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a lot of - much - many

A lot of - much - many are used to express quantity.


A lot of : can be used in all sentences, affirmative, negative and interrogative.
Much-many : are used in negative and interrogative sentences.
They are rarely used in affirmative sentences, except if they begin
the sentence
(see table below).
Much is used with uncountable nouns (for example : much English)
Many is used with countable nouns (for example : many words).
Affirmative Negative Interrogative

e learn a lot of English.
! ma"e a lot of mista"es.
B!...
Much of our food is
exported.
Many people drive too
fast.

! don#t "now a lot
of English.
! don#t
"now much English.
! don#t "now a lot
of words.
! don#t "now many words.
$o you learn a lot of English%
$o you "now much English%
$o you ma"e a lot of mista"es%
$o you ma"e many mista"es%
&ompare a lot of and a lot :
' Tom "nows a lot of vocabulary.
' Tom is tal"ative. (e tal"s a lot.
some - any - a little - a fe" - much - many


#$ome# #any# #a little# #a fe"# are used to express )uantity, to say or as"
if you have a )uantity of something or not.
$ome is used in affirmative sentences, and also when as%ing for
or offering something.
Any is used in negative and interrogative sentences.
A fe" is used with countable nouns : a few apples.
A little is used with uncountable nouns : a little cheese.


Affirmative Negative Interrogative
There
are some apples.
(e don#t "now how
many,
but the bowl is not
empty)
There
aren#t any apples.
(The bowl is empty)

*re there any apples%
(e want to "now if
the bowl contains apples)
e can also say :
There are a fe" apples,
not many, a small
number.
There
aren#t many apples
*re there many apples%
There is a little cheese.
There
isn#t much cheese
!s there much cheese%
N.B. As%ing and &ffering : Can I have/would you like some coffee?
'requency Adverbs
*dverbs such as : al"ays( already( ever( never( often( rarely( seldom( sometimes(
still( usually(
are placed as follows in sentences :
+ After the verb ,E : Tom is always late.
+ Before other verbs : Tom sometimes ta%es the bus.
+ Between two verbs : Tom has never travelled on the
Eurostar.
or after the first verb if there are more than two : ! "ould never have
thought that
E-&E.T if the second verb is an infinitive : Tom often needs to buy petrol
'requency )hrases
/re)uency phrases such as : every day( once in a "hile, etc. go at the beginning or at
the end of sentences :
+ ! wash my hair every day.
+ &nce a month ! go to the hairdresser#s.
A lot of vs. Lots of
A lot of and lots of are used to express that there is a large quantity of something.
We use a lot of in positive sentences, negative sentences and questions. his
expression can !e used with counta!le or uncounta!le nouns.
here are a lot of dogs in the street. "Countable noun)
I have a lot of time to answer your questions. "Uncountable noun)
I saw a lot of people waiting in the queue. "Countable)
We did have a lot of fun, didn#t we? (Uncountable)
We use lots of in positive and negative sentences, however it is more informal. It can
!e used with counta!le or uncounta!le nouns, and occasionally in questions.
We have lots of time to catch the plane, lets relax. "Uncountable noun)
here are lots of people in the queue today. (Countable$
%h my, you have spent lots of money on clothes& (Uncountable)
I have lots of questions. (Countable)
'he has a lot of money ( 'he has lots of money
Much vs. Many
Much and Many are used to express that there is a large quantity of something.
Much and Many are used in negative sentences and questions.
Many is used with counta!le nouns
Much is used with uncounta!le nouns.
I don#t have many CD's in my collection. (Countable noun)
hey don#t have much money to !uy a present. "Uncountable noun)
)ow many brothers do you have? (Countable noun)
Is there much milk in the fridge? "Uncountable noun$
*ote+ we don#t use Much and Many in positive sentences, we use a lot of orlots of.
I have much money. "Incorrect !ecause the sentence is positive / affirmative$
I have a lot of money. "Correct$
Few vs. Little
We use Few and Little to suggest a small quantity.
Few is used with counta!le nouns
Little is used with uncounta!le nouns.
here are only a few days left until Christmas. "Countable noun)
here is little hope of finding your wallet. (Uncountable noun)
While Few and Little usually have positive meanings, very few and very littlehave
negative meanings.
)e is sad !ecause he has very few friends. (Countable noun)
hey have very little knowledge a!out politics. (Uncountable noun)
How much? - Cunto? (con sustantivos incontables)
10%, 20%, 100% ... of
one half (un jf) -
one fourth (un forz) -
three fourths (zri forz) - !
a great deal of ("r#it $il %v) - "ran canti$a$ $e
a little (a ltl) - un &oco
a lot of (a l%t ov) - un mont%n $e
a quantity of (a 'untiti %v) - una canti$a$ $e
an amount of (an amunt ov) - una canti$a$
enough (in%f) - su(ciente
less (les) - menos
little (ltl) - &oco
more (m%or) - ms
no (n%u) - na$a $e
none of (n%n ov) - na$a $e
not much (not mch) - no mucho
plenty of (&l#nti ov) - un mont%n $e
some (sm) - al"o $e
the rest of ($i r#st %v) - el resto $e

10% , 20%, 100% ... of the mone)


, , ... of the mone)
one half, one fourth, three fourths ... of the mone)
a great deal of the mone) - una "ran canti$a$
a little mone) - un &oco $e $inero
a lot of mone) - un mont%n $e $inero
a quantity of mone) - una canti$a$ $e $inero
an amount of mone) - una canti$a$ $e $inero
enough mone) - su(ciente $inero
less mone) - menos $inero
little mone) - &oco $inero
more mone) - ms $inero
no mone) - na$a $e $inero
none of the mone) - na$a $el $inero
not much mone) - no mucho $inero
plenty of mone) - un mont%n $e $inero
some mone) - al"o $e $inero
the rest of the mone) - el resto $el $inero
How man)? - Cuntos? (con sustantivos contables)
one, two, three - un* $os* tres...
10% , 20%, 100% ...of
one half, one fourth of - un me$io* un cuarto $e
a couple of (a c&l) - un &ar
a few (a (+) - al"unos
a great many (a "r#it meni) - muchsimos
a large number of - un "ran n+mero $e
a lot of (a lot ov) - un mont%n $e
a small quantity of - una &e,ue-a canti$a$ $e
a large quantity of - una "ran canti$a$ $e
another (an%$er) - otro
enough (in%f) - su(cientes
few ((+) - &ocos
fewer ((+er) - menos
many (m#ni) - muchos
more (m%or) - ms
most of(m%ust %v) - la ma)ora $e
none of (n%n %v) - nin"uno $e
lots of (l%ts ov) - montones $e
plenty of (&l#nti %v) - "ran canti$a$ $e
seeral (s#veral) - varios
some (sm) - al"unos
the ma!ority of - la ma)ora $e
the rest of ($e r#st %v) - el resto $e

one, two, three... coins (mone$as)


10% , 20%, 100% ... of the coins
, , ...of the coins
one half, one fourth, three fourths...of the coins
a couple of coins - un &ar $e mone$as
a few coins - al"unas mone$as
a great many coins - muchsimas mone$as
a large number of coins - un "ran n+mero $e mone$as
a lot of coins - un mont%n $e mone$as
a small quantity of coins - una &e,ue-a canti$a$ $e mone$as
a large quantity of coins - una "ran canti$a$ $e mone$as
another coin - otra mone$a
enough coins - su(cientes mone$as
few coins - &ocas mone$as
fewer coins - menos mone$as
many coins - muchas mone$as
more coins - ms mone$as
most of the coins - la ma)ora $e las mone$as
none of the coins - nin"una $e las mone$as
lots of coins - canti$a$es $e mone$as
plenty of coins - "ran canti$a$ $e mone$as
quite a few coins - bastantes mone$as
seeral coins - varias mone$as
some coins - al"unas mone$as
the ma!ority of coins - la ma)ora $e las mone$as
the rest of the coins - el resto $e las mone$as
.$jetivos con sustantivos /ncontables ) Contables
"on #ustantios $ncontables
"on #ustantios "ontables
much (mch)
mucho
many (m#ni)
muchos
so much (s%u mch)
tanto
so many (s%u m#ni)
tantos
too much (tch+ mch)
$emasia$o
too many (tch+ m#ni)
$emasia$os
little (ltl)
&oco
few ((+)
&ocos
a little (a ltl) a few (a (+)
al"o $e al"unos
less (l#s)
menos* menor canti$a$ $e
fewer ((+er)
menos* menor n+mero $e
the least ($e list)
la menor canti$a$ $e
the fewest ($e f+est)
el menor n+mero $e
a large amount of
una "ran canti$a$ $e
a large number of
un "ran n+mero $e
a great deal of (a "r#it $il ov)
mucho0a
a great many (a "r#it m#ni)
muchsimos
1ome 0 .n)
some %s&m' ( algunos ) algo de
*ara a+rmar

$ need some boo,s.


2ecesito al"unos libros.
#he saw some apples on the table.
3lla vi% al"unas manzanas sobre la mesa.
-hey as,ed for some food.
3llos &i$ieron al"o $e comi$a.
#ome money was gien to charity.
.l"o $e $inero fue $a$o a obras $e cari$a$.
*ara hacer preguntas %generalmente para ofrecer o pedir algo'

.ould you li,e some co/ee0


4e "ustara al"o $e caf#?
"ould you lend me some coins0
5o$ras &restarme al"unas mone$as?
"an you bring some more food, please0
5ue$es traer al"o ms $e comi$a &or favor?
an) %1ni' ( alg2n %al preguntar'

3o you hae any questions0


4ienes al"una &re"unta?
3id they ma,e any mista,es0
Cometieron ellos al"+n error?
4re there any other people left0
6ue$a al"una otra &ersona?
an) %1ni' ( ning2n %al negar'

$ do not hae any questions.


2o ten"o nin"una &re"unta.
#he did not gie any e5planation.
3lla no $io nin"una e7&licaci%n.
$ couldn6t +nd any e5cuse.
2o &u$e encontrar nin"una e7cusa
an) %1ni' ( cualquier %al a+rmar'

4ny answer will be belieed.


Cual,uier res&uesta ser cre$a.
4ny fool can do that.
Cual,uier tonto &ue$e hacer eso.
-a,e any of these bottles.
4oma cual,uiera $e estas botellas.
*uantifiers
It might !e !etter to !egin this section on quantifiers !y looking at a few of them
and to see how they operate with nouns. In the list that follows a Yes indicates the
type of noun"s$ that the quantifier generally can !e used with "there are, as so
often with ,nglish, o!scure exceptions$. -s !efore, . refers to uncounta!le nouns
and C refers to counta!le nouns.
Quantifier
Singular
nouns (C)
Plural
nouns (C)
Uncountable
nouns (U)
all / 0es 0es
any / 0es 0es
both / 0es /
each 0es / /
enough / 0es 0es
every 0es / /
fewa fewfewer / 0es /
littlea littleless / / 0es
many / 0es /
more / 0es 0es
some / 0es 0es
a lot of / 0es 0es
Quantifiers are used at the beginning of noun phrases:
!efore a noun on its own+ fewer answers
!efore an ad1ective and noun+ some useful phrases
!efore an adver!, ad1ective and noun+ every really pleasant e!perience
*ormally two quantifiers cannot !e used together !efore the same noun. )owever,
the quantifiers all and both are found immediately !efore the or a possessive
pronoun+ all my relatives" both the ministers. 0ou will also see the following
com!inations of quantifiers+
a little less noise
a few more questions
every few minutes
Many, much, a lot of
hese are all used to talk a!out a large quantity of something2 many is used only
with C nouns, much with . nouns and a lot of can !e used with !oth.
%nly many and much can !e preceded !y the words how, to form questions "how
many how much ###$$. he word too can !e used to express a negative idea "too
hot" too cold$ and so, to show the speaker#s attitude to the quantity "so many
that ### so much he couldn't ###$. %any and much tend to !e rather formal in use
and are therefore often found in legal documents, academic papers and so on2 in
speech we often use phrases like a lot of, loads of" tons of" hundreds of#
Fe, little
-gain, the meaning of these two words is similar since they !oth refer to small
quantities, except that few is found with C nouns and little with . nouns.
If they are used without the indefinite article, a, they have the sense of not
enough and are negative in feeling "few events, little interest$ !ut these are quite
formal and we would normally prefer not many events and not much interest.
When few and little are used witha they simply mean a small quantity with no extra
negative overtones+ a few events "i.e. three or four$ and a little
interest"i.e. some interest, !ut not a lot$.
!ny
&ny can !e used !efore counta!le and uncounta!le nouns usually
in questions andnegative sentences+
&re you bringing any friends with you$
Do you have any coffee$
' can't remember any songs#
(e isn't taking any chances#
If we stress the word any heavily when speaking, we are suggesting an unlimited
choice from a range of things or an unrestricted quantity2 in this case its use is not
confined to 1ust questions and negatives+
(elp yourself to any sandwiches# "the choice is yours$
Don't you like any )eatles song$ "I can#t !elieve you dislike them all$
' can't see any difference# "nothing at all$
Some
*ome is usually thought of as the positive counterpart to any in many
circumstances.
''m bringing some friends with me#
' have some coffee#
3ike any it is used !efore !oth C and . nouns, and means an indefinite quantity !ut
not a large amount. he general rule given a!ove for the use of any in negative
sentences and questions does not always hold in requests and offers where we
often use some to mean a small amount of a known quantity+
+ould you like some cake$ "here is the cake, do you want a piece of it?$
Could ' have some biscuits instead$ "any would not !e possi!le in this
case$
If we stress the word some in positive and negative sentences and in questions, we
are suggesting a limited quantity or num!er of something+
' like some )eatles songs# "!ut certainly not all$
' can see some difference# "!ut not a lot$