ventilation as appropriate.
Special precautions need to be taken when entering a confined space. Such confined spaces shall be adequately
ventilated and trapped gas removed, particularly before being entered, to ensure that they are free from
harmful concentrations of gases, vapors other airborne substances and that the air is not deficient in oxygen.
5.4.3.2 Lighting
Good lighting is necessary in order that maintenance work can be carried out satisfactorily. This is particularly
important in confined spaces. When the normal lighting is inadequate it shall be supplemented by temporary
installations. These shall provide general and spot illumination as appropriate.
5.5 RECORDS
5.5.1 General
Good records can save owners and users/occupiers much unnecessary expense and reduce potential hazards in
exploration work when faults arise.
5.5.2 Use of Building Records
All personnel involved in the maintenance of the building shall be made aware of the existence of the building
records.
Known hazardous areas shall be explicitly marked on the records as well as being marked on site and shall be
pointed out to such personnel together with any system of work adopted for use in such areas.
Records are of value only if they are kept up to date and arrangements for this shall be included in any provision
that may be made for records.
Records shall be readily accessible for use and the place of storage shall take into account the form of the
records and the conditions needed to keep them from damage of any kind. It is recommended that a duplicate
set of records is kept in a secure place other than building itself and is kept up to date.
Following shall be typical contents of the maintenance records:
a) A brief history of property, names and addresses of consultants and contractors.
b) Short specifications, constructional processes, components, material finishes, hidden features,
special features etc.
c) As built plans and as subsequently altered with sections, elevations and other detailed drawings.
d) Foundation and structural plans/sections such as concrete reinforcement drawings.
e) Detail specification of all materials incorporated, for example, concrete mix, species and grades of
timber etc. Potentially hazardous materials and types or methods of construction that under some
circumstances may become hazardous shall be identified.
f) Information on housekeeping and routine maintenance with details of internal and external
surfaces and decorations, schedule of cleaning, inspection and maintenance.
g) Means of operating mechanical, electrical and plumbing installations.
h) Description of renovations, extensions, adaptations and repair to each element.
i) All plant, machinery and propriety articles including manufacturers trade literature and
instructions for installation, use and maintenance.
j) Methods of work used in construction such as assembly of prefabricated units.
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k) All information related to fire such as:
i. Location and service arrangements of all fire alarm and call points;
ii. Location and service arrangements of all extinguishers, hose reels and other fire fighting
installations;
iii. Location of all fire compartment walls, doors, floors and screens;
iv. Location of all areas of exceptional fire hazard;
v. Fire escape routes;
vi. Details of application of any tire protection treatment; and
vii. Location details and description of any installation for smoke control or protection of escape
routes.
l) There shall be a wall chart showing at a glance the various operations which have to be undertaken.
Line drawings of buildings are always to be there.
m) Records of security measures shall be known to Authorized personnel only.
n) Where no records exist, information shall be slowly built up as it becomes available during the
course of maintenance work.
o) Use of computers for storing information shall be compulsory.
5.5.3 Mechanical Records
5.5.3.1 Documentation
Documentation shall record the following as installed:
a) the location, including level if buried, of all public service connections (for example, fuel gas and
cold water supplies) together with the points of origin and termination, size and materials of pipes,
line pressure and other relevant information;
b) the layout, location and extent of all piped services showing pipe sizes, together with all valves for
regulation, isolation and other purposes as well as the results of all balancing, testing and
commissioning data;
c) the location, identity, size and details of all apparatus and all control equipment served by, or
associated with, each of the various services together with copies of any test certificates for such
apparatus where appropriate. The information with respect to size and details shall be presented in
schedule form;
d) the layout, location and extent of all air ducts showing dampers and other equipment, acoustic
silencers, grilles, diffusers or other terminal components. Each duct and each terminal component
shall be marked with its size, the air quantity flowing and other relevant balancing data, and
e) The location and identity of each room or space housing plant, machinery or apparatus.
5.5.3.2 Drawings
Drawings shall record the following as installed:
a) detailed general arrangements of boiler houses, machinery spaces, air handling plants, tank rooms
and other plant or apparatus, including the location, identity, size and rating of each apparatus, The
information with respect to the size and rating can be presented in schedule form;
b) isometric or diagrammatic views of boiler houses, plant rooms, tank rooms and similar machinery,
including valve identification charts. It is useful to frame and mount a copy of such drawings on the
wall of the appropriate room, and
c) comprehensive diagrams that show power wiring and control wiring and /or pneumatic or other
control piping including size, type or conductor or piping used and identifying the terminal points of
each.
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5.5.4 Electrical Records
Documentation shall record the following including locations, as installed:
a) main and sub main cables, showing origin, route, termination, size and type of each cable; cables
providing supplies to specialist equipment, for example, computers, shall be identified separately;
and
b) lighting conduits and final sub circuit cables, showing origin, route, termination and size of each,
together with the number and size of cables within each conduit. The drawings shall indicate for
each conduit or cable, whether it is run on the surface or concealed, for example, in a wall chase, in
a floor screed, cast in-situ, above a false ceiling etc.
These drawings shall also indicate the locations of lighting fittings, distribution boards, switches, draw-in-boxes
and point boxes, and shall indicate circuitry:
a) Location and purpose of each emergency lighting fitting including an indication of the circuit to
which it is connected;
b) single and three phase power conduits and final sub circuit cables showing locations of power
distribution boards, motors, isolators, starters, remote control units, socket outlets and other
associated equipment;
c) Other miscellaneous equipment, conduits and cables;
d) Lightening conductor, air terminals, conductors, earth electrodes and test clamps;
e) Location of earth tapes, earth electrodes and test points other than those in(f); and
f) Cables providing earth circuits for specialist equipment, for example computers, shall be identified
separately,
Documentation shall also include, when applicable.
a) Distribution diagrams or schedules to show size, type and length (to within 1 m) of each main and
sub main cable, together with the measured earth continuity resistance of each;
b) Schedule of lighting fittings installed stating location, manufacturer and type or catalogue number
together with the type or manufacturers reference, voltage and wattage of the lamp installed;
c) Schedule of escape and emergency lighting fittings installed stating location, manufacturer, type or
catalogue number together with the type or manufacturers reference, voltage and wattage of the
lamp installed. For battery systems the position of the battery, its ampere hour rating and battery
system rated endurance in hours shall be stated;
d) Records of smoke detectors, sprinklers, fire precautions;
e) Incoming supply details; the type of system, voltage, phases, frequency, rated current and short
circuit level, with the details of the supply protection and time of operation as appropriate;
f) Main switchgear details; for purpose made equipment this shall include a set of manufacturers
drawings and the site layout;
g) Transformer, capacitor and power plant details; the leading details shall be given, for example, for
transformers the V.A rating, voltages and type of cooling; and
h) Completion certificate, according to the Bangladesh Electricity Act.
5.6 INSPECTIONS
5.6.1 General
Regular inspections are actual part of the procedures for the maintenance of buildings. They are needed for a
variety of purposes and each purpose requires a different approach if it is to be handled with maximum
economy and efficiency. A more detailed inspection covering all parts of a building is needed to determine what
work shall be included in cyclic and planned maintenance programme.
5.6.2 Frequency of Inspection
Inspection shall be carried out at the following frequencies:
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a) Routine Continuous regular observations shall be undertaken by the building user as part of the
occupancy of building. Feedback resulting from this type of observation shall be recorded in record
book.
b) General Visual inspections of main elements shall be made annually under the supervision of
suitably qualified personnel at appropriate times.
c) Detailed The frequency of full inspection of the building fabric by suitably qualified personnel
shall not normally exceed a 5 year period.
5.6.2.1 Inspection schedule
The preparation of a specific inspection schedule shall formulated at the beginning. Once prepared, it shall be
used for subsequent inspections.
5.6.3 Inspection of Engineering Services
Engineering services generally have a shorter life expectancy than building fabric and because of their dynamic
function shall be subjected to more frequent inspections and maintenance.
Inspection of services shall be carried out for three purposes as follows:
a) to check if maintenance work is required,
b) to check if maintenance work is being adequately carried out, and
c) for safety reasons to comply with statutory requirements and if required, with recommendations of
other relevant organizations.
The frequency of inspections for purpose
a) will depend upon types of plant and system manufacturers recommendations and subjective
judgment. Frequencies for purpose
b) shall be carried out on an annual basis.
5.6.3.1 Method of inspection
The limited life of building services means it is important to record their residual life so that their replacement
can be budgeted for, and inspection methods shall be arranged accordingly.
A checklist of items of plant to be inspected shall be considered. Detailed specifications of how inspections shall
be carried out are necessary because a simple visual inspection is unlikely to show whether plant is operating
correctly and efficiently.
Inspections frequently necessitate the use of appropriate instruments by competent persons. An example of
this is the inspections carried out to check compliance with statutory requirements.
When instruments are used it is important that adequate training is provided in the use of the instruments and
the interpretation of the results.
Records of all inspections shall be kept in suitable locker.
5.7 MAINTENANCE OF ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES
5.7.1 Planning of Maintenance Work
If the authorized person has complete knowledge of the electrical appliances to be worked upon, then safety
will be more assured. If the person attending to the job is not technically competent to handle the job then
more careful planning is required before hand.
Repetitive nature of jobs involves little or no pre-planning whereas infrequent nature of jobs shall need careful
planning even if the person attending the job is technically competent.
Planned routine maintenance will facilitate continued safe and acceptable operation of an electrical system with
a minimum risk of breakdown and consequent interruption of supply.
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As far as the electrical equipments/ installations are concerned, it is not possible to lay down precise
recommendations for the interval between the maintenance required. The recommendation for frequency of
maintenance in this regard from the manufacturer is more relevant. The manufacturer shall be requested to
specify minimum maintenance frequency under specified conditions. These intervals depend greatly upon the
design of the equipment, the duty that it is called on to perform and the environment in which it is situated.
Following two types of maintenance are envisaged.
5.7.1.1 Routine maintenance
Routine maintenance of the electrical equipments goes along with the regular inspections of the equipments.
Inspections shall reveal the undue damage and excessive wear to the various components. Examination of the
equipment shall reveal any need for conditioning of the contact system, lubrication and adjustment of the
mechanisms.
5.7.1.2 Post fault maintenance
When there is a breakdown in the system and certain parts are identified for the replacement and then the
maintenance/repair of the defective part away from the operating environment is covered under post fault
maintenance.
5.7.1.3 Guidelines for the Maintenance of Electrical Appliances
Uninterrupted and hazard free functioning of the electrical installations are the basic parameters of
maintenance. The equipment shall be restored to correct working conditions. Special attention shall be paid to
the items and settings that might have been disturbed during the operational phase. Loose and extraneous
equipment or wiring gives rise to potential safety hazards. All covers and locking arrangements shall be properly
checked and secured to achieve original degree of protection.
Guidelines to be followed for the maintenance of electrical equipments to ensure their smooth functioning are
given in Appendix 7.A.
5.8 OPERATING AND MAINTENANCE MANUALS
The engineering services within buildings frequently are dynamic, involving complex systems of integrated plant
items. Operation of such plant can require detailed knowledge and direction. Maintenance can also require
extensive information to be available. It is, therefore, important to have suitable operating and maintenance
manuals to provide the necessary guidance. These shall be included as part of the contractual requirements for
new installations and shall ideally be prepared as reference documents for existing installations where no such
information exists.
For details on labor management concerning building maintenance, reference shall be made to good practice.
For details on financial management concerning building maintenance, reference shall be made to good
practice.
5.9 PREVENTION OF CRACKS
Cracks in buildings are of common occurrence. A building component develops cracks whenever stress in the
component exceeds its strength. Stress in a building component could be caused by externally applied forces,
such as dead, imposed, wind or seismic loads, or foundation settlement or it could be induced internally due to
thermal movements, moisture changes, chemical action, etc.
Cracks could be broadly classified as structural or non-structural. Structural cracks are those which are due to
incorrect design, faulty construction or overloading and these may endanger the safety of a building. Extensive
cracking of an RCC beam is an instance of structural cracking. Non-structural cracks are mostly due to internally
induced stresses in building materials and these generally do not directly result in structural weakening. In
course of time, however, sometime non-structural cracks may, because of penetration of moisture through
cracks or weathering action, result in corrosion of reinforcement and thus may render the structure unsafe.
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Vertical cracks in a long compound wall due to shrinkage or thermal movement is an instance of non-structural
cracking. Non-structural cracks, normally do not endanger the safety of a building, but may look unsightly, or
may create an impression of faulty work or may give a feeling of instability. In some situations, cracks may,
because of penetration of moisture through them, spoil the internal finish, thus adding to cost of maintenance.
It is, therefore, necessary to adopt measures of prevention or minimization of these cracks.
For complete details on causes and prevention of non-structural cracks, reference shall be made to good
practice SP 25:1984 Handbook on causes and prevention of cracks in buildings.
5.10 REPAIRS AND SEISMIC STRENGTHENING OF BUILDINGS
5.10.1 Non-structural/Architectural Repairs
The buildings affected by earthquake may suffer both non-structural and structural damages. Nonstructural
repairs may cover the damages to civil and electrical items including the services in the building. Repairs to non-
structural components need to be taken up after the structural repairs are carried out. Care shall be taken about
the connection details of architectural components to the main structural components to ensure their stability,
Non-structural and architectural components get easily affected/dislocated during the earthquake. These
repairs involve one or more of the following:
a) Patching up of defects such as cracks and fall of plaster;
b) Repairing doors, windows, replacement of glass panes;
c) Checking and repairing electric conduits/ wiring;
d) Checking and repairing gas pipes, water pipes and plumbing services;
e) Re-building non-structural walls, smoke chimneys, parapet walls, etc;
f) Re-plastering of walls as required;
g) Rearranging disturbed roofing tiles;
h) Relaying cracked flooring at ground level; and
i) Redecoration whitewashing, painting, etc.
The architectural repairs as stated above do not restore the original structural strength of structural
components in the building and any attempt to carry out only repairs to architectural/non-structural elements
neglecting the required structural repairs may have serious implications on the safety of the building. The
damage would be more severe in the event of the building being shaken by the similar shock because original
energy absorption capacity of the building would have been reduced.
5.10.2 Structural Repairs
Prior to taking up of the structural repairs and strengthening measures, it is necessary to conduct detailed
damage assessment to determine:
a) the structural condition of the building to decide whether a structure is amendable for repair;
whether continued occupation is permitted; to decide the structure as a whole or a part require
demolition, if considered dangerous;
b) if the structure is considered amendable for repair then detailed damage assessment of the
individual structural components (mapping of the crack pattern, distress location; crushed
concrete, reinforcement bending/yielding, etc). Non-destructive testing techniques could be
employed to determine the residual strength of the members; and
c) to work out the details of temporary supporting arrangement of the distressed member so that
they do not undergo further distress due to gravity loads.
After the assessment of the damage of individual structural elements, appropriate repair methods are to be
carried out component wise depending upon the extent of damage. The repair shall consist of the following:
a) Removal of portions of cracked masonry walls and piers and rebuilding them in richer mortar. Use
of non-shrinking mortar will be preferable.
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b) Addition of reinforcing mesh on both faces of the cracked wall, holding it to the wall through spikes
or bolts and then covering it, suitably, with cement mortar or micro-concrete.
c) Injecting cement or epoxy like material which is strong in tension, into the cracks in walls.
d) The cracked reinforced cement elements shall be repaired by epoxy grouting and could be
strengthened by epoxy or polymer mortar application like shotcreting, jacketing, etc.
5.10.3 Seismic Strengthening
The main purpose of the seismic strengthening is to upgrade the seismic resistance of a damaged building while
repairing so that it becomes safer under future earthquake occurrences. This work shall involve some of the
following actions:
a) Increasing the lateral strength in one or both directions by increasing column and wall areas or the
number of walls and columns.
b) Giving unity to the structure, by providing a proper connection between its resisting elements, in
such a way that inertia forces generated by the vibration of the building can be transmitted to the
members that have the ability to resist them. Typical important aspects are the connections
between roofs or floors and walls, between intersecting walls and between walls and foundations.
c) Eliminating features that are sources of weakness or that produce concentration of stresses in
some members. Asymmetrical plan distribution of resisting members, abrupt changes of stiffness
from one floor to the other, concentration of large masses and large openings in walls without a
proper peripheral reinforcement are examples of defects of this kind.
d) Avoiding the possibility of brittle modes of failure by proper reinforcement and connection of
resisting members.
5.10.4 Seismic Retrofitting
Many existing buildings do not meet the seismic strength requirements of present earthquake codes due to
original structural inadequacies and material degradation due to time or alterations carried out during use over
the years. Their earthquake resistance can be upgraded to the level of the present day codes by appropriate
seismic retrofitting techniques, such as mentioned in 5.10.3.
5.10.5 Strengthening or Retrofitting Versus Reconstruction
Replacement of damaged buildings or existing unsafe buildings by reconstruction is, generally, avoided due to a
number of reasons, the main ones among them being;
a) higher cost than that of strengthening or retrofitting,
b) preservation of historical architecture, and
c) maintaining functional social and cultural environment.
In most instances, however, the relative cost of retrofitting to reconstruction cost determines the decision. As a
thumb rule, if the cost of repair and seismic strengthening is less than about 50 percent of the reconstruction
cost, the retrofitting is adopted. This shall also require less working time and much less dislocation in the living
style of the population. On the other hand reconstruction may offer the possibility of modernization of the
habitat and may be preferred by well-to-do communities.
Cost-wise the building construction including the seismic code provisions in the first instance, works out the
cheaper in terms of its own safety and that of the occupants. Retrofitting an existing inadequate building may
involve as much as 4 to 5 times the initial extra expenditure required on seismic resisting features. Repair and
seismic strengthening of a damaged building may even be 5 to 10 times as expensive. It is, therefore, very much
safe as well as cost-effective to construct earthquake resistant buildings at the initial stage itself according to
the relevant seismic codes.
5.11 MAINTENANCE MANUAL
The Consultant/Engineer shall prepare a Maintenance Manual prior to handing over of the competed project
and furnish this to the EMPLOYER, which must contain following items:
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a) As-built drawings for the completed project;
b) Sources of all items of work including materials, furnishes equipments and fixed furniture,
containing names and addresses of suppliers, catalogue numbers, technical information &
specifications and warranty documents for respective items.
c) Frequency of routine Preventive Maintenance and the procedure thereof, including information on
available local and foreign after-sales service sources.
d) Corrective Maintenance procedure and sources of available
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Appendix 7.A
GUIDELINES FOR MAINTENANCE OF
ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENTS
7.A.1
In case of electrical appliances, manufacturers instructions for the usage and maintenance of the equipment
should be strictly followed.
7.A.2
The detailed/working drawings of all the components of electrical installations should always be available with
the maintenance unit. Following records should be available.
a) Manufacturers name
b) Nameplate of the equipment and its sailent features such as capacity, rating etc.
c) Manufacturer's recommendations regarding availability/usage of spare parts.
d) Manufacturer's recommendations for periodical maintenance and post fault maintenance.
e) Details of the maintenance operations performed in the past.
7.A.3
Care should be taken while selecting replacement parts. The spare parts should be correct and suitable,
preferably as recommended by the manufacturer of the installation. During the placement of order for the
supply of spare parts, nameplate particulars and serial number should be quoted.
7.A.4
The space where the equipment is kept should be clean and properly ventilated. Equipment should not be
disturbed needlessly. Before cleaning, the equipment should be made dead. For internal cleaning a section
cleaner should be used.
7.A.5
Covers and doors should not be left open unnecessarily during maintenance. Afterwards they should be
promptly and correctly closed and locked.
7.A.6
Before removing the covers and connections, all covers and cable terminations should be marked to ensure
correct replacements. Disturbed connections and temporary connections should be marked to facilitate re-
connection. Temporary connections and markings should be removed before the installation is put to use.
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7.A.7
Those connections which have not been disturbed should also be checked for soundness and overheating.
7.A.8
All insulations should be regularly checked. Solid insulations should be checked for cracks and other defects.
Fibrous and organic insulations should be checked for sign of blistering, delamination and mechanical damage.
For insulating oils the interval between tests should be carried out as per the recommendations of the
manufacturer and keeping the adverse environmental conditions in mind.
7.A.9
It should be ensured that the earthing connections are sound and all contact screws are tight.
7.A.10
During the examination of interlocks it is necessary to take precautions to prevent danger to plant or persons in
the event of malfunction or inadvertent operation. A person responsible for checking and maintaining any
interlock system should have thorough knowledge of the extent, nature and function of the interlock.
7.A.11
If the equipment is ventilated then it should be ensured that the airflow is smooth and not restricted. If filters
are provided, they should be cleaned or replaced as necessary.
7.A.12
The standby system for tripping and closing supplies should always be kept in good order. Indicators and alarms
should be maintained in time with the manufacturer's instructions.
7.A.13
Tools, spares and instruments should be stored near to the installation. These should be regularly checked
against an inventory.
7.A.14
Before the start of maintenance of the circuit switches it should be ensured that all incoming and outgoing main
auxiliary circuits are dead and remain so during the maintenance. Over heating of the circuit switches is the root
cause for faults. Overheating may be caused by inadequate ventilation, overloading, loose connection,
insufficient contact force and malalignment.
7.A.15
Some circuit breakers are not intended to be maintained, such as miniature circuit breakers (MCBs). Such items
should not be dismantled for maintenance. These should be renewed periodically.
Part 7
Construction Practices and Safety

7-77 Vol. 2
7.A.16
For the maintenance of fuses periodical inspection should be done for correct rating, security, overheating and
correct location/orientation. Element of renewable fuses should be renewed when the deterioration is
apparent. The availability and correct replacement of fuse links should be ensured.
7.A.17
If a fuse link of certain rating has failed and is replaced, then all fuse-links of same rating apparently subjected to
the fault should be destroyed and replaced by new fuse links.
7.A.18
In order to be reasonably sure that circuit breaker is capable of operation when required, these should be
tripped and reclosed at regular intervals. Tripping should be proved manually and where possible electrically via
the protective relay contacts. The leakage of oil, sign of corrosion, and any unusual smell which may indicate
over-heating should be detected through inspections.
7.A.19
Timing devices are mostly designed for specialist maintenance. These should not be dismantled for maintenance
or overhaul purposes unless specifically recommended by the manufacturers'. Actual timing periods should be
verified with set values and application requirements.
7.A.20
In case of cable boxes and terminations, security of mounting and earthing should be examined. Exposed tails
should be inspected for good conditions of insulation and freedom from moisture.
7.A.21
Battery cells should be inspected for shedding of active material, sedimentation and buckling of plates. Level of
electrolyte should be regularly checked and the level should be corrected with distilled water.