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1. Define term production planning and control.

Production planning and control may be defined as the direction and coordination of a firms
material and physical facilities towards the attainment of prescribed production of goods, with
highest production efficiency,
2. What is production planning?
It is concerned with
1. Deciding which products to make, how many each, and when they should be completed.
2. Scheduling the production and delivery of the parts and products
3. Planning the manpower and equipment resources needed to accomplish the production plan.
3. What is production control?
Production control is concerned with determining whether the necessary resources to
implement the production plan have been provided or not.
4. Write the activities of production control.
Shop floor control
Inventory control
Manufacturing resource planning
Just-in time manufacturing systems
5. What is MRP? What is the function of MRP?
It is a planning technique. It translated master production schedule (MPS) of the end products
into a detailed schedule for the raw materials and parts used in those end products.
6.What is master production schedule?
MPS is a detailed plan that states how many end items (i.e the final product to be sold to the
customer) will be available for sale or distribution during specific periods.
7. What is BOM?
The bill of materials designates what items and how many of each are used to make up a
specified final product.
8. What is SFC?
Shop Floor Control (SFC) is defined as the important manufacturing activity that will
control flow of the product and materials on the factory flow involving the quantities, types
of parts, schedule dates, priorities and the status of jobs and orders.
9. What are the functions of SFC?
Priority control and assignment of shop orders
Maintain information on work in process for MRP
Monitor shop order status information
Provide production output data for capacity control purposes
10. What is scheduling?
Operation scheduling is concerned with the problem of assigning specific jobs to specific work
centres on a weekly, daily, hourly basis.
Operation scheduling = Machine loading + Job sequencing
11. What is dispatching?
Dispatching is the function concerned with issuing the individual orders to the machine
operators.
12. What are the phases of SFC?
Order Release
Order Scheduling
Order Progress
13. What is the philosophy of just in time?
It is a management philosophy that strives to eliminate sources of manufacturing waste by
producing the right part in the right place at the right time.
14. What do you mean by priority control in PPC?
The term priority control is used in production planning and control to denote the function that
maintains the appropriate levels for the various production orders in the shop.
15. Define term machine loading and job sequencing.
Allocating orders to work centres is knows and machine loading
Determining the priority in which the jobs should be processed is termed as job sequencing.
16. What is the purpose of factory data collection system?
The purpose of the Factory Data Collection (FDS) system in shop floor control is to provide
basic data for monitoring order progress. In a computerized SFC system these data are submitted
to the order progress module for analysis and generation of work order status reports and
exception
reports.
17. What is FDS?
The factory data collection system consists of various paper documents, terminals and
automated devices throughout the plant for collecting data on shop floor operations.
18. What is DAS?
A data acquisitions system (DAS) is a computer system used to automatically collect data
from a process or piece of equipment. They either perform an analysis data or transmit the data
to another computer for processing and analysis.
19. Define FMS.
A FlexibleManufacturing System (FMS) is an individual machine or group of machines served
by an automated materials handling system that is computer controlled and has a tool handling
capability.
20.What are the Objectives of FMS?
To provide flexible manufacturing facility for pan family components.
To provide the benefits of grouping the operation in single location.
To provide the flexibility in producing small and medium parts.
To maximize the utilization of facilities.
To have a good management control.
21.What are the components of FMS?
1. Processing stations or workstations
2. Material handling and storage
3. Computer control system
4. Human labour
22.What are the FMS layout configurations?
In-line layout
Loop layout
Ladder layout
Openfie1d1ayout
Robot-centred cell.
23.What are the functions of computers in FMS?
Workstation control
Distribution of control instructions to workstations
Production control
Traffic control
Shuttle control
Work piecemonitoring
Tool control
Performance monitoring and reporting
Diagnosis
24. List any two advantages and disadvantages of FMS implementation.
Advantages
Faster, lower-cost changes from one part to another which will improve capital utilization.
Lower direct labour cost, due to the reduction in number of workers.
Disadvantages
Substantial pre-planning activity.
Expensive, costing millions of dollars.
25. List the applications of FMS.
Machining
Assembly
Sheet-metal press-working
Forging
Plastic injection moulding
Welding
Textilemachinerymanufacture
Semiconductor component manufacture


1. Why are company models necessary?
They are necessary because they characterise a company in different ways to analyse the
various characteristics such as complexity of their operation, the large amount of data involved,
their cyclic operation, uncertain or variable behaviour of certain parts etc.
2. What are the specific characteristics that have to be incorporated in the CIM system
models?
The complexity of their operation
The large amount of data involved
Their cyclic operation
Uncertain or variate behaviour of certain behaviour
Their changing nature to accommodate new markets
Involvement of humans as part of the system
3. What three forms of modelling tool are desirable to characterise company operation?
1. As a representation of the system
2. As a dynamic model
3. As a executable model
4. What are the IDEF modelling tools?
The acronym IDEF stands for Integrated CAM DEFinition. The IDEF modelling tools cover a
range of uses from function modelling to information, simulation, object-oriented analysis and
design and knowledge acquisition.
5. What are the types of IDEF models?




6. Draw simple E-R diagram.


7. What are ER diagrams?
The entity-relationship (ER) diagrams are used to capture the relationships between entities.
8. What is an activity cycle diagram?
Activity cycle diagram (ACD) is a modelling approach designed to represent the dynamics of
a system.
9. Which IDEF tool is an extension of ER diagram for manufacturing information?
IDEF1 modelling tool is extension of ER diagram for manufacturing information. This is
because, as with ER diagram, in IDEF1 model the data is characterised in terms of entity classes.
10.Write aboutCIMOSA.
CIMOSA defines a model-based enterprise engineering method which categorizes
manufacturing operations into Generic and Specific (Partial and Particular) functions.
11. How does CIMOSA separate function?
The CIMOSA modelling Framework in which specific and generic functions are-clearly
separated.
The CIMOSA Integrating Infrastructure supporting execution of Generic functions and
linking specific functions. It is effectively the communication system which interconnects all of
the functions in the CIM system.
12. What do you mean by the term CIM architecture?
The term CIM architecture often applied to a template which can be used for the design and
implementation of a CIM system.
13.What is the role of process planning inCIMarchitecture?
The process planning function can ensure the profitability or non profitability of a part being
manufactured because of the myriad ways in which a part can be produced.
14. What is data dictionary?
A data dictionary is a catalogue of all the data in the database. The dictionary may include
cross-reference information explaining which programs use which data and which department
need which reports.
15. Explain the terms data repository and data store.
The data represented within a model needs to be stored and to be accessible by the users either
directly or through any application program. The interface between user applications and stored
data
within CIM architecture can be conceptualised as a data repository. The data items themselves
are
viewed as being held in a data store.
16.What is the function of repository?
The main function of the repository is to isolate applications from changes in the integration
methods, reducing the need for application maintenance.
17. What is production data management (PDM)?
PDM is concerned with the management of the life-cycle data of products.
18. List the four major modules of any PDM software?
1. Process modules
2. Process project management modules
3. Data management module
4. Data and information kitting module
19. List out any four benefits of implementing the PDM system?
1. Improve design productivity
2. Fewer design changes
3. Improved design and manufacturing accuracy
4. Reduced development times
20. What is meant by data communication?
Data communication is the exchange of data between two devices via some form of
transmission medium.
21. Differentiate the function of bridges and gateways in network?
Bridges are used to connect similar networks whereas gateways are used to connect dissimilar
networks.
22. What is meant by multiplexing?
Multiplexing is the transmission of multiple signals over a signal communication channel.
23. What is CSMA/CD?
CSMA/CD, the carrier sense multiple access with collision detection, is a network control
technique that describes the rules for managing/controlling access to network.
24. What is network management?
Network management can be defined as OAM & P (operation, administration, maintenance
and provisioning) of network and services.
25. Distinguish analog with digital transmission?
In analog transmission, the signals are transmitted by varying one of the physical
characteristics, continuously as a function of time. In digital transmission, the string 0s and 1s
are transmitted.




1. What is network architecture?
Network architecture describes the components, the function performed and the interfaces
between the components of a network.
2. Define an open system with respect to data communication.
An open system may be defined as a system that implements sufficient open specifications or
standards for interfaces, services and supporting formats to enable properly engineered
application software: to be ported with minimal changes across a wide range of systems for one
or more suppliers; to interoperate with other applications on local and remote systems; to interact
with people in a style which facilititates user probability.
3. Name 2 organisations that have published de facto standards relating to open systems.
1. The International Electrochemical Commission (IEC)
2. The International Organisation for Standards (ISO).
4. Define OSI.
Open systems interconnection (OSI) reference model is an international standards organization
(ISO) standard that specifies the conceptual structure of systems that are to communicate with
each other.
5. Name the different layers of OSI.
1. Physical layer
2. Data link layer
3. Network layer
4. Transport layer
5. Session layer
6. Presentation layer
7. Application layer
6. What is the function of data link layer in OSI model?
The data link layer handles the task of transferring information across the physical link by
sending blocks of data.
7. What is the function of physical layers?
The physical layer consists of the hardware that drives the network and circuits.
8. In what way the function of network layer differs from that of data link layer.
The data link layer oversees the delivery of the packet between 2 systems on the same
network. The network layer ensures that each packet gets from its point of origin to its final
destination.
9. What is the use of transport layers is OSI?
The transport layer performs the service of sending and receiving segments of data to session
layers. It also provides flow control, sequence numbering and message acknowledgement.
10. What is the use of session layers in OSI?
The session layer allows users on different machines to establish sessions between them. It
establishes, maintains, synchronizes and manages the interaction between communication
systems.
11. List some of the network standards that have been developed based on the OSI
reference
model.
1. MAP
2. TOP
3. TCP/IP
4. DECENT
12.What is MAP?
Manufacturing Automation Protocol (MAP) is a specialized LAN designed for a factory
environment. It is hardware cum-software implementable set of rules that facilitate information
transfer among networked computers and computer-based equipment.
13. What is TOP?
TOP stands for technical and office protocol. It is a subset of the OSI standards for technical
and office applications. It provides a framework in which software can be developed for the full
range of office and factory automation problems.
14. Define database.
A database is a collection of files as an organized assembly of information that users can
access for various purposes; that is, adding, deleting, or modifying data.
15. Define data model.
A data model is a logical representation of a collection of data elements. Data models are the
basic building blocks for designing all databases.
16. Define DBMS.
DBMS stands for Database management system. A program which lets you manage
information in databases. The program we use to organize our data and the actual data structure
we create with that program.
17.What is data modelling?
Data modelling is a method of depicting graphically data groupings and the relationship
between groupings.
18. Classify data models.
1. Record based data models
Hierarchical data models
Network data models
Relational data models
2. Object oriented data models
19. What is hierarchical data model?
The hierarchical data model is similar to the network data model except that the relationships
among the records are represented in the form of tree structure.
20. What is a relational data model?
A relational data model relates or connects data in different files through the use of a key field,
or common data element.
21. What is a network data model?
A network data model is simply a graph wherein nodes represent unique records, and links
between nodes represent association between the corresponding records.
22.What is an object-oriented database system?
It uses objects, software written in small, rescuable chunks, as elements within database
files.
23. What is data association?
A link describes an association between two records.
The following are the different types of data associations used in DBMS in manufacturing
scenario.
One-to-one association
One-to-many association
Many-to-many association
24. List out the database operators.
Union
Intersection
Difference
Product
Select
Project
Join
Divide
25. List some important features of DBMS.
Data dictionary
Utilities
Query language
Report generator
Access security
Data recovery