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APA Citation Examples

Based on APA Publication Manual, 6th


Edition (2009) and Stle !uide to
Elect"onic #e$e"ences (20%2)
#E&E#E'CE ()S* E+AMP(ES
Articles
o Academic Journals
o Magazines
o Newspapers
o Encyclopedia Articles
o Book, Film, and Product Reviews
Books
E!ooks
"e! #ites
$nline %lassroom Materials
&ec'nical and Researc' Reports
(issertations and &'eses
)mages
)nterviews, Email Messages, and $t'er Personal %ommunications
Need More Help?
&'e Pu!lication Manual o* t'e American Psyc'ological Association is t'e APA+s o,cial citation guide and provides
a more detailed e-planation o* 'ow to use APA style. &'e manual is un*ortunately not availa!le online, !ut
re*erence copies are availa!le in all /0 1niversity o* Maryland li!raries.
&'e APA #tyle 2uide to Electronic Re*erences 345/46 *ocuses solely on t'e citing o* electronic resources and
includes a wide variety o* citation e-amples.
7ou can also ask a li!rarian *or 'elp wit' a citationrelated 8uestion.
Some !ene"al #ules
)n,*ext Citations (Publication Manual, pp-
%./,%.9)
What You Are Citing In-Text Citation
The entire work 3#mit', 45596
A specifc page 3#mit', 4559, p. :;6
If the author's name is included in the text of the
sentence where the citation takes place
#mit' 34559, p. :;6 claims t'at...
1se only t'e date or date and page
num!er.
An online article with no page numbers 3Myers, 4555, para. <6
3Beutler, 4555, %onclusion section,
para. /6
1se a!!reviation =para.= *ollowed !y
t'e paragrap' num!er you are
citing. "'en possi!le, speci*y a
section o* t'e article.
Citing multiple authors #ee Aut'ors, !elow.
Autho"s (Publication Manual, pp- %0%,%01)
!ne author
"xample#
$eference %ist Citation
"xample#
In-Text Citation
%ourtois, %. A. 345596.
3%ourtois, 45596
Two authors
"xample#
$eference %ist Citation
"xample#
In-Text Citation
>elley, P. %., ? %'ang, P. @.
3455A6.
3>elley ? %'ang,
455A6
Three to f&e authors
"xample#
$eference %ist Citation
"xample#
In-Text Citation
Bug'es, J. %., Brestan, E. C.,
? Calle, @. A. 345596.
'irst citation#
3Bug'es, Brestan, ? Calle, 45596
(ubse)uent
citations#
3Bug'es et al., 45596
"'en a work 'as
more t'an 4
aut'ors,
su!se8uent inte-t
citations consist o*
t'e Drst aut'or+s
name *ollowed !y
=et al.= 3@atin *or
=and ot'ers=6 and
t'e date.
(ix or se&en authors
"xample#
$eference %ist Citation
"xample#
In-Text Citation
P'elps, B. R., @ima, M.,
2omez, J., MacArt'ur, R.
&., 2ansu, @., ? Ne'ru, M.
345596.
'irst citation#
3P'elps et al., 45596
(ubse)uent
citations#
3P'elps et al., 45596
"'en a work 'as
0A aut'ors, inte-t
citations consist o*
t'e Drst aut'or+s
name *ollowed !y
=et al.= 3@atin *or
=and ot'ers=6 and
t'e date.
"ight or more authors
"xample#
$eference %ist Citation
"xample#
In-Text Citation
%arter, A., (oug'erty, #.,
Addington, M., #tanley, R.,
#tanley, %., #c'uEer,
2., . . . #myrna, B. F.
345596.
"'en t'ere are eig't or
more aut'ors, include t'e
Drst 0 aut'ors+ names
*ollowed !y an ellipsis 3. . .6
and t'e Dnal aut'or+s name.
'irst citation#
3%arter et al., 45596
(ubse)uent
citations#
3%arter et al., 45596
"'en a work 'as F
or more aut'ors,
inte-t citations
consist o* t'e Drst
aut'or+s name
*ollowed !y =et al.=
3@atin *or =and
ot'ers=6 and t'e
date.
*roup author
"xample#
$eference %ist Citation
"xample#
In-Text Citation
American (ietetic
Association. 3/;;;6.
'irst citation#
3American (ietetic Association
GA(AH, /;;;6
(ubse)uent
citations#
3A(A, /;;;6
+o authors listed
"xample#
$eference %ist Citation
"xample#
In-Text Citation
None to claim t'eir !onesI
Relics o* an old Brooklyn
graveyard. 3/FFF, April
/46. New York Times, pp.
:9. Retrieved *rom
'ttpIJJwww.nytimes.comJ
@ist t'e source !y title in
your re*erence list.
3=None to %laim
&'eir Bones,=
/FFF6
)n cases w'ere t'e
title contains a
colon, use only t'e
te-t !e*ore t'e
colon in your in
te-t citation.
Alp'a!etize re*erence list
entries !eginning wit' a title
using t'e primary word o*
t'e title 3e-cluding a, an,
and the6.
*itles (Publication Manual, pp- %02,%0.)
Capitali,ation# For all sources ot'er t'an periodicals 3t'at is, newspapers, magazines, and sc'olarly
Kournals6, capitalize t'e Drst word o* t'e title and su!title and proper nouns only. (o not capitalize t'e rest
3see e-ample !elow6.
All maKor words in periodical titles s'ould !e capitalized 3*or e-ample, Psychology Today, Journal of Health
Care for the Poor and Underserved.6
Italics# &itles are italicized *or t'e *ollowing itemsI
Books
E-Books
Periodicals
Web sites
Dissertations/theses
Reports/technical papers
Works of art
(ource "xample
-ournal article title Freud+s Cienna revisited.
.ook title Student cheating and lagiarism in the !nternet era" #
wake$u call.
3olume 4 )ssue 'umbe"s (Publication
Manual, p- %06)
APA does not use =Colume=, =Col.=, =v.=, =)ssue= or related terms. 1se italics *or t'e volume num!er.
(ource "xample
/aga,ine and 0ournal &olume
and issue number formatting
%&396
/4 is t'e volume num!er 3in italics6 and 9 is t'e issue
num!er.
)* eac' issue o* a Kournal !egins on page /, give t'e
issue num!er in parent'eses immediately a*ter t'e
volume num!er, as a!ove.
Pa5e 'umbe"s (Publication Manual, pp-
%.0, 200)
Issue What To 1o
When to use 2p2 and 2pp2 1se =p.= and =pp.= to indicate page num!ers w'en
citing newspaper articles and !ook c'apters. $mit
t'em w'en citing Kournal and magazine articles. Follow
t'e e-amples in t'is guide.
!nline periodical where page
numbers are not gi&en
National 'eograhic( )**346.
:55 is t'e volume num!er. Follow t'e issue num!er o*
t'e magazine or Kournal wit' a period.
6ndated Sou"ces (Publication Manual, p-
%02)
1se =3n.d.6= 3*or =no date=6 in your citation.
$eference %ist Citation In-Text Citation
>nowles, A. 3n.d.6. House of dust G%ollageH. Retrieved
*rom $-*ord Art $nline data!ase.
3>nowles, n.d.6
Citin5 a Sou"ce 7ithin a Sou"ce
(Publication Manual, p- %.0)
(cenario# 7ou read a 455A article !y @in'ares and Brum t'at cites an earlier article, !y Frederick. 7ou want
to cite Frederick+s article, !ut you 'ave not read Frederick+s article itsel*.
$eference %ist Citation In-Text Citation
@in'ares, A., ? Brum, P. 3455A6. 1nderstanding our
understanding o* strategic scenariosI "'at role do
c'unks playL Cognitive Science, )%306, ;F;/55A.
'ttpIJJd-.doi.orgJdoiI/5./5F5J5:0954/5A5/A5:A4<
7our Re*erence list will contain t'e article you read, !y
@in'ares and Brum. 7our Re*erence list will N$& contain
a citation *or Frederick+s article.
Frederick+s study 3as cited in
@in'ares ? Brum, 455A6 *ound t'at...
7our inte-t citation gives credit to
Frederick and s'ows t'e source in
w'ic' you *ound Frederick+s ideas.
&op
A"ticles
Academic 8ou"nals (Publication Manual,
pp- %90,%999 Stle !uide, p- %2)
(ource $eference %ist Citation
%ibrar3 database
with 1!I
#agarin, B. J., ? @awler#agarin, >. A. 3455<6. %ritically evaluating
competing t'eoriesI An e-ercise !ased on t'e >itty 2enovese
murder. Teaching of Psychology( )&3:6, /0AM/0;.
'ttpIJJd-.doi.orgJ/5./45AJs/<:4F54:top:45:NF
What is a 1!I4
#ome li!rary data!ases, suc' as PsycAR&)%@E# and Psyc)NF$, list a
(igital $!Kect )dentiDer 3($)6 *or individual articles. A ($) is a uni8ue
identi*ying num!er *or an article. )n t'e data!ase record *or an article,
you will see an element t'at looks like t'is, w'ic' you s'ould include
at t'e end o* your APA re*erence, preceded !y ='ttpIJJd-.doi.orgJ=I
&'is link will allow a reader to link to doi.org *or more in*ormation
a!out t'e article.
Bowever, t'e #P# Style 'uide to +lectronic ,eferences 345/4, p. <6
notes t'at it is still accepta!le to use t'e older style o* ($) *ormat in a
citation, *or e-ampleI
Amidzic, $., Rie'le, B. J., ? El!ert, &. 345506. &oward a
psyc'op'ysiology o* e-pertiseI Focal magnetic gamma !ursts as a
signature o* memory c'unks and t'e aptitude o* c'ess
players.Journal of Psychohysiology( &*396, 4<:4<F.
doiI/5./54AJ540;FF5:.45.9.4<:
%ibrar3 database
without 1!I
Reitzes, (. %., ? Mutran, E. J. 345596. &'e transition to retirementI
#tages and *actors t'at inOuence retirement
adKustment.!nternational Journal of #ging and Human
-eveloment( ./3/6, 0:F9. Retrieved *rom
'ttpIJJwww.!aywood.comJKournalsJPreviewJournals.aspL)dP55;/
9/<5
+o 1!I4 'ind the 0ournal's homepage
(o a "e! searc' to Dnd t'e address o* t'e 'omepage o* t'e Kournal
t'at pu!lis'ed t'e article and include it in your citation 3e-ample6.
Please !e aware, 'owever, t'at t'e *ull te-t o* articles may not
actually !e availa!le at t'e Kournal 'omepage.
Cannot fnd the 0ournal's homepage4
)n t'is case, do a "e! searc' *or t'e name o* t'e data!ase you are
using 3*or e-ample, =J#&$R= or =Business #ource %omplete=6 and use
t'e address o* its 'omepage.
'ree Web
2iancola, P. R. 345596. E-ecutive *unctioning and alco'olrelated
aggression. #merican Psychologist( ./346, <A. Retrieved *rom
'ttpIJJwww.apa.orgJKournalsJampJ
In print
Bug'es, J. %., Brestan, E. C., ? Calle, @. A. 345596. Pro!lemsolving
interactions !etween mot'ers and c'ildren. Child and 0amily
1ehavior Theray( &23/6, //0.
/ore info In-text citation examples
*eneral $ules has more information about citing multiple
authors, undated sources, etc.
Ma5a:ines;
,<ail o" =ee>l Ma5a:ines (Publication
Manual, p- 2009 Stle !uide, pp- %1,%/)

(ource $eference %ist Citation
%ibrar3 database
with 1!I
Jackson, P. 345//, Marc' /6. Navy 7ard Bill and t'e *ounding o*
"as'ington %ity. Caitol Hill Historian, &, <;.
'ttpIJJd-.doi.orgJ/5./50FJ45//:
What is a 1!I4
#ome li!rary data!ases, suc' as Academic #earc' %omplete and
Psyc)NF$, list a (igital $!Kect )dentiDer 3($)6 *or individual articles. A
($) is a uni8ue identi*ying num!er *or an article. )n t'e data!ase
record *or an article, you will see an element t'at looks like t'is, w'ic'
you s'ould include at t'e end o* your APA re*erence, preceded !y
='ttpIJJd-.doi.orgJ=I
&'is link will allow a reader to link to doi.org *or more in*ormation
a!out t'e article.
Bowever, t'e #P# Style 'uide to +lectronic ,eferences 345/4, p. <6
notes t'at it is still accepta!le to use t'e older style o* ($) *ormat in a
citation, *or e-ampleI
Janney, >. 34550, May6. %row rookeries and ur!an toponyms in t'e
1nited #tates. Corvid( %*3/6, 40. doiI//.////J5449F;55.4/.9.405
%ibrar3 database
without 1!I
Borowitz, A. 34559, Novem!er /<6. Pavlov+s !rot'er. New Yorker(
3*3:<6, 0:00. Retrieved *rom 'ttpIJJwww.newyorker.comJ
+o 1!I4 'ind the maga,ine's homepage
(o a "e! searc' 3using a searc' engine suc' as 2oogle or 7a'ooQ6 to
Dnd t'e address o* t'e 'omepage o* t'e Kournal t'at pu!lis'ed t'e
article and include it in your citation 3e-ample6. Please !e aware,
'owever, t'at t'e *ull te-t o* articles may not actually !e availa!le at
t'e Kournal 'omepage.
Cannot fnd the maga,ine's homepage4
)n t'is case, do a "e! searc' 3using a searc' engine suc' as 2oogle
or 7a'ooQ6 *or t'e name o* t'e data!ase you are using 3*or e-ample,
=J#&$R= or =Business #ource %omplete=6 and use t'e address o* its
'omepage.
'ree Web
#pringen, >. 3455<, January /A6. Art*ul aging. Newsweek( %4.3:6, 4<
4A. Retrieved *rom 'ttpIJJwww.newsweek.comJ
In print
Borowitz, A. 34559, Novem!er /<6. Pavlov+s !rot'er. New Yorker(
3*3:<6, 0:00.
/ore info In-text citation examples
*eneral $ules has more information about citing multiple
authors, undated sources, etc.

,Monthl Ma5a:ines (Publication Manual,
p- 2009 Stle !uide, pp- %1,%/)
(ource $eference %ist Citation
%ibrar3 database
with 1!I
Niu, J. 345/4, Marc'April6. An overview o* we! arc'iving. -$5i6, %33:
96. 'ttpIJJd-.doi.orgJ/5./59<Jmarc'45/4niu/
What is a 1!I4
#ome li!rary data!ases, suc' as Academic #earc' %omplete and
Psyc)NF$, list a (igital $!Kect )dentiDer 3($)6 *or individual articles. A
($) is a uni8ue identi*ying num!er *or an article. )n t'e data!ase
record *or an article, you will see an element t'at looks like t'is, w'ic'
you s'ould include at t'e end o* your APA re*erence, preceded !y
='ttpIJJd-.doi.orgJ=I
&'is link will allow a reader to link to doi.org *or more in*ormation
a!out t'e article.
Bowever, t'e #P# Style 'uide to +lectronic ,eferences 345/4, p. <6
notes t'at it is still accepta!le to use t'e older style o* ($) *ormat in a
citation, *or e-ampleI
Rostok, M. 345//, August /6. Android malware on t'e rise. e7eek(
&306, //. doiI//.:40AJ4<<:JF;//.:49.405
%ibrar3 database
without 1!I
Norman, A. (. 3/;FF, Marc'6. )n*uriating !y design. Psychology Today(
&&3:6, <4<0. Retrieved *rom 'ttpIJJwww.psyc'ologytoday.comJ
+o 1!I4 'ind the maga,ine's homepage
(o a "e! searc' 3using a searc' engine suc' as 2oogle or 7a'ooQ6 to
Dnd t'e address o* t'e 'omepage o* t'e Kournal t'at pu!lis'ed t'e
article and include it in your citation 3e-ample6. Please !e aware,
'owever, t'at t'e *ull te-t o* articles may not actually !e availa!le at
t'e Kournal 'omepage.
Cannot fnd the maga,ine's homepage4
)n t'is case, do a "e! searc' 3using a searc' engine suc' as 2oogle
or 7a'ooQ6 *or t'e name o* t'e data!ase you are using 3*or e-ample,
=J#&$R= or =Business #ource %omplete=6 and use t'e address o* its
'omepage.
'ree Web
2el!, N. 3455:, May6. "inter o* discontent. Smithsonian( )4346, <5<<.
Retrieved *rom 'ttpIJJwww.smit'sonianmagazine.comJ
In print
)ves, F., ? @ydon, J. 3455<, January6. Freud+s Cienna revisited.-iscover(
&2346, /0/A.
/ore info In-text citation examples
*eneral $ules has more information about citing multiple
authors, undated sources, etc.
Tip#
When an issue of a magazine coers seeral months, the name of the first and last month in the
range should be gien in the citation, separated b! a dash, for e"ample# $3/;;:, JuneJuly6$.
'e7spape"s (Publication Manual, pp- 200,
20%9 Stle !uide, p- %/)
(ource $eference %ist Citation
%ibrar3 database
Brown, P. @. 3/;;;, #eptem!er <6. &iRany glass and ot'er tales *rom
t'e crypt. The New York Times, pp. /, <. Retrieved *rom
'ttpIJJwww.nytimes.comJ
(o a "e! searc' 3using a searc' engine suc' as 2oogle or 7a'ooQ6
*or t'e newspaper 'omepage and use t'e 'omepage 1R@ a*ter t'e
words =Retrieved *rom=.
'ree Web
Foreman, J. 3455:, August /46. Allston got'ic. The 1oston 'lo6e.
Retrieved *rom 'ttpIJJwww.!oston.comJ
In print
Brown, P. @. 3/;;;, #eptem!er <6. &iRany glass and ot'er tales *rom
t'e crypt. The New York Times, pp. /, <.
&'e page num!er o* a newspaper article is preceded !y 2p2 in a
re*erence list citation. "'en an article appears on multiple pages, t'e
page range is preceded !y 2pp2 3*or e-ample, =pp. 90=6. "'en an
article appears on discontinuous pages, separate t'e page num!ers
wit' a comma 3e-. =pp. 9, F=6. "'en a newspaper uses section letters
in its page num!ers, t'ese s'ould !e included in your citation 3e-. =p.
A/=, =pp. B/, B0=6.
/ore info In-text citation examples
*eneral $ules has more information about citing multiple
authors, undated sources, etc.
Encclopedia A"ticles (Publication Manual,
p- 2029 Stle !uide, p- %0)
(ource $eference %ist Citation
%ibrar3 database
with 1!I
Miura, A. 345/46. Buman !e'avior wit' !logs. )n 7 S'eng
3Ed.6,+ncycloedia of cy6er 6ehavior.
'ttpIJJd-.doi.orgJ/5.95/FJ;AF/90005:/<F
What is a 1!I4
#ome li!rary data!ases, suc' as Academic #earc' %omplete and
Psyc)NF$, list a (igital $!Kect )dentiDer 3($)6 *or individual e!ooks. A
($) is a uni8ue identi*ying num!er *or an e!ook. )n t'e data!ase
record *or an e!ook, you will see an element t'at looks like t'is,
w'ic' you s'ould include at t'e end o* your APA re*erence, preceded
!y ='ttpIJJd-.doi.orgJ=I
&'is link will allow a reader to link to doi.org *or more in*ormation
a!out t'e e!ook.
Bowever, t'e #P# Style 'uide to +lectronic ,eferences 345/4, p. <6
notes t'at it is still accepta!le to use t'e older style o* ($) *ormat in a
citation, *or e-ampleI
Rostok, M. 345//6. Android malware. )n >. >. Frank 3Ed.6( +ncycloedia
of mo6ile security. doiI/5.:4/FJAF<:JF;44.000.40/
%ibrar3 database
without 1!I
#mit', A. J. 3455/6. %'ild development. )n B. #trickland 3Ed.6, The 'ale
encycloedia of sychology. Retrieved *rom
'ttpIJJwww.gale.cengage.comJ
+o 1!I4 'ind the publisher's homepage
(o a "e! searc' 3using a searc' engine suc' as 2oogle or 7a'ooQ6 to
Dnd t'e address o* t'e 'omepage o* t'e Kournal t'at pu!lis'ed t'e
article and include it in your citation. Please !e aware, 'owever, t'at
t'e *ull te-t o* encyclopedia may not actually !e availa!le at t'e
Kpu!lis'er+s 'omepage.
Cannot fnd the publisher's homepage4
)n t'is case, do a "e! searc' 3using a searc' engine suc' as 2oogle
or 7a'ooQ6 *or t'e name o* t'e data!ase you are using 3*or e-ample,
=J#&$R= or =Business #ource %omplete=6 and use t'e address o* its
'omepage.
/ore info In-text citation examples
*eneral $ules has more information about citing multiple
authors, undated sources, etc.
Boo>, &ilm and P"oduct #e?ie7s
(Publication Manual, pp- 200,209)
(ource $eference %ist Citation
%ibrar3 database
2rimes, ". 34550, (ecem!er /:6. Beyond Mandalay, t'e road to
isolation and -enop'o!ia GReview o* t'e !ook The river of lost
footstes" Histories of 1urma( !y &. Myint1H. New York Times, pp.
EF, E/5. Retrieved *rom 'ttpIJJwww.nytimes.comJ
An untitled book5 flm5 or product re&iew 6for example5 a
re&iew co&ering multiple works7#
2u'a, M. 345506. GReview o* t'e !ooks 0leeting leasures" # history
of into8icants( !y M. @ondon and -irty" # search for answers
inside #merica9s teenage drug eidemic, !y M. MaranH. Journal of
:ental Health( %., A/:A/0. Retrieved *rom
'ttpIJJwww.in*ormaworld.comJsmppJtitleTcontentPtA/:9:4<;<
Follow t'e correct *ormatting *or t'e type o* pu!lication 3e.g. a
newspaper, a sc'olarly Kournal6 t'e review is taken *rom, including
t'e ($) i* one is availa!le.
'ree Web
%o'en, P. 3455A, May ;6. @ove, 'onor, c'eris', and !uy GReview o* t'e
!ook ;ne erfect day" The selling of the #merican wedding( !y R.
MeadH. New York Times. Retrieved *rom
'ttpIJJwww.nytimes.comJ455AJ5<J5;J!ooksJ5;!ride.'tml
/ore info In-text citation examples
*eneral $ules has more information about citing multiple
authors, undated sources, etc.
&op
Boo>s (Publication Manual, pp-
202,20/)
(ource $eference %ist Citation
.asic book
Jans, N. 3/;;:6. The last light 6reaking" 5ife among #laska9s !nuiat
+skimos. Anc'orage, A>I Alaska Nort'west Books.
"dited book
Miller, J., ? #mit', &. 3Eds.6. 3/;;06. Cae Cod stories" Tales from
Cae Cod( Nantucket( and :artha9s <ineyard. #an Francisco, %AI
%'ronicle Books.
For a single editor, use =3Ed.6=.
.ooks where the
author and
publisher are the
same
American Psyc'ological Association. 3455;6. Pu6lication manual of
the #merican Psychological #ssociation 30t' ed.6. "as'ington, (%I
Aut'or.
+umbered edition
other than the frst
Arking, R. 345506. The 6iology of aging" ;6servations and
rinciles 3:rd ed.6. New 7ork, N7I $-*ord 1niversity Press.
$e&ised edition
%ulliney, J. @. 345506. !slands in a far sea" The fate of nature in
Hawai9i3Rev. ed.6. Bonolulu, B)I 1niversity o* Bawai+i Press.
/ulti-&olume set
2reen, %. M. 3/;04/;0:6. 7ashington 3Cols. /46. Princeton, NJI
Princeton 1niversity Press.
)* volumes in a work or set are pu!lis'ed in diRerent years, give t'e
range o* years separated !y a das' as a!ove.
Chapter or article in
an antholog3
Eliot, &. #. 3455/6. &radition and t'e individual talent. )n C. B. @eitc'
3Ed.6, The Norton anthology of theory and criticism 3pp. /5;4
/5;A6. New 7ork, N7I ". ". Norton. 3$riginal work pu!lis'ed /;456
Note t'at t'e page num!ers o* an article or c'apter are preceded !y
=pp.= w'en citing it 3*or e-ample, =pp. 4<<5=6. )n cases w'ere an
articleJc'apter occupies a single page, t'e page is preceded !y =p.=
3e-. =p. 9=6.
)* an article 'as !een reprinted *rom a source pu!lis'ed earlier, give
t'e original date o* pu!lication in t'e =original work= element o* t'e
citation as s'own a!ove 3w'en using t'is element, the =nal eriod in
a citation is omitted6.
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*eneral $ules has more information about citing multiple
authors, undated sources, etc.
Tips#
Cities, States and Countries: %or &.'. cities, add the standard postal abbreiations for state (for
e"ample, $%'at'am, MA$). %oreign cities should be follo*ed b! the name of their countr! (e".
$Bris!ane, Australia$).
Place of publication: 'eparate place of publication from publisher *ith a colon (for e"ample $New
7ork, N7I Sone Books$). +f more than one cit! is gien, list onl! the first.
Publisher names: $,o.$, $+nc.$ and related abbreiations should not be included in citations (for
e"ample, $+an R. Dee, +nc.$ should be gien as $)van R. (ee$.)
&op
E,Boo>s (Stle !uide, pp- %2,%0)

(ource $eference %ist Citation
%ibrar3 database
with 1!I
%'aRe#tengel, P., ? #tengel, (. 345/46. 7orking with samle data"
+8loration and
inference.'ttpIJJd-.doi.orgJ/5.9/4FJ;AF/0509;4/9A
What is a 1!I4
#ome li!rary data!ases, suc' as Academic #earc' %omplete and
Psyc)NF$, list a (igital $!Kect )dentiDer 3($)6 *or individual e!ooks. A
($) is a uni8ue identi*ying num!er *or an e!ook. )n t'e data!ase
record *or an e!ook, you will see an element t'at looks like t'is,
w'ic' you s'ould include at t'e end o* your APA re*erence, preceded
!y ='ttpIJJd-.doi.orgJ=I
&'is link will allow a reader to link to doi.org *or more in*ormation
a!out t'e e!ook. Bowever, t'e #P# Style 'uide to +lectronic
,eferences notes t'at it is still accepta!le to use t'e older style o* ($)
*ormat in a citation 3see page <6, *or e-ampleI
%onoloR, A. 345/46. Salvaging the
su6ur6s.doiI//.FFA5J055/J4/44.994.40/
%ibrar3 e-book
database without
1!I
Miller, @. 3455F6. Careers for nature lovers > other outdoor
tyes.Retrieved *rom 'ttpIJJwww.e!sco'ost.com
+o 1!I4 8se the 8$% for the database
"'en a !ook 'as no ($), write URetrieved *romV *ollowed !y t'e 1R@
o* t'e data!ase. 1se t'ese 1R@s *or li!rary e!ook data!asesI
EB',- eBooks ,ollection#
Retrieved *rom 'ttpIJJwww.e!sco'ost.com
'afari Books -nline#
Retrieved *rom 'ttpIJJwww.sa*ari!ooksonline.com
Books ./"0#
Retrieved *rom 'ttpIJJli!rary.!ooks49-A.com
.ook read on an e-
book reader
2ladwell, M. 3455F6. ;utliers" The story of success G>indle (W
versionH. Retrieved *rom 'ttpIJJwww.amazon.com
A*ter t'e !ook title, put in !rackets t'e name o* t'e e!ook reader,
wit' t'e word Uversion.V Follow t'at wit' t'e ($). )* t'e !ook 'as no
($), write URetrieved *romV *ollowed !y t'e 1R@ o* t'e site *rom w'ic'
you downloaded t'e e!ook.
'ree Web
#eton, E. &. 3/;//6. The #rctic rairies" # canoe$?ourney of &(*** miles
in search of the cari6ou. Retrieved *rom
'ttpIJJwww.guten!erg.orgJete-tJ0F/F
.ook chapter from
a librar3 database
6suggested format7
Xuina, >., ? >anarian, M. A. 3/;FF6. %ontinuing education. )n P.
Bronstein ? >. Xuina 3Eds.6, Teaching a sychology of eole"
,esources for gender and sociocultural awareness 3pp. 45545F6.
Retrieved *rom 'ttpIJJwww.e!sco'ost.comJacademicJpsycin*o
"'en using Kust a c'apter *rom a !ook t'e same rules apply regarding
($) or no ($) as listed a!ove, depending on w'ere t'e !ook was
retrieved.
/ore info In-text citation examples
*eneral $ules has more information about citing multiple
authors, undated sources, etc.
&op
=eb Sites (Stle !uide, pp- 1%,1/)
(ource $eference %ist Citation
A specifc page
within a Web site
#ea &urtle Restoration ProKect. 345506. &'reats to sea turtles.
Retrieved *rom 'ttpIJJseaturtles.orgJsection.p'pLidP/59
In-text Citation#
3#ea &urtle Restoration ProKect, 45506
"ntire Web site )* you re*er to an entire "e! site, you do not need to include an entry
*or it in your re*erence list, !ut must identi*y t'e source clearly in t'e
te-t o* your paper. For e-ampleI
&'e #ea &urtle Restoration ProKect 'omepage presents a wealt' o*
compelling, wellresearc'ed in*ormation on t'e struggle to save t'e
world+s sea turtles *rom e-tinction 3'ttpIJJwww.seaturtles.org6.
/ore info If you think that the content of a Web site ill chan!e
o"er time, you can include the date that you "ieed the
cited information in your #retrie"ed from# line$
*eneral $ules has more information about citing multiple
authors, undated sources, etc.
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@nline Class"oom Mate"ials
(ource $eference %ist Citation
A document in a
8/8C online
classroom
"'it*ord, (. 345506. Cross$curricular initiatives in NSC!%@*. (ocument
posted in 1niversity o* Maryland 1niversity %ollege N#%) /A5 0;F/
online classroom, arc'ived atI 'ttpIJJcampus.umuc.edu
No o,cial APA *ormat *or citing online classroom materials e-ists
t'is is merely a recommended *ormat to use in citing suc'
documents.
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*eneral $ules has more information about citing multiple
authors, undated sources, etc.
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*echnical and #esea"ch #epo"ts
(Publication Manual, pp- 202,2069
Stle !uide, pp- %9,2%)
(ource $eference %ist Citation
'ree Web
1.#. 2overnment Accounta!ility $,ce. 345/5, Marc'6. !nformation
security" Concerted eAort needed to consolidate and secure
!nternet connections at federal agencies 3Pu!lication No. 2A$/5
4:A6. Retrieved *rom 'ttpIJJwww.gao.govJassetsJ:/5J:5/FA0.pd*
In print
1.#. 2overnment Accounta!ility $,ce. 345/5, Marc'6. !nformation
security" Concerted eAort needed to consolidate and secure
!nternet connections at federal agencies 3Pu!lication No. 2A$/5
4:A6. "as'ington, (%I Aut'or.
"'en t'e aut'or is also t'e pu!lis'er, t'e pu!lis'er+s name s'ould
!e listed as Aut'or.
/ore info In-text citation examples
*eneral $ules has more information about citing multiple
authors, undated sources, etc.
Tip#
1he element of the citation giing the publication or report number can be omitted if this
information is not aailable for the source !ou2re citing.
&op
<isse"tations and *heses
(Publication Manual, pp- 20.,2009
Stle !uide, pp- 22,21)
<isse"tations
(ource $eference %ist Citation
1issertations and
Theses database
Pecore, J. &. 345596. Sounding the sirit of Cam6odia" The living
tradition of Bhmer music and dance$drama in a 7ashington( -C
community 3(octoral dissertation6. Retrieved *rom (issertations
and &'eses data!ase. 31M) No. ://9A456
Note t'at a URetrieved *romV statement is used, giving t'e data!ase
name *ollowed !y t'e word Udata!ase.V Also, APA calls *or t'e
citation to end wit' a uni8ue identi*ying num!er *or t'e dissertation,
la!eling it U1M) No.V &'at num!er can !e *ound in (issertations and
&'eses data!ase, listed in t'e item record as UPu!lication Num!er.V
'ree Web
%aprette, %. @. 3455<6. ConCuering the cold shudder" The origin and
evolution of snake eyes 3(octoral dissertation6. Retrieved *rom
'ttpIJJwww.o'iolink.eduJetdJsendpd*.cgiL
accNnumPosu/////F9;F9
In print
%aprette, %. @. 3455<6. ConCuering the cold shudder" The origin and
evolution of snake eyes 3(octoral dissertation6. $'io #tate
1niversity, %olum!us, $B.
/ore info In-text citation examples
*eneral $ules has more information about citing multiple
authors, undated sources, etc.
Maste"As *heses
(ource $eference %ist Citation
1issertations and
Theses database
Barz!ecker, J. J. 3/;;;6. 5ife and death in 7ashington -C" #n analysis
of the :ortality Census data of %3.* 3Master+s t'esis6. Retrieved
*rom (issertations and &'eses data!ase. 31M) No. /:;<</:6
Note t'at a URetrieved *romV statement is used, giving t'e data!ase
name *ollowed !y t'e word Udata!ase.V Also, APA calls *or t'e
citation to end wit' a uni8ue identi*ying num!er *or t'e dissertation,
la!eling it U1M) No.V &'at num!er can !e *ound in (issertations and
&'eses data!ase, listed in t'e item record as UPu!lication Num!er.V
'ree Web
Angelova, A. N. 345596. -ata runing 3Master+s t'esis6. Retrieved
*rom 'ttpIJJresolver.caltec'.eduJ%altec'E&(Ietd5<4F4559555;9:
In print
Angelova, A. N. 345596. -ata runing 3Master+s t'esis6. %ali*ornia
)nstitute o* &ec'nology, Pasadena, %A.
/ore info In-text citation examples
*eneral $ules has more information about citing multiple
authors, undated sources, etc.
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)ma5es (Stle !uide, p- 2.)
*itled )ma5e
(ource $eference %ist Citation
%ibrar3 database
Rousseau, B. 3/F;06. The shi in the storm GPaintingH. Retrieved *rom
$-*ord Art $nline data!ase.
'ree Web
Rousseau, B. 3/F;06. The shi in the storm GPaintingH. Retrieved *rom
'ttpIJJwww.uwm.eduJTwas'Jrousseau.Kpg
Image reproduced
in a printed source
Rousseau, B. 3/F;06. The shi in the storm GPaintingH. Henri
,ousseau" Jungles in Paris. By %laire Fresc'es et al. "as'ington,
(%I National 2allery o* Art. 4:4.
&'e plateJimage num!er 3or, i* t'is num!er is not availa!le, t'e page
num!er on w'ic' t'e image is printed6 s'ould *ollow t'e name o* t'e
pu!lis'er as s'own.
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*eneral $ules has more information about citing multiple
authors, undated sources, etc.
6ntitled )ma5e
%reate a !rie* title *or it and place it in !rackets, unitalicized.
(ource $eference %ist Citation
%ibrar3 database
Muy!ridge, E. GP'otograp' o* a 'orse runningH. 3/FFA6. Retrieved
*rom Academic #earc' %omplete data!ase.
Image reproduced
in a printed source
Muy!ridge, E. GP'otograp' o* a 'orse runningH. 3/FFA6. ,iver of
shadows" +adweard :uy6ridge and the technological wild 7est.
By Re!ecca #olnit. New 7ork, N7I Ciking. <4.
&'e plateJimage num!er 3or, i* t'is num!er is not availa!le, t'e page
num!er on w'ic' t'e image is printed6 s'ould *ollow t'e name o* t'e
pu!lis'er as s'own.
/ore info In-text citation examples
*eneral $ules has more information about citing multiple
authors, undated sources, etc.
Tips#
Medium: +f kno*n, the medium of the image should be placed in brackets as sho*n aboe, and the
collection *hich o*ns the image included in !our citation along *ith its location.
Institution locations: %or &.'. cities, add the standard postal abbreiations for state (for e"ample,
$%'at'am, MA$). %oreign cities should be follo*ed b! the name of their countr! (e". $Bris!ane,
Australia$).
&op
)nte"?ie7s, E,mail Messa5es, and
@the" Pe"sonal Communications
(Publication Manual, p- %.9)
(ource "xample
9ersonal
communication
A9A does not re)uire that 3ou cite personal communications
6inter&iews 3ou'&e conducted5 e-mail messages5 etc7 in 3our
reference list )nstead, give an inte-t citation only using t'e
*ollowing modelI!n
Joe #mit' 3personal communication, Novem!er /F, 45506 in*ormed
me t'at t'e server 'ad cras'ed several 'ours ago.
/ore info In-text citation examples
*eneral $ules has more information about citing multiple
authors, undated sources, etc.