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1) Psychic Structure

The psychic structure is divided into 3 parts Id, Ego, Superego

-ID unorganized reservoir of energy
-includes all instincts inherent at birth
-encompasses all basic biological drives
-self-preservation, libido, aggression
-dominated by the pleasure principle
-completely unconscious
-deduced from dreams, slips of the tongue, free assoc, neurosis
-EGO Represents the reality principle
-functions to suspend pleasure according to the environment
-logical and ordered
-it is what makes reason and judgment possible
-SUPEREGO the conscience
-evolves by satisfactorily completely Oedipal stage
-moral and judicial
-comes from internalization of parental restrictions and customs
2) Defense Mechanisms
Conflict is the basic dynamic of personality
-b/t id, ego, superego, and reality
DMs are employed by ego to relieve pressures of drives
-they are unconscious
-they operate to avoid activating anxiety
REPRESSION rejecting painful/shameful experiences
-prevents unacceptable impulses from reaching consciousness
-aim of therapy is the bring conflicts out from repression
DENIAL thoughts/needs that cause anxiety are disavowed
REACTION FORMATION replace unacceptable urges by their opposite
-typical of obsessive disorders
RATIONALIZATION giving a socially-acceptable reason to explain an
unacceptable behavior or thought
PROJECTION attributing unacceptable wishes to another
-includes prejudice and hypervigilience to danger
DISPLACEMENT transferring an emotion to a more acceptable object
-people with phobias displace fears onto objects
FIXATION returning to a developmental stage when you are unable to cope
SUBLIMATION transferring libidinal urges to socially-acceptable bhvrs.
-most mature DM
PROJECTION IDENTIFICATION depositing unwanted feelings onto
Another who accepts them
-sometimes involves pressure
SPLITTING external objects are all good or all bad
INTELLECTUALIZATION controlling impulses by thinking about them
instead of experiencing them
UNDOING symbolic acting out in reverse of something unacceptable that has
already been done
3) Anxiety
-the break-down of the defensive structure is signaled by anxiety
-Anxiety is a signal of some conflict (signal anxiety)
-Anxiety occurs when DMs fail to prevent unacceptable impulses from becoming
4) Primary & Secondary Processes
Primary Process characterized by lack of logic, by ease of substitution of one
idea with another and by immediate discharge of energy.
-seen in young children, dreams, slips of the tongue, jokes
-governed by the id, and functions through pleasure principle
Secondary Process conscious mental processes governed by the ego
-logical and sequential
-functions according to reality principle
5) Psychoanalytic Techniques and Goals
FREE ASSOCIATION lie on couch, attend to all thoughts, and report them
Without suppressing or censoring
RESISTANCE inability to recall traumatic events causing symptoms
TRANSFERENCE projecting feelings onto the analyst
-uses the repetition compulsion
POS TRANSFERENCE love longings displaced from parents
NEG TRANSFERENCE aggressive drives displaced from parents
COUNTER-TRANSFERENCE analyst displacement
-can help clinical recognize and understand patient
1) CONFRONTATION therapist points out feelings about session
ex. Coming late, not getting involved
-see a good working alliance when patient becomes motivated and
shows commitment to change
2) CLARIFICATION trying to understand what, why, and how
the patient is resisting
-issues motivation behavior are explored.
3) INTERPRETATION given repeatedly when patient is ready
-leads to catharsis
CATHARSIS emotional release from recall of unconscious info
4) WORKING THROUGH understanding of connection between
current behaviors and unconscious material
-occurs when a therapist behaves toward the supervisor in ways that parallel how
the patient acts towards them.
-can be beneficial if the supervisor responds appropriatel