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Causative verb menunjukkan bahwa seseorang/sesuatu secara tidak langsung bertanggung

jawab terhadap sebuah tindakan. Subjek tidak melakukan tindakan itu sendiri, tetapi justru
menyebabkan seseorang/sesuatu yang lain melakukannya. Contoh:
- Yesterday I had my hair cut.
Pembicara pada kalimat diatas tidak memotong sendiri rambutnya, tetapi justru membuat
orang lain melakukannya - Saya menyebabkan mereka memotong rambut saya.
Have
Have merupakan causative verb yang umum. Ketimbang melakukan sesuatu dengan diri kita
sendiri, kita menyuruh orang yang lain untuk melakukannya. Bentuknya sebagai berikut:
Kata kerja to have + objek + past participle (verb 3). Contoh:
- I had my jacket cleaned yesterday.
- Did you have your computer fixed?
Terkadang kita menggunakan have sebagai causative verb ketika kita ingin melakukan
tindakan oleh diri kita sendiri. Contoh:
- When will the report be ready? Ill do it by tomorrow morning. >>
- When will the report be ready? Ill have it done by tomorrow morning.
Dengan menggunakan causative, kalimat ke-dua diatas mengalihkan perhatian dari pelaku
tindakan, dan lebih memberikan perhatian kepada tindakan yang sedang dilakukan. Ini
kedengaran sopan dan profesional.
Get
Get sering digunakan ketimbang have. Contoh:
I got my computer fixed - I had my computer fixed. Kedua kalimat ini maknanya sama.
I got my jacket cleaned. - I had my jacket cleaned. Kedua kalimat ini maknanya sama.
Causative verbs sering digunakan bersama dengan pengalaman-pengalaman negatif. Pada
situasi-situasi ini lebih umum menggunakan have. Contoh:
I had my wallet stolen. (Saya sebenarnya tidak menyebabkan dompet saya dicuri -
seseorang mencuri dompet saya dariku)
She had her window smashed.
Let
Let digunakan untuk membolehkan seseorang melakukan sesuatu. Bentuknya adalah let +
orang + verb. Contoh:
John let me drive his new car.
Will your parents let you go to the party?
I dont know if my boss will let me take the day off.
Make
Make digunakan untuk memaksa seseorang melakukan sesuatu. Bentuknya adalah make +
orang + verb. Contoh:
My teacher made me apologize for what I had said.
Did somebody make you wear that ugly hat?
She made her children do their homework.





Causative verbs (e.g. have, get, make, force, let, allow, permit, help, cause, enable,
require, etc.) digunakan untuk mengekspresikan bahwa subject kalimat
menyebabkan object kalimat melakukan suatu action (bentuk active) atau
menyebabkan object kalimat dikenai suatu action (bentuk passive). Dalam bentuk
active, action dilakukan oleh object kalimat,
The teacher forced us to study hard.
Di kalimat ini, action study hard dilakukan oleh us, dan terjadinya action
tersebut disebabkan oleh the teacher.
Dalam bentuk passive, action pada umumnya tidak dilakukan oleh subject kalimat,
walaupun kadang-kadang action tersebut juga bisa dilakukan oleh subject kalimat.
Bentuk passive tidak menonjolkan siapa pelaku dari action tersebut, melainkan lebih
menonjolkan pada terjadinya suatu action.
I had my room cleaned.
Di contoh ini, siapa yang melakukan action cleaning my room tidak disebutkan
walaupun itu sebenarnya dikerjakan oleh my sister (saya tahu karena saya yang
menulis kalimatnya ). Sebaliknya, kalau saya mau mengeskpresikan bahwa my
sister yang mengerjakannya, maka kalimatnya dapat kita rubah menjadi,
I had my sister clean my room.
Kenapa pada contoh 1 digunakan infinitve to study, di contoh 2 digunakan verb3
cleaned, dan di contoh 3 digunakan simple verb (verb1) clean?
Well, kita tidak usah mencari tahu alasannya, nanti tambah ribet. Yang perlu
diperhatikan adalah causative verbs yang mana saja yang mengikuti pola-pola
berikut ini,
Bentuk active:
1 Subject + causative verb + object + verb1 +
2 Subject + causative verb + object + infinitive +
Bentuk passive:
3 Subject + causative verb + object + verb3 +
NOTE:
Causative verbs bisa dalam sembarang tensis, tergantung pada konteks yang
ingin diekspresikan.
Verb1 adalah verb dasar (simple form verb), yaitu verb yang tidak
diimbuhi e/es, atau -ing, misalnya: clean, buy, study, etc.
Infinitive adalah to + verb1, misalnya: to clean, to buy, to study, etc.
Verb3 adalah past participle, misalnya: cleaned, bought, studied, etc.
Hanya 4 dari causative verbs di atas yang bentuk active-nya menggunakan
pola 1. Do you know which ones?





In linguistics, a causative (abbreviated CAUS) is a form that indicates that a subject causes someone
or something else to do or be something, or causes a change in state of a non-volitional event.





Causatives

Introduction

The causative is a common structure in English. It is used when one thing or
person causes another thing or person to do something. This page will explain how
causatives are formed, and how to use them.

Basic causative structures
There are two basic causative structures. One is like an active, and the other is like a
passive. These examples use the causative verb "have":

I had John fix the car.
(I arranged for the car to be fixed by John -- I caused him to fix it.)
I had the car fixed.
(I arranged for the car to be fixed by someone. We don't know who, so this is
like a passive.)


The active causative structure
This is the basic structure of the active form, along with some more examples:

Subject Causative verb Agent Action verb Object
Susan had her brother do her homework.
The police had the suspect stop his car.
We had the carpenter fix our window.


The passive causative structure
In the passive form, there is usually no agent. The action verb is in the past
participle, and the object comes before it:

Subject Causative verb Object Action verb
We had our door fixed.
Yukiko had her hair cut.
Sanjay had the windows cleaned.


Other causative verbs
All the examples above use the causative verb "have". However, many other verbs
can be used in causatives. In the active form, som of these verbs require the action
verb to have "to" before it. These are some examples of the most common causative
verbs.

Verb Meaning
Form of Action
Verb
Examples
make force, compel plain form
The robbers made us lie on the
floor.
[No passive form]
get
same as
"have"
"to" form
I got Jae Won to pick me up in
the car.
She got her hair cut.
let allow plain form
I'll let you borrow my bike.
[No passive form]



My house is a mess!

1. I think the carpenter should fix my door.
I'll my door.

2. I think the cleaner should wash my windows.
I'll my windows.

3. I think the gardener should cut my grass.
I'll my grass.

4. I think the builder should fix my roof.
I'll my roof.

5. I think the plumber should mend my tap.
I'll my tap.

My house is a mess!

1. I think the carpenter should fix my door.
I'll get the carpenter to fix my door.

2. I think the cleaner should wash my windows.
I'll get the cleaner to wash my windows.

3. I think the gardener should cut my grass.
I'll get the gardener to cut my grass.

4. I think the builder should fix my roof.
I'll get the builder to fix my roof.

5. I think the plumber should mend my tap.
I'll get the plumber to mend my tap.


My car is a mess!

1. The tires need replacing.
I'll have the tires replaced tomorrow.

2. The oil needs changing.
I'll have the oil changed tomorrow.

3. The ashtrays need emptying.
I'll have the ashtrays emptied tomorrow.

4. The engine needs tuning up.
I'll have the engine tuned up tomorrow.

5. The brakes need fixing.
I'll have the brakes fixed tomorrow.

6. The gas tank needs filling.
I'll have the gas tank filled tomorrow.


Mostly causatives - a look at have, get, make, let and lots
more

The term causative verb is not used very much in EFL teaching. The term doesn't even appear in the
index of Swan, the grammar bible of TEFL, although Murphy does have causative have (have
something done). But it does starts to appear when you get to certificate exam levels, when it refers
almost exclusively to that same 'have something done' construction. I thought there must be more to it
than that, and started to investigate - what, for example constitutes a causative verb, how many of
them are there? It was easier said than done!
Practise (mostly) causative verbs with these quizzes / exercises.
1. Causative verbs - basic sentence structure
2. The three exceptions - have, let and make
3. The verb that likes to swing both ways - help
4. Two special verbs - get and have
5. The construction - have something done
6. Certain verbs that can also take the ...-ing form without an object.
7. Verbs of permission - let, allow and permit
8. Verbs of compulsion - tell, order, make and force
9. The construction - something needs doing
10. Non-causative use

What is a causative verb? Investigation.
Just about every website you visit has a different selection or definition of causative verbs. Of the
better grammar sites About.com (ESL) lists only make and have, although on their Grammar for
native speakers pages they define a causative verb as:
A verb - such as cause, allow, help, enable, keep, hold, let, force, require, and make - used to indicate
that some person or thing helps to make something happen - make being the prototypical causative
verb.
while CCC expands the list a bit, and this list is repeated quite a lot round the Internet:
let, help, allow, have, require, allow, motivate, get, make, convince, hire, assist, encourage, permit,
employ, force
One blogger insists rather pompously, however, that there are only three - make, get and have - and
that let and allow can't possibly be causitive verbs as they don't cause anything. But as he doesn't
even include cause as a causative verb, or force, which sounds pretty causative to me, I think we'll
ignore this minimalist approach.
Another teacher blogger, Jennifer, was asked by a student for a definitive list of causative verbs and
had similar problems to me when she consulted her collection of grammar books; there's a link to her
discussion below. She makes the point that what we often call causative verbs are not so much to do
with causing something, but rather verbs which follow a certain pattern:
subject +verb +object +infinitive
She cites a list of a 32 verbs from Fuchs and Bonner:
advise, allow, ask, cause, challenge, choose, convince, enable, encourage, expect, forbid, force, get,
help, hire, invite, need, order, pay, permit, presuade, promise, remind, request, require, teach, tell,
urge, want, warn, wish, would like
Now I thought I was beginning to get somewhere. Then I found some research by somebody at
Boston University, which lists about 90 such verbs following this pattern, which he calls 'mostly
causative verbs' - unfortunately he doesn't say which are which. He divides them into twelve groups:
want, would like, need etc
tell, order, force etc
ask, beg, urge etc
remind, advise, warn etc
influence, encourage, motivate etc
cause, lead, drive etc
allow, forbid, invite etc
rush, hurry etc
train, teach, raise etc
pay, employ, hire
expect, trust
The three exceptions - have, let and make
The following exercises deal with verbs that are often referred to as causative. I don't claim that every
verb that follows is a causative verb, but they all follow similar patterns, which is more important form
our point of view than what we call them. I'll leave it to the linguists to sort out which are causative and
which aren't.
Try the exercises first without looking at the answers, but if you get stuck you can find answers to all
the exercises at the end of this post.
Click and Drop - Where you see the red question mark symbol ?, place the cursor
over it for instructions, using your mouse.
1. Causative and causative-like verbs - the basic structure
Ex 1a - Match the beginnings and endings. ?
1. Her boss told her to go home

a) to work longer hours.
2. She asked the children to tidy

b) friendly but polite.
3. I would like you to write down

c) company cheques in his absence
4. He warned the students not

d) to report on the matter.
5. She encouraged him to apply

e) to forget to revise for the exams.
6. The judge invited the young

f) as she wasn't looking very well.
7. I was always taught to be

g) in public again!
8. The company hired consultants

h) for his mother's birthday.
9. I'll thank you not to criticise me

i) man to explain his actions.
10. He has authorised me to sign

j) the following sentences.
11. The staff have been persuaded

k) their rooms before Granny arrived.
12. She reminded him to buy a present

l) for a better job.
Notice the basic structure for 'mostly causative verbs' with positive and negative infinitives:
Active:
subject + verb + object + to + infinitive + complemen
t
Her boss told her to go home
subject + verb + object + not to + infinitive + complement

The teacher warned the students not to forget to revise

Passive:
subject + be + verb (3rd form) + to + infinitive + complement
The staff have been persuaded to work longer hours
subject + be + verb (3rd form) + not to + infinitive + complement
The boy was ordered not to do it again
Ex 1b - A teacher is instructing his students. Complete the gaps, using the verb in
brackets in the correct form, so that the second sentence has the same meaning as
the first. Use the structures above and the example (EG) as models. You may have to
use Passive and / or negatives.
EG They were made to stay late by the teacher.

The teacher forced them to stay late. (force)

1. They were ordered to keep quiet.


The teacher quiet. (tell)

2. They were requested to fill in the forms.


He the forms. (ask)

3. They were told that they mustn't cheat.


The teacher . (warn)

4. He asked them if they would like to enter an essay competition.


The students an essay competition. (invite)

5. The teacher told them what a good idea it was to study hard.


He hard. (encourage)

6. He told them not to forget to revise for their exams.


The teacher for their exams. (remind)

7. The students dissuaded the teacher from keeping them late in class.


The teacher them late in class. (persuade)

8. They learnt from the teacher to respect other people's opinions.


He other people's opinions. (teach)

2. Three exceptions - have, let and make
Look at these three sentences:
He had her play the whole thing again.
She let the children play in the garden.
He made us tidy up after the picnic.
these three verbs have a slightly different structure. Complete the rules:
subject + causative verb + infinitive without ' ', which is also known as the
infinitive.
Note that of these three verbs only make is used in the Passive, in which case we need to use 'to'.
We were made to tidy up after the picnic.
Ex 2 - Complete the gaps, using the verb in brackets in the correct form, so that the
second sentence has the same meaning as the first. Use the sentences above as
models.
1.
We had to work late (make). The boss late. (make)

2.
We were allowed to leave early. She early. (let)

3.
We were asked to do overtime. She overtime. (have) [US English]

4.
She forced us to miss lunch. We lunch. (make)

There's more about these verbs in later sections.
3. The verb that likes to swing both ways - help
Look at these two sentences:
Could you help me to move this table.
She helped her brother do his homework.
With the verb help we can use a 'to' infinitive or a bare infinitive
4. Two special verbs - have and get
Look at this conversation. An American tourist is staying in a British hotel:
US tourist: Could you have somebody come and look at my shower. It doesn't seem to be working
properly.
Reception: I'll get a technician to come up and look at it straightaway, sir.
The expressions have somebody do something and get somebody to do something mean something
like arrange for somebody to do something, and could be replaced by ask, tell etc, depending on the
relationship between the two people.
Have somebody do something is more common in American English. We British tend to prefer the
'get' version.
Ex 4 - Complete the gaps, using the verb in brackets in the correct form, so that the
second sentence has the same meaning as the first. Use the sentences above as
models.
1. I'll arrange for my assistant to send you all the details.

I'll you all the details (have)

2. I'll make sure she includes an application form.


I'll an application form. (get)

3. He persuaded her to apply for the job.


He for the job. (get)

4. He told her to rewrite the letter.


He the letter. (have)

We can't turn these into a normal passive with the verb be, but see the next section for a different
passive-like construction.
5. have (get) something done
Ex 5a - Look at these sentences. Who does the action, me or somebody else? Tick (check) the
appropriate boxes and then check.
Me Somebody
else
1. I'll cut the grass tomorrow.


2. I'll have the grass cut tomorrow.


3. I do my hair every month.


4. I have my hair done every month.


5. I repaired my car yesterday.


6. I had my car repaired yesterday.


We use the passive-like construction have something done when we arrange for somebody else to
do something and when it is unnecessary to say who does it, or it is obvious who does it.
In informal spoken English we can also use the verb get with a similar meaning.
It's time you got your hair cut.
We're getting the front door repainted next week.
The expression have something done is also used for experiences (usually unpleasant) that happen
to us, which of course we don't arrange for somebody to do.
He had his wallet stolen in Barcelona.
Have you ever had your car broken into?
The verb get is not usually used with this meaning.
Ex 5b - Complete the gaps, using the words in brackets and the structure have
something done.
1.
I need to for my new passport. (my photo / take)

2.
When did you last ? (the chimney / sweep)

3.
We're in our garden. (a swimming pool / build)

4.
We last week. (a satellite dish / install)

5.
She needs to , she's so forgetful. (her head / examine)

6.
They while they were on holiday. (their house / burgle)

7.
My daughter wants . (her ears / pierced)

8.
We'd better while we're here. ( tyres / check)

9.
They're tomorrow. (a new dishwasher / deliver)

10.
He away by the police. (driving licence / take)

6. Alternative structure with the -ing form and without an object.
A few of these causative or causative-like verbs can be used in certain circumstances with the -
ing form without an object.
allow recommend encourage allow permit forbid
Ex 6 - Fill the gaps as in the example (EG)
EG He permits us to smoke during breaks.

He permits smoking during breaks.

1. She advised us to take out insurance.


She out insurance.

2. We'd recommend you to book your flight early.


We'd your flight early.

3. Technology encourages us to multitask.


Technology .

4. She only allows us to smoke on the balcony.


She only on the balcony.

Note what happens in the passive:
We aren't allowed to smoke in the house.
- Smoking isn't allowed in the house.
They are forbidden to talk during meals.
- Talking is forbidden during meals.
7. Verbs of permission - let, allow, and permit
These verbs can be used in various ways as well as in the classic causative structure:
Ex 7 - Fill the gaps with appropriate words or expressions from the box. ?
let permit allow not permitted permitted allowed not allowed
subject + verb + object + infinitive
1.
The management staff to smoke in certain areas. (more formal)

2.
They us to use a special room for smoking. (neutral)

3.
They us smoke in a specified area. (more informal)

subject + passive verb + infinitive

4.
Staff are only (or allowed) to smoke in designated areas.

5.
You are (or not permitted) to smoke in any other part of the office.

subj + verb + -ing form

6.
We do not (or permit) smoking in the kitchen.

Other passive structures

7.
Smoking is (or allowed) only in specified areas.

8.
Smoking is (or not permitted) except in specified areas.

9.
It is to smoke in the kitchen.

verb + adverb particles

10.
She wouldn't (or allow) me in.

11.
The cat isn't (or let) out at night.

Notes
1. let is not used with to
2. Passive structures are common with permitted and allowed, but not let
3. The passive structure with it - it is permitted - but not it is allowed or it is let
4. Adverb particles (in, out etc) with allow and let, but not permit
8. Verbs of compulsion - tell, order, make and force
Ex 8 - The students are back with their teacher. What did he get them to do? Make
sentences using the verb given in brackets plus a verb from the box, as in the
example.
stay stop open look at write do finish
EG He
instructed them to open their our books. (instruct)

1. He
page 27. (tell)

2. He
an essay. (make)

3. He
writing. (order)

4. He
late. (force)

5. They
their work. (be told)

6. They
it all again. (be made)

9. something needs doing
The verb need has several functions. We saw above that it can be used like a causative verb in the
pattern:
I need somebody to do this for me.
But in British English it also has another use, related to have something done.
Ex 9a - Look at these sentences. Who should do the action, the subject or anybody (it
doesn't matter)? Tick (check) the appropriate boxes and then check.
The subject Anybod
y
1. I need to hoover (vacuum) the carpet


2. The carpet needs hoovering.


3. The dinner needs preparing.


4. She needs to prepare the dinner.


5. I need to feed the cats.


6. The cats need feeding.


This has the same meaning as a passive infinitive where the agent isn't mentioned:
The carpet needs hoovering
= The carpet needs to be hoovered
Ex 9b - Make sentences with need(s) using the verbs in the box in the -ing form, as in
the example.
clean iron check walk return polish tidy change water
EG
The dogs need walking .

1.
My shirt .

2.
The sitting room .

3.
The plants .

4.
The baby .

5.
My shoes .

6.
The car brakes .

7.
That library book .

8.
The bathroom .

Sometimes we can also use a S-V-O-...ing structure
She needs her head examining
= She needs her head examined.
10. Non-causative use
A lot of causative verbs are also used in non-causative contexts. For example:
He told his daughter to put away her clothes. = instruct, order (causative)
He told his daughter a bedtime story. (non-causative)
She asked her brother to help her. = request (causative)
She asked her brother what the capital of Argentina was. (non-causative)
Answers to the exercises - click on a button and then go back to the exercise.

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