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Nokia Siemens Networks

GSM/EDGE BSS, rel.


RG10(BSS), operating
documentation, issue 04
D-Channel Services
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The information in this document is subject to change without notice and describes only the
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contained in the document are adequate and free of material errors and omissions. Nokia
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Copyright Nokia Siemens Networks 2009. All rights reserved
f Important Notice on Product Safety
Elevated voltages are inevitably present at specific points in this electrical equipment.
Some of the parts may also have elevated operating temperatures.
Non-observance of these conditions and the safety instructions can result in personal
injury or in property damage.
Therefore, only trained and qualified personnel may install and maintain the system.
The system complies with the standard EN 60950 / IEC 60950. All equipment connected
has to comply with the applicable safety standards.
The same text in German:
Wichtiger Hinweis zur Produktsicherheit
In elektrischen Anlagen stehen zwangslufig bestimmte Teile der Gerte unter Span-
nung. Einige Teile knnen auch eine hohe Betriebstemperatur aufweisen.
Eine Nichtbeachtung dieser Situation und der Warnungshinweise kann zu Krperverlet-
zungen und Sachschden fhren.
Deshalb wird vorausgesetzt, dass nur geschultes und qualifiziertes Personal die
Anlagen installiert und wartet.
Das System entspricht den Anforderungen der EN 60950 / IEC 60950. Angeschlossene
Gerte mssen die zutreffenden Sicherheitsbestimmungen erfllen.
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Table of Contents
This document has 76 pages.
Summary of changes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1 D-channels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.1 D-channel layering. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.2 LAPD protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.3 DPNSS1/DASS2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.4 D-channels in the DX 200 system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.4.1 D-channels in 30B+D interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.4.2 D-channels in Abis interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1.4.3 D-channels in system-internal communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
1.4.4 D-channels in DPNSS1/DASS2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
1.5 D-channel capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
1.6 Functional unit D-channel data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
1.7 D-channel states . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
1.7.1 D-channel state change in 30+D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
1.7.2 D-channel state change in Abis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2 Configuring 30B+D interface D-channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3 Configuring Abis interface D-channels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
4 Configuring DPNSS1/DASS2 D-channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
5 LAPD statistics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
5.1 LAPD statistical meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
5.2 Enquiry of statistical meters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
5.3 Use of LAPD meters in problem solving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
5.4 Use of LAPD meters in gathering statistical data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
6 DPNSS1/DASS2 statistics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
6.1 Statistical meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
6.2 Use of DPNSS1/DASS2 counters in problem solving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
7 LAPD event logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
7.1 D-channel events. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
7.2 Collecting D-channel events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
7.3 Enquiry of LAPD events. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
7.4 Use of LAPD event logs in problem solving. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
8 D-channel-related log writings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
8.1 PXNETM (11C): AS7 restart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
8.2 PXNETM (11C): Error from AS7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
8.3 PXNETM (11C): Term not accessible . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
8.4 PXNETM (11C): Duplicate use of log. term. in file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
8.5 PXSEND (11E): Unknown sub in message. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
8.6 PXSEND (11E): Unknown ET index in message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
8.7 PXSEND (11E): Log term to PHY term error. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
8.8 PXSEND (11E): Error searching PXLOGT LOG_TERMINAL . . . . . . . 42
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9 D-channel troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
9.1 Instructions for D-channel-related alarm situations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
9.1.1 Data link layer protocol mismatch (1250) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
9.1.2 Excessive retransmissions on data link connection (1251) . . . . . . . . . . 43
9.1.3 Excessive error rate on data link connection (1252). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
9.1.4 No response from primary rate access terminal (1253) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
9.1.5 Unsolicited data link re-establishment (1254) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
9.1.6 Internal communication channel failure (1280) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
9.1.7 Send buffer overflow (2133) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
9.1.8 Plug-in unit location error (2137). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
9.1.9 Failure in D-channel activation or restoration (2250) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
9.1.10 Loop test failed in primary rate access terminal (2252) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
9.1.11 Signalling terminal faulty (2285) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
9.1.12 DPNSS1/DASS link out of service (2464). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
9.2 State change of functional unit fails . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
9.3 Loading the program code to functional unit fails . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
9.4 Software of AS7 plug-in unit cannot be loaded. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
9.5 D-channel works only with the other side of GSW/SWI . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
9.6 Blocked 30B+D D-channel cannot be activated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
9.7 30B+D or DPNSS1/DASS2 D-channel cannot be deleted . . . . . . . . . . . 55
10 LAPD frame structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
11 DPNSS1/DASS2 frame structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
12 Monitoring D-channel on PECTUS-based preprocessors . . . . . . . . . . . 60
13 Load mail box and control structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
14 AS7-U strappings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
15 AS7-V strappings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
16 AS7-U/AS7-V backplane connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
17 Loop for CEA cable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
18 PCM loop-back for the ET1E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
19 PCM loop-back for the ET2E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
20 D-channel and LAPD related MML error codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
21 D-channel and LAPD related event logs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Concepts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
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List of Figures
Figure 1 D-channel layering. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Figure 2 Primitive action sequences of D-channels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Figure 3 Example of LAPD frame exchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Figure 4 General D-channel architecture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Figure 5 D-channel hardware architecture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Figure 6 Processing capacity of the AS7-U . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Figure 7 Processing capacity of the AS7-V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Figure 8 Processing capacity of the AS7-V (DPNSS/DASS2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Figure 9 General state model of functional unit D-channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Figure 10 State model of subscriber module (SUB) D-channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Figure 11 State model of the primary rate (30B+D) D-channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Figure 12 State model of the Abis interface D-channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Figure 13 Address field format (octets 2 and 3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Figure 14 Control field format (octets 4 and 5). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Figure 15 DPNSS1/DASS2 frame structure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Figure 16 Structure of the load mail box in the dual port memory of the AS7-U (shad-
ing on terminal function 0) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Figure 17 AS7-U strappings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Figure 18 AS7-V strappings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Figure 19 AS7-U/AS7-V backplane connector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Figure 20 Loop for CEA cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Figure 21 PCM loop-back for the ET1E. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Figure 22 PCM loop-back for the ET2E. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
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List of Tables
Table 1 Number of D-channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Table 2 Files used for functional unit D-channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Table 3 Commands for the interrogation of D-channel data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Table 4 Event class 1 (administrational events) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Table 5 Event class 2 (data link events) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Table 6 Event class 3 (layer 3 events) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Table 7 Event class 4 (general events) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
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Summary of changes
Changes between document issues are cumulative. Therefore, the latest document
issue contains all changes made to previous issues.
Changes made between issues 70 and 60
Chapter D-Channel:
new AS7 variant, AS7-D has been added
Sections D-channels in V5 interface, RSS Clock Channel, Subscriber Module
Channel, VXCU channel, P- and Bd-channels have been removed
GSM 08.56 specification has been replaced with 3GPP TS 48.056 specification.
Chapters V5 interface C-channel statistics and LAPV5 frame structure have been
removed.
Chapter D-channel-related log writings:
Sections PXSEND (11E): "No P-channel for message" and PXSEND (11E): "No Bd-
channel for message" have been removed.
Chapter D-channel troubleshooting:
Sections SUB-E state changes fail and State change of CLSS/CLES in RSS-C fails
have been removed.
Changes made between issues 60 and 52
Added new hardware for M14:
new AS7 variant AS7-C
new ET variants ET4E, ET4E-C, ET4A, and ET16
Also editorial corrections.
Changes made between issues 52 and 51
There are no changes in the content, only editorial corrections have been made.
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D-channels
1 D-channels
A D-channel is a communication channel used for signalling and for other message-
based data transmission. Originally, D-channel is one of the channel types defined for
the ISDN user-network interfaces. In addition to the D-channel, there is a channel type
called B-channel. The B-channel is a 64 kbit/s channel intended to carry a variety of
user information streams, such as voice or circuit or packet-switching data information.
There are two main interface structures defined for ISDN. The basic interface structure
is composed of two B-channels and one D-channel (2B+D). The bit rate of the D-
channel is 16 kbit/s in the 2B+D interface. The interface supports point-to-multipoint
configurations, namely there may be several pieces of terminal equipment connected to
a D-channel. This interface is not in the scope of this document and it will not be dealt
with in detail.
The primary rate access structure is composed of several B-channels and one D-
channel. In the 2048 kbit/s primary rate access, the interface structure is 30B+D. In the
1544 kbit/s primary rate access, the interface structure is 23B+D. The bit rate of the D-
channel is 64 kbit/s in the primary rate accesses.
Due to the nature of the primary rate access, several other applications use the same
principles and channel structure as the ISDN 30B+D. The terminology may vary,
however, there are always one or more channels for signalling and other message
transfer and a number of channels for speech or data. The bit rate of this channel may
be 64 kbit/s, N 64 kbit/s or subrates 8, 16 or 32 kbit/s. The interface may also be
composed of several primary rate accesses, with signalling or message transfer on only
one of them. In this document the communication channel used for signalling is called
D-channel, regardless of the application.
This also applies to DPNSS1 and DASS2 type D-channels. These interfaces are used
mainly to connect PBXs to public or private networks. The interface structure is basically
the same as in the 30B+D interface; however, the D-channel protocol is not the same.
As the implementation architecture of these protocols is very much the same as in the
DX 200 system, these interfaces will be covered by this document.
1.1 D-channel layering
Layering of the D-channel protocols follows the OSI reference model, although there are
differences. There are two communicating entities in each layer and they use the
services provided by the lower layer. As the D-channel is intended for user-network
interfaces and there are differences in the operation in each end, a network and a user
side must be defined.
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Figure 1 D-channel layering
Layer 1 provides, for example, the transmission capability by means of appropriately
encoded bit streams and the related timing and synchronisation signals. The primary
rate accesses are active at all times, so no activation and deactivation procedures are
applied.
The primary rate access at 2048 kbit/s uses the frame structure with 32 time-slots,
numbered 0 to 31, at eight bits each. Time-slot 16 is assigned to the D-channel, but
other time-slots are also used in non-ISDN applications. The primary rate access at
1544 kbit/s uses the 193 bits long frame with a so-called F bit followed by 24 time-slots,
numbered 1 to 24. Time-slot 24 is assigned to the D-channel.
The layer 2 protocol on the D-channel is LAPD. The purpose of LAPD is to convey infor-
mation between layer 3 entities across the interface using the D-channel. LAPD
supports both point-to-multipoint as well as point-to-point communications. In primary
rate applications, only point-to-point communication is used. However, a single physical
link may provide logical channels for several layer 3 entities.
Layer 3 includes the application-specific signalling functions, such as: basic call control
procedures for establishing, maintaining and clearing of connections; procedures for
various supplementary services; and user-to-user signalling and maintenance func-
tions.
In the DX 200 system, all the entities above layer 2 using the D-channel for message
transfer are referred to as layer 3. D-channel management functions in the DX 200
system may also be referred to as layer 3, as they include the handling of the primitives
defined for communication between layer 3 and 2 specified in layer 2's recommenda-
tions.
Layer 3
Layer 2
Layer 1
Network
Layer 3
Layer 2
Layer 1
User
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D-channels
Figure 2 Primitive action sequences of D-channels
The primitives for establishment and release of a D-channel connection are:
DL-ESTABLISH-REQUEST
DL-ESTABLISH-INDICATION
DL-ESTABLISH-CONFIRM
DL-RELEASE-REQUEST
DL-RELEASE-INDICATION
DL-RELEASE-CONFIRM
In addition, the primitives DL-DATA-REQUEST, DL-DATA-INDICATION DL-UNIT
DATA-REQUEST, and DL-UNIT DATA-INDICATION represent the information transfer
using either acknowledged or unacknowledged information transfer, respectively.
1.2 LAPD protocol
The data link protocol (layer 2) of the D-channel is called LAPD.
LAPD contains procedures for the establishment of a D-channel connection, delivery of
signalling messages, as well as supervision and release of the connection. The connec-
tion has two communicating entities at both ends of the D-channel, the Network side and
the User side.
In most cases the procedures include the sending of a specific LAPD frame and also
waiting for an acknowledgement. There are three main types of frames: unnumbered,
supervisory, and information frames.
Unnumbered frames are SABME (connection establishment command), DISC (connec-
tion release command), UA (positive response to connection establishment or release),
and DM (negative response to connection establishment or release).
Supervisory frames are RR (acknowledgements, pollings), RNR (receiver busy indica-
tion), and REJ (rejection of an information frame). These frames include a receive
sequence number N(R) for acknowledgement of information frames.
Information frames (I) are used to send information (up to 260 bytes or even more in
internal communications of the DX 200 system). The I frames include both the receive
sequence number N(R) and a send sequence number N(S). N(S) is incremented by one
every time a new I frame is sent. Corresponding acknowledgement is numbered
N(R)=N(S)+1. Acknowledgement should be received in a supervisory frame (usually
Request
Data link layer
peer-to-peer
procedures
Indication
Layer 3
Confirm
Data link
layer
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RR) or an I frame. The I frame is retransmitted if no acknowledgement with a correct
N(R) is received. Several I frames may be waiting for an acknowledgement at the same
time. The number of these frames is limited. The maximum value is called the window
side (k).
Unnumbered information frames (UI) are used for sending information without acknowl-
edgements, namely the transmission is not secured by retransmissions. Current use of
these frames is limited to Abis and system-internal communication.
A detailed description of the frame structure is given in chapter LAPD frame structure.
All actions with an acknowledgement have a timer with a maximum value of T200. The
transmission is repeated if necessary.
The connection is supervised if there is nothing else to be sent (timer T203). The super-
visory RR frame is sent, and a corresponding supervisory frame should be received. If
there is no response, even after retransmissions, the connection re-establishment pro-
cedure is initiated.
The following figure illustrates some of the procedures of the LAPD protocol described
above.
Figure 3 Example of LAPD frame exchange
Different applications may have rules regarding the initiator of the connection establish-
ment. In most cases, both sides are repeating connection establishment attempts until
they succeed. Also, supervision of the connection may be left to one or both sides.
1.3 DPNSS1/DASS2
Digital Private Network Signalling System (DPNSS1) and Digital Access Signalling
System No 2 (DASS2) are common channel signalling systems designed primarily for
the interconnection of PBXs to a private network (DPNSS1) or to a local exchange
Network
SABME
User
UA
I N(S)=0,
RR N(R)=1
Connection
establishment
Sending information
and receiving an
acknowledgement
T203
Supervision
SABME
SABME
I N(S)=0,
RR N(R)=1
RR N(R)=1
RR N(R)=1
Sending information
and receiving an
acknowledgement
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(DASS2). The protocols define the signalling procedures for simple telephone calls and
for more sophisticated supplementary services.
Each of the up to 30 traffic channels of the 2048 kbit/s PCM system is supported by a
Link Access Protocol (LAP) on a signalling channel. Frames for each LAP are inter-
leaved on time-slot 16 of the same PCM. The address field of each frame indicates the
LAP and channel to which the message relates. DPNSS1 also supports virtual channels
in addition to normal traffic channels (referred to as Real channels), which is also indi-
cated in the address field. Each LAP operates independently without explicit interaction.
The logical signalling channel of time-slot 16 is called a data link connection (DLC).
An SABMR frame constitutes a reset signal; in other words, it is used in establishing the
connection for the LAP. Upon receipt of a UA or SABMR frame the sender resets the
state variables, after which the connection can be used for transferring the signalling
messages.
The Unnumbered Information (UI) frame may be a command UI(C) or a response UI(R).
A one-bit sequence number is included in the UI frames. A UI(C) frame may carry sig-
nalling information in a block of variable length (up to 45 octets). UI(R) frames convey
acknowledgements to the UI(C) frames.
The system is compelled at level 2 in that each frame is repeated until it is acknowl-
edged by a responding frame in the opposite direction. When there are no messages to
be sent, continuous flags are transmitted. DPNSS1 also includes supervision of the con-
nection using UI frames, if no frames have been exchanged in a predefined interval
(default five minutes). Both DPNSS1 and DASS2 connections are released if layer 1
indicates a loss of signal.
The following figure illustrates some of the procedures of the DPNSS1 and DASS2
protocol described above. The local exchange side is denoted as ET in the DASS2; for
the DPNSS1 side A and side B are used.
ET/Side A
SABMR
PBX/Side B
UA
UI(C) with I field
UI(C) with I field repeated
Connection
establishment
Supervision,
DPNSS only
SABMR
SABMR
UI(C) with I field repeated
UI(R)
UI(C), no I field
UI(R)
Sending information
and receiving an
acknowledgement
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1.4 D-channels in the DX 200 system
The D-channels in the DX 200 system provide the means of communication between
the DX 200 system network elements and various external equipment or network ele-
ments. They also provide communication channels between functional units within the
DX 200 system itself.
Figure 4 General D-channel architecture
D-channel services are offered to various layer 3 functions which may handle either
external standardised protocols or internal tasks related to signalling, alarm and
recovery system, fault diagnosis etc.
Layer 2 functions are implemented on signalling terminals, namely preprocessor plug-
in units or as a part of the software of the functional units. Each of the channels of a sig-
nalling terminal is referred to as signalling terminal function.
D-channel management is distributed to the computer units where the D-channel
service is offered. There is also a centralised part acting as the counterpart to the dis-
tributed part, certain layer 3 functions, and the MMI interface.
The MMI for the D-channels includes functions for creating, modifying and deleting the
D-channel data as well as D-channel state changes.
ET
Functional
unit
D-channel
functions
2 Mbit/s
Switching
functions
Layer 3
signalling
functions
D-channel
management
functions
Signalling terminal functions (D-channel layer 2)
MMI
functions
User
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Figure 5 D-channel hardware architecture
The preprocessor units implementing the layer 2, namely LAPD functions in the
computer units of the DX 200 BSC systems are AS7-U, AS7-V, AS7-VA, AS7-X, AS7-
B, AS7-C and AS7-D.
The following AS7 variants are used with DMC bus:
AS7-U
AS7-V
AS7-VA
AS7-X
The following AS7 variants are used with PCI bus:
AS7-A
AS7-B
AS7-C
AS7-D
AS7-U can handle up to 32 D-channels; AS7-C can handle up to 256 D-channels; AS7-
D can handle up to 512 D-channels; other AS7 variants can handle up to 64 D-channels.
The units are connected to the switching matrix by a 2 Mbit/s, 4 Mbit/s or 8 Mbit/s
internal PCM. The time-slots reserved on a PCM are given when the preprocessor unit
is created.
1.4.1 D-channels in 30B+D interface
The DX 200 system supports the primary rate access interface with the 30B+D (or
23B+D) channel structure. The B-channels are used for speech and data, the D-channel
is used for signalling according to the specification ETS 300 4024, Digital subscriber
signalling system no 1 (DSS1). Layer 2 is specified by ITU-T Recommendations, Q.920
and Q.921, and the corresponding ETSI Recommendation ETS 300125 or the updated
ET
Functional
unit
Serial I/O
OMU CM
GSW/SWI
D-channel
AS7 (0)
Serial I/O
AS7 (1)
Serial I/O
AS7 (n)
Serial I/O
HOST COMPUTER UNIT
D-channel
Internal 2M/4M/8M PCM
DMC bus interface /
Compact PCI bus interface
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version ETS 300 402. Layer 3 is specified in ITU-T Recommendation Q.931 and ETS
300102.
The LAPD for 30B+D interface supports signalling with SAPI value 0 and TEI value 0.
The default parameters for LAPD as defined for signalling and a bit rate of 64 kbit/s are
used.
The following LAPD features are not required in the 30B+D interface and therefore not
implemented in the DX 200 system:
TEI management procedures (TEI value 0 assigned internally)
broadcast data link
The following LAPD features are not supported in the 30B+D interface of the DX 200
system:
packet data with SAPI value 16
In the 30B+D interface, the D-channel connection is established by a user MML
command and then maintained until deactivated by the user. No call-related actions are
made as far as the state of the D-channel is concerned.
1.4.2 D-channels in Abis interface
The Abis interface is the interface between the Base Station Controller (BSC) and the
Base Transceiver Station (BTS) of the GSM system.
The Abis interface telecommunication part between the DX 200 BSC and the BTS is
implemented according to the 3GPP TS 48.056 recommendation. The Abis O&M part is
Nokia property supporting additional features like the Site Test Monitoring unit, alarm
consistency, remote transmission equipment management, and BTS database man-
agement.
The interface between the DX 200 BSC and the BTS is defined in accordance with the
OSI protocol model. The LAPD protocol is implemented to provide the signalling
network functions required to carry layer 3 messages.
Layer 1 represents the physical layer. It is a digital interface at 2048 kbit/s, based on
ITU-T Recommendation G.703. Submultiplexing is used on the Abis interface as a
standard solution, because each speech channel reserves only 16 kbit/s (FR channel)
or 8 kbit/s (HR channel).
The DX 200 BSC can handle LAPD signalling links with the bit rates of 16 kbit/s,
32 kbit/s, and 64 kbit/s.
The BCSU computer handling the Abis interface in the BSC is equipped with LAPD inter-
face terminals. Each LAPD signalling terminal can handle a maximum of 32 LAPD links
if AS7-U is used, 256 LAPD links if AS7-C is used, 512 LAPD links if AS7-D is used and
64 LAPD links if other AS7 variants are used. Some capacity is needed for the ET,
STMU and ETIP D-channels. Layer 2 LAPD functions are performed by the terminal, but
application-specific messages are handled by the microcomputer of the BCSU.
Two logical links can be established on one physical link, one for operation and mainte-
nance unit signalling (OMUSIG) and another one for TRX link (TRXSIG).
The 3GPP TS 48.056 specification defines the use of the LAPD protocol in the Abis
interface. The Abis interface specific parameters used in the DX 200 BSC are:
SAPI value 0 used for Radio signalling procedures
SAPI value 62 used for O&M procedures
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SAPI value 61 used for the Access channel (not included in GSM 08.56)
TEI management not used (fixed values used)
The value of timer T200 is 240 ms; for satellite Abis links T200 is 1000 ms; for
Access channels the value of T200 is 40 ms ( 10 ms).
The maximum number of outstanding frames (parameter k) is 2 for SAPI value 0,
and 1 for other SAPI values; for satellite Abis links the value of k for SAPI 0 is 7; for
Access channels the maximum number of outstanding frames (k) is 7.
1.4.3 D-channels in system-internal communication
D-channels are used for message transfer between functional units and their host
computer when a PCM line is used between the two. Two functional units may also com-
municate with each other using a D-channel between them. The DMX message struc-
ture is used with the exception of the program code loading phase. The message is
delivered transparently in the information field of the I frame.
The internal communications use modified LAPD parameters as follows:
T200 = 200 ms
T203 = 2 s
N201 = 260, 380 or 511 depending on the functional unit
k = 3
Normal message transfer uses SAPI value 0 and TEI value 0.
The program code for some of the functional units is loaded using D-channel services.
Whenever there is a block of program code to be loaded, aconnection using SAPI value
1 is established in addition to the connection for normal message transfer. Depending
on the unit, the program code is packed either in one file which contains all the software,
or in several files, in which case every file contains one or more program blocks.
g Every exchange configuration of the DX 200 system does not necessarily need the
data transmission services mentioned above.
Clock Channel
The clock channel is used to implement the internal data transmission connection
between a computer and the clock and tone generator (CLS) when it is implemented by
using CL1TG, CL2TG, or CL3TG plug-in units or their variants. The computer controlling
the CLS units varies in different network elements (it can be M, OMU, CAC, CCC, or
ANCU). The D-channel to a CLS is automatically created when the unit is created
(CLS00 for CLS-0 and CLS01 for CLS-1). One terminal function is needed for each CLS
unit on the LAPD terminal of the controlling computer. The D-channel on the CLS side
of the interface is automatically activated on time-slot 30 (CLS-0) or 31 (CLS-1) when
the unit is powered up. The host computer side activates the connection on the D-
channel, which is reserved for it automatically after the host computer restart, that is, if
the activation is allowed (namely the state of CLS is other than SE-NH or SE-OU and
the D-channel is not blocked by user command).
There is also a D-channel between the CLS units. This channel is automatically created
and activated when the CLS backplane wiring indicates that a back-up CLS exists.
ET Channel
An ET channel is used to implement the internal data transmission connection between
a computer and an exchange terminal (ET). The DX 200 system has the following
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exchange terminations supplied with D-channels (other types of ETs use CLS and AFS
for communications):
The ECET type ET, with echo cancelling facility
The ET2E type ET, in line with the ETSI specifications, one D-channel per two
exchange terminations (one plug-in unit)
The ET2A type ET, in line with the ANSI specifications, one D-channel per two
exchange terminations (one plug-in unit)
The EC2ET type ET, with echo cancelling facility, one D-channel per two exchange
terminations (one plug-in unit)
The ET4E/ET4E-C type ET, in line with the ETSI specifications, one D-channel per
four exchange terminations (one plug-in unit)
The ET4A type ET, in line with the ANSI specifications, one D-channel per four
exchange terminations (one plug-in unit)
The ET16 type ET, in line with the ANSI and ETSI specifications, one D-channel per
16 exchange terminations (one plug-in unit)
The D-channel is automatically created when the ET is created on time-slot 0 of the ET
PCM of ECET, or time-slot 0 of the lower ET PCM of ET2E, ET2A, EC2ET, ET4E, ET4E-
C, ET4A, or ET16. ET2E may also use a separate PCM for D-channels, in which case
the time-slot depends on the track where the ET2E/ET4E is located.
The D-channel follows the state of the ET so that the D-channel connection is kept active
whenever at least one of the ET units is in any state other than SE-NH.
The program code of the ET2E, ET2A, EC2ET, ET4E, ET4E-C, ET4A, and ET16 units
is loaded using the D-channel.
TCSM Channel
The TCSM channel is used in the BSC to implement the internal data transmission con-
nection between a computer and a TCSM2 unit. The Transcoder Submultiplexer
(TCSM2) converts the traffic channels which it receives from the Mobile Services
Switching Center (MSC) at a transmission speed of 64 kbit/s, into traffic channels which
function at a transmission speed of 16 kbit/s. The traffic channels can also function at a
transmission speed of 8 kbit/s. The LAPD bit rate is 16 kbit/s for TCSM and 64 kbit/s for
TCSE.
COCA Channel
The COCA channel is used to implement the internal message transfer connection to
the ECU (Echo Canceller Unit), DIC (Digital Interface Controller), DIPC (Direct Basic
PAD Controller), or MPC (Modem Pool Controller) units. These functional units are
implemented using COCA or EC1P plug-in units. DMX message structure is not used in
these units.
CDSU
The CDSU channel is used in the MSC to implement the internal data transmission con-
nection between a computer and a DSCO plug-in unit. The Compact Data Service Unit
(CDSU) offers all the GSM data services, such as asynchronous bearer services, trans-
parent synchronous bearer services, and the facsimile group 3 teleservice.
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1.4.4 D-channels in DPNSS1/DASS2
The D-channel of the type DPNSS1/DASS2 implements the data transmission to PBXs
that comply with British Telecom specifications:
DPNSS1, Digital Private Network Signalling System
DASS2, Digital Access Signalling System
Within the scope of this document, these protocols are the only ones that do not use
LAPD as layer 2 protocol. The D-channel has a separate logical connection called DLC
(Data Link Connection) for each speech time-slot on the 2 Mbit/s PCM. In addition, there
may be a separate Real and Virtual DLC in the DPNSS1 interface.
The physical D-channel is created first, after that each DLC. The state of each DLC can
be controlled independently.
1.5 D-channel capacity
There are some capacity considerations to be taken into account when using the D-
channels of the DX 200 system for signalling or internal message transfer.
The maximum number of D-channels in a computer varies. The number is limited by the
number of LAPD or DPNSS1/DASS2 signalling terminals that can be equipped in the
unit, as well as the internal PCM equipment of the unit. In some computer units there are
also some fixed reservations for various channels which decrease the number available
for user-defined use.
The following table gives the number of LAPD-based D-channels available for other
than basic functions. The basic functions are listed as reserved channels. If two
numbers are given, the first one is for one of the LAPD terminals and the second one for
the rest of the LAPD terminals. DPNSS1 or DASS2 functions are not included.
Network
element
Unit Number of D-
channels
AS7-U
Number of D-
channels
Other AS7 variants
(except AS7-C and
AS7-D)
Note, reserved channels
BSC OMU 10 42 2 test channels, 2 CLS, 18 Q1
*)
BSC BCSU 32 64 Abis, ET channels, 30B+D
SGSN OMU 28/32 60/64 2 test channels, 2 CLS, ET channels
DX MSCi, DX
HLRi
OMU fixed fixed 2 test channels, 2 CLS
DX MSCi, DX
HLRi
GSU 32 64 30B+D, ET channels, DPNSS1
DX MSCi, DX
HLRi
CMU 32 64 CDSU channels
SRRi OMU 28/32 60/64 2 test channels, 2 CLS, ET channels
SRRi CCSU 32 64 ET channels
MSC PAU 32 30B+D, DPNSS1
*)
PRFILE parameter NUMBER_OF_Q1_CHANNELS, default value 18.
Table 1 Number of D-channels
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The number of time-slots (which is equal to the number of available D-channels, except
in case of combined channels in BSC) is defined when the AS7 plug-in unit is equipped.
The maximum numbers are
for AS7-U: 32 (LAPD) or 8 (DPNSS1/DASS2)
for AS7-C: 256 (LAPD) or 64 (DPNSS1/DASS2)
for AS7-D: 512 (LAPD) or 128 (DPNSS1/DASS2)
for other AS7 variants: 64 (LAPD) or 32 (DPNSS1/DASS2)
The maximum capacity cannot always be reached because of a limited number of
internal PCM circuits/time-slots or due to other plug-in units within the same computer
unit.
Other things to be considered are the capacity of the physical D-channel, namely the bit
rate, the processing capacity of the LAPD terminal and the functional unit, and the pro-
cessing capacity of the host computer.
The throughput of a D-channel is restricted by the physical bit rate as well as the char-
acteristics of the LAPD protocol. The window size (see LAPD protocol) affects the
maximum number of I frames that can be waiting for an acknowledgement. If the window
is full, there is a delay in transmission. In addition to transmission errors, the amount of
traffic coming from the opposite direction affects the acknowledgement time. Typically,
the maximum throughput of the I frames is 50%80% of the bit rate.
When considering the processing capacity of the LAPD terminal, namely either AS7-U
or another AS7 variant, the average load on each individual channel must be taken into
account. The load on ET Channel of the type ET2E or ET2A, as well as on CLS chan-
nels, is relatively low, therefore these channels can usually be ignored. If there are Q1
channels on the LAPD terminal (BSC), no D-channels with high traffic volume can be
configured on the same terminal.
The following figure gives the load on the AS7-U LAPD terminal, when I frames are both
transmitted and received by both sides, while corresponding to normal circumstances.
MSC IWCU 32 64 ECU, MPC & DIPC channels
DXT64 CCC 28/32 60/64 4 test channels, 2 CLS
DXT64 BDSU 32 64 Tetra channels
DXT256,
DXT256i
CCC 28/32 60/64 4 test channels, 2 CLS
DXT256,
DXT256i
BDSU 32 64 Tetra channels
DXT256,
DXT256i
PAU 32 64 30B+D
THLR CCSU 32 64 ET channels
Network
element
Unit Number of D-
channels
AS7-U
Number of D-
channels
Other AS7 variants
(except AS7-C and
AS7-D)
Note, reserved channels
*)
PRFILE parameter NUMBER_OF_Q1_CHANNELS, default value 18.
Table 1 Number of D-channels (Cont.)
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The number of I frames is given for one direction only and as a sum of all the D-chan-
nels.
Figure 6 Processing capacity of the AS7-U
The maximum number of signalling or other messages that can be transmitted on the
AS7-U is in the range of 600 to 1000 per second. This amounts to about 20 messages
per second per D-channel if the load is evenly distributed.
The capacity of AS7-U as a DPNSS/DASS2 terminal in terms of messages per second
is about of that of the LAPD terminal, since heavier processing is required. Corre-
spondingly, the maximum recommended number of channels on a DPNSS/DASS2
terminal is 8.
The following figure gives the capacity of the AS7-V plug-in unit as a LAPD terminal.
Figure 7 Processing capacity of the AS7-V
The maximum number of signalling or other messages that can be transmitted on the
AS7-V is in the range of 2500 to 4000 per second. This amounts to about 40 messages
per second per D-channel if the load is evenly distributed.
0 %
20 %
40 %
60 %
80 %
100 %
0 200 400 600 800 1000
TX+RX/2 I-frames
L
o
a
d
0 %
20 %
40 %
60 %
80 %
100 %
0 1000 2000 3000 4000
TX+RX/2 I-frames
L
o
a
d
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The following figure gives the load on the AS7-V DPNSS/DASS2 terminal when infor-
mation frames are both transmitted and received by both sides, while corresponding to
normal circumstances. The number of information frames is given for one direction only
and as a sum of all the D-channels.
Figure 8 Processing capacity of the AS7-V (DPNSS/DASS2)
The maximum number of signalling or other messages that can be transmitted on the
AS7-V in this case is in the range of 500 to 1000 per second. This amounts to about 20
messages per second per DPNSS/DASS2 D-channel if the load is evenly distributed.
1.6 Functional unit D-channel data
D-channels for functional units are created automatically by the system when the unit is
created. The data required by the D-channel is provided by the system or retrieved from
the parameters of the MML command WUC (Connect functional unit). The D-channel is
also automatically deleted when the functional unit is removed with the command WUD
(Disconnect functional unit).
The data of the functional unit D-channels is stored in the following files:
X = Semipermanent D-channel data
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
0 500 1000
messages/sec/direction
Functional unit File
DCHSET FUDCHA ETDCHA SDCHAN
ECU X (X)
MPC X (X)
DIC X (X)
DIPC X (X)
CLS X (X)
ET HWILIB
Tetra units X
All other units X
Table 2 Files used for functional unit D-channels
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(X) = Information about functional unit
HWILIB = Information is read from equipment database, no semipermanent D-channel
file
The data of the D-channel can be interrogated using the following MML commands:
1.7 D-channel states
The state of the functional unit D-channel follows the state of the unit. The D-channel is
activated when the state of the unit changes from SE-OU to TE-EX. Correspondingly,
the D-channel is deactivated when the state changes from TE-EX to SE-OU.
Under normal conditions you do not have to change the state of the functional unit D-
channel. The system takes care of state transitions.
There are some exceptions to these rules:
1. For ET units, the state changes occur already in the state transition SE-NH <-> SE-
OU. In the case of ET, which is of the type ET2E/ET2A/EC2ET/ET4E/ET4E-
C/ET4A/ET16, the state of all ET units affects the state of the D-channel. The D-
channel connection is kept active whenever at least one of the ET units is in any
state other than SE-NH.
2. The state of COCA and EC1P based functional unit (ECU, MPC, DIC and DIPC) D-
channels is controlled by the user irrespective of the state of the units. Use the MML
command DTC for state changes. The state model is the same as for 30B+D D-chan-
nels.
Figure 9 General state model of functional unit D-channels
The label US in the figure above indicates a D-channel state change that is based on
the state change of the functional unit (MML command USC). This is the normal way to
change the state of the D-channel.
It is also possible to change the state of the D-channel with the MML command DTT.
Usually this command should not be used, and it is mainly reserved for fault isolation
and testing purposes. Note also that the channel state is not stored in the files. User-
initiated state changes are thus lost when unit restart or switchover occurs. The TETRA
Command Functional unit
DSI CLS, ECU, MPC, DIC and DIPC
DSS SUB
DSF All other units
Table 3 Commands for the interrogation of D-channel data
BL-US WO-EX
BL-SY
MML
US
MML
US
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system D-channels are the only exception to this rule (as the DTT command is the only
method of changing the state of the D-channel); see TETRA system D-channels.
Figure 10 State model of subscriber module (SUB) D-channels
The state model of subscriber module D-channels is different from the other functional
unit D-channels.
1.7.1 D-channel state change in 30+D
After the D-channel has been created, it is in activation denied state UA-AD. The normal
working state for the D-channel is WO-EX.
Under normal circumstances it is sufficient to request state changes between the states
UA-AD and WO-EX. Information on activation denied status is written into a file called
DCHSET. State BL-US is not semipermanent, which means that the channel is only
temporarily blocked and will be reactivated by the system after unit restart or switchover.
Figure 11 State model of the primary rate (30B+D) D-channels
The figure shows the possible state changes of a primary rate D-channel. Arrows
without labels indicate state changes initiated by the system. User-initiated state
changes are labelled with MML.
UA-AD WO-EX
BL-US BL-SY
MML
US
MML
MML
MML
US
MML
WO-EX
MML
BL-US
UA-AD
BL-SY
MML
MML
MML
MML
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If the D-channel cannot be activated or if the activation fails, the state of the channel
changes to BL-SY and alarm 2250 is raised. See D-channel troubleshooting for further
details.
1.7.2 D-channel state change in Abis
After a D-channel has been created, it is in activation denied state UA-AD.
Under normal circumstances it is sufficient to request state changes between states UA-
AD and WO-EX. Information on activation denied state is written into the file DCHSET.
State BL-US is not semipermanent, which means that the channel is only temporarily
blocked and will be reactivated by the system after unit restart or switchover.
Radio network administration may also change the state of the D-channel due to radio
network recovery. These state changes are made automatically by the system.
Figure 12 State model of the Abis interface D-channels
The figure shows the possible state changes of an Abis D-channel. The arrows without
labels indicate state changes initiated by the system. RN stands for state changes due
to radio network recovery. User-initiated state changes are labelled with MML.
If the D-channel cannot be activated or if the activation fails, the state of the channel will
change to BL-SY. For Abis, the D-channels alarm 2250 is not raised. Instead, there will
be a base station alarm (7705 or 7706) indicating the problem.
UA-AD
(UA-AD RN)
WO-EX
BL-US BL-SY
MML
MML
RN
MML
RN
MML MML
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2 Configuring 30B+D interface D-channels
A D-channel must be created by the user during the integration of a new 30B+D inter-
face into the switch. For complete details, refer to instructions on primary rate access
ISDN.
To create a D-channel, you need to choose a free ET with the 30B+D signalling user
part controlled by the most suitable PAU (CAC or GSU) unit with free AS7 signalling
capacity. Choose a descriptive name for the channel.
Before you start
Before deleting the D-channel, all PBX-related definitions and B-channel circuits must
be removed and the D-channel must be in UA-AD state; see D-channel state change in
30+D.
Steps
1 Creating a D-channel (DSC)
ZDSC:<D-channel link set name>:<unit type>,<unit index>:<external PCM-TSL of
primary D-channel>:<interface side>;
The last parameter interface side is not obligatory. The normal case for PBX inter-
faces is that the switch acts as the network side. In the case of the ISDN Abis feature in
the BSC, the parameter value U (user side) should be used. The MML requests confir-
mation if the given parameter differs from the dynamic default value, which is normally
N, but U in the BSC (for example network-element-specific).
The data of the D-channel is stored in the file DCHSET (54Ch).
2 Changing the state of a D-channel (DTC)
ZDTC:<D-channel link set name>:<D-channel state change>;
3 Deleting a D-channel from 30B+D
ZDSD:<D-channel link set name>;
Further information
Example: Creating D-channel PBXNY in computer PAU-1
The D-channel PBXNY is created in computer PAU-1 and it will use PCM 108. The time-
slot for the D-channel is usually 16 (24 for the 23B+D).
ZDSC:PBXNY:PAU,1:108-16:N;
Example: Changing the state of a D-channel
ZDTC:VR:BL;
Example: Deleting D-channel PBXNY
ZDSD:PBXNY;
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3 Configuring Abis interface D-channels
For complete information about integrating the radio network, refer to the appropriate
integration instructions. The interface channel can be used either as a TRX link or for
O&M purposes.
From system release S8 onwards, a third type of Abis interface D-channel exists. It is
called Access channel, and it is used for communication between a non-comissioned
base station and a BSC. The Access channel is used for autoconfiguration of the base
station and has a separate MML. The management of the Access channel is not covered
here.
From system release S8 onwards, it is also possible to create an O&M link and a TRX
link at the same physical position in the PCM. Despite the shared physical position, the
combined links are independent D-channels.
The states of the D-channel are controlled independently for each channel. Of course,
if the physical connection is faulty, neither of the combined channels will work.
Before you start
To create the D-channel you need to choose a free ET with an Abis signalling user part
and a suitable BCSU computer unit with free AS7 signalling capacity. The D-channel is
created with the command DSE. Choose a descriptive name for the channel.
Before deleting the D-channel, all radio network definitions must be removed and the D-
channel must be in the UA-AD state. The deletion fails with a descriptive error output if
this has not been done. For more information on changing the state of the D-channel,
see D-channel state change in Abis.
Steps
1 Create a D-channel (DSE)
ZDSE:<D-channel link set name>:<unit type>,<unit index>:<service access point identi-
fier>,<terminal endpoint identifier>:<bitrate>,<PCM-TSL of D-channel,<SUB-TSL>;
The bit rate used on the channel determines whether sub time slot is given as
the last parameter. In the case of ISDN Abis, the PCM and TSL can be given as 00.
Data of the D-channel is stored in the file DCHSET (54Ch).
2 Creating combined D-channels in Abis
Create an O&M link (DSE).
ZDSE:OMU2:BCSU,1:62,0:64,34-12;
Create a TRX link with identical unit type, unit index, bit rate, PCM-TSL (and SUB-
TSL) (DSE).
ZDSE:TRX2:BCSU,1:0,0:64,34-12;
The MML command asks you to confirm the combining, and if accepted, the
combined TRX link is created.
When deleting combined channels, the TRX link must be deleted first. If the deletion of
a combined D-channel does not succeed, the MML gives the following error message:
/*** DELETING COMBINED O&M LINK NOT ALLOWED ***/
When interrogating D-channel data, combined channels are marked with the 'C flag':
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INTERROGATING D-CHANNEL DATA
EXT SUB TERM LOG LOG INT
NAME NUM SAPI TEI BR PCM-TSL-TSL C UNIT TERM FUNC UNIT TERM PCM-TSL
----- --- ---- --- -- ----------- - --------------- ---------- -------
OMU 1 62 0 64 34-10 BCSU-1 2 5 415AH 34 10-05
TRX 4 0 0 64 34-05 BCSU-1 2 0 415AH 65 10-00
OMU1 5 62 0 64 34-08 C BCSU-1 2 1 415AH 73 10-01
TRX1 7 0 0 64 34-08 C BCSU-1 2 1 415AH 67 10-01
OMU2 8 62 0 64 34-12 C BCSU-1 2 4 415AH 75 10-04
TRX2 9 0 0 64 34-12 C BCSU-1 2 4 415AH 68 10-04
TOTAL OF 6 MATCHING D-CHANNELS OUTPUT
COMMAND EXECUTED
3 Changing the state of a D-channel (DTC)
To change the state, use the same command as in Configuring 30B+D interface D-chan-
nels.
4 Deleting a D-channel (DSD)
To delete a D-channel, use the same command as in Configuring 30B+D interface D-
channels.
Further information
Example: Creating a D-channel for computer BCSU-1 for TRX signalling (SAPI 0)
PCM is 34.
ZDSE:TRX23:BCSU,1:0,0:16,34-12,4;
Example: Creating a D-channel for computer BCSU-1 for O&M (SAPI 62)
ZDSE:OM23:BCSU,1:62,0:64,34-10;
Example: Changing the state of a D-channel
ZDTC:VR:BL;
Example: Deleting a D-channel
ZDSD:TRX23;
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Configuring DPNSS1/DASS2 D-channels
4 Configuring DPNSS1/DASS2 D-channels
For complete information about commissioning a DPNSS1/DASS2 PBX, refer to the
instructions on primary rate access ISDN.
For more information on the use of below commands, refer to instructions on data link
connection data and state handling.
Steps
1 Create a single DPNSS1/DASS2 signalling link (DNC)
ZDNC:<DLC D-channel name>:<unit type>,<unit index>:<external PCM-TSL>:<protocol
type>,<PBX type>:<DLC range>:;
2 Modify a DPNSS1/DASS2 D-channel
Add real or virtual DLCs to an existing D-channel (DNA).
Remove existing DLCs from a D-channel (DNR).
Before a DLC can be removed, it must be in the UA-US state.
3 Delete the D-channel and all associated DLC connections (DND)
4 Control DLC states
Activate the signalling link (DNS).
ZDNS:<DLC D-channel name>:<DLC range>;
This command may take some time to complete. Do not be alarmed if the MML
terminal appears to stop responding.
Deactivate a DLC range (DNT).
The command parameters of DNT are similar to those of the DNS command.
Further information
Example: Creating a link named M0080 for ET number 80
The link protocol is DASS2 and the ISPBX type is A (2,A). Data link connections (DLCs)
115 are included in the link (1&&15). Therefore, in this example, 15 time-slots are being
included in the link.
ZDNC:M0080:PAU,0:80-16:2,A:1&&15;
Example: Activating the DPNSS1/DASS2 signalling link
ZDNS:M0080;
For the whole topic summary, see D-channels.
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5 LAPD statistics
Statistics offer the exchange's operating personnel statistical data on the traffic and
operation of the LAPD or LAPV5 connections used. With the help of this data, conges-
tion and failure situations in the connections can be detected.
The statistical counters are implemented at the primary rate access terminal separately
for each channel.
Cumulative and periodic counter values that are stored only in the statistical unit are
those that have been received from the statistical counters for the D-channels of the
primary rate access (30B+D) and the base station controller (BSC) (Abis). The cumula-
tive counter indicates the values it has collected since the start-up of the exchange, and
the periodic counter contains the values it has collected during the last 30 minutes. In
other D-channel types, only occasional counter values are available from the primary
rate access terminal.
5.1 LAPD statistical meters
Frame meters
All frames that have been sent and received are collected into the statistics according
to the frame type. The LAPD protocol uses the following HDLC frames: I, RR, RNR,
REJ, SABME, DM, UI, DISC, UA, FRMR, and XID. The I and UI frames and the total
number of frames are stored in the statistical unit. For the other frames, only instanta-
neous values are available.
Error meters
The following errors are collected in the statistics:
checksum error (CRC)
expiry of timer T200
congestion in read buffer (for received signalling messages)
missing clock signal
error conditions mentioned in ITU-T recommendation Q.921
Other meters
The following received prompts and transmitted responses are collected in the statistics:
DL-DATA-REQUEST (messages to be transmitted using acknowledged information
transfer)
DL-UNIT-DATA-REQUEST (messages to be transmitted using unacknowledged
information transfer)
DL-DATA-INDICATION (received messages delivered to layer 3)
DL-UNIT DATA-INDICATION (received unacknowledged messages delivered to
layer 3)
5.2 Enquiry of statistical meters
Periodical and cumulative meters
The interrogation task received from the user (MML command) is sent to the active
unit's, or the spare unit's, statistical process which reads the periodic or cumulative
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counters from the counter files. Before reading the values, the existence of a D-channel
is checked in the semipermanent files.
The values of the statistical counters at the time of freezing are output in the counter
interrogations. However, if the interrogation takes place when the distributed part's sta-
tistical counters are frozen or collected or the periodic values are measured, the
counters are in an unstable state.
The periodical (30 min) and cumulative counters of the primary rate access are interro-
gated by using the following MML commands:
DMF for the number of transmitted and received frames and octets
DMQ for interrogation of the error counters (ITU-T Q.921)
DMI for other counters
Occasional values of meters
The interrogation task received from the user is sent to the statistical process of the D-
channel controlling unit. The occasional counter data is then fetched from the AS7 sig-
nalling terminal. The counter data is thus a sample of the instantaneous cumulative
meters on the signalling terminal.
The occasional values can be interrogated by using any of the following alternate
commands (same results, different user interface):
DMT for enquiry with AS7 signalling terminal information
DMN for enquiry with primary rate D-channel name
DMU for functional unit D-channels with a unit type and index
g If the TRX link (TRXSIG) and the O&M link (OMUSIG) are combined in the Abis
interface, the counters contain the sum value of both channels.
5.3 Use of LAPD meters in problem solving
The MML commands DMT, DMN, and DMU give the values of various D-channel counters
as they are at the time of the reading. A command should be given at least twice in order
to capture the error. A suitable interval is about 1530 seconds if the problem repeats
itself continuously at the time. Otherwise the counters should be read once or twice, and
then once again after the next occurrence of the problem. The values of the counters
should then be compared.
If a loop is connected anywhere in the transmission system and the physical connection
exists up to that point, the following counters increase: Receipt of non-implemented
frame and SABME frames/received. Otherwise, move the loop one step closer to AS7
and try again. Check that SABME frames/transmitted increases also.
Note that the recovery procedure for a functional unit may include D-channel state
changes (blocking), in which case SABME is no longer transmitted and the D-channel
connection is disconnected.
If the link state is BL-SY and the alarm 2250 FAILURE IN D-CHANNEL ACTIVATION
OR RESTORATION is raised, check the following counters:
No frames received (except UI): Check the state of the remote end unit and the
whole physical connection. An external loop may be used to locate the problem as
described above.
SABME frames/received, UA frames/transmitted increase: incoming direction is
working, problems with outgoing direction.
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No SABME frames/transmitted: Use the MML command CET to check that the D-
channel connections exist in the GSW. If not, check the circuit state in the internal
route using the command RCI. Also try to change the link's state.
Receipt of non-implemented frame, SABME frames/received: a loop in the D-
channel.
UI frames are used in the loop test between AS7 and the switching network. They are
also used in the Abis interface in the receiving direction. The number of transmitted
UI frames and the number of received UI frames increase periodically, or at least in one
burst (unless the loop test fails). The number of frames per loop test is 100.
If the link state is WO-EX most of the time, but disturbances hamper the operation:
Unsuccessful retransmission of RR/RNR/REJ or SABME increase: the error rate is
high and frames are lost in one or both directions or the value of the T200 timer is
not correct (satellite links).
CRC errors or Framing errors: indicates that the quality of the physical connection
is poor.
Periodical and cumulative meters can be partly used in problem solving in the same
manner as the commands above. However, as the counters are gathered from a longer
period, any conclusions should be drawn carefully.
5.4 Use of LAPD meters in gathering statistical data
The command DMF can be used to gather information on the average (30-minute period)
signalling load on a channel. The meters Transmitted I frame octets/Transmitted total
octets and Received I frame octets/Received total octets are mainly used for this
purpose. In the Abis interface, Received UI frames/Received UI frame octets may be
used as well.
This data can be used to verify correct dimensioning of signalling links and to find links
that are more congested than the others. The load on a link is very likely too high (i.e.
there is a risk of signalling problems) if the number of octets transmitted or received is
more than 50% of the capacity of the physical link. (For example, 50% of 8000 octets
per second on a 64 kbit/s link is 4000 octets per second.)
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6 DPNSS1/DASS2 statistics
The purpose of DPNSS1/DASS2 statistics is to collect counter and state data from
DPNSS1/DASS2 type D-channels and the associated DLCs. The counters have been
selected so that they should provide valuable information when resolving data link layer
problems.
There are only occasional value counters (not periodical or cumulative, compared with
LAPD statistics), and the counter data is lost in AS7 and computer unit restart.
6.1 Statistical meters
There are both D-channel-specific and DLC-specific counters. Some of the counters
separate directions: TX stands for transmitted and RX for received.
D-channel-specific counters
UI(C) FRAMES WITH INFORMATION OCTETS (TX & RX)
TOTAL OCTET COUNT (TX & RX)
DL-DATA-REQUESTS
DL-DATA-INDICATIONS
CRC ERRORS
FRAMING ERRORS
CLOCK SIGNAL MISSING
IDLE COUNTER
READ BUFFER CONGESTION
LOOP TESTS EXECUTED
LOOP TESTS FAILED
The counters UI(C) FRAMES WITH INFORMATION OCTETS contain the number of
UI(C) frames that contain information fields. The counters for TOTAL OCTET COUNT
contain the octet counts of both UI(C) frames with information fields and empty
UI(C) frames used as test frames. The counters also include the octets for other types
of frames (SABMR, UA, and UI(R)).
DLC-specific counters
DLC STATE
SABMR FRAMES (TX & RX)
UA FRAMES (TX & RX)
UI(C) FRAMES (TX & RX)
UI(R) FRAMES (TX & RX)
TEST FRAMES (TX & RX)
The test frames are UI(C) and UI(R) frames with no information fields. The frames are
used for supervision of the data link connections (DPNSS1 only). The default value for
the supervision timer is five minutes.
DLC states
IDLE, Idle
OUTS, Out of service
RATT, Reset attempted
RCOMP, Reset complete
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ITRAN, Information transfer
The states Reset complete and Information transfer are the normal active states. In the
Idle state, the DLC has been deactivated. The states Out of service and Reset
attempted are the states where activation has been initiated but the connection has not
yet been established.
6.2 Use of DPNSS1/DASS2 counters in problem solving
As with the LAPD counters, the numbers of transmitted and received octets and frames
give the basic information needed to solve the most common problem, a cut-off in the
physical connection. A loop-back connector may be used to locate the problem in these
cases. The number of received octets should increase at the same rate as the number
of transmitted octets if there is a connection up to the point of the loop-back.
Also, the counters for frame check sequence errors (FCS, CRC) and framing errors may
give some information about the quality of the connection. If these are detected, see
instructions for checking the transmission equipment in D-channel troubleshooting
(alarm 1253).
The counters for the loop tests (executed between the signalling terminal AS7 and
GSW) can be used to check the existence of problems within the exchange.
The DLC-specific counters can be used to check possible configuration mismatches or
signalling problems of individual traffic channels.
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7 LAPD event logs
It is possible for different kinds of disturbances and errors to occur in the communication
channel. Alarm and disturbance flags are raised for severe error conditions. An error flag
can only indicate that a problem has occurred; the actual cause or chain of events
leading up to it often remains open.
The purpose of the LAPD event logs is to collect data of events in the D-channels. The
system writes selected events to the log file. It is possible to use MML commands to
enquire the collected events. The collected data can be data link events, general error
situations, or administrative actions of the user.
7.1 D-channel events
D-channel events have been categorised into four event classes according to the nature
of each event. The following table lists all events. The numbers in the table indicate the
event number.
Event class 1 (administrational events)
Event class 2 (data link events)
Nr Event Explanation
1 D-CHANNEL CREATED D-channel has been created
2 D-CHANNEL DELETED D-channel has been deleted
3 D-CHANNEL MODIFICATION D-channel data has been
modified
4 STATE CHANGE BY USER D-channel state change activated
by user
5 STATE CHANGE BY SYSTEM D-channel state change activated
by system
6 ETS STATE CHANGE D-channel switchover by ETS
state change
7 D-CHANNEL PROTECTION D-channel protection (for V5)
8 CHANGES IN FILTERING Changes made to event log filter-
ing conditions
Table 4 Event class 1 (administrational events)
Nr Event Explanation
16 DL-ESTABLISH-INDICATION Data link establish indication
17 DL-ESTABLISH-CONFIRM Data link establish confirm
18 DL-RELEASE-INDICATION Data link release indication
19 DL-RELEASE-CONFIRM Data link release confirm
20 DL-ERROR-INDICATION Data link error indication
Table 5 Event class 2 (data link events)
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Event class 3 (layer 3 events)
Event class 4 (general events)
7.2 Collecting D-channel events
Event indications
Events are transferred to the log file as they emerge. The D-channel manager program
block and other communication programs send notifications to the statistical unit
whenever one of the above events occurs in any of the D-channels.
Event collection occurs automatically and is performed in the background (not visible to
the user).
Events are stored in both active and standby statistical units. The data is not warmed,
and it is thus possible that WO and SP units contain event data of slightly different
periods of time. The log file is a ring file, which means that after the file is full, the oldest
data is overwritten and the records are used again.
21 LOOP TEST RESULT D-channel loop test result
(OK/NOK)
22 DL-INT-ESTABLISH-ACK Data link internal establish ack
23 DL-INT-ESTABLISH-NACK Data link internal establish nack
Nr Event Explanation
32 DATA LINK PAUSE Data link unusability indication to
signalling process
33 DATA LINK RESUME Data link usability indication to
signalling process
34 L3 CONNECTION ERROR Layer 3 connection error (GSW)
35 L3 RELEASE ERROR Layer 3 release error (GSW)
36 MESSAGE SEND FAILURE Message could not be sent to D-
channel
37 MESSAGE RECEIVE FAILURE Message receive error from D-
channel
Table 6 Event class 3 (layer 3 events)
Nr Event Explanation
48 AS7 UNIT RESTART AS7 plug-in unit restarted
49 NO RESPONSE FROM AS7
UNIT
No response from signalling
terminal to PXNETM
Table 7 Event class 4 (general events)
Nr Event Explanation
Table 5 Event class 2 (data link events) (Cont.)
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Event log files
PSLOGF
The LAPD event log file PSLOGF is used in the statistics of the primary rate access and
other LAPD D-channels. It is located in the statistical unit. The file contains log events
recorded from the D-channels.
PSLOGF is a work file. Its size ranges from 64 to 512 kB and depends on the size of the
switch.
PXPARA
The primary rate access parameter file (PXPARA) contains general and unit-type-
specific parameters required by the ISDN primary rate access (30B+D) and by the
internal communications applications based on the primary rate access. The activity of
the LAPD event logs is controlled in this file.
7.3 Enquiry of LAPD events
The LAPD event logs can be interrogated with the command DML. It is possible to inter-
rogate all or selected events of a single D-channel at a time.
The target of the interrogation can be identified either as a D-channel number (primary
rate access and Abis) or by specifying the functional unit type and index. By default, all
stored events of the desired D-channel are known as output.
It is possible to restrict the output by specifying additional parameters in the interrogation
command. The output is filtered accordingly, and only matching records are shown. One
or more of the following conditions can be set:
unit type and index (default is the unit of the specific D-channel)
event class and/or number (default is all)
start date and/or time (default is current day at 00:00:00 hours)
stop date and/or time (default is current date and time)
Filtering is sometimes necessary, as it is possible that the output is very long (hundreds
of lines). This is usually the case with a faulty D-channel.
Example: Enquiring about events of a functional unit D-channel for CLS-0
The following command might be used:
ZDML:FUNIT=CLS,INDEX=0;
DXT SP100 1997-01-03 12:51:10
INTERROGATING LAPD EVENT LOGS OF D-CHANNEL: CLS-0
CAC-1 USE OF D-CHANNEL: CLS
D-CHANNEL NUMBER: 0
EVENT TIME CLASS EVENT ADDITIONAL INFO
==================== ===== =================== =================
1997-01-03 12:46:28 2 DL-ESTABLISH-CONFIRM 00 00 00 00 00 00
COMMAND EXECUTED
This is an example of a fully working D-channel. The only event is an establishment con-
firmation. As the log is a ring file, it is possible that nothing is output or that there is no
output for a fully working D-channel (no events within logged time).
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ZDML:CHANNEL=1;
/*** DX ERROR: 7 ***/
/*** SEARCH KEY NOT FOUND ***/
COMMAND EXECUTION FAILED
Example: Enquiring about events on a primary rate D-channel within a selected
period of time
(Command issued at 14:58:30.)
ZDML:CHANNEL=2:::,14-58-30:;
DXT SP100 1997-01-03 14:59:26
INTERROGATING LAPD EVENT LOGS OF D-CHANNEL: 2
CAC-1 USE OF D-CHANNEL: 30B+D
EVENT TIME CLASS EVENT ADDITIONAL INFO
===================== ===== ========================= ==================
1997-01-03 14:58:36 2 DL-RELEASE-INDICATION 02 00 00 00 00 00
1997-01-03 14:58:39 2 DL-RELEASE-INDICATION 02 00 00 00 00 00
1997-01-03 14:58:43 2 DL-RELEASE-INDICATION 02 00 00 00 00 00
1997-01-03 14:58:47 2 DL-RELEASE-INDICATION 02 00 00 00 00 00
1997-01-03 14:58:51 2 DL-RELEASE-INDICATION 02 00 00 00 00 00
1997-01-03 14:58:55 2 DL-RELEASE-INDICATION 02 00 00 00 00 00
1997-01-03 14:58:59 2 DL-RELEASE-INDICATION 02 00 00 00 00 00
1997-01-03 14:59:01 3 DATA LINK PAUSE 09 01 00 00 00 01
1997-01-03 14:59:03 2 DL-RELEASE-INDICATION 02 00 00 00 00 00
1997-01-03 14:59:03 2 DL-RELEASE-CONFIRM 00 00 00 00 00 00
1997-01-03 14:59:04 3 DATA LINK PAUSE 09 01 00 00 00 01
1997-01-03 14:59:05 2 LOOP TEST RESULT 01 00 00 00 00 00
1997-01-03 14:59:21 1 STATE CHANGE BY USER 11 00 00 00 03 00
COMMAND EXECUTED
The log data indicates a faulty D-channel. The activation has not been successful, and
the user has deactivated the D-channel. Here DL_RELEASE_INDICATION additional
information value 02 means that acknowledgement is not received.
The field Additional info includes system-internal information and is mainly meant for
Nokia Siemens Networks experts. For more information, see D-channel and LAPD
related event logs.
7.4 Use of LAPD event logs in problem solving
LAPD event log output is a more convenient way for problem solving than trying to
monitor the messages of PXNETM. For example, the D-channel activation sequence
(compared with the specification) can be seen as a set of data link events (event class
2). The names of the events are the same or close to the protocol primitives in the spec-
ifications. It is also possible to see whether a loop test has been performed on a faulty
D-channel.
The following instructions may help in problem solving:
Steps
1. Deactivate the D-channel.
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2. Clear the event log with the command DME (either for one channel or for the whole
log).
3. Activate the D-channel.
4. Wait for 30 seconds.
5. Check the event logs for the D-channel.
The event logs should indicate the operation sequence and status of actions. Whenever
possible, event log output is a welcome addition to any failure report.
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8 D-channel-related log writings
8.1 PXNETM (11C): AS7 restart
The AS7 plug-in unit has been restarted either spontaneously or by a command from
PXNETM. If the restart is initiated by a command from PXNETM, an event log showing
the cause of the restart is written.
Example:
CALLER : 011C 0000 00 RETURN ADDRESS: 000C (L0001).00014BD8
WRITE TIME: 1996-06-11 11:58:18.12
PARAMETERS: E-01 0014.00000714 00000001 000C.0000E5A7
USER TEXT : AS7 RESTART
USER DATA : 01
Operating instructions
Check if any disturbances are raised (alarm 1253 NO RESPONSE FROM
PRIMARY RATE ACCESS TERMINAL). See No response from primary rate
access terminal (1253).
If the log keeps appearing continuously, change the plug-in unit.
USER DATA: plug-in unit index.
8.2 PXNETM (11C): Error from AS7
The AS7 plug-in unit has detected internal problems.
Example:
CALLER : 011C 0000 00 RETURN ADDRESS: 000C (L0001).00014B20
WRITE TIME: 1996-06-11 15:09:36.26
PARAMETERS: E-07 0014.00000038 00000019 000C.0000E3F7
USER TEXT : ERROR FROM AS7
USER DATA : 19 00 00 C0 1D 01 00 00 00 01 33 00 47 60 04 00
07 00 09 05 80 00 00 02 11
Operating instructions
The last byte in the message saved in the log is the error code.
11H: transmit buffer overrun. This should not occur with a windowed protocol like
LAPD, as the number of buffers is much bigger than the window size. This is,
however, possible in LAPV5.
If the log keeps appearing, check the load on the D-channel.
Check the X.25 strapping on the AS7 plug-in unit (should be connected when no
X.25).
12H, 13H: Contact Nokia Siemens Networks Customer Service.
14H, 15H: overload. Contact Nokia Siemens Networks Customer Service.
16H, 17H, 18H, 19H: Change the plug-in unit.
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8.3 PXNETM (11C): Term not accessible
PXSEND has rejected a command message sent to it by AS7. The correct mail box
structure cannot be found in the dual port memory assigned to the AS7 plug-in unit. The
AS7 plug-in unit is faulty or missing or it has just been restarted.
Example:
CALLER : 011C 0000 00 RETURN ADDRESS: 000C (L0001).00014B20
WRITE TIME: 1996-06-11 14:53:57.31
PARAMETERS: E-01 0014.00000714 00000001 000C.0000E4FB
USER TEXT : TERM NOT ACCESSIBLE
USER DATA : 00
Operating instructions
USER DATA: plug-in unit index.
Check whether alarm 2137 PLUG-IN UNIT LOCATION ERROR is raised. If so, see
Plug-in unit location error (2137) for more information.
Check that the AS7 plug-in unit is in the track assigned to it and that the base
address is correct (if there is a chance that these have been changed after unit
restart).
If the log keeps appearing often, change the plug-in unit.
8.4 PXNETM (11C): Duplicate use of log. term. in file
The same logical terminal number is found for more than one D-channel in semiperma-
nent files during PXNETM startup.
Example:
CALLER : 011C 0000 00 RETURN ADDRESS: 0940 (G0296).00000219
WRITE TIME: 1999-10-22 16:06:07.01
PARAMETERS: E-08 0938.00000027 0000008E 0938.00000004
USER TEXT : PXNETM: DUPLICATE USE OF LOG. TERM. IN FILE
USER DATA : 0A030000 00000002 0A030000 00000003
The file number of the first channel, link set number of the first channel, file number of
the second channel (the channel which is not saved into PXLOGT), and link set number
of the second channel are output.
Operating instructions
A terminal function is reserved for the first channel, but not for the second one. The first
channel is OK, but the second channel does not work.
The faulty channel can be pinpointed with the commands DSI, DSB, DSF etc. The
text D-channel data mismatch will be output.
Remove the faulty channel and re-create it.
8.5 PXSEND (11E): Unknown sub in message
A program block has sent a message to a SUB-E that is unknown to PXSEND. The
SUB-E has not been correctly created or the message is filled incorrectly by an applica-
tion program block. The log writing can also appear for other functional units than SUB,
such as CLS, CLSS, or ET.
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Example:
CALLER : 011E 0000 00 RETURN ADDRESS: 000C (L0001).00005963
WRITE TIME: 1989-01-01 19:30:29.07
PARAMETERS: E-01 0014.00000064 00000016 000C.0000489D
USER TEXT : UNKNOWN SUB IN MESSAGE
USER DATA : 30 00 00 C0 43 01 00 00 00 11 58 00 18 86 04 00
FF FF FF FF 02 41
Operating instructions
The user data of the log writing includes the DMX message header (upper line) and SUB
header (lower line) of the message. In the example above, the SUB header contains no
target unit identification (SUB type and SUB index filled with FFFF).
In the example log above, DPALAR (family ID 143) is sending a corrupt message 8618,
thus not working correctly. Possible conclusions: configuration error with some func-
tional unit or software problem with DPALAR.
The most typical case for this log to appear is that the CLSS units of an RSS have not
been configured properly (no WUC command issued). This can be verified with the WTI
command. In this case, the unit is missing from the FUDCHA file.
8.6 PXSEND (11E): Unknown ET index in message
A program block has sent a message to ET that is unknown to PXSEND. The ET has
not been correctly created or the message is filled incorrectly by the application program
block. This log typically appears when an application program is trying to send a
message to ET2E or EC2ET plug-in unit and only the even pairs of the ET2E/EC2ET
unit have been configured.
The user data of log writing includes the DMX message header (upper line) and SUB
header (lower line) of the message. The SUB header (sub_header_t) contains the unit
identification of the target unit (unit type = first two bytes of SUB header; unit index =
third and fourth bytes of SUB header). In the example above, the target unit identification
is ET-129 (ET = 14H), which is unknown to PXSEND.
Example:
CALLER : 011E 0000 00 RETURN ADDRESS: 000C (L0001).00005963
WRITE TIME: 1999-10-22 16:04:19.43
PARAMETERS: E-01 0014.00000064 00000016 000C.0000489D
USER TEXT : UNKNOWN ET INDEX IN MESSAGE
USER DATA : 30 00 00 C0 43 01 00 00 00 11 58 00 18 86 04 00
14 00 81 00 02 41
The user data of the log writing includes the DMX message header (upper line) and the
first six bytes of message data.
8.7 PXSEND (11E): Log term to PHY term error
A layer 3 application program block is trying to send a message to a functional unit and
PXSEND cannot transmit the message. This log typically appears during switchover of
a computer unit because the AS7 plug-in units have just been reset and are not yet
capable of transmitting messages. Inevitably, some messages can disappear during
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switchovers. This log may also appear when an AS7 plug-in unit is faulty or when the
PXLOGT file has not been updated correctly by the PXNETM program block.
Example:
CALLER : 011E 0000 00 RETURN ADDRESS: 000C (L0001).00005963
WRITE TIME: 1999-10-22 16:04:19.43
PARAMETERS: E-01 0014.00000064 00000016 000C.0000489D
USER TEXT : PXS: LOG TERM TO PHY TERM ERROR
USER DATA : 19 00 0A 44 73 00 46 04 4C 19 58 00 22 87 10 00
30 00 04 00 D2 01
The user data of the log writing includes the DMX message header (upper line) and the
first six bytes of message data.
8.8 PXSEND (11E): Error searching PXLOGT
LOG_TERMINAL
A layer 3 application program block is trying to send a message to a functional unit and
PXSEND cannot transmit the message. This log typically appears during switchover of
a computer unit because the AS7 plug-in units have just been reset and are not yet
capable of transmitting messages. Inevitably, some messages can disappear during
switchovers.
This log may also appear when the AS7 plug-in unit is faulty or when the PXLOGT file
has not been updated correctly by the PXNETM program block.
Example:
CALLER : 011E 0000 00 RETURN ADDRESS: 000C (L0001).0000235F
WRITE TIME: 2000-05-25 17:57:18.20
PARAMETERS: E-01 001C.000005F0 00000001 000C.00001984
USER TEXT : PXS: ERROR SEARCHING PXLOGT LOG_TERMINAL
USER DATA : 01
The user data of the log writing includes the physical terminal number from the
message.
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9 D-channel troubleshooting
This chapter gives operating instructions for various problems that may be encountered
when taking D-channels into use or during the actual operation. It is assumed that the
reader has basic knowledge of the system and how to use it. For more information, refer
to the instructions on alarms. You may also need to refer to site documents and infor-
mation on plug-in units and various files.
9.1 Instructions for D-channel-related alarm situations
9.1.1 Data link layer protocol mismatch (1250)
See the description of alarm 1250.
Steps
1 Monitor errors in error counters C, D, K, L, N, and O (DMT, DMN)
2 Deactivate the other end of the connection, if possible
If error count L keeps increasing, there is a loop in the data link. If no more errors are
detected, the configuration on the other end should be checked.
g The alarm does not follow the changes immediately. This is due to filtering in both
activation and deactivation of the alarm. Use the command DMT or DMN instead.
9.1.2 Excessive retransmissions on data link connection (1251)
Alarm 1251 often occurs in conjunction with alarm 2250 when there is a break in the D-
channel. Other possible causes are short breaks or framing errors in the outgoing direc-
tion (also in the incoming direction if alarm 1252 is also raised).
Steps
1 Monitor the errors in error counters G, H, and I (DMT, DMN, DMU)
If possible, also check the corresponding error counters at the other end.
2 If there are CRC or other framing errors at either end, there are transmission
errors in the incoming direction of that end, check the transmission equipment
For example:
If balanced PCM is used (2 signals, 1 sheath wire), check the wiring in ET and other
cable connectors, such as the distribution frame.
Check that there is no external equipment on the line that might disturb the connec-
tion.
Check the impedance of both ends (ET unit strappings).
3 Check whether any alarms are raised by the ET used by the D-channel
If there are, check the transmission equipment and cables.
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4 Check whether there are problems with the synchronisation (slips detected by the
ET, loss of synchronisation) (YMO, DRI)
5 Check whether there are alarms concerning the GSW or SWI, and try marker swi-
tchover if possible
6 To implement this step, choose one of the following alternatives:
a Check that the satellite link feature is activated
When a satellite link is used (BSC), the timer T200 should be 1 s instead of 240 ms.
b Use the LAPD statistics commands or external protocol analyser to check the
interval of the SABME frames when there is no connection to BTS
For more information, see installation instructions.
7 If the D-channel state remains in state BL-SY after activation, check the bit rate if
adjustable (BSC, DXT64)
9.1.3 Excessive error rate on data link connection (1252)
There are errors in the incoming direction of the D-channel which are seen as frame
check sequence (FCS/CRC) errors by the signalling terminal AS7. The terminal counts
these in form of an error ratio and raises alarm 1252 when a fixed threshold value has
been reached.
Steps
1 Monitor the errors (DMT, DMN, DMU)
The D-channel state should be taken into consideration; if the state is WO-EX, the errors
are occasional. If the state remains BL-SY, then a permanent failure is likely (configura-
tion, hardware failure).
2 Check the transmission equipment
For example:
If balanced PCM is used (2 signals, 1 sheath wire), check the wiring in the ET and
other cable connectors, such as the distribution frame.
Check that there is no external equipment on the line that might disturb the connec-
tion.
Check the impedance of both ends (ET unit strappings).
3 Check if there any alarms are raised by the ET used by the D-channel
If there are, the transmission equipment and cables should be checked.
4 Check whether there are problems with the synchronisation (slips detected by the
ET, loss of synchronisation) (YMO, DRI)
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5 Check whether there are alarms concerning the GSW or SWI, and try marker swi-
tchover if possible
6 If the D-channel state remains BL-SY after activation, check the bit rate if adjust-
able (BSC, DXT64)
9.1.4 No response from primary rate access terminal (1253)
The AS7 plug-in unit has not responded to a command or enquiry within a time limit.
After this, the plug-in unit is restarted by the PXNETM program block in most cases. This
alarm (1253) should not occur in normal operation.
If the problems explained below seem unlikely, contact Nokia Siemens Networks
Customer Service.
Steps
1 Change the AS7 unit if it is faulty
Check also that there are no TRAPS in the computer unit (some may be generated when
the AS7 is restarted in conjunction with this alarm). If there are, the CPU or the cartridge
may be faulty.
Make sure that the plug-in units in the unit are not using the same address space.
2 Check the load in the computer
There may be a program with high priority taking all the processing time, thus leading to
timer expiry in PXNETM.
9.1.5 Unsolicited data link re-establishment (1254)
Alarm 1254 may be raised in some situations; for example, during the restart of a func-
tional unit. In these cases, the alarm is not an indication of problems as such and can
be ignored.
However, if the alarm is raised in other circumstances, the D-channel operation should
be monitored. Short breaks may occur in the PCM line so that alarm 2250 is not yet
raised, but this alarm (1254) is.
Steps
1 See operating instructions for alarms
See the instructions for the following alarms: 2250, 1250, 1251, 1252.
2 Check that the connections of and to the D-channel exist and are stable
See the description of alarm 2250.
9.1.6 Internal communication channel failure (1280)
See the description of alarm 1280.
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From SUB, with supplementary information failure type:
01: establishment failed: connection establishment to CLSS-0 or CLES-0 in
RSS-C has failed; connection establishment to SUB-0 of RSS-C
(RSCN) has failed in SUB-1...7 of RSS-C; or connection re-establish-
ment to CLSS-1 or CLES-1 or SUB-1...7 in the SUB-0 (RSCN) of the
RSS-C has failed
02: re-establishment: D-channel to the host computer has been re-estab-
lished and the call control programs have been notified about the failure
(calls are cleared)
03: message buffer overflow: the buffer reserved for outgoing messages
has overflown; there probably is an excessive load on the unit, or the D-
channel error rate is too high
Steps
1 To implement this step, choose one of the following alternatives:
a If the failure type is 01 and connection establishment to another SUB has
failed: check the state of the other SUB; it may be in a restart phase
If this continues for too long, see Loading the program code to functional unit fails
for instructions.
If the SUB is in a normal state, check the cables between RSCN and SBCN.
b If the failure type is 01 and connection establishment to a CLSS or CLES has
failed, check the cables from the front panel of the RSCN to the backplane of
the CLAC/CLOC/SUBC-U cartridge
c If the failure type is 02 or 03, monitor the unit
If the fault keeps appearing, contact Nokia Siemens Networks Customer Service.
9.1.7 Send buffer overflow (2133)
See the description of alarm 2133.
Steps
1 Check the dimensioning of the network for even load distribution
2 Check the transmission equipment
A buffer overflow can occur even without any big burst of messages from the application
program if there are excessive errors in the D-channel and the delivery of messages is
thus delayed.
3 Contact Nokia Siemens Networks Customer Service to check the operation of the
application program
Some application program using the D-channel is sending more messages and/or much
longer messages than the D-channel can deliver (this depends on the bit rate), and it is
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sending these messages without waiting for acknowledgement. The operation of this
application program should be checked.
9.1.8 Plug-in unit location error (2137)
See the description of alarm 2137.
Steps
1 Check that there are no inconsistencies in the plug-in unit data and that the plug-
in unit is not faulty (by changing it, for example)
Further information
Further instructions can be found in the description of alarm 2137.
9.1.9 Failure in D-channel activation or restoration (2250)
See the description of alarm 2250.
If the fault cannot be found with the help of the instructions provided in the description
of alarm 2250, contact Nokia Siemens Networks Customer Service.
Steps
1 Check with the AHO command whether other alarms have been generated
In case of failure in D-channel activation when a D-channel is being activated for the first
time:
Check with the AHO command whether other alarms (for example, alarm 2252) affecting
the D-channel in question or the primary rate access terminal used by it have been gen-
erated. If so, act according to their instructions.
2 Locate the fault
In case of failure in D-channel activation after a D-channel has been successfully acti-
vated:
After successful activation, the fault that prevents the functioning of the D-channel is
most probably in the data link connection. In connection with these, there are usually
exchange terminal (ET) and transmission equipment alarms that can be used to locate
the fault. Proceed according to the instructions of these alarms.
Further information
Further instructions can be found in the description of alarm 2250.
9.1.10 Loop test failed in primary rate access terminal (2252)
See the description of alarm 2252.
If the alarm 2252 is raised again, a temporary failure can be excluded and the most
likely cause for the failure is an error in the software or hardware configuration. Various
checks can be performed with the help of the instructions presented in the description
of alarm 2252.
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If the loop test fails on half or more of the activated channels on the terminal, alarm 2285
will also be set.
Steps
1 Deactivate the D-channel (DTC/DTT/DTM)
This cancels both the alarms 2250 and 2252.
2 Activate the D-channel
If alarm 2252 is raised again, a temporary failure can be excluded and the most likely
cause for the failure is an error in the software or hardware configuration. Various
checks can be performed.
Further information
Further instructions can be found in the description of alarm 2252.
9.1.11 Signalling terminal faulty (2285)
See the description of alarm 2285.
Fault types are the following:
01 Loop test between the signalling terminal and the switching network has
failed on several channels.
02 The checksum of the signalling terminal code is incorrect.
FF Other fault-causing malfunction.
In fault type 01, several channels means that the loop test has failed on more than half
of the active channels on the terminal.
If the cause of this alarm is a loop test failure on several channels, several loop test
alarms (2252) will be set.
Steps
1 Run a total diagnosis of the computer or the marker and replace the plug-in unit
with a new one
If the fault lies in a failed loop test and the signalling terminal has been functioning
before, the reason is probably a faulty signalling terminal plug-in unit, a faulty plug-in unit
on the same physical PCM cable, or a faulty switching network.
Further information
Further instructions can be found in the description of alarm 2285.
9.1.12 DPNSS1/DASS link out of service (2464)
See the description of alarm 2464.
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Steps
1 To implement this step, choose one of the following alternatives:
a If the alarm is generated when the D-channel is being activated for the first
time, proceed as follows:
1. Check the configuration of the D-channel; that is, check whether the circuit and
circuit group used by the D-channel exist, whether the external and internal PCM
numbers are correct, and whether the D-channel is successfully connected to
the switching network (see Site Documents).
If the configuration is in order, proceed to step 2. If it is not, redefine the D-
channel or the plug-in unit.
Depending on the application, D-channel data can be printed out using the MML
commands DNI and DNO and the correspondence of the given configuration to
the hardware can be checked.
2. Use the MML command CET to check the connections.
If you cannot find the fault, proceed to step 3.
3. Check the functioning of the exchange terminal (ET) with the fault diagnosis of
the exchange terminal.
4. Check the functioning of the remote end (PBX). Verify that the same set of DLCs
has been defined and activated at both ends.
5. When activation or re-activation fails, the system automatically checks the con-
nection between the primary rate access terminal and the switching network.
Meanwhile, if the loop test on the connection fails, alarm 2252 is set.
b If the alarm is generated when the D-channel has already been successfully
activated, proceed as follows:
After successful activation, the fault that prevents the functioning of the D-channel
is most probably in the data link connection. In connection with these, there is
usually an exchange terminal (ET) and transmission equipment alarms that can be
used to locate the fault. Act according to the instructions of these alarms. If the fault
cannot be found, go through steps 1 to 5 above.
9.2 State change of functional unit fails
Either the D-channel to the functional unit cannot be activated, or the partner program
block in the functional unit does not respond.
Before you start
Check (DTF or DTI) if there are other D-channels working on the same LAPD terminal.
If not, see the instructions for alarm 2250 (and for alarm 2252, if on).
Steps
1 Locate the problem between GSW and the functional unit
ET2E: Check the strappings on the cartridge as well as the ET plug-in unit itself. In
the ET4C cartridge, there is a group of strappings W37, which whether T0 of the ET
PCM is to be used for the D-channel (D-channel PCM number = index of the other
ET) or a separate D-channel PCM is used (D-channel TSL=0...31 depending on the
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track within the cartridge). In the ET2E plug-in unit, the strapping group W20 must
also be set accordingly (see instructions on cabling of ET units).
The loading may have failed. See Loading the program code to functional unit fails
to check whether loading is active to the unit.
The command DTT may be used to activate the D-channel without any unit state
changes.
9.3 Loading the program code to functional unit fails
The program code to be loaded into a functional unit cannot be loaded. Usually the state
changes to WO-EX fail even if the state of the D-channel is WO-EX and a sufficient time
has elapsed after the D-channel has been activated (unit state change). Also, alarm
2160 PREPROCESSOR UNIT RESTART FAILURE may be raised.
g It is not recommended to restart a unit which has loading active, as this generates
more delay in the loading.
Example:
State change TE WO activated by the MML command USC:
ZUSC:SUB,0,11:WO;
EXECUTION STARTED
/*** STATE TRANSITION NOT POSSIBLE ***/
/*** RECOVERY FUNCTION : TE->WO, 140H FAILURE ***/
/*** ERROR INFO FILLED BY OBSERVER ***/
/*** DX ERROR: 11132 ***/
/*** PREPROCESSOR LOADING IN PROGRESS ***/
/*** OBSERVED BY PROGRAM BLOCK : USAPRO, A0H ***/
/*** FAILED UNIT : ANCU-1 ***/
/*** FAILED PROGRAM BLOCK : , 11DH ***/
COMMAND EXECUTION ABORTED
This can also be seen as alarms (after successful state change to TE):
<HIST> DX220-RST OTA3 OMU SWITCH 1995-05-16 23:40:18.95
NOTICE SUB-3-5 3G029-37 RCXPRO
0690 WORKING STATE CHANGE: SE-OU TO TE-EX
004A 0039 4C02 001E 0881 0000 0000 0000
<HIST> DX220-RST SSU-3-0 SWITCH 1995-05-16 23:43:24.62
* DISTUR SSU-3-0 2E032-50 PXNETM
1254 UNSOLICITED DATA LINK RE-ESTABLISHMENT
0005 00 01 0118
<HIST> DX220-RST OTA3 OMU SWITCH 1995-05-16 23:43:27.86
* DISTUR SUB-3-5 3G029-37 RCXPRO
1687 RECOVERY ACTION FAILURE
00000322 0140 00A0 00002B7C 0016 011D
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Steps
1 To implement this step, choose one of the following alternatives:
a Check that the files to be loaded into the preprocessor exist in the unit
This can be done by checking that there are no computer error logs or alarms indi-
cating incapability to open the file.
Check also that there are no alarms indicating checksum errors in the files.
Check that the versions are correct and compatible (correct environment).
b Locate the unit with a bad D-channel connection (in case of several units
being loaded at the same time)
If there are several units to be loaded at the same time (for example after a software
package update), one unit with a bad D-channel connection may disturb the loading
of the other units as well, as the loading is done in groups. In this case, it may be
useful to locate this unit and block the D-channel or change the state of the unit to
SE, which usually blocks the D-channel.
Blocking the D-channel to a subscriber module in RSS may also lead to loading from
the flash memory. In this way, the unit may be set to the state WO-EX if loading from
the exchange is not possible for some reason.
c Monitor loading
Loading can be monitored by monitoring the messages of SLOGAN (1A0H) in the
computer unit controlling the preprocessor.
The following is an example of a forced SUB loading (internal messages removed).
The module index has been underlined with asterisks. In the pre_mod_loaded_s
message, the number of failed units has been denoted by 00 00. The list of failed
modules (in this case, none) follows that. In this case, the base packet is loaded first,
then a number of application programs (two-phase loading). Some functional units
are loaded in one phase.
MONITORING TIME: 1996-06-05 12:28:39.99
RECEIVED BY: 01A0 0000 00 pre_base_packet_check_req_s
MONITORED MESSAGE: 0047 440A 011D 0000 00 01 0061 9118 0010
30 00 00 00 F0 53 4E 50 42 41 53 50 42 2E 50 41 43 20 36 2E 34 2D 30 20 39
*****
36 2F 30 34 2F 31 31 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 97 A5 41 A1
MONITORING TIME: 1996-06-05 12:28:39.99
SENT BY: 01A0 0000 00 pre_base_packet_nok_s
MONITORED MESSAGE: 0015 C000 011E 0000 00 11 0061 9121 0010
30 00 00 00 F0
*****
MONITORING TIME: 1996-06-05 12:28:40.43
RECEIVED BY: 01A0 0000 00 pre_base_packet_req_s
MONITORED MESSAGE: 0015 440A 011D 0000 00 01 0061 9119 0010
30 00 00 00 F0
*****
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MONITORING TIME: 1996-06-05 12:28:43.44
SENT BY: 01A0 0003 00 pre_load_mod_req_s
MONITORED MESSAGE: 005A C000 011E 0000 00 11 0000 9116 0010
01 00 7E 06 F0 00 30 00 01 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
*****
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
MONITORING TIME: 1996-06-05 12:29:12.53
RECEIVED BY: 01A0 0003 00 pre_mod_loaded_s
MONITORED MESSAGE: 005A 440A 011E 0000 00 01 0000 9117 0010
01 00 7E 06 00 00 30 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
MONITORING TIME: 1996-06-05 12:29:18.83
RECEIVED BY: 01A0 0000 00 pre_load_packet_req_
MONITORED MESSAGE: 0015 C000 011D 0000 00 01 0058 9123 0010
30 00 00 00 F0
*****
MONITORING TIME: 1996-06-05 12:29:21.84
SENT BY: 01A0 0004 00 pre_load_mod_req_s
MONITORED MESSAGE: 005A C000 011E 0000 00 11 0000 9116 0010
02 00 7E 06 F0 00 30 00 01 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
MONITORING TIME: 1996-06-05 12:29:26.14
RECEIVED BY: 01A0 0004 00 pre_mod_loaded_s
MONITORED MESSAGE: 005A 440A 011E 0000 00 01 0000 9117 0010
02 00 7E 06 00 00 30 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
MONITORING TIME: 1996-06-05 12:29:39.06
SENT BY: 01A0 0004 00 pre_load_mod_req_s
MONITORED MESSAGE: 005A C000 011E 0000 00 11 0000 9116 0010
22 00 7E 06 F0 00 30 00 01 00 00 00 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
*****
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
MONITORING TIME: 1996-06-05 12:29:40.40
RECEIVED BY: 01A0 0004 00 pre_mod_loaded_s
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D-Channel Services D-channel troubleshooting
Id:0900d8058058d4e8
MONITORED MESSAGE: 005A 440A 011E 0000 00 01 0000 9117 0010
22 00 7E 06 00 00 30 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
MONITORING TIME: 1996-06-05 12:29:40.40
SENT BY: 01A0 0004 00 pre_restart_req_s
MONITORED MESSAGE: 0016 C000 011E 0000 00 11 0058 9128 0010
30 00 00 00 F0 10
*****
Message 9116 includes the number of the file to be loaded (first double word in the
information field). The first byte (LSB) of the file number is coded as follows:
SBCN (PPLIST=01) RSCN (PPLIST=06) VXCN (PPLIST=02)
SNP 01H (PB) SNP 1CH (QG) VXP 12H (P6) <-base packages
PSA 02H PSA 02H AIC 07H
PR1 03H PR1 03H BAT 08H
DIS 09H DIS 09H PPA 0BH
LC2 05H AIC 07H RCP 13H
LC3 06H BAT 08H V2I 14H
AIC 07H RCP 04H V2O 15H
BAT 08H SAI 0AH VX2 16H
RCP 04H PPA 0BH DIS 19H
SAI 0AH LIA 0CH MDH 20H
PPA 0BH SBL 0DH VXT 23H
LIA 0CH PCA 0EH PR1 24H
SBL 0DH RCI 0FH SAI 1BH
PCA 0EH MMU 1DH PCA 28H
MDH 20H MDH 20H PSA 02H
MMU 21H ISL 22H
ISL 22H DAM 54H
F0 after the file number indicates that the loader program in the preprocessor is
PCLOAD; 18 (FLAMAN) indicates that flash memory is being loaded (RSCN etc.);
F1 (DAMAGE) indicates that code of a CLES unit is being loaded. If flash is being
loaded constantly, it is possible that the memory is corrupted and the RSCN unit
needs to be replaced.
The message 9124 pre_cancel_loading_s indicates a controlled cancellation of
loading by the unit being loaded. In that case, check the files just loaded (message
9116) to see whether the version of the file and the checksum are correct.
Loading may also fail due to restart of the unit, especially when the base packet has
been loaded. In that case, check the SNPBASxx, VXPBASxx etc. files and that they
are compatible with the PROM/EPROM/flash package.
9.4 Software of AS7 plug-in unit cannot be loaded
The computer unit is not able to go to state WO-EX or SP-EX due to a loading failure of
the AS7 plug-in unit software package.
54 DN9770646
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D-channel troubleshooting
Example:
Service terminal during unit restart:
PROCESSING FAMILIES SDP
LOADING DATABASES SDP
PLUG-IN UNIT LOADING ACTIVATED 000F 0000 FFFF
LOADING STARTED 001E C000 0091
**LOADING FAILED 0165 000027BD C000 0165 6C 01 05C10002
Alarms:
<HIST> SP230 SSU-0-0 SWITCH 1996-06-18 16:59:38.56
** ALARM SSU-0-0 1B091-01 PILOAD *RECOV* LIB
2139 PLUG-IN UNIT SOFTWARE PACKAGE LOAD FAILURE
6C 01 000027BD
Steps
1 Check that the AS7 plug-in unit is in the track defined for it and that the base
address strappings are as defined (WTI)
2 Check that there are no problems with the DMC or Compact PCI bus
In case of a DMC bus use the service terminal command SLE to check whether there
are exceptions of the type TRAPS. If there is a hardware problem with the AS7 plug-in
unit, the CPU, or the cartridge, change them one by one.
In both cases use the service terminal command ZGD to check the log writings by
CALLER 165. The log writings provide information whether the problem is related to the
hardware database, Compact PCI configuration or a damaged plug-in unit. In these
cases you may need to change the AS7 plug-in unit.
3 Verify the existence of the AS7 software package file in the host computer unit
Obtain the file number from the output of the command ZWTI:P for the AS7. The file
number appears in the SW field. Use the file number as the NBR in the command ZDFL.
Output the contents of the file using the command ZDFD. If the file consists of short
records, it contains the numbers of the actual software package files after the ASCII
string, which identifies the SW. Use this file number as the NBR in the command ZDFL
in order to verify the existence of the file in the computer. If the file does not exist in the
computer, check the OMU disk as well using the file name in the LFILES directory. If the
file does not exist, there is a software building problem or the plug-in unit is not sup-
ported in the software build or network element.
9.5 D-channel works only with the other side of GSW/SWI
The D-channel (and the functional unit using it, if any) stays in state WO-EX only when
either GSW/SWI-0 or GSW/SWI-1 is active but not both. The D-channel goes down if a
Marker state change is executed or the spare Marker is restarted.
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Steps
1 Perform the following checks
If alarm 2252 LOOP TEST FAILED IN PRIMARY RATE ACCESS TERMINAL is
raised, this means that the AS7 plug-in unit has an incorrect state in the CSA/CSB
inputs, the cables to GSW/SWI are not properly connected, or the switching network
hardware is faulty.
If alarm 2252 is not raised and the channel stays in state BL-SY (no state changes
to BL-US or UA-AD due to automatic recovery, for example), this means that the
switching network hardware is faulty, the cables to the ET or other functional units
are not properly connected, or the CS input of the ET or another functional unit is in
an incorrect state. They should all be checked, changed, or measured.
The AS7 plug-in unit, the plug-in units of the ET, and the functional unit can also be
faulty. They should be checked (checking of strappings, execution of fault diagnosis)
or changed as well.
The CS input may also be forced into an incorrect state by a faulty CLAB unit, which
can affect AS7 and functional units as well as terminal units and cables. Change the
state of the units or change the plug-in units.
9.6 Blocked 30B+D D-channel cannot be activated
The D-channel of a 30B+D interface has been put into state BL-US or UA-AD after acti-
vation, but the state change back to WO-EX does not succeed and the channel remains
in state BL-SY. PAU switchover may result in the same condition.
Steps
1 Check SABME frames (DMT)
Check (DMT) that SABME frames are transmitted. If SABME frames are also received
and UA frames are transmitted, the 30B+D PBX is faulty; that is, its receiver is not
working correctly. One such case (ISDX) is known. Recovery is possible if the PCM is
removed for a while or an ET fault diagnosis is performed.
9.7 30B+D or DPNSS1/DASS2 D-channel cannot be deleted
When trying to delete a D-channel of a primary rate access or a data link connection,
the error message B-CHANNELS IN USE appears. This means that the speech circuits
are still in use (routed).
Steps
1 Check that the PBX interface has been removed in an orderly manner
When removing a PBX interface, the removal of the D-channel is the last step. Before
deleting the D-channel, you must delete the services, call number, analysis, route, and
circuit group of the speech channels.
If there are no longer any routed speech circuits on the PCM of the D-channel (only TSL
of the D-channel), there may be a hanging record in the CRSPRI (556H) file. The file is
referred to by the D-channel number. Check that the corresponding record is filled as
56 DN9770646
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D-channel troubleshooting
empty records in the file in both CM units. It may be necessary to patch the record in
order to be able to delete the D-channel.
DN9770646
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D-Channel Services LAPD frame structure
Id:0900d8058030e896
10 LAPD frame structure
Figure 13 Address field format (octets 2 and 3)
g The opening flag is numbered as octet 1.
EA
C/R
SAPI
TEI
Address field extension bit
Command/response field bit
Service access point identifier
Terminal endpoint identifier
C/R
EA
0
EA
0
2 1 4 3 6 5 8 7
SAPI
TEI
Octet 2
3
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LAPD frame structure
Figure 14 Control field format (octets 4 and 5)
Unacknow-
ledged
and
Multiple
Frame
Acknow-
ledged
Information
Transfer
4
P/
F
5 N(R)
REJ
(reject)
REJ
(reject)
Supervisory
DISC
(disconnect)
Un-
numbered
0 1 1 P 1 1 1 1
0 0 0 F 1 1 1 1
0 0 0 P 0 0 1 1
0 1 0 P 0 0 1 1
0 1 1 F 0 0 1 1 4
4
4
4
SABME (set
asynchronous
balanced
mode
extended)
DM
(disconnected
mode)
UI
(unnumbered
information)
UA
(unnumbered
acknowledg-
ment)
0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
P/
F
N(R)
0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
RNR
(receive
not ready)
RNR
(receive
not ready)
4
5
P/
F
N(R)
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
RR
(receive
ready)
RR
(receive
ready)
4
5
P N(R) 5
0 N(S) 4
I
(information)
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Encoding
Responses Commands
Oct
et
Format
Information
transfer
Application
4
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D-Channel Services DPNSS1/DASS2 frame structure
Id:0900d80580388a2b
11 DPNSS1/DASS2 frame structure
Figure 15 DPNSS1/DASS2 frame structure
g The opening flag is not included in the octet numbering.
0 0 N 0 0 0 1 1
1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1
1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1
N = Sequence number
3
3
3
UI(C), UI(R)
UA
SABMR
x x x x x x x x 4 information field
x x x x x x x x N information field
1 0 x x x x 1 x
0 0 x x x x 1 x
Channel number
2
2
Virtual channel (DPNSS1)
Real channel
1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1
UI(C) from Side A or
UI(R) from Side B
0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1
UI(C) from ET or
UI(R) from PBX
1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
UI(C) from Side B or
UI(R) from Side A
0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
UI(C) from PBX or
UI(R) from ET
0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1
SABMR from ET/Side A or
UA from PBX/Side A
0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1
SABMR from PBX/Side B or
UA from ET/Side A
x x x x x x 0 C/R
7 8 5 6 3 4 1 2
1
Octet
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Monitoring D-channel on PECTUS-based preproces-
sors
12 Monitoring D-channel on PECTUS-based pre-
processors
In most cases, the implementation of LAPD in preprocessors is based on a process pair:
one process for serial communications controller handling and one for the LAPD proce-
dure. The incoming frames can be monitored by the message 8996
(LPR_PH_DATA_INDICATION) as follows:
OSC> ZOQ:D6,FF,FF,FF,FF,FFFF,FF
OB DR CO PR EX ID QL
D6 FF FF FF FF FFFF FF
SENDER: D6
MONITORED MESSAGE: 0D 00 D5
8996 01 00 1C 00 04 3D 50 2B
CHANNEL ST FRAME FRAME
NUMBER LENGTH ADDRESS
SENDER: D6
MONITORED MESSAGE: 0D 00 D5
8996 01 00 04 00 04 3F 50 2B
OSC> ZDD:2B50.3D04,3D1F
2B50.3F04: 00 01 01 CA
If frames with a frame length of 03 are received continuously, the incoming direction is
connected, but there may be problems with the outgoing direction (anywhere between
the functional unit and the AS7).
g Loop tests are executed periodically. They can also be seen as SABME frames.
If the frame length is 04, the connection has been established.
CHANNEL NUMBER 0 1
SBCN RSCN (SUB-0) SSU/CAC
CLxTG host comp/RSCN CLxTG (pair)
STATUS: 0 1
Correct frame CRC error
FRAME LENGTH FRAME TYPE
03 SABME, UA, DISC, DM
04 RR, RNR, REJ
>04 I
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D-Channel Services Load mail box and control structures
Id:0900d805802fec0a
13 Load mail box and control structures
Figure 16 Structure of the load mail box in the dual port memory of the AS7-U
(shading on terminal function 0)
C1 C1 02 01 12 F0 00 00 0B 00 00 7F 0B 00 4C 2E 00000200:
0B 00 1A 0D 0B 00 00 00 0B 00 00 00 0B 00 00 00 00000210:
00 00 0B 00 00 0B 00000220:
00 00 0B 00 00 0B 00000230:
00 00 0B 00 00 0B 00000240:
00 00 0B 00 00 0B 00000250:
00 00 0B 00 00 0B 00000260:
00 00 0B 00 00 0B 00000270:
00 00 0B 00 00 0B 00000280:
FF 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00000290:
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 000002A0:
00 00 03 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 000002B0:
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 000002C0:
00 00 80 3F 00 00 1E 01 000002D0:
0B
0B
0B
0B
0B
0B
0B
0B
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00 00 0B
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
0B
0B
0B
0B
0B
0B
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00 00 00
00 00 00
00 00 00
00 00 00
00 00 00
00 00 00
00 00 00
C0=LOAD BLOCK, C1=LOAD LAST BLOCK
F0 -> RAM CODE, 18 -> FLAASH, F1 -> CLES
CURRENT LOCATION IN LOAD BUFFER
FF=LOADING ON THIS CHANNEL
02=ESTABLISH FAILED, 03=LOADING,
04=LOADED
LB_LOAD_COMMAND
LB_LOAD_COMMAND_ACK
LB_MAX_LENGTH_OF_MESSAGE
LB_LENGTH_OF_ENV_HEADER
LB_LOADER_PROCESS_ID
LB_BEGIN_ADDRESS
LB_END_ADDRESS
LB_WRITE_ADDRESS
LB_ACK_ADDRESS (32)
LB_LOAD_LIST (32)
LB_LOAD_STATUS (32)
LB_MIDDLE_ADDRESS
LB_RECEIVING_FAMILY
BYTE
BYTE
WORD
BYTE
BYTE
DWORD
DWORD
DWORD
DWORD
BYTE
BYTE
DWORD
WORD
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AS7-U strappings
14 AS7-U strappings
Figure 17 AS7-U strappings
4
3
2
1
4321
ccc-:
cc-c:
cc--:
c-cc:
c-c-:
c--c:
c---:
c=connected
ADDRESS
XX100000
XX200000
XX300000
XX400000
XX500000
XX600000
XX700000
UP:
LEFT:
XX=80
XX=0E
CONNECTED (NOT X.25)
CONNECTED (WATCHDOG)
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D-Channel Services AS7-V strappings
Id:0900d805804436c3
15 AS7-V strappings
Figure 18 AS7-V strappings
xxx-
xx-x
xx--
x-xx
x-x-
x-x-
x---
-xxx
-xx-
:
:
Base addresses
strapping within
DMC bus address space
X=strapping connected
100000
200000
300000
400000
500000
600000
700000
800000
900000
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AS7-U/AS7-V backplane connector
16 AS7-U/AS7-V backplane connector
Figure 19 AS7-U/AS7-V backplane connector
1 C
+5V
0V
-5V
CCL
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
A15
A14
A13
A12
A11
A10
A9
A8
D8
D9
D10
D11
D12
D13
D14
D15
0V
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
1 A
+5V
0V
-5V
CCL
A7
A6
A5
A4
A3
A2
A1
A0
A20
MEMW/
MEMR/
A21
A20
BHEN/
RESET/
READY/
A23
A24
A16
A17
A18
A19
0V
3 C
RESR/
VB0
CSB
R00B
R10B
T00B
T10B
8K0B
8K1B
8M0B
8M1B
+5V
0V
3 A
INT/
CCL
VB1
CSA
R00A
R10A
T00A
T10A
8K0A
8K1A
8M0A
8M1A
+5V
0V
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D-Channel Services Loop for CEA cable
Id:0900d805802a0709
17 Loop for CEA cable
Figure 20 Loop for CEA cable
R3B R3A R1B
T1B T1A R1A
T3B T3A
C B A
T1A
T1B
T3B
T3B
R1A
R1B
R3B
R3B
CEA CABLE CONNECTOR
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PCM loop-back for the ET1E
18 PCM loop-back for the ET1E
Figure 21 PCM loop-back for the ET1E
See also installation instructions.
C28
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
C A
C28
C28
O
I
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D-Channel Services PCM loop-back for the ET2E
Id:0900d8058037fc8f
19 PCM loop-back for the ET2E
Figure 22 PCM loop-back for the ET2E
C B A
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
RA
RB
TA
TB
TA
TB
RA
RB
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D-channel and LAPD related MML error codes
20 D-channel and LAPD related MML error
codes
g Only typical error codes are listed in this appendix. Other errors may appear, for
example, when there is a problem with file updates.
Error/MML execution text Status Description Action
INCORRECT MESSAGE 97 The response to the user's
MML command was
somehow erroneous.
Check the version of the
MML command ZDS, take
a display log and monitor
the messages between
DIALOG/OMU and
PXADMI/CM during the
MML command's execu-
tion. Write a failure report.
ACTIVATE UNIT STATE
INCORRECT
10140 The state of the active unit is
not WO-EX.
Check the unit state and
try again.
COMMUNICATION ERROR
BETWEEN PXADMI AND
OTHER PROGRAM BLOCK
10388 The PXADMI did not get a
response from the other
program block.
Look at alarm 1018
(ZAHO).
TERMINAL NOT INITIALIZED 10389 AS7 terminal not initialized. A terminal function is not
available for the channel.
There may be a faulty
AS7 terminal.
D-CHANNEL LINK SET
ALREADY EXISTS
10462 The name of the D-channel
link set to be created already
exists.
Try again using another
name for the link set.
D-CHANNEL LINK SET DOES
NOT EXIST
10463 The name of the D-channel is
unknown, or there are no D-
channels.
Check the name using
one of the commands
ZDSI and ZDSB.
DELETING COMBINED O&M
LINK NOT ALLOWED
13746 Deletion of a combined O&M
link is not allowed.
Remove the combined
TRX link first.
PXADMI BUSY 14198 D-channel state change is
already active.
Wait for a while and try
again.
D-CHANNEL ACTIVATION
FAILED
14340 The activation of the primary
D-channel failed.
See instructions of alarm
2250.
D-CHANNEL DATA
MISMATCH
14344 Data mismatch between the
PXNETM work file and
another D-channel file.
Check the created D-
channel data with either
of the commands ZDSI
and ZDSB. Use ZDSD if
some data is visible.
Delete and recreate the
channel.
INCORRECT UNIT STATE 43168 The state of the unit is not
correct.
Check the state and try
again.
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Id:0900d805802ae97b
21 D-channel and LAPD related event logs
D-CHANNEL CREATED
EVENT TIME CLASS EVENT ADDITIONAL INFO
===================== ===== ========================= ===================
1999-06-17 01:14:00 1 D-CHANNEL CREATED C8 03 00 00 00 00
Details of Additional information:
first two bytes D-channel message sender (3C8H = MML)
bytes 3..6 status (00000000H = success)
D-CHANNEL MODIFICATION
EVENT TIME CLASS EVENT ADDITIONAL INFO
===================== ===== ========================= ===================
1999-06-17 01:14:11 1 D-CHANNEL MODIFICATION C8 03 00 00 00 00
Details of Additional information:
first two bytes D-channel message sender (3C8H = MML)
bytes 3..6 status (00000000H = success)
STATE CHANGE BY USER
EVENT TIME CLASS EVENT ADDITIONAL INFO
===================== ===== ========================= ===================
1999-06-17 01:14:16 1 STATE CHANGE BY USER C8 03 03 FF 00 00
1999-06-17 01:14:23 1 STATE CHANGE BY USER C8 03 00 FF 03 00
Details of Additional information:
first two bytes D-channel message sender (3C8H = MML)
3rd byte old state (0=WO, 1=BL, 2=AL, 3=AD)
4th byte field not in use
5th byte request main state (0=WO, 2=BL, 3=AD)
6th byte request sub state (0=EX, 1=SY, 2=US, 3=AD)
D-CHANNEL DELETED
EVENT TIME CLASS EVENT ADDITIONAL INFO
===================== ===== ========================= ===================
1999-06-17 01:14:26 1 D-CHANNEL DELETED C8 03 00 00 00 00
Details of Additional information:
first two bytes D-channel message sender (3C8H = MML)
bytes 3..6 status (00000000H = success)
STATE CHANGE BY SYSTEM
EVENT TIME CLASS EVENT ADDITIONAL INFO
===================== ===== ========================= ===================
2000-05-25 10:19:57 1 STATE CHANGE BY SYSTEM 4A 00 4B 00 FF 00
Details of Additional information:
first two bytes old state (39=TE-EX, 4A=SE-OU, 4B=SE-NH)
bytes 3..4 new state
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D-channel and LAPD related event logs
5th byte always FF
6th byte always 00
ETS STATE CHANGE
EVENT TIME CLASS EVENT ADDITIONAL INFO
===================== ===== ========================= ===================
2000-05-25 10:19:57 1 ETS STATE CHANGE 4A 00 4B 00 FF 00
Details of Additional information are the same as for the event STATE CHANGE BY
SYSTEM.
D-CHANNEL PROTECTION
EVENT TIME CLASS EVENT ADDITIONAL INFO
===================== ===== ========================= ===================
2000-05-25 09:53:01 2 D-CHANNEL PROTECTION 00 00 00 00 00 00
Details of Additional information:
No additional information. Used for V5-channels.
DL-ESTABLISH-INDICATION
EVENT TIME CLASS EVENT ADDITIONAL INFO
===================== ===== ========================= ===================
2000-05-25 09:53:01 2 DL-ESTABLISH-INDICATION 00 00 00 00 00 00
Details of Additional information:
No additional information.
DL-ESTABLISH-CONFIRM
EVENT TIME CLASS EVENT ADDITIONAL INFO
===================== ===== ========================= ===================
2000-05-25 09:52:58 2 DL-ESTABLISH-CONFIRM 00 00 00 00 00 00
Details of Additional information:
No additional information.
DL-RELEASE-INDICATION
EVENT TIME CLASS EVENT ADDITIONAL INFO
===================== ===== ========================= ===================
2000-01-28 15:11:08 2 DL-RELEASE-INDICATION 02 00 00 00 00 00
Details of Additional information:
Only the first byte of Additional information is used. It indicates the reason for the release
as follows:
01H DISC received (peer-initiated release)
02H unsuccessful retransmissions of SABME (no response to connection
establishment)
03H protocol mismatch
04H internal
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Id:0900d805802ae97b
DL-RELEASE-CONFIRM
EVENT TIME CLASS EVENT ADDITIONAL INFO
===================== ===== ========================= ===================
2000-01-28 15:11:12 2 DL-RELEASE-CONFIRM 00 00 00 00 00 00
Details of Additional information:
No additional infomation.
DL-ERROR-INDICATION
EVENT TIME CLASS EVENT ADDITIONAL INFO
===================== ===== ========================= ===================
2000-01-28 16:26:02 2 DL-ERROR-INDICATION 02 10 00 00 00 00
Details of Additional information:
First byte: error type
01H excessive error rate
02H fault
Second byte: error code
when the error type is 01H:
01H data link protocol mismatch (unsolicited frames etc.)
02H data link service provision incapability (no response to command
frames)
03H excessive error rate at subscriber line (CRC error or framing error)
when the error type is 02H:
10H out of internal message buffers
11H no transmit buffers available
12H TX frame too long
13H TX frame too short
14H out of internal message buffers
15H notice buffer full
16H FIFO read error
17H aborted transmission
18H FIFO full error
19H timing error
LOOP TEST RESULT
EVENT TIME CLASS EVENT ADDITIONAL INFO
===================== ===== ========================= ===================
2000-01-28 15:11:13 2 LOOP TEST RESULT 01 00 00 00 00 00
Details of Additional information:
Only the first byte of Additional information is in use. It indicates the result of the external
loop test executed:
00H loop test not executed
01H loop test successful
FFH loop test failed
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D-channel and LAPD related event logs
DL-INT-ESTABLISH-ACK
EVENT TIME CLASS EVENT ADDITIONAL INFO
===================== ===== ========================= ===================
2000-05-25 09:53:01 2 DL-INT-ESTABLISH-ACK 00 00 00 00 00 00
Details of Additional information:
No additional infomation.
DL-INT-ESTABLISH-NACK
EVENT TIME CLASS EVENT ADDITIONAL INFO
===================== ===== ========================= ===================
2000-05-25 10:34:29 2 DL-INT-ESTABLISH-NACK 00 00 00 00 00 00
Details of Additional information:
No additional infomation.
DATA LINK PAUSE
EVENT TIME CLASS EVENT ADDITIONAL INFO
===================== ===== ========================= ===================
2000-05-25 10:34:29 3 DATA LINK PAUSE 09 01 00 00 00 01
Details of Additional information:
first two bytes family_id (signalling program block) to which the pause message is
sent
DATA LINK RESUME
EVENT TIME CLASS EVENT ADDITIONAL INFO
===================== ===== ========================= ===================
2000-05-25 10:35:16 3 DATA LINK RESUME 09 01 00 00 00 01
Details of Additional information:
first two bytes family_id (signalling program block) to which the resume message is
sent
L3 CONNECTION ERROR
EVENT TIME CLASS EVENT ADDITIONAL INFO
===================== ===== ========================= ===================
2000-05-25 11:58:39 3 L3 CONNECTION ERROR 00 63 00 00 00 00
Details of Additional information:
The first byte indicates the LOAD_STATE of the unit of SWICOP:
00 normal unit load state, all calls available
01 low-overload state, only priority calls available
02 hi-overload state, all calls unavailable
03 SWICOP can't handle any connecting at this moment
The second byte indicates the error code:
61 unknown message identification
62 unused PCM
63 unused circuit
6A test word test error
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D-Channel Services D-channel and LAPD related event logs
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6B test word swtst status error
6D connection status error
6E connection parity error
6F connection read error
L3 RELEASE ERROR
EVENT TIME CLASS EVENT ADDITIONAL INFO
===================== ===== ========================= ===================
2000-05-25 11:50:25 3 L3 RELEASE ERROR 00 63 00 00 00 00
Details of Additional information are the same as for the event L3 CONNECTION
ERROR.
MESSAGE SEND FAILURE
EVENT TIME CLASS EVENT ADDITIONAL INFO
===================== ===== ========================= ===================
2000-05-25 11:20:23 3 MESSAGE SEND FAILURE BF 01 00 00 00 00
Details of Additional information:
If the first byte is BF, this indicates that there is a congestion on the channel. In some
cases PXSEND also writes a log (INCORRECT LOG TERMINAL), and the first two
bytes may indicate the process family sending the message.
MESSAGE RECEIVE FAILURE
EVENT TIME CLASS EVENT ADDITIONAL INFO
===================== ===== ========================= ===================
2000-05-25 11:10:15 3 MESSAGE RECEIVE FAILURE 00 00 00 00 00 00
Details of Additional information:
PXRECE sets this event log if it is not able to deliver a message. Additional information
varies in different situations. In most cases, PXRECE also writes a log, such as INVALID
PROTOCOL DISCRIMINATOR or INCORR. DATA MSG FROM TERMINAL.
AS7 UNIT RESTART
EVENT TIME CLASS EVENT ADDITIONAL INFO
===================== ===== ========================= ===================
2000-01-28 15:12:24 4 AS7 UNIT RESTART 56 64 03 00 00 00
Details of Additional information:
PXNETMGX writes LAPD event indication when it gives a reset request to an AS7 plug-
in unit. The event indication is given to all channels on the AS7.
first two bytes the message number PXNETM is handling
If the message number is 0003 (time_out), the timer ID is given in the following four
bytes. Otherwise there is information on the faulty channel:
bytes 3..4 channel number
5th byte channel index
6th byte application; for example:
00 = 30B+D
01 = ET
02 = subscriber module D-channel
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D-channel and LAPD related event logs
05 = V5
06 = TCSM
07 = CLET
08 = FNIM
09 = TETRA
0A = CDSU
0B = TPST
10 = CLS
11 = DPNSS
12 = Abis
13 = COCA
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D-Channel Services Glossary
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Glossary
Abbreviations
ANSI American National Standards Institute
BSC Base Station Controller
BTS Base Transceiver Station
DLC Data Link Connection
ET Exchange Terminal
ETSI European Telecommunications Standards Institute
HDLC High-level Data Link Control Protocol
ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network
ITU International Telecommunications Union
LAPD Link Access Procedure on the D-channel
MML Man-machine language
MSC Mobile Switching Center
OSI Open System Interconnection
PBX Private Branch Exchange
PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network
RSS Remote Subscriber Stage
SAPI Service Access Point Identifier
TEI Terminal Endpoint Identifier
Concepts
Abis interface Base Station Controller (BSC) to Base Transceiver Station (BTS) interface.
D-channel The D-channel is a channel used for signalling and for transmitting other message-
based data in an ISDN interface, and for operating in the ISDN primary rate access
(30B+D) at a speed of 64 kbit/s.
DASS2 The Digital Access Signalling System No 2 (DASS2) is intended for use between the
customer's equipment (PBX) and an ISDN local exchange.
DPNSS1 The Digital Private Network Signalling System No 1 (DPNSS1) is a common channel (D-
channel) signalling system and is primarily intended for use between PBXs in private
networks.
DMC bus Internal processor bus of one microcomputer in the DX 200 system.
DMX message Operating system message sent inside the DX 200 system.
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Glossary
HDLC High-level Data Link Control Protocol
International protocol standard governing exchange of data over a single communica-
tion link.
Interchangeability Ability of hardware products to replace each other without any externally detectable
operational changes under any conditions of operation.
LAPD Link Access Procedure on the D-channel
LAPD is the protocol for layer 2. It consists of functions which are used to guarantee a
reliable, transparent form of data transmission over the D-channel.
MML Man-machine language
Text-based command language with a standardised structure, designed to facilitate
direct user control of a system.
MML command MML commands are used to operate the DX 200 system. They are given by using the
MML command language (Man-Machine Language as defined by ITU-T, Recommen-
dations Z.301Z.341). The commands execute MML programs.
PCI bus, Compact
PCI
Internal processor bus of one microcomputer in the DX200 system.
Primary rate access 2 Mbit/s interface that is realised by 30B+D channel structure.
AS7 Primary Rate Access Terminal
When the AS7 plug-in unit is used in the layer 2 implementation of the D-channel, it is
called the primary access signalling terminal or the primary access terminal. The primary
access terminal contains several terminal functions. Each terminal function consists of
an interface to the physical channel that is used by the D-channel and a layer 2 control.
The terminal functions of all primary access terminals for one computer unit can be pre-
sented as logical terminals, in which case the terminal functions are not divided into dif-
ferent physical primary access terminals.
PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network
Public telephone system, including telephones, local lines, local exchanges, and the
complete system of trunks and the exchange hierarchy which makes up the network.
V5.1 interface The V5.1 interface is designed in accordance with the standard ETS 300 3241. It
supports analogue subscriber lines, ISDN basic rate accesses and, semipermanent
connections.
V5.2 interface Dynamic exchange concentrator interface between the local network and subscribers
who physically belong to a separate subscriber network.