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WHERE TO LOOK FOR INFORMATION ON

RO MEMBRANE PROGRAMS?
The Boiler Water Technology Manual (Book 2) and the Boiler Water Application Best Practices
Manual (Book 314) are your primary sources of up to date system descriptions and practical
information on operating and troubleshooting. These manuals are a great source of fundamental
information on how RO systems are operated, the common practices and limitations for a variety
of applications. The Technical Expertise Center is available to take your support questions.
An abundance of information can be found in Nalco Connections. Use this address
https://connections.nalco.com/Pages/default.aspx to access the Nalco database
CONNECTIONS, which is in Microsofts SharePoint. The new search capabilities will help
you to quickly locate relevant content, or navigate directly to business-level sites using the top
level navigation found at the top of the screen. Once in CONNECTIONS, look under
OFFERINGS, select CHEMISTRY/CPP and then select PAC-M. The database
CONNECTIONS helps to provide easy access for Reverse Osmosis information and literature.



Delivering value to your customers must be related to measured Key Performance Indicators
(KPIs) appropriate for your customers system and business drivers. While customers may have
various KPIs, several are common to most all customers. They include permeate production,
cleaning frequency, operating pressures and permeate quality. You may need very specific
information. You may want to check the Membrane Solutions database.
Reverse Osmosis Membrane Systems
Products, Application and Equipment
Quick Reference Guide (PAC-M)
ADV-885-RO (8/6/13) CONFIDENTIAL For Employee Use Only 1

RO GLOSSARY OF TERMS
Recovery Is the amount of permeate
(product) water produced as a percent of the
feed water.
Reject (Concentrate) The water that does
not pass through the membrane and contains
the concentrated Total Dissolved Solids (TDS).
Flux The amount of water produced per unit
of membrane area. (gpm/ft
2
, lpm/m
2
)
Salt Passage (S.P.) Is a function of the
membrane and describes the fraction of TDS
that would be expected to pass through them
membrane. S.P. =1-S.R.
Salt Rejection (S.R.) Is a function of the
membrane and describes the fraction of
dissolved solids that the membrane should keep
on the reject side of the system.
Silt Density Index (SDI) Is a measure of the
Fouling potential of the NF/RO feedwater. SDI
measures the difference in time to collect a
500ml volume after the water has passed
through a 0.45 micron filter for 15 minutes.
SDI values of less than 5 are required to meet
membrane manufacturers warranty.
Test Kit: 420-CO412.88
Desalination A process where soluble salts
are separated from water.
Differential Pressure (DP) This is the
pressure difference between the feed and
concentrate ends of the membrane. When
normalized, DP becomes Normalized
Differential Pressure (NDP)
Normalized Permeate Flow (NPF)
Normalized flow is a flow that has been
corrected for temperature, salinity and
pressure.

Scaling Typically occurs in the last stage
where dissolved solids are the most
concentrated.
Bio and Organic Fouling Bio and organic
fouling typically occurs in the beginning of
the first stage.
Cleaning Membranes should be prepared
for cleaning when the NPF decreases by
10-15% or when the NDP increases by
10-15%, or when the salt passage increases
by 10-15%.

TYPICAL 2-STAGE
SYSTEM DESIGN

RO systems will have various designs
depending on what recovery rate is desired
and the feed water characteristics. Systems
can be run using softened water, which can
allow for higher recovery. A 4 x 2 array is a
2-stage system (see picture). A system with a
6 x 3 x 1 array is a 3-stage system. Extra
stages allow for higher recovery. Three-stage
systems are often operated using softened
water or water with low dissolved solids.


ADV-885-RO (8/6/13) CONFIDENTIAL For Employee Use Only 2
% % R RE EC CO OV VE ER RY Y: :
y y = =( (Q Q
p p
/ /Q Q
f f
) ) 1 10 00 0
% % R RE EJ J E EC CT T: :
R R = =( (Q Q
r r
/ /Q Q
f f
) ) 1 10 00 0 = =1 10 00 0 y y
% % S SA AL LT T P PA AS SS SA AG GE E: :
S SP P = =1 10 00 0- - S SR R
% % S SA AL LT T R RE EJ J E EC CT TI IO ON N: :
S SR R = =( (( (C C
f f
C C
p p
) )/ / C C
f f
) )* *1 10 00 0
C CO ON NC CE EN NT TR RA AT TI IO ON N F FA AC CT TO OR R: :
C CF F = =Q Q
f
/ /Q Q
r


RULES OF THUMB
Chemical Account Size Estimate $8-12K
annual chemical cost per 100 gpm permeate
flow rate. The A, B, Cs of treatment are:
Antiscalant, Biocide and Cleaners.
Consumables Cartridge filters, test
equipment, etc., will increase the account size
by about 2x the annual chemical cost.
Elements(membrane modules) A 100-gpm
system will require about 24-30 membrane
elements. Each element costs $500-600 and can
last up to 3 years.
Biocides Do NOT feed any oxidizers,
Glutaraldehyde or quat. amines as they will
damage or destroy the membranes. Only an
approved biocide product for the specific
application can be used. For example, you
cannot use a biocide approved for cooling water
treatment in a membrane system unless that
specific product number has been approved for
membranes.
8 Measurements for Normalization:
Temperature
Concentrate Flow (C C
f f
)
Concentrate Pressure (C C
p p
)
Feed pressure
Permeate flow
Permeate pressure
Feed Total Dissolved Solids
Permeate Total Dissolved Solids
Normalization Programs: UNO
SAMPLE CLEANING PROCEDURE*
Make up a 2% PC-98, check pH and adjust to
the highest possible pH tolerated by the
membranes (pH 10-12 - see the membrane
spec sheet)**
Heat to as high a temperature as the
membrane can tolerate (105 - 110F - see the
membrane spec sheet)** and circulate for 2
hours. Rinse with permeate.
Make up a 2% solution of PC-87 using
permeate water. The pH should be around 2.
Circulate/soak for 2 hours. If after 1 hour pH
is the same and there is no color change you
can finish the cleaning. If the pH creeps up
add more PC-87, or some sulfuric acid, to
bring it down again. Rinse with permeate
until the conductivity of the permeate water
is back to where it was before the cleaning.
* Membrane manufacturer guidelines must
always be followed with respect to pH,
temperature, flow rate and the differential
pressure.
**Note that pH and temperature maximums
are related.
Specific cleaning procedures for cellulose
acetate and polyamide membranes can be
found in KM.
VALUE SERVICES
Membrane Autopsy service is available
through Analytical Services. This service is
extremely valuable in determining the root
cause of a membrane failure so that
appropriate corrective action can be taken.

The autopsy involves destruction of a fouled
membrane and analytical investigation into
the fouling material. In addition, sections
of the membrane are subjected to cleaning
procedures to evaluate what cleaning
ADV-885-RO (8/6/13) CONFIDENTIAL For Employee Use Only 3
method and chemicals would be best and if
the membrane would still be useful after the
cleaning.

Sales Discovery Questions
1. Is the RO system providing water in the
volume and quality required?
2. Has an economic evaluation of the system
been performed?
3. Is there the future possibility of more
aggressive performance requirements for
the system?
4. What is the time interval between
cleanings?
5. Has the system had issues with premature
fouling or scaling?
6. Has a membrane autopsy been performed?
7. When the membranes are cleaned, does the
performance return to normal?
8. What is your typical SDI and how often is
it measured?
9. Is there a recent complete water analysis
available?
10. What is the pretreatment process for the
RO feed water?
11. If the system were to be improved, what
issue would be considered most urgent?
ANTISCALANTS
PRODUCT SELECTION
Product selection is similar to cooling water
or boiler water product selection. It
requires knowledge of the system and a
complete water analysis. You will need to
use RO Optimizer program to determine an
antiscalant product and provide a starting
dosage.
The RO Optimizer program is required for
selecting the proper antiscalant based on
the dissolved solids in the water and
NF/RO operating conditions. The
graphical output from the program appears
like the following.
The red bars indicate scaling conditions
while the green bars indicate no scaling.
Your product selection efforts should
include some investigation into how
sensitive your treatment program is to
changes in variables including pH,
temperature, pressure and recovery rate.
For additional information, see the product
compendium located in the CPP database
under the PAC-M heading.
BIOCIDES PRODUCT SELECTION
PC-11
Non-oxidizing Biocide
(DBNPA)
PC-55
Cleaner, non-oxidizing biocide
(Isothiazolone, Not available
in the US)
PC-56
Non-oxidizing Biocide
(Isothiazolone)
ADV-885-RO (8/6/13) CONFIDENTIAL For Employee Use Only 4
CLEANERS PRODUCT SELECTION
PC-33 Alkaline Sequestrant
PC-40 Mild Oxidizer
PC-67 Mild Anionic Surfactant
PC-77 Mild Acidic Cleaner
PC-87 Strong Acid Cleaner
PC-98 Alkaline Cleaner
For additional information see the product compendium located in the CPP database in Nalco
Connections.
NALCO RO TROUBLESHOOTING
1. Fouling (not scale) Pretreatment such as Multi-media filters may be ineffective or the
coagulant program may be ineffective. Excessive dispersed solids as shown by the SDI test
(SDI>5) would indicate the water pre-treatment filtration system needs attention and not the
membrane system.
2. Cartridge Filter This filter is located just before the first stage of the membrane system and
is meant to protect the membrane from ion exchange resin, corrosion products, or other solids
that are introduced to the water from the pre-treatment steps. This cartridge filter is not
designed to provide substantial solids filtration.
3. Scaling Typically occurs when the recovery is set to high and the TDS are concentrated to a
point where they precipitate in the system. Use an antiscalant, water softener and/or reduce the
recovery to minimize or eliminate scaling. Usually occurs in the last stage.








ADV-885-RO (8/6/13) CONFIDENTIAL For Employee Use Only 5
NALCO RO EQUIPMENT AND SERVICES OFFERINGS

CAPITAL EQUIPMENT
Conventional RO Pretreatment (enter all
leads into CRM)
Sodium softeners
Fiberglass (FRP) or steel tanks
Filters (multimedia, high-efficiency,
carbon, iron-removal)
FRP or steel tanks
Membrane (Ultrafiltration (UF) or
Microfiltration (MF)) RO Pretreatment

RO/Nanofiltration (NF) skids or RO/NF +
pretreatment/post-treatment systems
Standard skids, 1 - 400 gpm
Custom skids

RO/NF Membrane sales only
Dow, Hydranautics, Toray

EQUIPMENT SERVICES
Turnkey DBOOM (design, build, own,
operate, maintain)

Mobile equipment
Exchange services and equipment rentals
Filters
Softeners
RO
Ion exchange or mixed-bed polishers
off-site regeneration

OTHER RO-RELATED SERVICES
Membrane autopsysee KM
(analyticalshipping/labelingshipping
policy, guidelines, and recommendations
how do I ship RO autopsy samples)
CRM one stop for all RO and
conventional/membrane pretreatment
equipment and services leads


RO system service and maintenance
contact Glenwood Tech Support
(708)754-2550
ADV-885-RO (8/6/13) CONFIDENTIAL For Employee Use Only 6

Membrane cleaning
On-site contact your sales accelerator
Off-site contact Glenwood Technical
Services at (708)-754-2550


Off-site Membrane lay-up preservation
servicescontact Glenwood Technical
Services at (708)-754-2550
System AuditsTBD
Laboratory servicesRO test code for all
RO-related water analyses

FORMS
Water Form Obtain from sales accelerator
Autopsy Form - contact Carl Rossow or KM
(analyticalshipping/labelingshipping
policy, guidelines, and recommendations
how do I ship RO autopsy samples)
Mobile Pretreatment Survey - CRM
Membrane Cleaning Form Glenwood
Tech. Support (708)-754-2550

SOME ADDITIONAL OFFERINGS
Pre or Post Treatment for: Nalco Products
Membrane Bioreactors MPE-50

Chlorine Resistant Coag. PC-306T

Anionic Flocculant PC-707

Dechlorination PC-7408

Alkalinity Source PC-7412


3D TRASAR MEMBRANE
TECHNOLOGY
Learn - Online Training Available in the
Nalco Learning Center M101: RO Basics
and 3DTfM; M140: 3DTfM Sales Process

Apply The tools needed to implement
3DTfM are available at:
Connections.nalco.com> Offerings -
>Applications ->Pretreatment/Membrane
Tech.->RO Performance Assurance/3DTfM

Resources Technical Expertise Center at
tec@nalcoservicedesk.com or Equipment
Helpdesk at nges@nalcoservicedesk.com

Sales Accelerators Opportunities must
exist in CRM to engage Sales Accelerator
support



ADV-885-RO (8/6/13) CONFIDENTIAL For Employee Use Only 7
Technical Support
Ecolab-Nalco products and application
support : call the Technical Expertise Center
(TEC) at 630-305-2436 or
866-798-7444.

Ecolab-Nalco Equipment Support : call the
Equipment Helpdesk at: 630-305-2436 or
866-798-7444.



Technical Expertise Center
Or
Equipment Helpdesk

630-305-2436 or 866-798-7444
We are here to help you deliver results!








ADV-885-RO (8/6/13) CONFIDENTIAL For Employee Use Only 8