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in MIMO Radars

Bhavana B. Manjunath

, Antonia Papandreou-Suppappola

E-mail: Bhavana.Manjunath@asu.edu, Jun.Zhang.EE@asu.edu, papandreou@asu.edu, morrell@asu.edu

AbstractWe propose an agile sensing algorithm to optimally

select the transmission waveform of a multiple-input, multiple-

output (MIMO) radar system in order to improve target lo-

calization. Specically, we rst derive the Cram` er-Rao lower

bound (CRLB) for the joint estimation of the antenna reection

coefcients and the range and direction-of-arrival of a stationary

target using MIMO radar with colocated antennas. The resulting

CRLB, that is a function of the transmitted waveform, is

then compared to the estimation performance of a maximum-

likelihood estimator. We congure waveform parameters to min-

imize the trace of the predicted error covariance by assuming that

the covariance of the observation noise is approximated by the

CRLB for high signal-to-noise ratios. In particular, we optimally

select the duration and phase function parameters of generalized

frequency-modulated chirps to minimize the estimation mean-

squared error under constraints of xed transmission energy

and constant time-bandwidth product.

I. INTRODUCTION

MIMO radar systems are emerging as a promising new

technology as they have the potential to enhance target de-

tection and identication performance [1]. In addition to other

benets [2][5], MIMO radar systems provide the exibility

of transmitting a completely different waveform on each of its

colocated antennas. This exibility can lead to agile sensing

and waveform diversity and thus improve target detection and

estimation performance by optimally designing the transmis-

sion waveforms.

Waveform selection techniques have been developed in

order to maximize desirable performance metrics. In [3],

beamforming was used to improve the output signal-to-noise

ratio (SNR) and increase detection and estimation performance

for MIMO radars with colocated antennas. Optimal waveform

design for MIMO radars was achieved using an information

theoretic approach in [6]. In [7], a procedure was developed

for designing the waveform that maximized the signal-to-

interference plus-noise ratio for target detection. In [8], the

CRLB was used to design a random transmission waveform

to achieve a desired beam pattern.

This work was supported by the Department of Defense MURI Grant

No. AFOSR FA9550-05-1-0443.

In our work, we combine the use of MIMO radar with

colocated antennas with waveform agile sensing by optimally

selecting a different waveform to transmit on each antenna. In

particular, we incorporate the waveform-dependent CRLB for

the joint estimation of range and direction-of-arrival (DoA) of

a stationary target, and we make use of generalized frequency-

modulated (GFM) waveforms with time-varying phase func-

tions. For N

T

transmission antennas, our aim is to optimally

select = [

T

1

T

2

. . .

T

NT

]

T

, where the waveform

parameter vector

T

i

= [

i

b

i

i

(t/t

r

)] consists of the

duration

i

, frequency-modulation (FM) b

i

and phase function

i

(t/t

r

) of the GFM waveform transmitted by the ith antenna.

Here, t

r

is a normalization time constant, and T denotes

vector transpose. In order to localize a stationary target, the

transmission antenna waveform parameters are selected such

that the trace of the predicted estimation error covariance

is minimized. The error covariance is obtained under the

assumption that the covariance of the observation noise can

be closely approximated by the CRLB when the SNR is high.

Thus, minimizing the waveform-dependent CRLB corresponds

to minimizing the estimation mean-squared error (MSE). Us-

ing a maximum likelihood estimator, we provide simulation

results to demonstrate that the estimate covariance is in close

agreement to the CRLB, thus validating the use of the CRLB

as the optimization performance criterion.

The paper is organized as follows. We discuss the structure

of the waveform used in the conguration process in Section

II. The received waveform for the MIMO radar system

is provided in Section III, together with the computation

of the CRLB for the joint estimation of the antenna

transmission coefcients and the range and DoA of the

target. The optimization criteria for conguring linear FM

(LFM) waveforms and GFM waveforms with varying phase

functions are considered in Section IV, and simulation results

are provided in Section V.

II. WAVEFORM STRUCTURE

We choose the transmission waveform from each of the

co-located antennas of a MIMO radar system to be a GFM

2009 International WD&D Conference 145 9781-4244-2971-4/09/$25.002009 IEEE

waveform that is given by [9]

s(t) = a(t) e

j2 b (t/tr)

. (1)

Here, a(t) is the amplitude envelope function and b is the FM

rate of the GFM. By varying the phase function (t/t

r

), we

can obtain different time-frequency waveform signatures that

uniquely characterize the GFM. The time-frequency signature

corresponds to the waveform instantaneous frequency obtained

using the time-derivative of the phase function. For example,

when (t/t

r

) = (1/2)(t/t

r

)

2

, the GFM has a linear instanta-

neous frequency given by d/dt((t/t

r

)) = t/t

2

r

, and it sim-

plies to an LFM chirp, a waveform commonly used in radar

applications. When (t/t

r

) = ln (t/t

r

), the instantaneous

frequency is hyperbolic and the corresponding waveform is

the hyperbolic FM (HFM) chirp; this is a waveform similar

in time-frequency structure to the waveforms used by bats for

echo-location [9]. Note that GFM waveforms with nonlinear

phase function were shown in [10] to provide more accurate

estimates of the range and Doppler parameters of a target than

LFM waveforms.

The properties of the amplitude envelope function a(t) in

(1) can greatly affect the choice of the waveform and hence

the target parameter estimation performance. If the envelope

function is Gaussian, the characteristic time-frequency

signatures of different GFMs can be affected in different

ways due to the low energy content at the tails of the Gaussian

function. Although the ideal choice for the envelope would be

a rectangular function, this function is not differentiable and

thus the corresponding waveform-dependent CRLB cannot be

obtained in closed form. As an alternative, we choose to use

a sigmoid envelope function. This function is differentiable

and thus can lead to a closed form CRLB expression. In

addition, it closely approximates a rectangular window in the

time domain with an out-of-band frequency roll-off that is

much higher than that of a rectangular window (as shown in

Fig. 1). The sigmoid function is dened as

a(t) =

_

1

1 + e

qt

1

1 + e

q(t)

]

_

, (2)

where the parameter is chosen such that s(t) in (1) has unit

energy, is the duration of the waveform, and q is a design

parameter that controls the roll-off rate of the window in the

frequency domain.

III. RECEIVER MODEL AND CRLB

A. Received Signal Model

We consider a MIMO radar system with N

T

colocated

transmitter antennas and N

R

receiver antennas. The trans-

mitted signal s

i

(t), i = 1, . . . , N

T

, of the ith antenna is

sampled every T

s

seconds to obtain s

i

[n] = s

i

(nT

s

), n =

1, . . . , N. The resulting transmitted signal matrix is given by

S = [s

1

s

2

s

N

] where s

n

= [s

1

[n] s

2

[n] . . . s

NT

[n]]

T

.

The time-delayed (by ) signal due to a single target is given

10 5 0 5 10 15 20 25

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

Time (ms)

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

Sigmoid window

Rectangular window

(a) Sigmoid window in the time-domain.

0 5 10 15 20

1200

1000

800

600

400

200

0

Frequency (MHz)

N

o

r

m

a

l

i

z

e

d

m

a

g

n

i

t

u

d

e

(

d

B

)

Sigmoid window

Rectangular window

(b) Sigmoid window in the frequency-domain.

Fig. 1. Amplitude envelope functions of the GFM waveform in both the

time and frequency domains.

by s

i

()[n] = s

i

(nT

s

); the delayed sampled signal matrix

is thus given by S() = [s

1

() s

2

() s

NT

()].

The signal received by the N

R

receivers is given by the

N

R

N matrix

R = a()v

T

()S() +W, (3)

where the steering vectors v() and a() of the transmitter and

receiver antennas, respectively, depend on the DoA , is the

reection coefcient of the target, and Wis an N

R

N noise

matrix whose elements are snapshots of zero-mean additive

Gaussian noise. Vectorizing W, we obtain w = vec[W] =

[w

T

1

w

T

2

. . . w

T

N

]

T

, where w

n

= [w

1

[n] w

2

[n] . . . w

NT

[n]]

T

and w

i

[n] is the nth sample of the Gaussian noise added

to the waveform transmitted by the ith antenna. The noise

covariance matrix can be expressed as C

w

= E{ww

H

} =

C

T

C

S

, where C

T

and C

S

are the corresponding temporal

and spatial noise covariance matrices, E{} denotes statistical

expectation, H denotes complex conjugate transpose, and

is the Kronecker product. Following the same notation, we

vectorize R such that r = [r

T

1

r

T

2

. . . r

T

N

]

T

where r

n

=

[r

1

[n] r

2

[n] . . . r

NT

[n]]

T

is the nth snapshot of the received

signal. Note that (3) can also be extended to multiple targets.

2009 International WD&D Conference 146 9781-4244-2971-4/09/$25.002009 IEEE

B. Joint CRLB Derivation

We want to estimate the location of a target by estimating

the reection coefcient, range, and DoA of the target.

We denote the parameter vector to be jointly estimated as

= [

R

I

]

T

, where we denote =

R

+j

I

. Then, the

probability density function p(r|) of the received data given

the unknown parameter vector is a joint Gaussian density

with mean vector () = a()v

T

() S() and covariance

matrix C

w

. The ijth element of the Fisher information matrix

I() for estimating is given by [11]

[I()]

ij

= 2 Re

_

H

()

i

C

1

w

()

j

_

,

where i, j = 1, 2, 3, 4, Re{} denotes the real part and

i

is

the ith element of the parameter vector = [

R

I

]

T

.

The joint CRLB is thus given by CRLB

= (I())

1

.

We dene A() = a()v

T

(), and the diagonal

elements of the Fisher information matrix are expressed

as [I()]

11

= I

R

, [I()]

22

= I

I

, [I()]

33

= I

, and

[I()]

44

= I

form as

I

= |

2

| 2Re

_

Tr

_

S

H

()

A

H

()

C

1

S

A()

S() C

1

T

__

I

R

= I

I

= 2Re

_

Tr

_

S

H

()A

H

()C

1

S

A()S()C

1

T

__

I

= |

2

| 2Re

_

Tr

_

S

H

()

A

H

()C

1

S

A()

S()

C

1

T

__

.

(4)

The other Fisher information matrix elements can be

similarly derived in closed form. Note that we obtain direct

DoA measurements and the range information is obtained

from c /2, where c is the speed of light in the air. Thus,

the parameters of interest directly depend on the CRLB on

estimating as the CRLB is obtained as inverse of the

Fisher information matrix. As a result, if the error covariance

of the estimate is in close agreement with the CRLB, then

the CRLB can be used as the performance metric in the

waveform selection algorithm.

IV. WAVEFORM SELECTION

Under high SNR conditions, minimizing the parameter

estimation MSE corresponds to minimizing the CRLB (which

was shown to depend on the transmitted waveforms). As a

result, selecting the optimal waveform for each antenna in

order to minimize the MSE corresponds to searching over a

library of waveforms and their parameters such that the trace

of the error covariance matrix (corresponding to the trace of

the CRLB) is minimized. The library of waveforms is formed

by varying the phase function (t/t

r

), FM rate b, and duration

of the GFM waveform in (1) and (2).

In this paper, we consider three types of GFM waveforms:

LFM waveforms with phase function (t/t

r

) = (t/t

r

)

2

and

linear instantaneous frequency, HFM waveforms with phase

function (t/t

r

) = ln (t/t

r

) and hyperbolic instantaneous

frequency, and exponential frequency-modulated (EFM) wave-

forms with phase function (t/t

r

) = e

t/tr

and exponential

instantaneous frequency. In the rst simulation case, we con-

sider a library consisting of only LFM waveforms with varying

FM rates and durations. In the second simulation case, we

consider a library consisting of all three GFM waveforms, thus

allowing the phase functions as well as the durations and FM

rates to vary. Once the optimal waveform for each antenna

is chosen, the optimal waveforms are transmitted and the

received waveform is processed using a maximum likelihood

estimator to jointly estimate the delay and DoA of the target.

For a fair comparison between the different possible selec-

tion waveforms, we x the time-bandwidth of each waveform

in the library as well as the transmitted energy of all the

antenna waveforms. Fixing the total transmitted energy is

equivalent to xing the total transmission time of all the wave-

forms given by

=

NT

i=1

i

, where

i

is the duration of the

waveform transmitted by the ith antenna. We dene f

i

to be

the frequency sweep of the ith transmit waveform (that is, the

difference between the maximum and minimum frequencies in

the waveform). Then, we choose L combinations of

i

values

that x

i

f

i

to a constant value for varying f

i

. The value

of L depends on how ne we want the grid resolution of the

search in the selection algorithm to be.

For the LFM only library, the L combinations consist of

the same type of waveform. When the library includes LFM,

HFM and EFM waveforms with varying durations and FM

rates, we again form L combinations of possible durations for

each combination of N

T

possible phase functions (including

the combination of using the same phase function on different

antennas). The waveform selection algorithm then chooses

the combination of phase functions and durations that results

in the minimum CRLB trace.

V. SIMULATION RESULTS

We tested the waveform selection algorithm for the joint

estimation of the delay and DoA of a single target with 15

km range and 30

consisted of N

T

= 3 colocated antennas, and the carrier fre-

quency was f

c

= 10 GHz. The allowable waveform duration

ranged between 10 s to 70 s, and

= 90 s. The maximum

allowable frequency sweep was constrained to 12 MHz.

When the waveform library consisted only of LFM wave-

forms, the duration grid size was chosen to be 10 s, and the

trace of the CRLB was computed for each of the combinations.

Fig. 2 shows that the trace of the CRLB did change for

different combinations of LFM waveform durations. When we

included LFM, HFM and EFM waveforms with different dura-

tions in the library, many more combinations were computed.

In particular, as shown in Fig. 3, the trace of the CRLB is

shown for different phase and duration combinations.

The estimation of DoA strongly depends on the energy of

the transmitted signal whereas the delay estimation is affected

by the type of signal transmitted. As a result, when we consider

2009 International WD&D Conference 147 9781-4244-2971-4/09/$25.002009 IEEE

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

10

3

10

2

10

1

10

0

Duration index

T

r

a

c

e

o

f

C

R

L

B

Fig. 2. Trace of CRLB for different combinations of LFM waveform

durarations.

0

20

40

60

0

10

20

30

3

2.5

2

1.5

1

Waveform index

Duration index

l

o

g

1

0

T

r

a

c

e

o

f

C

R

L

B

Fig. 3. Trace of CRLB for different combinations of durations and phase

functions.

the CRLB of the delay for different waveforms, the differences

in magnitude are more pronounced. This is demonstrated in

Fig. 4 when the GFM waveform library is used. The CRLB

for the delay estimate for the best and worst combinations is

shown to vary by a factor of about 400 in magnitude.

In Fig. 5, we demonstrate that the CRLB can be used as

a performance metric for the maximum likelihood estimator

(MLE). Specically, we show that the variance of the delay

and DoA MLE estimates are in close agreement with their

CRLB.

The results of the waveform-agile estimation algorithm

are demonstrated in Fig. 6. Specically, we compared the

the CRLB and MSE performance of the waveform selection

algorithm with the CRLB and MSE performance of xed LFM

0

20

40

60

0

10

20

30

17

16

15

14

13

Waveform index

Duration index

l

o

g

1

0

C

R

L

B

Fig. 4. CRLB for delay for different combinations of durations and phase

functions.

2 4 6 8 10

10

15

10

10

10

5

SNR (dB)

V

a

r

i

a

n

c

e

o

f

e

s

t

i

m

a

t

o

r

Delay (CRLB)

Delay (Simulation)

DOA (CRLB)

DOA (Simulation)

Fig. 5. Simulated variance of estimates using maximum likelihood estimation

and computed CRLB.

waveforms. The LFM waveforms were chosen to have short

durations (for good delay estimates) and wide bandwidths (for

good Doppler estimates). They also satised the energy and

time-bandwidth product constraints. As we can see in Fig. 6,

the CRLB of the delay estimation using waveform selection

outperformed the CRLB of the xed LFM waveform. Also, the

MSE performance when transmitting the selected waveforms

outperformed the performance of transmitting the xed LFM

waveforms.

VI. CONCLUSION

We developed a waveform-agile algorithm for locating a

target using a MIMO radar system with colocated antennas.

In particular, we designed different time-varying signatures

for multiple transmit antennas in order to minimize the

estimation error covariance of the parameters of a stationary

2009 International WD&D Conference 148 9781-4244-2971-4/09/$25.002009 IEEE

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

10

17

10

16

10

15

10

14

SNR (dB)

D

e

l

a

y

C

R

L

B

Fixed waveform(CRLB)

Fixed waveform (MLE)

Waveform selection (MLE)

Waveform selection (CRLB)

Fig. 6. Waveform selection to minimize CRLB, resulting in minimizing MSE

performance.

target. Using high SNR assumptions, the estimation error

covariance is approximated by the waveform-dependent

CRLB for the joint estimation of range and direction-of-

arrival (DoA) of the target. Simulation results demonstrated

the effectiveness of the waveform-agile localization algorithm.

REFERENCES

[1] J. Li and P. Stoica, Eds., MIMO Radar Signal Processing. John Wiley,

2008.

[2] J. Li, P. Stoica, L. Xu, and W. Roberts, On parameter identiability

of MIMO radar, IEEE Signal Processing Letters, vol. 14, no. 12, pp.

968971, December 2007.

[3] J. Li and P. Stoica, MIMO radar with colocated antennas: Review of

some recent work, IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, vol. 24, no. 5,

pp. 106114, September 2007.

[4] P. Stoica, J. Li, and Y. Xie, On probing signal design for MIMO radar,

IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 55, no. 8, pp. 41514161,

August 2007.

[5] N. H. Lehmann, A. M. Haimovich, R. S. Blum, and L. Cimini, High

resolution capabilities of MIMO radar, in Asilomar Conference on

Signals, Systems and Computers, October 2006, pp. 2530.

[6] Y. Yang and R. S. Blum, Minimax robust MIMO radar waveform

design, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing, vol. 1,

no. 1, pp. 147155, June 2007.

[7] B. Friedlander, Waveform design for MIMO radars, IEEE Transactions

on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 12271238,

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[8] J. Li, L. Xu, P. Stoica, K. W. Forsythe, and D. W. Bliss, Range

compression and waveform optimization for MIMO radar: A Cram er-

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[9] A. Papandreou-Suppappola, Time-varying processing: Tutorial on prin-

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2009 International WD&D Conference 149 9781-4244-2971-4/09/$25.002009 IEEE

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