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1 Future Constructions
You learned the basic future tense in Lesson 9.
The chart below will remind you how to conjugate in the future (according to the
number and gender of the subject):

Masculine Singular Feminine Singular Masculine Plural Feminine Plural

You can change most present tense constructions into future constructions by replacing
the present auxiliary verb (

, , , ) with the appropriate future

form (

, , , , etc.)

For example:

Simple present

She is here.
Simple future

She will be here.

Present Progressive

He is coming.
Future Progressive

He will be coming.

Present Perfect

You have come.
Future Perfect

You will have come.


She has to go.

She will have to go.


We have money.

We will have money.


Do you need the book?

Will you need the book?

Note in the last example there is no in the present tense version, but you can still
make it future tense by adding (or in this case to agree with ).

17.2 Presumptive
As in English, future sentences often connote presumption: you think
the statement is likely to be true, but you dont know for sure. In
English we could use the word must in the translation.

She works.

She must work (I presume she works
but I dont know for sure).

You have ten rupees.

You must have ten rupees.

My daughter came.

My daughter must have come.

You have seen some girl.

You must surely have seen some girl.

Note that in the construction, when the object is blocked by ,
use (third person singular).
The emphatic particle can be added after the verbal phrase to
increase the conviction of your presumption. Most often, is used in
the common phrase: . This expresses the speakers belief
that something is almost certainly true. For Example:

You must have my telephone number.

Sheila must be at the party.

17.3 "Maybe" with Subjunctive
(maybe) can be used with any tense:

Maybe he is working.

Maybe this will be expensive.

Maybe I wasnt there.

To express greater uncertainty, can be used with the
subjunctive (optative):

Maybe Ill meet you tomorrow.
OR: I may meet you tomorrow.

Maybe that girl will come again.
OR: That girl may come again.

Any present or past sentence can be subjunctivized by
using or in place of the auxiliary verb. Remember that the
subjunctive of is simply (singular) or (plural).

Maybe they are coming.
OR: They may be coming.

Maybe she has come.
OR: She may have come.

Maybe you need food.
OR: You may need food.

Maybe he has to go.
OR: He may have to go.

Maybe she wants to say
something to me.

OR: She may want to say
something to me.

Subjunctive sentences may also be preceded by other expressions of
uncertainty, hope, fear, desire, etc.
17.4 Seasons and Weather
There are essentially three seasons in India:

The hot season (Summer)

The rainy season (Monsoon)
The cold season (Winter)

The word (heat) can mean both the hot season, and an episode
of hot weather:

It was so hot in Banaras.

It is (usually) very hot inBanaras.

It is not hot here

Weather conditions are described with either or .
Likewise, the words , , can be used for cold weather.
In Lesson 19 we will learn how to talk about rain and snow.
To express feeling hot or cold takes the dative construction with the

Im feeling cold.

That child felt hot.

The adjectives and are not normally used for people, but can
be used for parts of the body:

My hands are warm.
17.5 Compound Verbs
At this point you do not need to know how to use compound
verbs. However you do need to be able to recognize them because
native speakers use them all the time.

A compound verb is made up of two verbs. The first verb appears in
root form. The second verb is conjugated normally. The primary
meaning is carried by the first verb. The second verb adds a shade of
meaning to the first verb.

The first verb can be any verb.
The second verb is usually , , , or , but you may
encounter others.

For example:

Come (here).

We go to sleep early.

I will explain.

Sometimes both verbs in the compound can be the same:

Give (me)

Please take...
17.6 Perspiration
To sweat requires the dative construction with the verb :

17.7 Adjective Doubling
Adjectives are often doubled in Hindi for emphasis: