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THE NEW FEDERALIST October 28, 1991 Pages 8-9

American Almanac
Mexico's Great Era of City-Building
Reflected in Los Angeles Exhibit
by Nora amerman
Mexico: Splendors of Thirty Centuries
EIRNS/Diana Teran
Left! "t# Christo$her% o&er-lifesi'e $olychromed (ood scul$ture from )uebla
Cathedral% sixteenth century# *ranciscan missionaries identified (ith the leg-
endary giant (ho carried the Christ child across a ri&er+ they felt they% too%
had brought Christ o&er the sea#
Right! Gua,anuato% one of Mexico's beautiful colonial cities# -he city-
building ideals of the .talian Renaissance (ere deliberately a$$lied in the
Ne( /orld by ern0n Cort1s and by 2iceroy Mendo'a#
Mexico: Splendors of Thirty Centuries. Intro!ct"on b# Octa$"o Pa%& T'e
(etro)o*"tan (!se!+ o, Art an -!*,"nc' Press, Ne. /or0, 1991& 234&11
'arbo!n, 259&94 )a)erbo!n, 312 )ages, "ne6, b"b*"ogra)'#, co*or an
b*ac0 an .'"te "**!strat"ons&
-ac0 "n 1979, .'en t'e ,"rst A)o**o astrona!t *ane on t'e (oon, a tea+ o,
ant'ro)o*og"sts ,ro+ Har$ar .as st!#"ng t'e nat"$es o, San 8r"st9ba* e
*as 8asas "n 8'"a)as, t'e so!t'ern+ost state o, (e6"co& A +e+ber o, t'at
e6)e"t"on *ater re)orte to +e ."t' .r# '!+or: t'e n"g't t'e (oon *an"ng
occ!rre, t'e Har$ar ant'ro)o*og"sts .ere obsesse ."t' recor"ng t'e
react"ons o, t'e In"ans, .'o .ere so )r"+"t"$e t'at +an# 'ar*# e$en 0ne.
S)an"s'& -!t t'e In"ans, on t'e ot'er 'an, t'r"**e b# t'e ,"rst '!+an
)resence on t'e (oon, .ere a** gat'ere aro!n t'e one store "n to.n t'at
so* te*e$"s"ons, to .atc' t'e A)o**o *an"ng, an to tr# to !nerstan "t& For
t'e+, "t .as tr!*# a ;great ste) ,or +an0"n,; an t'e# .ante to be )art o,
"t&
(# ,r"en a*so to* +e t'at "n 8'"a)as, .'"c' .as e$ange*"%e "n t'e ear*#
s"6teent' cent!r#, traces o, Rena"ssance )o*#)'on# 'a$e re+a"ne "n a
+!c'-egenerate ,or+, an are st!"e as ;nat"$e +!s"c; b# t'e ant'ro)o*-
og"sts, e$en t'o!g' t'e "ea o, +!*t"-$o"ce +!s"c .as co+)*ete*# a*"en to
t'e )re-8o*!+b"an c!*t!res&
T'e es"re ,or sc"ent","c )rogress, an ,or *earn"ng t'e *a.s t'at go$ern t'e
)'#s"ca* o+a"n, "s !n"$ersa* to t'e '!+an +"n, an can reac' t'ro!g'
e$en t'e +ost bac0.ar an "so*ate c!*t!re to attract "n"$"!a*s to.ar
se*,-rea*"%at"on& T'"s "s t'e )r"+ar# reason t'at t'e "n"geno!s )eo)*es o,
anc"ent (e6"co e+brace t'e c"$"*"%at"on bro!g't across t'e ocean b# t'e
S)an"s' e$ange*"%ers .'o ca+e "n t'e .a0e o, 8'r"sto)'er 8o*!+b!s a,ter
'e ,"rst *ane "n A+er"ca "n 1<92& T'e conce)t o, t'e =o*en Rena"ssance
o, E!ro)e>t'at +an "s t'e center o, =o?s creat"on, res)ons"b*e ,or !)*",t"ng
nat!re to '"g'er *e$e*s o, organ"%at"on an ,r!"t,!*ness t'ro!g' consc"o!s*#
c'ang"ng '"s o.n s)ec"es? +oe o, re)ro!ct"on>" t'en, an oes toa#,
re)resent an !ntransgressab*e *a. .'"c' "s )ro$en b# t'e $er# e6"stence o, 4
b"**"on '!+an be"ngs toa#&
T'e conce)t co++on to a** o, t'e (esoa+er"can @(a#an an Aa)otecB soc"-
et"es: t'at t"+e "s c"rc!*ar, t'at )rogress "s "+)oss"b*e, an t'at t'e "$"ne "s
"nse)arab*e ,ro+ t'e !ncontro**ab*# )ro!ct"$e an estr!ct"$e ,orces o,
nat!re, t'at rea*"t# rests on a !a*"s+ o, goo an e$"*, "s $"c"o!s*# ,a*se, an
*eas to t'e eca# an !*t"+ate e,eat o, soc"et"es .'"c' be*"e$e "n "t& It "s
not acc"enta* t'at t'e S!n go at t'e center o, t'"s $"c"o!s c"rc*e eterna**#
t'"rsts ,or b*oo, t'e b*oo o, co!nt*ess sacr","c"a* $"ct"+s&
In a** art, t'e not"on o, t'e nee ,or )rogress "s e6)resse t'ro!g' t'e
a))*"cat"on o, t'e *a.s .'"c' go$ern t'e '!+an +"n an e+onstrate "ts
co'erence ."t' t'e '"en *a.s o, t'e !n"$erse& Art"st"c bea!t# ar"ses ,ro+
t'e art"st?s se*,-re,*ect"on on t'e )rocess o, '"s o.n +aster# o, t'ese *a.s,
.'"c' const"t!te nat!ra* bea!t#& T'e 'a**+ar0 o, s!c' art "s +an?s act"$"t# "n
measurin t'e !n"$erse& For +!s"c, t'ese *a.s go !ner t'e na+e o, )o*#-
)'on# an t'e .e**-te+)ere 2<-0e# s#ste+, as t'e# 'a$e been )rogress"$e-
*# "sco$ere ,ro+ t'e Rena"ssance ,or.ar& For t'e )*ast"c arts, "t "s a
+atter o, "ncreas"ng +aster# o, )ro)ort"on an )ers)ect"$e, .'"c' .ere
a))*"e "n t'e ,",teent' cent!r# to t'e o+a"n o, $"s!a* re)resentat"on, b#
ta0"ng o$er )r"nc")*es t'at .ere a*rea# 0no.n "n +!s"c an astrono+#& -e-
ca!se )oetr#, +!s"c, )a"nt"ng, an t'e ot'er ,or+s o, ,"ne art !n",# t'o!g't
an e+ot"on "n t'e +ost "rect .a#, t'e# are not +ere*# a )ass"$e re,*ect"on
o, t'e soc"et# "n .'"c' t'e# occ!r, b!t a )o.er,!* ca!se o, soc"a* c'ange&
T'ese ,acts +!st be !nerstoo as t'e bac0gro!n to an# e6'"b"t co++e+o-
rat"ng t'e C!"ncentenar# o, 8'r"sto)'er 8o*!+b!s?s $o#age "n 1<92, an t'e
e$ange*"%at"on o, t'e A+er"cas, .'"c' .e ce*ebrate o$er t'e co+"ng #ear&
One o, t'ese, ;(e6"co: S)*enors o, T'"rt# 8ent!r"es,; ."** be on $"e. at
t'e Los Ange*es 8o!nt# (!se!+ o, Art "n 8a*",orn"a ,ro+ October 7 !nt"*
Dece+ber 29, 1991& F"rst +o!nte *ast October at Ne. /or0?s (etro)o*"tan
(!se!+, an *ater at t'e San Anton"o (!se!+ o, Art "n Te6as, t'"s gargan-
t!an s'o. @an t'e bea!t",!* cata*og t'at acco+)an"es "tB, "s "n t'ree )arts:
t'e "n"geno!s art o, (e6"co be,ore t'e arr"$a* o, t'e E!ro)eansD t'e .or0s
o, t'e ne. c"$"*"%at"on t'at arose a,ter 8o*!+b!s an t'e 8onE!estD an t'e
art o, (e6"co a,ter Ine)enence "n t'e *ast cent!r#&
W'at +a0es ;S)*enors o, T'"rt# 8ent!r"es; .ort'.'"*e "s t'e +"*e
sect"on& It br"ngs toget'er .or0s o, art tota**# !n,a+"*"ar to +ost c"t"%ens o,
t'e Fn"te States, ,ro+ t'e $"cerega* )er"o ,ro+ t'e ear*# s"6teent' cent!r#
to t'e ear*# n"neteent' cent!r#& (ost o, t'e co*on"a* art be*ongs to re*at"$e*#
*"tt*e-0no.n +!se!+s "n (e6"co, or "s scattere a+ong )r"$ate co**ect"ons,
!n"$ers"t"es, an c'!rc'es& A ,e. 0e# "te+s are "n co**ect"ons "n E!ro)e or
t'e Fn"te States& T'!s, e$en (e6"cans ."t' an "nterest "n t'"s +ater"a*,
.o!* 'a$e ",,"c!*t# see"ng "t, an .o!* ne$er see "t a** toget'er&
-he *all of the E&il A'tec Em$ire
A** "n,or+e .r"ters on t'e 8onE!est o, (e6"co, e$en t'e +ost $"o*ent*#
)ro-A%tec, a+"t t'at t'e conE!"staor HernGn 8ortHs co!* ne$er 'a$e
co+)*ete t'e 8onE!est so ra)"*# ", t'e non-A%tec In"an )eo)*es 'a not
Io"ne t'e S)an"s' ar+"es .'en t'e# arr"$e "n 1419, 'a))# ,or t'e c'ance
to t'ro. o,, t'e br!ta* A%tec o))ress"on& A,ter t'e 8onE!est .as co+)*ete
"n 1421, t'e str!gg*e to "na!g!rate a '!+an"tar"an )o*"c# "n t'e Ne. Wor*
aga"nst bot' t'e e$"*s o, t'e "n"geno!s )agan soc"et#, an t'e gree an
cr!e*t# o, +an# E!ro)eans, began "n earnest&
T'e S)an"s' 8ro.n )ro+!*gate *a.s aga"nst s*a$er# an !s!r#, an tr"e to
c!rb t'e ab!ses o, S)an"s' c"$"*"ans, t'e so-ca**e encomenderos! aga"nst t'e
nat"$e )o)!*at"on& Enco!rage b# 8ortHs, 8'ar*es J sent +en"cant orers,
t'e Franc"scans "n t'e beg"nn"ng, ,o**o.e b# Do+"n"cans an A!g!st"n"ans,
to e$ange*"%e t'e In"ans&
T'e tas0 .o!* 'a$e been a!nt"ng, e$en ."t'o!t t'e o))os"t"on o, t'ose
S)an"ars .'o so!g't e6)*o"tat"on o, t'e Ne. Wor*?s r"c'es abo$e a**&
W'"*e t'e A%tecs .ere t'e +ost best"a* o, t'e (esoa+er"can soc"et"es, b# at
*east an orer o, +agn"t!e, a** o, t'ose soc"et"es )ract"ce '!+an sacr","ce,
an a** .ere str!ct!re aro!n re*"g"o!s "eo*og"es .'"c' $"e.e '"stor# as
c#c*"ca*& T'e# !tter*# *ac0e t'e not"ons o, t'e necess"t# o, )rogress, an
t'e so$ere"gnt# o, t'e "n"$"!a*, .'o .as ca)ab*e o, "nter$en"ng to c'ange
'"stor#& A*t'o!g' t'e# 'a or"g"nate "n As"a +"**enn"a ear*"er, ,or *ong
cent!r"es, t'e conste**at"on o, (esoa+er"can soc"et"es 'a 'a no contact
."t' an# o!ts"e c!*t!re, not e$en ."t' t'e Anean @IncaB c!*t!res o, So!t'
A+er"ca, an 'ence no c'a**enge to t'e ,"6e r!*e o, !nen"ng .ar a+ong
t'ese soc"et"es&
T'e In"ans o, San 8r"stoba* .'o #earne to see t'e A)o**o s'ot "n 1979
.ere not on*# act"ng !)on t'e"r rea* '!+an nat!re, b!t t'e# .ere a*so ca**"ng
!)on a c!*t!ra* +atr"6 "nst"**e "n t'e"r ancestors near*# ,"$e cent!r"es ago,
.'"c' 'as been atten!ate, neg*ecte, an attac0e b!t not #et estro#e&
T'e 0e# ,"g!re, .'ose tr!e contr"b!t"on 'as #et to be ,!**# a))rec"ate, "n
br"ng"ng t'e Rena"ssance to A+er"ca .as t'e conE!eror '"+se*,, HernGn
8ortHs& Fo**o."ng "n '"s .a0e, !r"ng t'e 1451s, t'ree +en ca+e to )o.er
.'ose "+)act on (e6"co "s o, .or*-'"stor"ca* s"gn","cance: Bisho$ *ray
3uan de 4um0rraga% 2iceroy Antonio de Mendo'a% an 3udge 2asco de
5uiroga# T'ese +en, g!"e b# t'e 8'r"st"an '!+an"st t'eor"es o, t'e
E!ro)ean Rena"ssance, s'are a $"s"on o, "+)*e+ent"ng t'e "ea*s o, Re-
na"ssance )'"*oso)'# "n t'e Ne. Wor*& T'e# .ere )re)are to )!t to t'e
test t'e )re+"se t'at e$er# '!+an "n"$"!a* "s create "n t'e *"$"ng "+age o,
=o, ."t' t'e )otent"a* ,or creat"$"t# 0no.n as t'e ;"$"ne s)ar0 o, reason,;
a+ong a )eo)*e ,or .'o+ s!c' "eas .ere tota**# strange& T'e# 'a c*ose
connect"ons to s!c' *ea"ng 8'r"st"an '!+an"sts as Eras+!s o, Rottera+,
St& T'o+as (ore "n Eng*an, t'e P*aton"c Acae+# o, F*orence, an
8ar"na* 8"sneros, t'e s)onsor o, t'e Po*#g*ot -"b*e )ro!ce "n ,"$e
*ang!ages at A*ca*G e Henares "n S)a"n&
Se$era* obIects "n t'e e6'"b"t are "rect*# *"n0e to t'ese t'ree +en& T'ese
"nc*!e an e+bro"ere $e*$et *a)c*ot' o, abo!t 1459, +ae ,or -"s'o)
A!+Grraga @cat& 118BD an a +agn","cent 8r!c","e 8'r"st ,ro+ T*a6a*a,
+ae o, cornsta*0 )aste @cat& 121B, a +ater"a* ta0en o$er ,ro+ )re-H"s)an"c
"o*-+a0"ng an !se ,or 8'r"st"an sc!*)t!re at t'e "+)et!s o, Jasco e
C!"roga, t'e ,"rst b"s'o) o, ("c'oacGn an )ro+oter o, ;+ec'an"ca*; arts "n
t'e reg"on&
As to (eno%a, "t .as !ner '"s $"ce-regenc# t'at Pero e =ante?s con$ent
sc'oo* o, San Kose e *os Nat!ra*es "n (e6"co 8"t# )ro!ce once o, t'e
tr!*# a+a%"ng obIects on "s)*a#, a ,eat'er-+osa"c o, ;T'e (ass o, St&
=regor#; @cat& 119B create "n (e6"co 8"t# "n 1459 an sent as a g",t to Po)e
Pa!* III @FarneseB&
T'e )a"nt"ng .as one "n a tec'n"E!e t'at " not e6"st "n E!ro)e, a*t'o!g'
t'e st#*e re,*ects t'e co+)os"t"ona* an ,"g!ra* s0"**s o, E!ro)ean art ta!g't
b# =ante to "n"geno!s cra,ts+en& Feat'er )"ct!res "amantecayotl# .ere t'e
+ost )r"%e art ,or+ o, t'e )re-H"s)an"c .or*, .'ere a$"ar"es .ere 0e)t ,or
)!r)ose o, )ro!c"ng t'e co*ore ,eat'ers& Iron"ca**#, t'e s!r$"$a* "n e6tra-
or"nar"*# goo con"t"on o, t'"s bea!t",!* obIect "s *"0e*# to be t'e res!*t o,
)"rac#& It ne$er reac'e "ts est"nat"on, an t!rne !) on t'e art +ar0et "n
1983, .'en "t ,o!n "ts .a# to a Frenc' +!se!+&
T'e In"ans !ner t'e care o, t'e Franc"scans .ere )art"c!*ar*# grate,!* to
t'e Po)e, beca!se "t .as Pa!* III .'o 'a "ss!e a b!** "n 1453 )roc*a"+"ng
t'e rat"ona*"t# o, t'e In"ans an r"g't o, t'e +en"cant orers to a+"n"ster
t'e sacra+ents to t'e+& As t'e cata*og entr# re)orts, ;In t'e ear*# #ears o,
e$ange*"s+ "n Ne. S)a"n so+e c*erg# t'o!g't t'e In"ans .ere !n,"t to
rece"$e t'e sacra+ents>t'e# .ere cons"ere "nca)ab*e o, reason>an
be*"e$e "t .as !n*a.,!* to a+"n"ster s!c' r"tes to t'e+&; T'e Po)e?s
'"stor"c ec"s"on, $"n"cat"ng t'e e,,orts o, A!+Grraga, (eno%a, an Jasco
e C!"roga an t'e +"ss"onar"es !ner t'e"r *eaers'"), .as anno!nce "n
Ne. S)a"n "n 1458-59&
E$er#t'"ng t'at .as acco+)*"s'e ,or t'e goo )"$ote aro!n t'e "ea t'at
t'e In"an .as eE!a* to t'e E!ro)ean as a c'"* o, =o, ca)ab*e o, reason,
an ca)ab*e o, be"ng e!cate to rea*"%e e$en )roIects t'at .ere !nrea*"%ab*e
on t'e o* cont"nent&
Mexico: Splendors of Thirty Centuries
6$en Cha$el at -e$oscolula% 6axaca% sixteenth century! an ada$tation of
Renaissance style to an entirely ne( form% suited to Mexico's needs#
Mexico: Splendors of Thirty Centuries
Archbisho$ 3uan de 4um0rraga's embroidered la$-cloth% 789:# 4um0rraga
(as an admirer of Erasmus (ho brought a master embroiderer from "$ain to
teach the craft to .ndian con&erts# e $ublished t(o treatises in the Christian
humanist tradition! a catechism for the .ndians and a manual for missionar-
ies#
Building Alberti's .deal Cities
(eno%a, t'e ,"rst $"cero# o, (e6"co @1454-41B, .as t'e sc"on o, t'e
S)an"s' nob*e ,a+"*# .'"c' "ntro!ce as)ects o, t'e Ita*"an Rena"ssance
"nto S)a"n& Accor"ng to t'e (e6"can sc'o*ar =!"**er+o To$ar e Teresa,
.'o "s c"te "n t'e cata*og b# t'e A+er"can researc'er Donna P"erce,
(eno%a rea*"%e t'e "ea* c"t# )*an o, t'e Rena"ssance "n (e6"co& He
bro!g't to (e6"co t'e Ten $oo%s on &rchitecture o, t'e F*orent"ne arc'"tect
Leon -att"sta A*bert"D (eno%a?s 'ea$"*# annotate co)# o, t'e treat"se
s!r$"$es&
A*bert" .as t'e ,"rst t'eoret"c"an o, t'e F*orent"ne art"st"c Rena"ssance, t'e
+an .'o )ersona**# br"ge t'e g!*, bet.een t'eor# an )ract"ce& In 1<54,
A*bert" .rote Della 'ittura! t'e $ernac!*ar boo0 .'"c' ,"rst escr"be t'e
)ers)ect"$e s#ste+ .'"c' .as t'e great brea0t'ro!g' "n )a"nt"ng "n t'e ear*#
,",teent' cent!r#, trans,or+"ng "t ,ro+ a +ere cra,t "nto a tr!e sc"ence& He
a*so .rote an econo+"c treat"se, Della (amilia! .'"c' escr"bes t'e *o$"ng
e!cat"on o, c'"*ren as t'e on*# +eans b# .'"c' soc"et# can be "+)ro$e&
In one o, '"s s'orter "a*og!es, .r"tten "n 1<<1, A*bert" s!++ar"%e t'e
8'r"st"an H!+an"st o!t*oo0: ;W"t' t'e ,oret'o!g't t'at .e are +orta*, an
t'at e$er# a$ers"t# can be,a** !s, *et !s o .'at t'e ."se 'a$e so '"g'*#
)ra"se: Let !s .or0, so t'at t'e )ast an )resent ."** contr"b!te to t'e t"+es
t'at 'a$e not #et co+e; @E!ote "n Koan =ao*, )eon $attista &l*erti!
+ni,ersal Man of the Early Renaissance! 1979B&
Not on*# .ere "n"$"!a* b!"*"ngs an a** o, t'e"r co+)onent )arts to be
es"gne on t'e bas"s o, t'e 'ar+on"c )ro)ort"ons t'at go$ern t'e cos+os as
a .'o*e, t'e so-ca**e ;+!s"c o, t'e s)'eres,; b!t c"t"es as a .'o*e +!st a*so
re,*ect t'e rat"ona* orer"ng o, t'e =o?s !n"$erse& Hence, t'e Rena"ssance
arc'"tects, "nc*!"ng A*bert", e$e*o)e star-s'a)e an rectang!*ar gr"
es"gns ,or "ea* c"t"es& -!t +ost o, t'ese re+a"ne on )a)er on*#, ."t' a
,e. s+a**-sca*e e6ce)t"ons& In E!ro)e, t'e o* c"t"es .ere a*rea# b!"*t !) "n
t'e 'a)'a%ar an ,ort","e +anner o, t'e ("*e Ages&
W'at +"g't 'a$e been cons"ere !to)"an "n E!ro)e co!* beco+e a rea*"t#,
", on*# br"e,*#, on t'e ne. cont"nent& J"cero# (eno%a o$er*a" t'e gr"
)*an .'"c' A*bert" 'a e$e*o)e, on t'e )ree6"st"ng, !n,ort","e In"an
c"t"es, start"ng ."t' (e6"co 8"t# "tse*,, .'ere 8ortHs 'a a*rea# beg!n t'e
bo* )*an o, b!"*"ng a great c"t# o$er t'e A%tec ca)"ta*& T'e streets .ere
."ene an reg!*ate an or"ente to o)t"+!+ $ent"*at"on an s!n*"g't, an
t'e )*a%a .as en*arge to a rectang*e t."ce as *ong as ."e, ,o**o."ng
A*bert"?s ,or+!*a& ;T'e !n,ort","e to.n ."t' "ts +on!+enta* )*a%a an
."e stra"g't streets beca+e a so!rce o, a+a%e+ent to E!ro)ean $"s"tors,
an .as re)ro!ce a** o$er Lat"n A+er"ca& (eno%a .or0e c*ose*# ."t'
t'e Franc"scan an A!g!st"n"an ,r"ars to e$e*o) a so-ca**e +oerate )*an
,or t'e re*"g"o!s estab*"s'+ents o, (e6"co, )robab*# a*so base on t'e
Rena"ssance ,or+!*as o, A*bert"&; 8erta"n c'anges .ere +ae, es)ec"a**# "n
t'e sca*e, .'"c' re,*ecte t'e In"an s!bstr!ct!re& T'e P*a%a (a#or, no.
ca**e t'e Aoca*o, (e6"co 8"t#?s "+)os"ng +a"n sE!are .'ere t'e 8at'era*
an )res"ent"a* )a*ace are *ocate, "s +!c' *arger t'an an# en$"sage b#
Rena"ssance )*anners o, Ita*#&
T'e ;,ortress-con$ent; str!ct!res !s!a**# "nc*!e a s"ng*e-na$e c'!rc', a
con$ent, an an atr"!+, .'"c' o+"nate t'e ent"re s!rro!n"ng *ansca)e&
One o, t'e arc'"tect!ra* so*!t"ons !n"E!e to t'e Ne. Wor*, t'e o)en c'a)e*,
.as "n$ente to 'o!se t'e a*tar, t'e Host, an t'e ce*ebrat"ng )r"ests .'"*e
t'e congregat"on stoo "n t'e c'!rc'#ar t'at ,!nct"one as an o!toor na$e&
T'"s .as not one beca!se t'e In"ans .ere acc!sto+e to o!toor .ors'")
@as t'e cata*og assertsB, b!t beca!se t'e s'eer n!+bers o, In"ans .'o ca+e
to (ass .ere too +an# to acco++oate "noors& It .as a bea!t",!* e6a+)*e
o, t'e aa)tat"on o, t'e Rena"ssance "ea* to t'e ne. c"rc!+stances o, t'e
)eo)*e be"ng e$ange*"%e, ."t'o!t ,a**"ng "nto !b"o!s s#ncret"s+s&
In t'ese great +onast"c estab*"s'+ents, b!"*t as o!t)osts o, 8'r"st"an"t# a**
o$er (e6"co, .'ere t'e In"ans .ere e!cate an 8'r"st"an"%e, .'at
"+)resses as +!c' as t'e bea!t# "s t'e $o*!+e o, constr!ct"on an t'e
egree to .'"c' t'e "n"geno!s )art"c")ate "n t'e .or0& At +ost, t'ere .ere
a ,e. '!nre ,r"ars, #et b# 14<1, P"erce .r"tes, t'ere .ere a))ro6"+ate*#
41 estab*"s'+ents, an 21 #ears *ater, a*+ost 111& In ,act, a*+ost a** o,
(e6"co?s c"t"es toa#, .ere b!"*t "n t'e ,"rst 81 #ears a,ter t'e conE!est&
P"erce e6)*a"ns, too, t'at t'ere .ere ,e. tra"ne arc'"tects "n (e6"co, an
t'e es"gns .ere base on ,r"ars? +e+or"es o, E!ro)ean b!"*"ngs co+b"ne
."t' boo0 "**!strat"ons& @T'"s "s a b"t "nacc!rate, as c*ear 8'!rc'-)rescr"be
+oe*s .ere )ro$"e to t'e ,r"ars, not +ere +e+or"es&B At t'e sc'oo* o,
San Kose e *os Nat!ra*es aIo"n"ng t'e Franc"scan con$ent "n (e6"co 8"t#,
t'e a,ore+ent"one *a# brot'er Pero e =ante @Peter o, ='ent, a c*ose
re*at"$e o, t'e E+)eror 8'ar*es JB ta!g't t'e In"ans t'e ne. ,or+a* .or*
o, )ers)ect"$e ,ores'orten"ng, $o*!+es, co*or, s#+bo*s, an so ,ort',
beg"nn"ng r"g't a,ter t'e 8onE!est "n 1422&
Ho. " "t act!a**# .or0L T'e ,e. ca)ab*e Io!rne#+en .'o crosse t'e
At*ant"c "n t'e ear*# s"6teent' cent!r# ;ta!g't s+a** gro!)s o, In"ans, .'o
t'en co$ere t'e terr"tor# "n tra$e*"ng tea+s,; .r"tes Korge A*berto (anr"E!e
o, t'e Nat"ona* A!tono+o!s Fn"$ers"t# o, (e6"co "n t'e "ntro!ct"on to t'e
sect"on on J"cerega* Art& ;On eac' )roIect t'e# "nstr!cte t'e *oca* )o)!*ace
an s!)er$"se t'e .or0& T'"s e6)*a"ns t'e rec!rrence o, s"+"*ar so*!t"ons "n
."e*# se)arate )*aces, as .e** as t'e a))*"cat"on o, +et'os t'at reE!"re
*"tt*e s)ec"a*"%at"on, s!c' as t'e c#*"nr"ca* co*!+ns o, t'e c*o"sters, a** ."t'
t'e sa+e bases an ca)"ta*s& It .as a 0"n o, asse+b*#-*"ne constr!ct"on t'at
ans.ere t'e nee ,or s)ee&; E$en t'o!g' t'e# 'a to ,o**o. str"ct )*ans
estab*"s'e b# t'e 8'!rc' "n S)a"n, t'e In"ans s'o.e !nbo!ne creat"$-
"t# ."t'"n t'ese +oe*s&
One e6a+)*e not +ent"one "n t'e cata*og "s str"0"ng: T'e 8ar+e*"te +on0
Fra# Anres e San ("g!e*, .'o es"gne t'e +ass"$e '#ra!*"c .or0s to
ra"n (e6"co 8"t# @t'e A%tec ca)"ta* .as a ser"es o, "s*ans ,*oat"ng on a
*a0eB "n t'e ear*# se$enteent' cent!r#, 'a been born "n a est"t!te ,a+"*# "n
S)a"n, an 'a *earne arc'"tect!re an eng"neer"ng a*+ost ent"re*# "n a
+onaster# o, Ne. S)a"n ,ro+ boo0s>"nc*!"ng A*bert"?s, t'e Di,ine
'roportion boo0 b# L!ca Pac"o*" ."t' "ts "**!strat"ons b# Leonaro a J"nc",
an ot'er Ita*"an Rena"ssance treat"ses&
A** o, t'"s goes "rect*# bac0 to t'e "nno$at"ons t'at .ere +ae "n t'e
F*orent"ne Rena"ssance, a cent!r# be,ore t'e 8onE!est, .'en St& Anton"n!s,
b"s'o) o, F*orence "n t'e 1<51s, an a +aIor ,"g!re "n t'e e$e*o)+ent o,
+oern 8'r"st"an econo+"c t'o!g't, 'a ,oreseen t'e "sco$er# o, a ne.
cont"nent& In t'e 1<21s, .'"*e b!"*"ng t'e ,a+o!s o+e o, F*orence
8at'era*, F"*"))o -r!ne**esc'", t'e ,"rst arc'"tect "n t'e +oern sense,
s'attere t'e )o.er o, t'e +e"e$a* g!"*s @t'e ,ree+ason"c *oges, be,ore
t'e# .ere re"ncarnate as secret soc"et"esB b# '"s e$e*o)+ent o, ;asse+b*#
*"ne; st#*e stanar"%at"on o, arc'"tect!ra* e*e+ents, .'"c' .ere )ro!ce
b# s0"**e .or0ers !ner '"s )*ans&
(oreo$er, "t .as -r!ne**esc'"?s "n$ent"on o, )"ctor"a* )ers)ect"$e, t'e
a))*"cat"on o, )roIect"$e geo+etr# to t'e )ract"ca* )rob*e+ o, *a.,!**#
re)resent"ng t'ree "+ens"ona* obIects on a t.o "+ens"ona* )*ane, t'at
+ae )oss"b*e acc!rate ra."ngs o, b!"*"ngs an +ac'"nes, so t'at a
)rec"se es"gn co!* be carr"e o!t "n a "stant *an ."t'o!t t'e "rect
s!)er$"s"on o, t'e es"gner&
Inee, to a tra$e*er .'o "s ,a+"*"ar ."t' Ita*#, Io!rne#"ng t'ro!g' t'e
(e6"can state o, Ka*"sco ,ro+ =!aa*aIara to San K!an e *os Lagos an
Te)at"t*Gn, an so!t'east.ar "nto t'e state o, =!anaI!ato>areas .'ere t'e
act"$"t# o, t'e ear*# +"ss"onar"es .as concentrate>t'e !rban $"stas )!nct!-
ate b# bea!t",!* g"*e c!)o*as o, c'!rc'es e$o0e t'e ,ee*"ng t'at t'e
Rena"ssance 'a +"grate to Ne. S)a"n an +!*t")*"e to co$er t'e *an-
sca)e& T'e great o+e o, t'e F*orent"ne gen"!s -r!ne**esc'" see+s to 'a$e
s)ro!te granc'"*ren an great-granc'"*ren a** o$er centra* (e6"co&
T'"s, t'e +ost )o.er,!* testa+ent to t'e e$ange*"%at"on, "s nat!ra**# *ac0"ng
"n t'e ;S)*enors; e6'"b"t"on @a se$ere *ac0, )art*# +ae !) ,or b# )'oto-
gra)'s "n t'e cata*ogB a*t'o!g' so+e "+ages o, t'e co*on"a* c"t"es a))ear "n
t'e .or0 o, *ater (e6"can art"sts: t'e engra$"ng o, t'e +a"n )*a%a o, (e6"co
8"t# @cat& No& 258B b# Fabregat, "n 1393, .'en "t .as reno$ateD an t'e
)a"nt"ng o, t'e 8at'era* o, Oa6aca +ae "n 1883 @cat& 231B, one o, se$era*
)"ct!res b# t'e g",te Kose (ar"a Je*asco @18<1-1912B "n t'"s e6'"b"t"on,
.'"c' +ar0 '"+ as a .or*-c*ass *ansca)e )a"nter&
Museo e -allerie Na.ionali di Capodimonte! Naples/Courtesy National -allery of &rt! /ashinton
)o$e )aul ... ;789<-<:=% in a famous $ortrait by -itian of 78<9# .n 789> he
issued a bull defending the ba$tism of multitudes of ne( Christians in Ne(
"$ain# "ome clergy had argued that the .ndians (ere less than fully rational
beings# .n his bull Sublimis Deus, )aul ... also $rohibited anyone from
ma?ing a @sla&e of an .ndian% Christian or not#@
Mexico: Splendors of Thirty Centuries
.ndian craftsmen at the "an 3ose school in Mexico City% dee$ly grateful to
)aul ...% dedicated this feather mosaic to him in 789:# )edro de Gante% of the
Brotherhood of the Common Life% the Renaissance mo&ement in northern
Euro$e% taught the .ndians $art-singing% $ers$ecti&e% and $ro$ortion at this
school#
)oly$honic Music
T'e +!s"ca* e!cat"on .'"c' t'e +"ss"onar"es "+)arte to t'e In"ans o,
(e6"co )*a#e a cr!c"a* ro*e "n t'e c"t#-b!"*"ng +o$e+ent& T'e connect"on
.as an ob$"o!s one to c!*t"$ate )ersons o, t'at t"+e& Leon -att"sta A*bert",
"n t'e treat"se o.ne b# J"cero# (eno%a, 'a state t'at arc'"tect!re "s
$"s"b*e +!s"c, t'at b!"*"ngs +!st obe# t'e )ro)ort"ons o, t'e consonant
"nter$a*s o, t'e +!s"ca* sca*e, an e*aborate t'"s )o"nt at great *engt'&
Pero e =ante .as a .e**-tra"ne +!s"c"an, co+"ng to Ne. S)a"n as a
+at!re +an "n '"s ,ort"es, ,ro+ t'e )art o, E!ro)e>F*aners>.'ere t'e
best co+)osers .ere born an tra"ne& H"s sc'oo* o, San KosH, aIacent to
t'e ,"nest an *argest c'!rc' "n (e6"co 8"t#, .as +oe*e on t'ose +a"n-
ta"ne "n nort'ern E!ro)e b# t'e -rot'ers o, t'e 8o++on L",e& He '"+se*,
*earne t'e Na'!at* *ang!age an tauht t'e In"ans, not t'e c'"*ren o, t'e
S)an"s' "n$aers&
In a ce*ebrate *etter .r"tten to 8'ar*es J "n October 1452, n"ne #ears a,ter
'"s arr"$a* "n (e6"co, 'e .rote: ;I can te** /o!r (aIest# ."t'o!t e6aggera-
t"on t'at t'ere are a*rea# In"ans 'ere .'o are ,!**# ca)ab*e o, )reac'"ng,
teac'"ng, an .r"t"ng M"n be'a*, o, t'e ,a"t'N& An ."t' t'e !t+ost s"ncer"t# I
can a,,"r+ t'at t'ere are no. tra"ne s"ngers a+ong t'e+ .'o ", t'e# .ere
to s"ng "n /o!r (aIest#?s c'a)e* at t'"s +o+ent .o!* o so .e** t'at
)er'a)s #o! .o!* 'a$e to see t'e+ act!a**# s"ng"ng "n orer to be*"e$e "t
)oss"b*e; @C!ote b# Robert Ste$enson "n Music in Mexico! 1942, )& 4<B&
T'"s .as E!"te a state+ent& 8'ar*es J?s )r"$ate c'a)e* c'o"r, .'"c'
acco+)an"e '"+ on a** '"s Io!rne#s, "nc*!e so+e o, t'e +ost "**!str"o!s
+!s"c"ans o, t'e age& T'ere,ore, =ante .as )"tt"ng '"s In"an s"ngers, .'o
'a *earne )o*#)'on"c s"ng"ng "n *ess t'an ,"$e #ears, aga"nst a c'o"r 'e
a*rea# 0ne. to be s!)er*at"$eO
-"s'o) A!+Grraga .rote "n 14<1 to 8'ar*es J an begge '"+ to "nst"t!te
)a" c'o"rs a+ong t'e In"an +!s"c"ans& ;E6)er"ence 'as ta!g't !s 'o.
great*# e","e t'e In"ans are b# sacre +!s"cD "nee t'e ,at'ers .'o .or0
"rect*# ."t' t'e+ an .'o 'ear t'e"r con,ess"ons te** !s t'at +ore t'an b#
)reac'"ng t'e In"ans are con$erte b# +!s"c& T'e# co+e ,ro+ great
"stances "n orer to 'ear "t, an t'e# arent*# es"re not on*# to *earn t'e
,!na+enta*s b!t a*so to beco+e rea**# )ro,"c"ent "n "t; @Ste$enson, o)& c"t&,
)& 49B& A!+Grraga a*so, .'"*e "n S)a"n "n 145<, engage )ro,ess"ona* c'!rc'
+!s"c"ans an )!rc'ase +an!scr")t rboo0s ,or !se "n (e6"co 8"t#& T'e
In"ans E!"c0*# *earne to co)# t'"s +!s"c "nto "**!+"nate c'o"rboo0s&
T'e e6'"b"t recors t'"s act"$"t# "n a bea!t",!**# "**!+"nate "n"t"a* ,ro+ a
c'o"rboo0 @cat& 15<B, )a"nte b# L!"s Lagarto, a S)an"s' art"st .'o +"grate
to (e6"co aro!n 1487& T'e boo0 "s st"** "n t'e 8at'era* o, P!eb*a, .'ere
"t .as one o, a set co++"ss"one ,ro+ Lagarto "n 1711 to ser$e as an a"e-
+e+o"re to t'e c'o"r, .'"c' g!"e t'e congregat"on t'ro!g' t'e *"t!rg#&
(e6"co 8"t# beca+e a +aIor )!b*"s'"ng center o, )r"nte +!s"c boo0s as
.e**& For e6a+)*e, t.e*$e boo0s o, *"t!rg"ca* +!s"c .ere )r"nte bet.een
1447 an 1489D ,or co+)ar"son, "n t'e ent"re secon 'a*, o, t'e s"6teent'
cent!r#, on*# ,o!rteen *"t!rg"ca* boo0s ."t' +!s"c .ere )r"nte "n S)a"n, t'e
'o+e co!ntr#& In *"g't o, a** t'"s e$"ence, one "s te+)te to state t'at t'e
)os"t"$e ac'"e$e+ents o, 1<92 an be#on .ere +ore !e to )r"nt"ng t'an to
sa"*"ng&
A** o, t'e ear*# +"ss"onar"es .'o co++ente on t'e !se o, +!s"c "n e$ange-
*"%at"on note t'e e6traor"nar# ent'!s"as+ o, t'e In"ans ,or polyphony! t'e
+!*t"-$o"ce ,or+ o, +!s"c .'"c' 'a not e6"ste an#.'ere "n an# (eso-
a+er"can soc"et# )r"or to t'e arr"$a* o, t'e S)an"s', e$en t'o!g' +!s"ca*
)er,or+ance 'a )*a#e an "+)ortant ro*e "n t'ese soc"et"es& T'e ,"rst
recore atte+)t to teac' In"ans )art-s"ng"ng occ!rre "n 1423D b# 1451
Pero e =ante?s s+a** In"an c'o"r "s s"ng"ng "n t'e ne. cat'era* o,
(e6"co 8"t#, acco+)an"e "n t'e"r +ore a+b"t"o!s )art-s"ng"ng b# an organ
I!st bro!g't o$er ,ro+ Se$"**e& T'e In"ans E!"c0*# aa)te t'e"r chirimias,
a 0"n o, ,*!te, to t'e ne. +!s"c, an beca+e s0"**e b!"*ers o, a** sorts o,
E!ro)ean-t#)e "nstr!+ents& -# 1714, t'e s+a**est $"**ages 'a c'o"rs .'"c'
co!* s"ng ;t'e O,,"ces, t'e (ass, Jes)ers, an .ere )ro,"c"ent "n )o*#)'on-
"c +!s"c,; accor"ng to a re)ort o, t'at ate, an ;co+)etent "nstr!+enta*"sts
are ,o!n e$er#.'ere,; es)ec"a**# "n ("c'oacGn an Ka*"sco& T'ere .as no
*onger an# nee to "+)ort "nstr!+ents ,ro+ E!ro)eD t'e In"ans, !ner
s!)er$"s"on, e$en +ae organs an )*a#e t'e+& T'e# 'a a*so beg!n to
co+)ose ,illancicos @a S)an"s' ,or+ s"+"*ar to +ar"ga*sB, ,o!r-)art
)o*#)'on"c +!s"c, an *"t!rg"ca* .or0s so s!)er"or t'at +an# S)an"s'
+asters o, t'e a# ;o,ten t'o!g't t'e# co!* not 'a$e been .r"tten b#
In"ans&; @Ste$enson, ))& 73-78B&
T'"s +!s"c, *"0e t'e arc'"tect!re, " not re)resent t'e $"o*ent gra,t"ng o, a
,ore"gn c!*t!re !)on a nat"$e one, as c'arge b# t'ose .'o sa# t'ere "s
not'"ng to ce*ebrate on t'e C!"ncentenar# o, 1<92& Rat'er, "t re)resente a
hiher cultural matrix! +ore co'erent ."t' t'e *a.s o, t'e !n"$erse, .'"c' "s
"n cont"n!o!s se*,-e$e*o)+ent to +ore co+)*e6 *e$e*s o, organ"%at"on, an
"n .'"c' t'e "n"$"!a* '"+se*, +!st gro. an e$e*o) to atta"n '"g'er
creat"$e )o.ers& Anot'er .or ,or t'"s "s bea!t#&
T'e In"ans res)one to bea!t#, .'"c' "s !n"$ersa*, .'"*e aa)t"ng t'e
)r"nc")*es o, )o*#)'on# "n +!s"c an )ro)ort"on "n arc'"tect!re to t'e"r o.n
c!sto+s, st#*es, an c*"+ate, .'"c' are )art"c!*ar& T'e# a*so, ,or reasons t'e
)ot-s+o0"ng ;)oet; Octa$"o Pa%, "n '"s *ong-."ne "ntro!ct"on to t'e
cata*og, con,esses '"+se*, !nab*e to e6)*a"n, ,oluntarily )art"c")ate to a
$er# *arge e6tent "n t'e enor+o!s .or0 o, constr!ct"on o, t'e te+)*es,
con$ents, aE!e!cts, an ot'er str!ct!res !ner S)an"s' r!*e, an .ere
con$erte to a ;s"ncere an ,er$ent; 8at'o*"c"s+ t'at 'as en!re ,ro+ t'e
s"6teent' cent!r# to t'e )resent a#&
T'e centra* *"e o, Octa$"o Pa%>an o, t'e ent"re gro!) .'o+ Po)e Ko'n
Pa!* II, !r"ng '"s 1991 tr") to (e6"co, targete as (e6"co?s ;"nte**ect!a*
+a,"a;>"s Pa%?s content"on t'at t'e 8at'o*"c conce)t o, t'e s!)ernat!ra*
trans-s!bstant"at"on o, t'e E!c'ar"st "nto t'e bo# an b*oo o, 8'r"st "s t'e
sa+e as A%tec '!+an sacr","ce an cann"ba*"s+& T'e )!r)ose o, t'"s *"e "s to
I!st",# genoc"e toa#&
W'"*e t'ere .as "nee +!c' s#ncret"s+> t'e 'ast# an s!)er,"c"a*
trans*at"on o, )agan r"t!a*s an sacre )*aces "nto 8'r"st"an eE!"$a*ents,
re,*ecte "n ;teE!"tE!"; arc'"tect!re an ot'er so+et"+es !nsett*"ng '#br"s
"n t'"s e6'"b"t>t'e )r"+ar# reason ,or +ass con$ers"on to 8'r"st"an"t# "s not
to be so!g't, as Pa% asserts, "n t'e In"ans? +"s)erce)t"on t'at t'e ne.
re*"g"on .as t'e"r o* re*"g"on "n an a*tere g!"se, b!t, rat'er, "n t'e attract"on
o, a '"g'er, an +ore '!+an, s)"r"t!a* "ent"t#&
T'"s "s .'at t'e# ass"+"*ate o, ;E!ro)ean; 8'r"st"an c"$"*"%at"on, I!st as,
+an# cent!r"es ear*"er, t'e barbar"ans o, E!ro)e 'a ass"+"*ate t'e
8'r"st"an +essage bro!g't to t'e+ b# St& Pa!*>a Ke. ,ro+ As"a ("nor>
an b# St& A!g!st"ne o, H"))o, an A,r"can&
Mexico: Splendors of Thirty Centuries
Left! Cornstal? $aste life-si'e Crucifix from Michoac0n% the finest exam$le
of its ?ind in the sixteenth century# 2asco de 5uiroga% an admirer of English
humanist "t# -homas More% (as $roud to ha&e transformed this idol-ma?ing
techniAue into a $erfect material for ma?ing light(eight $rocessional figures%
ex$ressing the notion of man in the image of God#
Right! .lluminated initial 5 in a )uebla Cathedral choirboo? by Luis
Lagarto% ca# 7BCC% sho(s influence of the best *lemish and .talian boo?
illustrators# -ens of thousands of .ndians learned to sing from such choir-
boo?s and from numerous liturgical boo?s (ith music $rinted in Mexico City#
Mexico: Splendors of Thirty Centuries
Left! A co$y of a lost A'tec codex by a colonial artist sho(s the altars (here
mass human sacrifice (as carried out# /hile A'tec cruelty (as by far the
(orst% all Mesoamerican societies shared the $ractice of the ritual ball game%
in (hich there (as only one goal% and the losers (ere sacrificed to the gods# .t
is not sur$rising that many .ndians ra$idly embraced Christianity#
Right! A 7>B9 can&as by Miguel Cabrera% re$resenting the $o$ular @Racial
Mixtures@ genre# /hile racial discrimination certainly existed% the inter-
marriage of Euro$eans (ith Africans and nati&e Americans reflected a
conce$t that all men are in the image of God# ere% the Euro$ean father
turns tenderly to his .ndian (ife and @mesti'a@ daughter#
'Racial' Mixtures
Inee, "t "s "n brea0"ng o.n t'e r"g""t# o, ;rac"a*,; et'n"c, an c*ass
barr"ers o, o* E!ro)e, t'at t'e (e6"can art o, t'e )er"o a,ter t'e Rena"s-
sance +a0es "ts +ost re+ar0ab*e '"stor"c contr"b!t"on& So+e e6a+)*es:
T'e sect"on o, t'e e6'"b"t on J"cerega* Art o)ens ."t' a s)*en" *iom*o! or
)a"nte screen, attr"b!te to K!an 8orrea, e)"ct"ng t'e Enco!nter o, 8ortHs
an (octe%!+a on t'e ,ront, an t'e Fo!r 8ont"nents on t'e re$erse& T'e
.or *iom*o "s Ka)anese "n or"g"n, an t'ese !n"E!e*# (e6"can obIects
beca+e )o)!*ar a,ter 171< .'en t'e# .ere bro!g't t'ere b# t'e Ka)anese
a+bassaor& A))arent*# t'e# .ere !se +!c' "n t'e +anner t'at ta)estr"es
.ere !se "n E!ro)e& 8orrea, .or0"ng "n a ,*or" baroE!e st#*e, see+e
"ntent on con$e#"ng t'at t'e t.o +en, (octe%!+a an 8ortHs, con,ronte
eac' ot'er as eE!a*s&
K!an 8orrea, t'e cata*og re)orts, .as t'e son o, a +!*atto octor ,ro+ 8G"%
@S)a"nB an a ,ree b*ac0 .o+an ,ro+ (e6"co 8"t#& T'"s b*ac0 art"st, born
aro!n 17<4 an "e "n 1317, 'ence a conte+)orar# o, Le"bn"%, ;'a a
*ong, )ro!ct"$e, an )ros)ero!s *",e, .as '"g'*# estee+e "n t'e soc"et# o,
Ne. S)a"n, an ac'"e$e a great art"st"c tr"!+)': 'e +ae +ore )a"nt"ngs
,or t'e (e6"co 8"t# 8at'era* t'an an# ot'er )a"nter&; To t'"s .r"ter?s
0no.*ege>an I a+ E!"te ,a+"*"ar ."t' t'e )a"nt"ng o, t'"s )er"o>no
b*ac0 art"st "n E!ro)e, +!c' *ess t'e Eng*"s' co*on"es "n A+er"ca, ca+e e$en
c*ose to ac'"e$"ng s!c' s!ccess& T'e S)an"s' gen"!s Je*G%E!e%?s +o$"ng
)ortra"t o, '"s $a*et, t'e +!*atto an ,or+er s*a$e K!an e PareIa, .'o
beca+e a .ort'# "sc")*e to Je*G%E!e% '"+se*,, )er'a)s 'era*e s!c' a *ea)
"n s!c' stat!s, b!t PareIa ne$er 'a a *!stro!s career&
("g!e* 8abrera, anot'er *ea"ng art"st o, t'e )er"o, "s a mesti.o! o, +"6e
In"an an S)an"s' bac0gro!n& Sa*$aor e Oca+)o, .'ose .or0s'o)
car$e t'e o)!*ent .ooen c'o"rsta**s o, t'e c'!rc' o, St& A!g!st"ne "n
(e6"co 8"t# ."t' O* Testa+ent scenes, .as an In"an, as .ere *arge
n!+bers o, .oocar$ers, Io"ners, an "nstr!+ent +a0ers "n Ne. S)a"n&
T'e ;creo*e; seg+ent o, (e6"can soc"et# "s e6)*ore "n anot'er sect"on o,
t'e e6'"b"t"on, .'"c' "nc*!es t'e s)*en" )ortra"t @cat& 141B o, t'e great
)oet Sor K!ana e *a 8r!% @17<8-84B ,ro+ t'e Nat"ona* A!tono+o!s
Fn"$ers"t# o, (e6"co& Sor K!ana .as t'e o!tstan"ng e6a+)*e o, Creoles!
t'ose born "n t'e Ne. Wor* o, E!ro)ean )arentage& @It co!* a*so )er'a)s
be asserte t'at Sor K!ana?s )ree+"nence, as a .o+an, .o!* ,"n ,e.
)ara**e*s "n E!ro)ean soc"et# o, t'at a#& T'e cata*og entr# on t'"s )a"nt"ng,
b# /a*e Fn"$ers"t#?s (arc!s -!r0e, )a"nts a ,asc"nat"ng )"ct!re o, t'e !n"E!e
"nte**ect!a* c!*t!re )er+"tte a+ong (e6"co?s !rban orers o, n!ns "n t'e
*ate se$enteent' an e"g'teent' cent!r"es&B
One re,*ect"on o, t'"s "$ers"t# o, (e6"can c!*t!re, ."t' res)ect to t'e O*
Wor*, a))ears "n t'e e"g'teent' cent!r# 'inturas de castas! or ;De)"ct"ons
o, Rac"a* ("6t!res,; o, .'"c' t'e e6'"b"t "nc*!es ,o!r @cat& 193-8B& Des)"te
t'e o$ertones o, categor"%at"on b# ;rac"a*; t#)e>;rac"a*; eE!a*"t# .as ,ar
,ro+ be"ng soc"a* rea*"t# "n Ne. S)a"n>st"** t'e recor"ng o, t'ese +"6t!res
const"t!tes a strong )roo, o, t'e ,act t'at t'e conE!est an e$ange*"%at"on
.ere base on t'e "ea o, t'e brot'er'oo o, a** +en create "n t'e *"$"ng
"+age o, =o&
T'e ser"es )ortra#s "n"$"!a*s .'o ,or+e A+er"can soc"et# at t'at t"+e,
.'en t'e et'n"c +"6 o, .'"tes, b*ac0s, an In"ans 'a create a co+)*"-
cate soc"a* str!ct!re& Eac' can$as e)"cts a ,a+"*# gro!) o, ,at'er, +ot'er,
an one or +ore c'"*ren, eac' re)resent"ng one o, t'e castas )ro!ce b#
)rogress"$e mesti.a0e1 t'e )a"nt"ngs are +ar0e b# great tenerness bet.een
t'e )arents an c'"*, an e6!e seren"t#, ,a+"*"a* .ar+t', an o)t"+"s+&
T'e )"ct!res se*ecte ,or t'"s s'o. contraste ."t' t'e ,act"ona* )os"t"on o,
ot'er )a"nters .'o re)resente t'e "n"geno!s )eo)*e as sa$ages, or e$en
)ro+ote t'e"r ;c!*t!re&;
Before and After
I, (e6"co s!r$"$es t'e gr!eso+e Ang*o-A+er"can conE!est .'"c' +arc'es
toa# !ner t'e banners o, ,ree trae, t'e ,!t!re o, (e6"can art ."** not
co+e o!t o, t'e )re-8o*!+b"an )"t o, 'orrors nor t'e re$"$a* o, )se!o-
A%tec )r"+"t"$"s+ cum (ar6"s+ .'"c' "ns)"re t'e +ost ,a+o!s (e6"can
)a"nters o, t'"s cent!r#& No. t'at t'e )eace,!* re$o*!t"ons !n,o*"ng "n
eastern E!ro)e an t'e +art#rs o, T"anan+en SE!are 'a$e b!r"e t'e
re)!tat"ons o, t'e -o*s'e$"0 'eroes o, R"$era, Oro%co, an t'e ot'er
(e6"can +!ra*"sts, no one .'ose bra"n 'as not been a+age b# r!gs
co!* ser"o!s*# cons"er ta0"ng t'e"r .or0 as a +oe* ,or an#t'"ng en!r"ng&
So .'# o t'e )re- an )ost-S)an"s' .or0s ,or+ s!c' a *arge c'!n0 o, t'e
;S)*enors; e6'"b"tL One reason .o!* be, t'at "t "s not ;)o*"t"ca**# correct;
t'ese a#s to ce*ebrate an#t'"ng t'at ca+e o!t o, 8o*!+b!s?s "sco$er# o,
A+er"ca, ."t'o!t )a#"ng so+e 'o+age to t'e soc"et# t'e 8onE!est cr!s'e&
Anot'er, +ore s"n"ster '!nc' ste+s ,ro+ t'e ,act t'at t'e s'o. .as orga-
n"%e b# t'e ra"ca* b!s"ness an "nte**ect!a* c"rc*es aro!n t'e Sa*"nas e
=ortar" go$ern+ent o, (e6"co, .'"c' "s E!"te ."**"ng to re$"$e '!+an
sacr","ce "n t'e ,or+ o, ma2uiladora s.eats'o)s, "n orer to a))ease t'e ne.
A%tec gos, t'e Ne. /or0 ban0s, on t'e a*tar o, ,ree trae&
Ho.e$er +!c' so+e organ"%ers o, t'e s'o. +a# 'a$e .ante to con$e#
.'at t'e Ne3 4or% Times re$"e.er asserte>t'e nonsense t'at (e6"can art
;s*!+bere; !ner S)an"s' r!*e an rea.a0ene on*# "n +oern t"+es>t'e
art "tse*, con$e#s a E!"te ",,erent +essage& T'e on*# .a# to rea**# bene,"t
,ro+ t'e s'o., "n ,act, "s to r!s' )ast t'e o))ress"$e "+ages o, beast-gos
.'"c' sE!at !)on t'e )re-H"s)an"c )ort"on o, t'e e6'"b"t"on @an tr# to a$o"
$o+"t"ng, es)ec"a**# "n t'e A%tec roo+sB, an to s0") t'e t'"r )art, .'"c' "s
an ;a.a0en"ng; to t'e n"g't+are o, t'e (e6"can Re$o*!t"on& T'e Re$o*!-
t"on 0"**e a +"**"on (e6"cans "n 1911-17& T'o!sans +ore .ere s*a!g'-
tere "n t'e 8r"stero .ar t'at bro0e o!t "n t'e 1921s, .'en t'e ,ree-+ason"c
Pres"ent o, (e6"co, E*"as 8a**e, tr"e to .")e o!t t'e *ast $est"ges o, t'e
8at'o*"c ,a"t' "n .'"c' (e6"co?s '!+an"st c"$"*"%at"on "s ee)*# roote&
Prec"se*# "n Ka*"sco state, .'ere t'e go*en c!)o*as )roc*a"+ t'at *"$"ng
'er"tage e*oE!ent*#, an ar+e rebe**"on bro0e o!t to o))ose '"+& T'e c"$"*
str",e o, t'ose ecaes .as a tr!e 'o*oca!st, .ar,"ng e$en t'e terr"b*e @an
,reE!ent*# e6aggerateB eat' rates t'at occ!rre "n t'e s"6teent' cent!r# as
t'e In"ans s!cc!+be to E!ro)ean "seases&
D"ego R"$era @1887-1943B, t'e +ost *"on"%e o, t'e -o*s'e$"0 +!ra*"sts o,
(e6"co o, t'e Re$o*!t"on @'e act!a**# s)ent t'ose #ears "n Par"s, "+b"b"ng
E!ro)ean n"'"*"s+B, boaste t'at 'e 'a )ract"ce cann"ba*"s+& H"s )a"nt-
"ngs "n t'e e6'"b"t, a*ong ."t' t'ose o, Ta+a#o, Pa'*o, Oro%co, S"E!e"ros, et
a*&, ce*ebrate a c!*t!re o, eat', t'e c!*t!re o, ,asc"s+ an co++!n"s+& O,
t'e t.ent"et'-cent!r# )a"nters e6'"b"te, Anton"o (& R!"% a*one reee+s
'"+se*, ."t' @at *east, at t"+esB a sense o, '!+or& Ot'er."se .e cannot ,a"*
to not"ce, t'at t'e =o ."t' '!+an ,eat!res, an +an0"n "n t'e "+age o,
=o>t'at "ea .'"c' "n,or+e t'e c"t#-b!"*"ng e,,orts o, (e6"co ,ro+
1421 !nt"* t'e ear*# n"neteent' cent!r#>'as g"$en .a# to t'e rene.e
.ors'") o, e+ons, gos "n t'e "+ages o, beasts or best"a*"%e '!+an
+onsters&
T'e tr!e roots o, (e6"can c"$"*"%at"on )!t ,ort' )ro+"s"ng b*osso+s .'en
Po)e Ko'n Pa!* II $"s"te "n (a# 1991 an set "nto +ot"on t'e )rocess o, t'e
)o*"t"ca* an econo+"c *"berat"on o, (e6"co, "n t'e sa+e .a# 'e 'a ear*"er
)re)are t'e )eace,!* re$o*!t"on o, Po*an& So+e 21 +"**"on (e6"cans,
one-,o!rt' o, t'e )o)!*at"on, .e*co+e '"+ "n )erson&
W'en t'e Po)e s)o0e to o$er 2 +"**"on (e6"can #o!t' at San K!an e *os
Lagos @Ka*"scoB, 'e ca**e on t'e+ to !nerstan t'e"r ro*e "n b!"*"ng a
better ,!t!re, sa#"ng, ;8'r"st & & & )*aces "n #o! a e+an"ng res)ons"b"*"t#, as
t'e b!"*ers o, a ne. c"$"*"%at"on, t'e c"$"*"%at"on o, so*"ar"t# an *o$e
a+ong +en&; He ca**e on t'e b!s"ness co++!n"t# to ;re)ro!ce t'"s
"$"ne es"gn an co**aborate ."t' t'e 8reator "n t'e trans,or+at"on o, t'e
.or*, accor"ng to =o?s )*an,; an a*so to )a# a ;I!st .age&; He .arne
an asse+b*# o, (e6"can "nte**ect!a*s an art"sts, t'at t'ere "s ;an absence o,
$a*" c!*t!ra* )roIects ca)ab*e o, res)on"ng to t'e )ro,o!n as)"rat"ons o,
t'e '!+an 'eart,; an t'at "n Lat"n A+er"ca t'ere "s ;t'e nee to ,orge ne.
)at'.a#s base on #o!r o.n "ent"t#, an t'"s "rect*# ca**s !)on #o!r
res)ons"b"*"t# ,or t'o!g't an ,or c!*t!re&; He a))ea*e to t'e+ to ;be
)ro+oters o, +essengers o, a c!*t!re o, *",e t'at +a0es (e6"co a great
nat"on&;
Inee, beca!se (e6"co .as t'e ,"rst non-E!ro)ean nat"on .'ere t'e ,!**-
b*o.n 8'r"st"an H!+an"st "+age o, +an .as teste as a +oe* o, !n"$ersa*
c"$"*"%at"on, t'e ;c!*t!re o, *",e; "t can st"** )ro!ce ,ro+ t'ose roots "s o,
)rec"o!s s"gn","cance to t'e .'o*e '!+an race& No +atter 'o. +an# ,*a.s
t'ere .ere "n t'at e6)er"+ent "n e6)ort"ng t'e Rena"ssance, t'e S)an"s'
estro#e a soc"et# base on genoc"e an s*a$er#, an b!"*t one "n .'"c'
bea!t# .as t'e "nstr!+ent o, reason an 'o)e&

Minat Terkait