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Animal Diversity

History of Classifying Organisms


Aristotle (384 BC- 322 BC): classified animal species in the History of Animals
Theophrastus (371 BC- 287 BC): wrote a parallel work on plants-- the History of Plants

Carolus Linnaeus :
father of taxonomy
distinguished two kingdoms of living things originated binomial nomenclature
real name: Carl Linne
aside from binomial nomenclature,
aside from binomial nomenclature, he introduced a hierarchy of taxonomic ranks


Binomial Nomenclature
Binomial nomenclature is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a
name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be
based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a binomial name or a scientific
name, Latin name. The first part of the name identifies the genus to which the species belongs;
the second part identifies the species within the genus.
Purpose for using Binomial Nomenclature
Stability
it is the universal language used for organism classification throughout the world
Clarity
allows researchers to know exactly which organism they are discussing & eliminates
misconceptions or errors on evaluating the organism
Uniqueness
allows a scientist to give an organism a name that is specific to only that particular
species
Simplicity
it allows for easier memorization
TAXONOMY the identification and
classification of species
Objectives:
1. To sort out closely related organisms and
assign them to species.
2. To classify and arrange species into
broader taxonomic categories.

The 3 Kingdoms
Antoine van Leeuwenhoek: in 1674, sent a letter about animalcules to the Royal
Society
Ernst Haeckel: in 1866 proposed a third kingdom of life, the unicellular protista


The 4 Kingdoms
Development of electron microscopy revealed that some unicellular organisms have distinct
nucleus, while some dont
Edouard Chatton: in 1960s proposed the prokaryotic/ eukaryotic distinction, which required for
the first time the creation of a rank above kingdom-- a superkingdom or empire

The 5 Kingdoms
Robert Whittaker: in 1969 proposed the addition of Kingdom Fungi based on nutrition
Plants: multicellular phototrophs
Fungi: multicellular saprotrophs
Animals: multicellular heterotrophs
Protista and Monerans: unicellular


Animal Body Plans:
1. Level of organization
Parazoa, Eumetazoa
2. Symmetry
Asymetrical, Radial, Bilateral
3. Body cavity
Acoelomate, Pseudo, Coelomate
4. Type of gut
Protostome, Deuterostome
5. Germ layers
Ectoderm, Mesoderm, Endoderm
1. Level of organization

a) Parazoans lack true tissues
Sponges (P. Porifera) are examples

b) Eumetazoans have true tissues
Nearly all other animals are Eumetazoa,
they have true tissue)

Body symmetry

Asymmetry Radial
Symmetry

Bilateral
Symmetry

A radial animal has a top and bottom, or an oral (mouth and aboral side), but no head end and rear
end and no left and right.
Examples:
P. Cnidaria (hydras, jellies)
P.Ctenophora (comb jellies)





A bilateral animal has:

(a) dorsal (top) side and
ventral (bottom) sides;
anterior (top) and
posterior (tail) ends; a
left and right sides.
(b) cephalization, the
concentration of
sensory equipment on
the anterior end


Body cavities (coelom): its evolution led to
more complex animals
A body cavity (coelom):
- is a fluid -lined space separating the digestive
tract from the outer body wall
- its fluid cushions the suspended organs

3. Body cavities
a) Acoelomates are with
solid bodies but without a
body cavity
- includes P. Platyhelminthes
(flatworms)


b) Pseudocoelomates
- body cavity NOT formed by
the splitting of the mesoderm
- includes:
P. Rotifera (rotifers)
P. Nematodes (roundworms)

c) Coelomates
with a true coelom, a fluid filled body cavity
completely lined by tissue derived from the
mesoderm

4. Types of gut
a) Protostomes
undergo spiral cleavage, in which planes of cell division are diagonal to the vertical axis of the embryo
Include mollusks (soft-bodied animals with shells), annelids (earthworms), arthropods (crustaceans,
insects and arachnids), and some other phyla


b. Deuterostomes
undergo radial cleavage, in
which the cleavage planes are
either parallel or perpendicular
to the vertical axis of the egg
Include echinoderms (sea urchin, sea star, starfish),
chordates, some other
phyla


5. Germ layers During gastrulation, two or three
"germ layers" form. These layers of cells become specific
structures and organs in the animal.



Phylum Chordata
Notochord (noto = the back; chord = string) is present in all embryos, and may be present
or absent/reduced in adults.
Nerve Cord A dorsal, hollow, ectodermal nerve cord typically forms by an infolding of the
ectoderm tissue, which then pinches off and becomes surrounded by mesoderm.
The pharangeal slits (pharynx = throat) originally functioned in filter feeding: water is
taken into the mouth and let out via the pharangeal slits.
A postanal tail is present and extends behind the anus in many taxa, thus the anus isnt at
posterior tip of body.

3 Subphylum of Phylum Chordata
Subphylum Cephalochordata (cephalo = head), which doesnt have a head. Example:
lancelets or Branchiostomawhich was formerly known as genus Amphioxus.
Subphylum Urochordata (uro = tail) are called the tunicates. Their larvae show typical
chordate characteristics, but the adults have lost many of these organs.
Subphylum Vertebrata may have come from an Amphioxus-like ancestor, however
vertebrates have a definite head and Amphioxus doesnt.

Subphylum Vertebrata
Characteristics:
has vertebrae, the skeletal units surrounding the nerve cord
a brain, enclosed within a skull
an endoskeleton which will grow along with the animal
a closed circulatory system with a ventral heart
excretion via kidneys
separate males and females w/c exhibits sexual reproduction

7 Classes under Subphylum Vertebrata
Class Agnatha (Jawless Fishes)
Class Chondricthyes (Cartilaginous Fishes)
Class Osteichthyes (Bony Fishes)
Class Amphibia
Class Reptilia
Class Aves
Class Mammalia

Class Agnatha
(a- = without; gnatho = jaw)
Lack paired appendages
Lack bony skeleton
Example: lamprey

Class Chondricthyes
(chondro = cartilage; ichthys = fish)
Includes sharks and rays. They have a cartilage skeleton, not bone.
They are not buoyant like other fish so they must swim or they will sink.

Class Osteichthyes
(osteo = bone)
most numerous of all vertebrate classes
in fishes, they have gills for breathing
They are bouyant, so they can hold still at any depth and not sink.
Possess scales for protection

Class Amphibia
(amphi = on both sides, double; bios = life)
the first land vertebrates
can live on land and on water
4 limbed (tetrapods)
lack internal fertilization
(fertilization occurs in water)
undergo metamorphosis
Gas Exchange is usually through a combination of lungs, gills and skin
Class Reptilia

(reptili = creeping)
includes snakes, turtles, crocodiles, and lizards
reptiles have scales and dry skin
their eggs have leathery shells
Internal fertilization
exothermic - they maintain their body temperature through external means such as
basking under the sun for warmth or seeking shade to cool down

Class Aves
(avi = bird)
believed to have evolved from dinosaurs (aminotic eggs and scales on legs remnants of
reptilian origins)
presence of feathers (for insulation & flight)
forelimbs developed into wings
has light bone structure (for flight)
endothermic (endo = within, inner) -they control their body temperature from within
exhibit internal fertilization

Class Mammalia
(mamma, mammil = nipple)
presence of fur/hair
mammary glands derived from modified sweat glands which produce milk for the young.
have a diaphragm to aid in respiration.
endothermic.
most mammals posses placenta and bear live young