Anda di halaman 1dari 33

# JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4

## Teachers Guide Chapter 4: Heat

4.1 : UNDERSTANDING THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM
By the end of this subtopic, you will be able to
Explain thermal equilibrium
Explain how a liquid-in glass thermometer works
1. The net heat will flow from A to B until the temperature of A is the ( same, zero as the
temperature of B !n this situation, the two bodies are said to ha"e reached thermal
equilibrium
2. #hen thermal equilibrium is reached, the net rate of heat flow between the two bodies is
(zero, equa!
". There is no net flow of heat between two ob\$ects that are in thermal equilibrium Two
ob\$ects in thermal equilibrium ha"e the same temperature
4. T#e \$qu\$% use% \$& 'ass (#ermome(er s#ou%
(a) Be easily seen
(b) Expand and contract rapidly over a wide range of temperature
(c) Not stick to the glass wall of the capillary tube
). %ist the characteristic of mercury
(a) Opaque liquid
(b) oes not stick to the glass
(c) Expands uniformly when heated
(d) !ree"ing point #\$%
&
'
(e) Boiling point \$()
&
'
&
Thermal equilibrium
'(eseimbangan terma
*HA+TER 4: HEAT
)aster rate of energy transfer
Ho(
o,-e.(
*o%
o,-e.(
*lower rate of energy transfer
Equi"alent to Equi"alent to
+o net heat transfer
A B
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Teachers Guide Chapter 4: Heat
/. ( Hea(, Tem0era(ure , is a form of energy !t flows from a hot body to a cold body
1. The *! unit for 2 #ea( , (em0era(ure! is -oule, -
3. ( .ea( , Tem0era(ure , is the degree of hotness of a body
4. The *! unit for (#ea( , (em0era(ure, is (el"in, (
15. Lo6er 7\$8e% 0o\$&( 2l 5 !/ ice point ' the temperature of pure melting ice/0
0
1
11. U00er 7\$8e% 0o\$&(2 l 155!/steam point' the temperature of steam from water that is boiling
under standard atmospheric pressure /&00
0
1
E8er.\$se 4.1
Se.(\$o& A: *#oose (#e ,es( a&s6er
& The figure shows two metal blocks
#hich the following statement is
false2
A 3 and 4 are in thermal contact
B* + and , are in thermal
equilibrium
1 Energy is transferred from 3 to 4
5 Energy is transferred from 4 to 3
6 #hen does the energy go when a cup
of hot tea cools2
-* .t warms the surroundings
B !t warms the water of the tea
1 !t turns into heat energy and
disappears
7 #hich of the following temperature
corresponds to 8ero on the (el"in
scale2
-* 697
0
1
B* 0
0
1
'* #/)\$
&
'
* &00
0
1
6
l
0
' length of mercury at ice point
l
&00
' length of mercury at steam point
l
:
' length of mercury at : point
Temperature, : ;
l
:
- l
0
l
&00
-
l
0
x &00
0
1
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Teachers Guide Chapter 4: Heat
< .ow can the sensiti"ity of a liquid-
in =glass thermometer be increased2
-* >sing a liquid which is a
better conductor of heat
B* 0sing a capillary tube with a
narrower bore
'* >sing a longer capillary tube
* >sing a thinner-walked bulb
? #hich instrument is most suitable
for measuring a rapidly changing
temperature2
-* Alcohol-in =glass
thermometer
B* 1hermocouple
'* @ercury-in-glass
thermometer
* 3latinum resistance
thermometer
A #hen shaking hands with Anwar,
(ent .ui niticed that AnwarBs hand
was cold .owe"er, Anwar felt that
(ent .ui hand was warm #hy did
Anwar and (ent .ui not feel the
same sensation2
-* Both hands in contact are in
thermal equilibrium
B* 2eat is flowing from 3ent
2ui4s hand to -nawr4s hand
'* .eat is following from
AnwarBs hand to (ent .ui hand
Se.(\$o& B: A&s6er a (#e ques(\$o&s ,9 s#o6\$&' (#e .a.ua(\$o&
1. The length of the mercury column at the ice point and steam point are ?0 cm and <00cm
respecti"ely #hen the thermometer is immersed in the liquid 3, the length of the mercury
column is 670 cm #hat is the temperature of the liquid 32
Tem0era(ure, : ; : < 5 8 155
5
*
155 < 5
: ; 2" < ) 8 155
5
*
45 = )
: ; )1.42
5
*
2. The length of the mercury column at the steam point and ice point and are A?0 cm and
?0cm respecti"ely #hen the thermometer is immersed in the liquid 4, the length of the
mercury column is 690 cm #hat is the temperature of the liquid 42
Tem0era(ure, : ; : < 5 8 155
5
*
155 < 5
: ; 21 < ) 8 155
5
*
/) = )
7
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Teachers Guide Chapter 4: Heat
: ; "/./1
5
*
". The distance between 0
0
1 and &00
0
1 is 6C0 cm #hen the thermometer is put into a
beaker of water, the length of mercury column is 6<?cm abo"e the lower fixed point #hat
is the temperature of the water2
Tem0era(ure, : ; : < 5 8 155
5
*
155 < 5
: ; 24.) < 5 8 155
5
*
23 = 5
: ; 31.)
5
*
4. The distance between 0
0
1 and &00
0
1 is 6? cm #hen the thermometer is put into a beaker
of water, the length of mercury column is &Acm abo"e the lower fixed point #hat is the
temperature of the water2 #hat is the length of mercury column from the bulb at
temperatures i, 70
0
1
Tem0era(ure, : ; : < 5 8 155
5
*
155 < 5
: ; 1/ < 5 8 155
5
*
2) = 5
: ; /4.5
5
*
Tem0era(ure, : ; : < 5 8 155
5
*
155 < 5
"5
5
* ; 8 < 5 8 155
5
*
2) = 5
8 ; 1.).m
<
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Teachers Guide Chapter 4: Heat
SE*TI>N *: S(ru.(ure% Ques(\$o&s
& %uqman uses an aluminium can, a drinking straw and some plasticine to make a simple
thermometer as shown in figure below .e pours a liquid with linear expansion into the
can
(a, *uggest a kind of liquid that expands linearly (&m,
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
(b, .e chooses two fixed points of 1elsius scale to calibrate his thermometer *tate them
(6m,
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
(c, !f the measurement length of the liquid inside the straw at the temperature of the lower
fixed point and the upper fixed point are ?cm and &A cm respecti"ely, find the length of
the liquid at C6?
0
1
(d, #hy should he use a drinking straw of small diameter2
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
(e, #hat kind of action should he take if he wants to increase the sensiti"ity of his
thermometer2
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
?
-lkohol
155 ; 32.)
1/=) 8 < )
1558 < )55 ; 451.)
8 ; 14.53.m
5ower fixed point 6 free"ing point of water*
0pper fixed point 6 boiling point of water
1o increases the sensitivity of the thermometer
0se a copper can instead of the aluminum can because it is a better thermal
conductor
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Teachers Guide Chapter 4: Heat
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
6 #hat do you mean by heat and temperature2
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
<6 : UNDERSTANDING S+E*I?I* HEAT *A+A*IT@
By the end of this subtopic, you will be able to
5efine specific heat capacity
*tate that c ; 4/@1:
5etermine the specific heat capacity of a liquid
5etermine the specific heat capacity of a solid
5escribe applications of specific heat capacity
*ol"e problems in"ol"ing specific heat capacity
& The heat capacity of a body is the amount of heat that must be supplied to the
body to increase its temperature by 7
&
'
6 The heat capacity of an ob\$ect depends on the
(a, AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA.
(b, AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA.
(c, AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
7 The specific heat capacity of a substance is the amount of heat that must be
supplied to increase the temperature by &
0
1 for a mass of & kg of the substance >nit
8kg
#7
3
#7
< The heat energy absorbed or gi"en out by an ob\$ect is gi"en by 4 ; mcEF
? .igh specific heat capacity absorb a large amount of heat with only a small
temperature increase such as plastics
A
.eat capacity
@uatan haba
*pecific heat capacity
@uatan haba tentu
1emperature of the body
9ass of the body
1ype of material
*pecific heat capacity , c ;
4GG
mE:
2eat is the energy that transfers from one ob:ect to another ob:ect because of a
temperature difference between them*
1emperature is a measure of degree of hotness of a body*
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Teachers Guide Chapter 4: Heat
A 1on"ersion of energy

9 Applications of *pecific .eat 1apacity
Explain the meaning of abo"e application of specific heat capacity'
2a! Ba(er as a .ooa&( \$& a .ar e&'\$&e
(i, #ater is a good example of substance with a high specific capacity !t is used as a
cooling agent to pre"ent o"erheating of the engine Therefore, water acts as a
heat reser"oir as it can absorb a great amount of heat before it boils
9
Electrical energy
.eat energy
Pt = mc
.eater
3ower ; 3
Electrical energy
+otential energy
3inetic energy
Fb\$ect falls from
A high position
@o"ing ob\$ect stopped
due to friction
3ower ; 3
.eat energy
mgh= mc
.eat energy
! m"
#
= mc
*mall "alue of c Big "alue of c Two ob\$ect of
equal mass
Equal rate of
heat supplied
)aster increase
in temperature
*lower increase
in temperature
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Teachers Guide Chapter 4: Heat
(b, .ousehold apparatus and utensils
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
(c, *ea bree8e
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
(d, %and bree8e
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
C
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Teachers Guide Chapter 4: Heat
E8er.\$se 4.2
SE*TI>N A : *#oose (#e ,es( a&s6er
& The change in the temperature of
an ob\$ect does not depend on
A the mass of the ob\$ect
B the type of substance the ob\$ect is
'* the shape of the ob:ect
5 the quantity of heat recei"ed
6 #hich of the following defines
the specific heat capacity of a substance
correctly2
-* The amount of heat energy required
to raise the temperature of &kg of the
substance
B* 1he amount of heat energy
required to raise 7kg of the
substance by 7
&
'*
'* The amount of heat energy required
to change &kg of the substance from
the solid state to the liquid state
7 .eat energy is supplied at the
same rate to 6?0g of water and 6?0g of
ethanol The temperature of the ethanol
rises faster This is because the ethanol
-* is denser than water
B* is less dense than water
'* has a larger specific heat capacity
than water
* has a smaller specific heat capacity
than water
< !n the experiment to determine
the specific heat capacity of a metal
block, some oil is poured into the hole
containing thermometer #hy is this
done2
-* 1o ensure a better conduction of
heat
B To reduce the consumption of
electrical energy
1 To ensure the thermometer is in an
upright position
5 To reduce the friction between the
thermometer and the wall of the
block
SE*TI>N B: A&s6er a ques(\$o&s ,9 s#o6\$&' (#e .a.ua(\$o&
& .ow much heat energy is required to raise the temperature of a <kg iron bar from
76
0
1 to ?6
0
12 (*pecific heat capacity of iron ; <?6 -kg
-& 0
1
-&
,
Amount of heat energy required, 4 ; mc:
; < x <?6 x (?6-76,
; 7A &A0-
6 1alculate the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 0C kg of
copper from 7?
0
1 to A0
0
1 (*pecific heat capacity of copper ; <00 - kg
-&
1
-&
,
H
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Teachers Guide Chapter 4: Heat
Amount of heat required, 4 ; mc:
; 0C x <00 x (A0-7?,
; C 000-
7 1alculate the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 6? kg of
water from 76
0
1 to C6
0
1 (*pecific heat capacity of water ; <600 - kg
-&
1
-&
,
Amount of heat required, 4 ; mc:
; 6? x <600 x (C6-76,
; ?6?, 000-
< 9?0g block of a aluminium at &60
0
1 is cooled until <?
0
1 )ind the amount of
heat is released (*pecific heat capacity of aluminium ; H00 - kg
-&
1
-&
,
Amount of heat released, 4 ; mc:
; 09? x H00 x (&60-<?,
; ?0 A6?-
? 06 kg of water at 90
0
1 is mixed with 0A kg of water at 70
0
1 Assuming that
no heat is lost, find the final temperature of the mixture (*pecific heat capacity of water
; <600 - kg
-&
1
-&
,
Amount of heat required, 4 ; Amount of heat released, 4
mc: ; mc:
06 x <600 x ( 90- :, ; 0A x <600 x (: - 70,
: ; <0
0
1
SE*TI>N *: S(ru.(ure% ques(\$o&s
& !n figure below, block A of mass ?kg at temperature &00
0
1 is in contact with
another block B of mass 66?kg at temperature 60
0
1
&0
A
B
&00
0
1 60
0
1
?kg
66?kg
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Teachers Guide Chapter 4: Heat
Assume that there is no energy loss to the surroundings
(a, )ind the final temperature of A and B if they are in thermal equilibrium
Ii"en the specific heat capacity of A and B are H00 -kg
-&
1
-&
and <00 -kg
-&
1
-&
respecti"ely
Amou&( o7 #ea( requ\$re%, Q ; Amou&( o7 #ea( reease%, Q
m.: ; m.:
).58 455 8 2 155= :! ; 2.2) 8 455 8 2: = 25!
: ; 3/./1
5
*
(b, )ind the energy gi"en by A during the process
E&er'9 '\$Ce& ; m.:
; ) 8 455 8 2155 < 3/./1
; /5 555D
(c, *uggest one method to reduce the energy loss to the surroundings
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
&&
+ut them in a sealed polystyrene box*
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Teachers Guide Chapter 4: Heat
<7 UNDERSTANDING S+E*I?I* LATENT HEAT
By the of this subtopic, you will be able to
*tate that transfer of heat during a change of phase does not cause a change in
temperature
5efine specific latent heat
*tate that l ; 4/m
5etermine the specific latent heat of fusion and specific latent heat of "aporisation
*ol"e problem in"ol"ing specific latent heat
& )our main changes of phase
6 The heat absorbed or the heat released at constant temperature during a change of
phase is known as a(e&( #ea( 4; ml
7 1omplete the diagrams below and summari8ed
(a, Me(\$&'
&6
*olid
*olidification
%atent heat released
Boiling
%atent heat absorbed
1ondensation
%atent heat released
%iquid
Ias
Temperature
Time
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Teachers Guide Chapter 4: Heat
2,! Bo\$\$&'
2.! So\$%\$7\$.a(\$o&
2%! *o&%e&sa(\$o&
&7
Temperature
Time
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
Temperature
Time
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
Temperature
Time
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Teachers Guide Chapter 4: Heat
< DDDDDDDDDDDDDis the heat absorbed by a melting solid The specific
latent heat of fusion is the quantity of the heat needed to change &kg of so\$% (o a \$qu\$% at
its melting point without any increase in DDDDDDDDD The *! unit of the
specific latent heat of fusion is -kg
-&

## ? DDDDDDDDDDDDD is heat of "aporisation is heat absorbed during

boiling The specific latent heat of "aporisation is the quantity of heat needed to change &kg
of \$qu\$% \$&(o 'as or "apour of its boiling point without any change in
DDDDDDDD The *! unit is -kg
-&

&<
5atent heat of fusion
5atent heat of vaporisation
temperature
temperature
water
ice
La(e&( #ea( a,sor,e%
2 me(\$&'!
#ea( os(
2 7reez\$&'!
water
gas
La(e&( #ea( a,sor,e%
2 ,o\$\$&'!
#ea( os(
2 .o&%e&sa(\$o&!
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Teachers Guide Chapter 4: Heat
A Explain the application of *pecific %atent .eat abo"e'
'
2%! *oo\$&' o7 ,eCera'e
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
2e! +reserCa(\$o& o7 ?oo%
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
27! S(eam\$&' ?oo%
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
2'! E\$\$&' o7 Germs a&% Ba.(er\$a
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
&?
;hen ice melts< its large latent heat is absorbed from surroundings* 1his property
makes ice a suitable substance for use as a coolant to maintain other substance at a
low temperature* Beverage can be cooled by adding in several cubes of ice* ;hen the
ice melts a large amount of heat (latent heat) is absorbed and this lowers the
temperature of the drink*
1he freshness of foodstuff such as fish and meat can be maintain by placing
them in contact with ice* ;ith its large latent heat< ice is able to absorb a large
quantity of heat from the foodstuff as its melts* 1hus food can be kept at a low
temperature for an extended period of time*
!ood is cooked faster if steamed* ;hen food is steamed< the condensed water
vapour releases a quantity of latent heat and heat capacity* 1his heat flows to the
food* 1his is more efficient than boiling the food*
=team that releases a large quantity of heat is used in the autoclave to kill germs
and bacteria on surgery equipment in hospitals*
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Teachers Guide Chapter 4: Heat
EFER*ISE 4."
Se.(\$o& A'
& The graph in figure below shows
how the temperature of some wax
changes as it cools from liquid to solid
#hich section of the graph would the
wax be a mixture of solid and liquid2
A 34
B* ,>
1 J*
5 *T
6 )igure show a \$oulemeter used for
measuring the electrical energy to melt
some ice in an experiment To find the
specific latent heat of fusion of ice, what
must be measured2
A The time taken for the ice to melt
B The "oltage of the electricity supply
'* 1he mass of water produced by
melting ice
5 The temperature change of the ice
7 !t is possible to cook food much
faster with a pressure cooker as shown
abo"e #hy is it easier to cook food
using a pressure cooker2
A @ore heat energy can be supplied to
the pressure cooker
B .eat loss from the pressure cooker
can be reduced
'* Boiling point of water in the
pressure cooker is raised
5 )ood absorbs more heat energy from
the high pressure steam
< #hich of the following is not a
characteristics of water that makes it
widely used as a cooling agent2
B #ater does not react with many other
substance
&A
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Teachers Guide Chapter 4: Heat
1 #ater has a large specific heat
capacity
* ;ater has a large density
? )igure below shows the experiment
set up to determine the specific latent
heat of fusion of ice A control of the
experiment is set up as shown in )igure
(a, with the aim of
A determining the rate of melting of ice
B ensuring that the ice does not melt
too fast
1 determining the a"erage "alue of the
specific latent heat of fusion of ice
* determining the mass of ice that
melts as a result of heat from the
surroundings
A *calding of the skin by boiling water
is less serious then by steam This is
becauseD
A the boiling point of water is less than
the temperature of steam
B the heat of boiling water is quickly
lost to the surroundings
'* steam has a high specific latent
heat*
5 *team has a high specific heat
capacity
SE*TI>N B: A&s6er (#e ques(\$o& ,9 s#o6\$&' (#e .a.ua(\$o&
6 700g of ice at 0
0
1 melts .ow much energy is required for this
Q ; m
; 5." 8 ""5 555 GD G'
=1

; 44 555GD
Ques(\$o& 2=1 are ,ase% o& (#e 7oo6\$&' \$&7orma(\$o&
*pecific heat capacity of water ; < 600 - kg
-&
1
-&
*pecific heat capacity of ice ; 6 &00 - kg
-&
1
-&
*pecific latent heat of fusion of ice ; 77< K &0
?
- kg
-&
*pecific latent heat of "apori8ation of water ; 66A K &0
A
- kg
-&
&9
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Teachers Guide Chapter 4: Heat
7 An immersion heater rated at ?00 # is fitted into a large block of ice at 0
0
1
.ow long does it take to melt &?kg of ice2
Q ; m
+( ; 1.) 8 "."4 8 15
)

)55 8 ( ; )51 555
( ; 1552s
< 700 g of water at <0
0
1 is mixed with x g of water at C0
0
1 The final
temperature of the mixture is 90
0
1 )ind the "alue of x
? 1alculate the amount of heat released when 6 kg of ice at 0
0
1 is changed into
water at 0
0
1
A 1alculate the amount of heat needed to con"ert 7 kg of ice at 0
0
1 to water at
70
0
1
9 )ind the amount of heat needed to con"ert 0? kg of ice at L&?
0
1 into steam
at &00
0
1
C 1alculate the amount of heat needed to con"ert &00 g of ice at 0
0
1 into steam
at &00
0
1
&C
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Teachers Guide Chapter 4: Heat
H The specific latent heat of "apori8ation of water is 6700 k- kg-B .ow much
heat will be absorbed when 76 kg of water is boiled off at its boiling point
<< UNDERSTANDING THE GAS LAB
By the end of this subtopicM you will be able to '
Explain gas pressure, temperature and "olume in terms of the beha"ior of gas molecules
5etermine the relationship between
(i, pressure and "olume
(ii, "olume and temperature
(iii, pressure and temperature
Explain absolute 8ero and the absolute/(el"in scale of temperature
*ol"e problems in"ol"ing pressure, temperature and "olume of a fixed mass of gas
& 1omplete the table below
+ro0er(9 o7 'as E80a&a(\$o&
Houme,H
m
7
The molecules mo"e \$reely in random motion and \$ill up
the %hole space in the container&
The "olume o\$ the gas is e'ual to the "olume o\$ the
container
Tem0era(ure,T
( ((el"in,
The molecules are in continuous random motion and ha"e
an a"erage (inetic energy %hich is proportional to the
temperature&
&H
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Teachers Guide Chapter 4: Heat
+ressure,+
3a(3ascal,
The molecules are in continuous random motion&
)hen a molecules collides %ith the %all o\$ the container
and *ounces *ac(+ there is a change in momentum and a \$orce
is e,erted on the %all
The \$orce per unit area is the pressure o\$ gas

6 The kinetic theory of gas is based on the following assumptions'
-a. The molecules in a gas mo"e \$reely in random motion and posses (inetic energy
-*. The \$orce o\$ attraction *et%een the molecules are negligi*le&
-c. The collisions o\$ the molecules %ith each other and %ith the %alls o\$ the container are
elastic collisions
4.4.1 Bo9eIs La6
& BoyleBs law states that \$or a \$i,ed mass o\$ gas+ the pressure o\$ the gas is in"ersely
proportional to its "olume %hen the temperature is (ept constant
6 BoyleBs law can be shown graphically as in )igure abo"e
60
5
+
H
(a, 3 in"ersely proportional to N
5
+
1JH
(b, 3 directly proportional to &/N
*mall "olume
molecules hit wall
more often, greater
pressure
+ K
1
H
T#a( \$s +H ; .o&s(a&(
>r +
1
H
1
; +
2
H
2
Jelationship between pressure and "olume
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Teachers Guide Chapter 4: Heat
7 The "olume of an air bubble at the base of a sea of ?0 m deep is 6?0cm
7
!f the
atmospheric pressure is &0m of water, find the "olume of the air bubble when it reaches
the surface of the sea
4.4.2 *#aresIs La6
1. 1harlesB law states that \$or a \$i,ed mass o\$ gas+ the "olume o\$ the gas is directly
proportional to its a*solute temperature %hen its pressure is (ept constant
2. The temperature -697
0
1 is the lowest possible temperature and is known as the a*solute
/ero of temperature
". )ill the table below
Tem0era(ure *es\$us s.ae 2
5
*! EeC\$& S.ae2E!
Absolute 8ero 0#12 3
!ce point 3 #12
*team point 433 212
>nknown point - 5 #12 .
6&
Rea(\$o&s#\$0 ,e(6ee&
Coume a&% (em0era(ure
%ower temperature
.igher temperature,
faster molecules,
larger "olume to keep
the pressure constant
H K T
(#a( \$s H ; constant
T
+
I
;)5m L 15m
H
1
;2)5.m
"
+
2
; 15m
+1H1 ; +2H2
/5m 22)5 8 15
=/
!m
"
; 15m 8 H2
1.) 8 15
="
m
"
; H2
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Teachers Guide Chapter 4: Heat
4. 1omplete the diagram below
4.4." +ressureIs La6
& The pressure law states that for a fixed mass of gas< the pressure of the gas is directly
proportional to its absolute temperature when its volume is kept constant

EFERSI*E 4.4Gas La6
& A mixture of air and petrol "apour is in\$ected into the cylinder of a car engine when
the cylinder "olume is &00 cm7 !ts pressure is then &0 atm The "al"e closes and the
mixture is compressed to 60 cm7 )ind the pressure now
66
:J
5
*
155 =21"
+ K T
That is + ; constant
T
Rea(\$o&s#\$0 ,e(6ee& 0ressure
a&% (em0era(ure
.igher temperature
molecules mo"e
faster, greater
pressure
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Teachers Guide Chapter 4: Heat
6 The "olume of an air bubble at the base of a sea of ?0 in deep is 600 cm7 !f the
atmospheric pressure is &0 in of water, find the "olume of the air bubble when it reaches the
surface of the sea
7 The "olume of an air bubble is ? mm7 when it is at a depth of h in below the water
surface Ii"en that its "olume is &? mm7 when it is at a depth of 6 in, find the "alue of h
(Atmospheric pressure ; &0 m of water,
< An air bubble has a "olume of N cm7 when it is released at a depth of <?m from the
water surface )ind its "olume (N, when it reaches the water surface (Atmospheric pressure
; &0 m of water,
? A gas of "olume 60m
7
at 79
0
1 is heated until its temperature becomes C901 at
constant pressure #hat is the increase in "olume2
67
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Teachers Guide Chapter 4: Heat
A The air pressure in a container at 77
0
1 is &< K &F
?
+ m6 The container is heated
until the temperature is ??
0
1 #hat is the final air pressure if the "olume of the container is
fixed2
9 The "olume of a gas is & cm
7
at &?
0
1 The gas is heated at fixed pressure until the
"olume becomes triple the initial "olume 1alculate the final temperature of the gas
C An enclosed container contains a fixed mass of gas at 6?
0
1 and at the atmospheric
pressure The container is heated and temperature of the gas increases to HC
0
1 )ind the new
pressure of the gas if the "olume of the container is constant(Atmospheric pressure ; &0 K
&0
?
+ rn
6
,
H The pressure of a gas decreases from &6 x &0
?
3a to H x &0
?
3a at <0
0
1 !f the "olume
of the gas is constant, find the initial temperature of the gas

6<
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Teachers Guide Chapter 4: Heat
+ART A: *HA+TER 4
& A ?kg iron sphere of temperature
?0
0
1 is put in contact with a &kg
copper sphere of temperature 697(
and they are put inside an insulated
box #hich of the following
statements is correct when they reach
thermal equilibrium2
* A iron sphere will ha"e a
temperature of 697(
E* The copper sphere will ha"e
a temperature of ?0
0
1
!* Both the sphere ha"e the
same temperature
?* The temperature of the iron
sphere will be lower than ?0
0
1
6 !n the process to transfer heat from
one ob\$ect to another ob\$ect, which
of the following processes does not
in"ol"e a transfer to material2
A 1on"ection
B Naporisation
5 E"aporation
7 #hen we use a microwa"e o"en to
heat up some food in a lunch box, we
should open the lid slightly #hich
of the following explanations is
correct2
A To allow microwa"e to go inside
the lunch box
B To allow the water "apors to go
out, otherwise the box will
explode
1 To allow microwa"e to reflect
more times inside the lunch box
5 To allow microwa"e to penetrate
deeper into the lunch box
< #ater is generally used to put out
fire #hich of the following
explanation is &o( correct2
A #ater has a high specific heat
capacity
B *team can cut off the supply of
oxygen
1 #ater is easily a"ailable
5 #ater can react with some
material
? Ii"en that the heat capacity of a
certain sample is ?000 -
0
1
-&
#hich
of the following is correct2
A The mass of this sample is &kg
6?
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Teachers Guide Chapter 4: Heat
B The energy needed to increase
the temperature of & kg of this
sample is ?000 -
1 The energy needed to increase
the temperature of 0?kg of this
sample is 6?00-
5 The temperature of this sample
will increase &
0
1 when ? 000 -
energy is absorbed by this
sample
A #hich of the following statement is
correct2
A The total mass of the ob\$ect is
kept constant when fusion
occurs
B The internal energy of the ob\$ect
is increased when condensation
occurs
1 Energy is absorbed when
condensation occurs
5 Energy is absorbed when
"apori8ation occurs
9 #ater molecules change their states
between the liquid and gaseous states
A only when water "apour is
saturated
B at all times because e"aporation
and condensation occur any time
1 only when the "apour molecules
produce a pressure as the same as
the atmospheric pressure
5 only when the water is boiling
C Based on the kinetic theory of gas
which one of the following does not
explain the beha"iour of gas
molecules in a container2
A Ias molecules mo"e randomly
B Ias molecules collide elastically
with the walls of the container
1 Ias molecules mo"e faster as
temperature increases
5 Ias molecules collide
inelastically with each other
H A cylinder which contains gas is
compressed at constant temperature
of the gas increase because
A the a"erage speed of gas
molecules increases
B the number of gas molecules
increases
1 the a"erage distance between the
gas molecules increases
5 the rate of collision between the
gas molecules and the walls
increases
&0 A plastic bag is filled with air !t is
immersed in the boiling water as
shown in diagram below
#hich of the following statements is
7ase2
A The "olume of the plastic bag
increases
B The pressure of air molecules
increases
1 The air molecules in the bag
mo"e faster
5 The repulsi"e force of boiling
water slows down the mo"ement
of air molecule
6A
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Teachers Guide Chapter 4: Heat
+ART BM
& A research student wishes to carry out an in"estigation on the temperature change of the
substance in the temperature range -?0
0
1 to ?0
0
1 The instrument used to measure the
temperature is a liquid in glass thermometer
Table &
(a, (i, *tate the principle used in a liquid- in =glass thermometer(&m,

(ii, Briefly explain the principle stated in (a,(i, (7m,
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
(b, Table & shows the characteristic of < types of thermometer' A,B 1 and 5 Fn the basis
of the information gi"en in Table &, explain the characteristics of, and suggest a suitable
thermometer for the experiment(? m,
T#ermome(er A B * D
%iquid @ercury @ercury Alcohol Alcohol
)ree8ing point of liquid (
0
1, -7H -7H -&&6 -&&6
Boiling point of liquid (
0
1, 7A0 7A0 7A0 7A0
5iameter of capillary tube %arge *mall %arge *mall
1ross section
69
+rinciple of thermal equilibrium
- system is in a state of thermal equilibrium if the net rate of heat flow between
the component of the system is "ero* 1his means that the component of the system
are at the same temperature
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Teachers Guide Chapter 4: Heat
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
D
(c, The length of the mercury column in uncalibrated thermometer is A0cm and &C? cm at
0
0
1 and &00
0
1 respecti"ely #hen the thermometer is placed in a liquid, the length of
the mercury column is &<0cm
(i, 1alculate the temperature of the liquid
T#e (em0era(ure o7 (#e \$qu\$% ; 3.5 8 155
12.)
; /4
5
*
(ii, *tate two thermometric properties which can be used to calibrate a thermometer (Am,
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
6 A metal block 3 of mass ?00 g is heated is boiling water at a temperature of &0001
Block 3 is then transferred into the water at a temperature of 7001 in a polystyrene cup
The mass of water in the polystyrene cup is 6?0 g After 6 minutes, the water temperature
rises to <601

6C
)igure 6
-lkohol @ free"ing point is less than #(&'< boiling point higher than (&'*1hus the
alcohol will not boil*
'apillary tube has small diameter will produce a large change in the length thus
making the change clearly visible*
=mall diameter increases sensitivity of the thermometer
'hange of volume of gas with temperature
'hange of electrical resistance with temperature
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Teachers Guide Chapter 4: Heat
Assuming that the heat absorbed by the polystyrene cup and heat loss to the
surroundings are negligibleO*pecific heat capacity of water < 600 \$ kg
-&
1
-&
,
1alculate
(a, the quantity of heat gained by water the polystyrene cup
Q ; m.:
; 5.2)5 8 4255 8 242="5!
; 12 /55D
(b, the rate of heat supplied to the water
Ra(e o7 #ea( su00\$e% (o (#e 6a(er ; 12 /55D
125s
; 15) Ds
=1
(c, the specific heat capacity of the metal block 3
Hea( su00\$e% ,9 me(a ,o.G + ; #ea( 'a\$&e% ,9 6a(er
5.)55 8 . 82155 =42! ; 12 /55D
. ; 4"4 D G'
=1
*
=1

7 A student performs an experiment to in"estigate the energy change in a system .e
prepares a cardboard tube ?00 cm long closed by a stopper at one end %ead shot of
mass ?00 g is placed in the tube and the other end of the tube is also closed by a stopper
The height of the lead shot in the tube is ?0 cm as shown in )igure 7& The student then
holds both ends of the tube and in"erts it &00 times ()igure 76,
6H
)igure 7& )igure 76
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Teachers Guide Chapter 4: Heat
(a, *tate the energy change each time the tube is in"erted
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
(b, #hat is the a"erage distance taken by the lead shot each time the tube is
in"erted2
A(*& cm
(c, 1alculate the time taken by the lead shot to fall from the top to the
bottom of the tube
S ; u( L N a(
2
5.4) ; 5 L N 215!(
2
( ; 5."s
(d, After in"erting the tube &00 times, the temperature of the lead shot is
found to ha"e increased by 701
i 1alculate the work done on the lead shot
BorG %o&e ; 2155! m'#
; 155 8 5.)55 8 15 8 5.4)
; 22) D
ii 1alculate the specific heat capacity of lead
m. : ; 22) D
. ; 22)
25.)55 8 "!
; 1)5 DG'
=1
*
=1
iii *tate the assumption used in your calculation in (d,ii
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
+ART *: EF+ERIMENT
70
?ravitational potential energy B kinetic energy B heat energy
No heat loss to the surroundingsC-ll the gravitational potential energy is converted
into heat energy
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Teachers Guide Chapter 4: Heat
& Before tra"elling on a long \$ourney, %uqman measured the air pressure the tyre of
his car as shown in )igure (a, .e found that the air pressure of the tyre was 600 k3a
After the \$ourney, %uqman measured again the air pressure of the tyre as shown in )igure
(b, .e found that the air pressure had increase to 6<? k3a %uqman also found that the
tyre was hotter after the \$ourney although the si8e of the tyre did not change
>sing the information pro"ided by %uqman and his obser"ations on air pressure in the
tyre of his car'
1hoose suitable apparatus such as pressure gauge, a round-bottomed flask and any other
apparatus that may he necessary !n your description, state clearly the following'
i Aim of the experiment,
ii Nariables in the experiment,
iii %ist of apparatus and materials,
i" Arrangement of the apparatus,
" The procedure of the experiment including the method of controlling the
manipulated "ariable and the method of measuring the responding "ariable,
"i The way you would tabulate the data,
"ii The way you would analyse the data P&0 marksQ

7&
)igure (a, )igure (b,
(a, *tate one suitable inference that can be made P& markQ
(b, *tate appropriate hypothesis for an in"estigation P& markQ
(c, 5esign an experiment to in"estigate the hypothesis stated in (b,
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Teachers Guide Chapter 4: Heat
!nference -t constant volume< the air pressure depends on the temperature
.ypothesis -t constant volume< the air pressure increase as the temperature
increases
Aim 1o investigate the relationship between the air pressure and the
temperature at constant volume*
Nariable 1onstant "ariable ' -ir temperature
@anipulate "ariable ' -ir pressure
Jesponding "ariable ' Dolume of air
@aterial and Apparatus Rou&%=,o((om 7asG, ru,,er (u,e, Bour%o& 'au'e, ,eaGer, s(\$rrer,
(#ermome(er, 6\$re 'auze, (r\$0o% s(a&% a&% Bu&se& ,ur&er
Arrangement of
apparatus
3rocedure 1he apparatus is set up as shown in the diagram above*
1he beaker is filled with ice#cold water until the flask is
76
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 4
Teachers Guide Chapter 4: Heat
completely immersed*
1he water is stirred and the initial temperature reading
taken* 1he pressure reading from the bourdon gauge is also
taken*
1he water is heated and constant stirred* ;hen the water
temperature increases by 7&&'< the Bunsen burner is
removed and the stirring of water is continued* 1he
temperature and pressure readings of the trapped air are
recorded in the table
1he above procedure is repeated until the water temperature
almost reaches boiling point*
Tabulation of 5ata
Analysis of 5ata
77