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"Cyberwar" redirects here. For the video game, see Cyberwar (video game). For the 2004 movie, see Cyber Wars
(film). For the 1 !!"#, see Cyber Wars.
$ot to be co%f&sed with 'lectro%ic warfare.
This article is part of a series on
Computer security
Computer security (main article
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#etwork security
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%iruses and worms
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$ecure coding
$ecurity by design
$ecure operating systems
Two/factor authentication
"ulti/factor authentication
Firewall (computing
!ntrusion detection system
!ntrusion pre'ention system
Grand strategy
Cyberwarfare refers to politically moti'ated hacking to conduct sabotage and espionage. !t is a form of information
warfaresometimes seen as analogous to con'entional warfare.
2 "ethods of attack
o 2.2 &spionage and national security breaches
o 2.4 $abotage
2.4.2 *enial/of/ser'ice attack
2.4.4 &lectrical power grid
4 "oti'ations
o 4.2 "ilitary
o 4.4 Terrorism
o 4.5 Ci'il
o 4.6 +ri'ate sector
o 4.7 #on/profit research
5 Cyberwarfare by country
o 5.2 Cyberwarfare in China
o 5.4 Cyberwarfare in 8ermany
o 5.5 Cyberwarfare in !ndia
o 5.6 Cyberwarfare in !ran
o 5.7 Cyberwarfare in $outh -orea
o 5.9 Cyberwarfare in ,ussia
o 5.: Cyberwarfare in the ;-
o 5.< Cyberwarfare in the ;nited $tates
6 Cyber counterintelligence
7 Contro'ersy o'er terms
9 !ncidents
: &fforts at prohibition
< $ee also
= Further reading
2> ,eferences
22 &(ternal links
"ethods of attack
Cyberwarfare consists of many different threats:
*irector of #ational !ntelligence "r. Clapper di'ides these into cyber
espionage and cyberattacks, the latter of which he defines as the top security threat to the ;nited $tates.
"spionage and national security breaches1edit3
Cyber espionage is the act or practice of obtaining secrets (sensiti'e, proprietary or classified information from
indi'iduals, competitors, ri'als, groups, go'ernments and enemies also for military, political, or economic ad'antage
using illegal e(ploitation methods on internet, networks, software and or computers. Classified information that is not
handled securely can be intercepted and e'en modified, making espionage possible from the other side of the world.
$pecific attacks on the ;nited $tates ha'e been gi'en codenames like Titan ,ain and "oonlight "a0e. 8eneral
.le(ander notes that the recently established Cyber Command is currently trying to determine whether such acti'ities
as commercial espionage or theft of intellectual property are criminal acti'ities or actual ?breaches of national
Computers and satellites that coordinate other acti'ities are 'ulnerable components of a system and could lead to the
disruption of e@uipment. Compromise of military systems, such as C6!$T., components that are responsible for
orders and communications could lead to their interception or malicious replacement. +ower, water, fuel,
communications, and transportation infrastructure all may be 'ulnerable to disruption. .ccording to Clarke, the ci'ilian
realm is also at risk, noting that the security breaches ha'e already gone beyond stolen credit card numbers, and that
potential targets can also include the electric power grid, trains, or the stock market.
!n mid Auly 4>2>, security e(perts disco'ered a malicious software program called $tu(net that had infiltrated factory
computers and had spread to plants around the world. !t is considered ?the first attack on critical industrial
infrastructure that sits at the foundation of modern economies,? notes (he $ew )or* (imes.
Denial#of#ser$ice attac%
!ai% article+ ,o-
!n computing, a denial/of/ser'ice attack (*o$ attack or distributed denial/of/ser'ice attack (**o$ attack is an attempt
to make a machine or network resource una'ailable to its intended users. +erpetrators of *o$ attacks typically target
sites or ser'ices hosted on high/profile web ser'ers such as banks, credit card payment gateways, and e'en root
nameser'ers. *o$ attacks may not be limited to computer/based methods, as strategic physical attacks against
infrastructure can be )ust as de'astating. For e(ample, cutting undersea communication cables may se'erely cripple
some regions and countries with regards to their information warfare ability.
"lectrical power grid
The federal go'ernment of the ;nited $tates admits that the electric power grid is susceptible to cyber/warfare.
The ;nited $tates *epartment of Bomeland $ecurity works with industry to identify 'ulnerabilities and to help
industry enhance the security of control system networks, the federal go'ernment is also working to ensure that
security is built in as the ne(t generation of ?smart grid? networks are de'eloped.
!n .pril 4>>=, reports surfaced that
China and ,ussia had infiltrated the ;.$. electrical grid and left behind software programs that could be used to disrupt
the system, according to current and former national security officials.
The #orth .merican &lectric ,eliability
Corporation (#&,C has issued a public notice that warns that the electrical grid is not ade@uately protected from
cyber attack.
China denies intruding into the ;.$. electrical grid.
Cnecountermeasure would be to disconnect the
power grid from the !nternet and run the net with droop speed control only.
"assi'e power outages caused by a
cyber attack could disrupt the economy, distract from a simultaneous military attack, or create a national trauma.
Boward $chmidt, former Cyber/$ecurity Coordinator of the ;$, commented on those possibilities:
!tDs possible that hackers ha'e gotten into administrati'e computer systems of utility companies, but says those arenEt
linked to the e@uipment controlling the grid, at least not in de'eloped countries. 1$chmidt3 has ne'er heard that the grid
itself has been hacked.
!n the ;.$., 8eneral -eith F. .le(ander, first head of the recently formed ;$CGF&,CC", told the $enate .rmed
$er'ices Committee that computer network warfare is e'ol'ing so rapidly that there is a ?mismatch between our
technical capabilities to conduct operations and the go'erning laws and policies. Cyber Command is the newest global
combatant and its sole mission is cyberspace, outside the traditional battlefields of land, sea, air and space.? !t will
attempt to find and, when necessary, neutrali0e cyberattacks and to defend military computer networks.
.le(ander sketched out the broad battlefield en'isioned for the computer warfare command, listing the kind of targets
that his new head@uarters could be ordered to attack, including ?traditional battlefield pri0es H command/and/control
systems at military head@uarters, air defense networks and weapons systems that re@uire computers to operate.?
Cne cyber warfare scenario, Cyber $hockWa'e, which was wargamed on the cabinet le'el by former administration
officials, raised issues ranging from the #ational 8uard to thepower grid to the limits of statutory authority.
The distributed nature of internet based attacks means that it is difficult to determine moti'ation and attacking party,
meaning that it is unclear when a specific act should be considered an act of war.
&(amples of cyberwarfare dri'en by political moti'ations can be found worldwide. !n 4>><, ,ussia began a cyber
attack on the 8eorgian go'ernment website, which was carried out along with 8eorgian military operations in $outh
Cssetia. !n 4>><, Chinese Dnationalist hackersD attacked C## as it reported on Chinese repression on Tibet.
&ugene -aspersky, founder of -aspersky Iab, concludes that ?cyberterrorism? is a more accurate term than
?cyberwar.? Be states that ?with todayDs attacks, you are clueless about who did it or when they will strike again. !tDs not
cyber/war, but cyberterrorism.?
Be also e@uates large/scale cyber weapons, such as the Flame
%irus and #etTra'eler %irus which his company disco'ered, to biological weapons, claiming that in an interconnected
world, they ha'e the potential to be e@ually destructi'e.
+otential targets in internet sabotage include all aspects of the !nternet from the backbones of the web, to the !nternet
$er'ice +ro'iders, to the 'arying types of data communication mediums and network e@uipment. This would include:
web ser'ers, enterprise information systems, client ser'er systems, communication links, network e@uipment, and the
desktops and laptops in businesses and homes. &lectrical grids and telecommunication systems are also deemed
'ulnerable, especially due to current trends in automation.
1citatio% %eeded3
'ri$ate sector
Computer hacking represents a modern threat in ongoing industrial espionage and as such is presumed to widely
occur. !t is typical that this type of crime is underreported. .ccording to "c.feeDs 8eorge -urt0, corporations around
the world face millions of cyberattacks a day. ?"ost of these attacks donEt gain any media attention or lead to strong
political statements by 'ictims.?
This type of crime is usually financially moti'ated.
(on#profit research
Fut not all e(aminations with the issue of cyberwarfare are achie'ing profit or personal gain. There are still institutes
and companies like the ;ni'ersity of Cincinnati or the-aspersky $ecurity Iab which are trying to increase the
sensibility of this topic by researching and publishing of new security threats.
Cyberwarfare by country
The !nternet security company "c.fee stated in their 4>>: annual report that appro(imately 24> countries ha'e been
de'eloping ways to use the !nternet as a weapon and target financial markets, go'ernment computer systems and
Cyberwarfare in China
!ai% article+ Cyberwarfare i% the .eo/le0s 1e/&blic of Chi%a
-ee also+ Chi%ese i%tellige%ce activity abroad, Chi%ese i%tellige%ce o/eratio%s i% the 2%ited -tates, a%d Chi%ese
3%formatio% "/eratio%s a%d 3%formatio% Warfare
*iplomatic cables highlight ;$ concerns that China is using access to "icrosoft source code and Dhar'esting the
talents of its pri'ate sectorD to boost its offensi'e and defensi'e capabilities.
. 4>>< article in the C&lt&re !a%dala+ (he 4&lleti% of the Ce%tre for 'ast5West C&lt&ral a%d 'co%omic -t&dies by
Aason Frit0 alleges that the Chinese go'ernment from 2==7 to 4>>< was in'ol'ed in a number of high profile cases of
espionage, primarily through the use of a ?decentrali0ed network of students, business people, scientists, diplomats,
and engineers from within the Chinese *iaspora?.
. defector in Felgium, purportedly an agent, claimed that there
were hundreds of spies in industries throughout &urope, and on his defection to .ustralia Chinese diplomat Chen
Gonglin said there were o'er 2,>>> such in that country. !n 4>>:, a ,ussian e(ecuti'e was sentenced to 22 years for
passing information about the rocket and space technology organi0ation to China. Targets in the ;nited $tates ha'e
included Jaerospace engineering programs, space shuttle design,C6!$, data, high/performance computers, #uclear
weapon design, cruise missile data, semiconductors, integrated circuit design, and details of ;$ arms sales to TaiwanE.
While China continues to be held responsible for a string of cyber/attacks on a number of public and pri'ate institutions
in the ;nited $tates, !ndia, ,ussia, Canada, and France, the Chinese go'ernment denies any in'ol'ement in cyber/
spying campaigns. The administration maintains the position that China is not the threat but rather the 'ictim of an
increasing number of cyber/attacks. "ost reports about ChinaDs cyber warfare capabilities ha'e yet to be confirmed by
the Chinese go'ernment.
.ccording to Frit0, China has e(panded its cyber capabilities and military technology by ac@uiring foreign military
Frit0 states that the Chinese go'ernment uses ?new space/based sur'eillance and intelligence gathering
systems, .nti/satellite weapon, anti/radar, infrared decoys, and false target generators? to assist in this @uest, and that
they support their ?informationi0ation? of the their military through ?increased education of soldiers in cyber warfareK
impro'ing the information network for military training, and has built more 'irtual laboratories, digital libraries and digital
Through this informationi0ation, they hope to prepare their forces to engage in a different kind of warfare,
against technically capable ad'ersaries.
"any recent news reports link ChinaDs technological capabilities to the
beginning of a new Jcyber cold war.E
Cyberwarfare in Germany
!n 4>25, 8ermany re'ealed the e(istence of their 9>/person Computer #etwork Cperation unit.
The 8erman
intelligence agency, F#*, announced it was seeking to hire 25> ?hackers? for a new ?cyber defence station? unit. !n
"arch 4>25, F#* president 8erhard $chindler announced that his agency had obser'ed up to fi'e attacks a day on
go'ernment authorities, thought mainly to originate in China. Be confirmed the attackers had so far only accessed data
and e(pressed concern that the stolen information could be used as the basis of future sabotage attacks against arms
manufacturers, telecommunications companies and go'ernment and military agencies.
$hortly after &dward
$nowden leaked details of the ;.$. #ational $ecurity .gencyDs cyber sur'eillance system, 8erman !nterior
"inister Bans/+eter Friedrich announced that the F#* would be gi'en an additional budget of 2>> million &uros to
increase their cyber sur'eillance capability from 7L of total internet traffic in 8ermany to 4>L of total traffic, the
ma(imum amount allowed by 8erman law.
Cyberwarfare in )ndia
-ee also+ $atio%al Cyber -ec&rity .olicy 2016
The *epartment of !nformation Technology created the !ndian Computer &mergency ,esponse Team (C&,T/!n in
4>>6 to thwart cyber attacks in !ndia.
That year, there were 45 reported cyber security breaches. !n 4>22, there were
25,5>2. That year, the go'ernment created a new subdi'ision, the #ational Critical !nformation !nfrastructure +rotection
1/age %eeded3
(#C!!+C to thwart attacks against energy, transport, banking, telecom, defence, space and other
sensiti'e areas. The &(ecuti'e *irector of the #uclear +ower Corporation of !ndia (#+C!I stated in February 4>25
that his company alone was forced to block up to ten targeted attacks a day. C&,T/!n was left to protect less critical
. high profile cyber attack on 24 Auly 4>24 breached the email accounts of about 24,>>> people, including those of
officials from the "inistry of &(ternal .ffairs, "inistry of Bome .ffairs, *efence ,esearch and *e'elopment
Crganisation (*,*C, and the !ndo/Tibetan Forder +olice (!TF+.
. go'ernment/pri'ate sector plan being o'erseen
by #ational $ecurity .d'isor (#$. $hi'shankar "enon began in Cctober 4>24, and intends to beef up !ndiaDs cyber
security capabilities in the light of a group of e(perts findings that !ndia faces a 6:>,>>> shortfall of such e(perts
despite the countryDs reputation of being an !T and software powerhouse.
!n February 4>25, !nformation Technology $ecretary A. $atyanarayana stated that the #C!!+C
1/age %eeded3
was finali0ing
policies related to national cyber security that would focus on domestic security solutions, reducing e(posure through
foreign technology.
Cther steps include the isolation of 'arious security agencies to ensure that a synchronised
attack could not succeed on all fronts and the planned appointment of a #ational Cyber $ecurity Coordinator. .s of that
month, there had been no significant economic or physical damage to !ndia related to cyber attacks.
Cyberwarfare in )ran
!n Aune 4>2>, !ran was the 'ictim of a cyber attack when its nuclear facility in #atan0 was infiltrated by the cyber/worm
,eportedly a combined effort by the ;nited $tates and !srael,
$tu(net destroyed perhaps o'er 2>>>
nuclear centrifuges and, according to a 4&si%ess 3%sider article, ?1set3 TehranDs atomic programme back by at least two
The worm spread beyond the plant to allegedly infect o'er 9>,>>> computers, but the go'ernment of !ran
indicates it caused no significant damage. !ran crowdsourced solutions to the worm and is purportedly now better
positioned in terms of cyber warfare technology.
#o go'ernment has claimed responsibility for the worm.
The !ranian go'ernment has been accused by western analysts of its own cyber/attacks against the ;nited $tates,
!srael and 8ulf .rabs, but deny this, including specific allegations of 4>24 in'ol'ement in hacking into .merican banks.
The conflict between !ran and the ;nited $tates as been called ?historyEs first known cyber/war? by "ichael Aoseph
8ross mid/4>25.
Cyberwarfare in South *orea
With ongoing tensions on the -orean +eninsula, $outh -oreaDs defense ministry stated that $outh -orea was going to
impro'e cyber/defense strategies in hopes of preparing itself from possible cyber attacks. !n "arch 4>25, $outh
-oreaDs ma)or banks H $hinhan Fank, Woori Fank and #ongByup Fank H as well as many broadcasting stations H
-F$, GT# and "FC H were hacked and more than 5>,>>> computers were affectedK it is one of the biggest attacks
$outh -orea has faced in years.
.lthough it remains uncertain as to who was in'ol'ed in this incident, there has
been immediate assertions that #orth -orea is connected, as it threatened to attack $outh -oreaDs go'ernment
institutions, ma)or national banks and traditional newspapers numerous times H in reaction to the sanctions it recei'ed
from nuclear testing and to the continuation of Foal &agle, $outh -oreaDs annual )oint military e(ercise with the ;nited
$tates. #orth -oreaDs cyber warfare capabilities raise the alarm for $outh -orea, as #orth -orea is increasing its
manpower through military academies speciali0ing in hacking. Current figures state that $outh -orea only has 6>>
units of speciali0ed personnel, while #orth -orea has more than 5,>>> highly trained hackersK this portrays a huge gap
in cyber warfare capabilities and sends a message to $outh -orea that it has to step up and strengthen its Cyber
Warfare Command forces. Therefore, in order to be prepared from future attacks, $outh -orea and the ;nited $tates
will discuss further about deterrence plans at the $ecurity Consultati'e "eeting ($C". .t $C", they plan on
de'eloping strategies that focuses on accelerating the deployment of ballistic missiles as well as fostering its defense
shield program, known as the -orean .ir and "issile *efense.
Cyberwarfare in Russia
$ee Cyberwarfare in ,ussia.
Cyberwarfare in the +*
"!9 reportedly infiltrated an .l Maeda website and replaced the recipe for a pipe bomb with the recipe for
making cupcakes.
Cn 24 #o'ember 4>25, financial organisations in Iondon conducted cyber war games dubbed DWalking $hark 4D
simulate massi'e internet/based attacks against bank and other financial organisations. The Walking $hark 4 cyber
war games followed a similar e(ercise in Wall $treet.
Cyberwarfare in the +nited States
!ai% article+ Cyberwarfare i% the 2%ited -tates
Cyberwarfare in the ;nited $tates is a part of the .merican military strategy of +roacti'e Cyber *efence and the use of
cyberwarfare as a platform for attack.
The new ;nited $tates military strategy makes e(plicit that a cyberattack
is cas&s belli )ust as a traditional act of war.
!n 4>25 Cyberwarfare was, for the first time, considered a larger threat than .l Maeda or terrorism, by many ;.$.
intelligence officials.
,epresentati'e "ike ,ogers, chairman of the ;.$. Bouse +ermanent $elect Committee on
!ntelligence, for instance, said in late Auly, 4>25, that Nmost .mericansO do not reali0e that the ;nited $tates is currently
in the middle of a Ncyber war.O
;.$. go'ernment security e(pert ,ichard .. Clarke, in his book Cyber War ("ay 4>2>, defines ?cyberwarfare? as
?actions by a nation/state to penetrate another nationDs computers or networks for the purposes of causing damage or
The 'co%omist describes cyberspace as ?the fifth domain of warfare,?
and William A. Iynn, ;.$.
*eputy $ecretary of *efense, states that ?as a doctrinal matter, the +entagon has formally recogni0ed cyberspace as a
new domain in warfare . . . 1which3 has become )ust as critical to military operations as land, sea, air, and space.?
!n 4>>=, +resident Farack Cbama declared .mericaDs digital infrastructure to be a ?strategic national asset,? and in
"ay 4>2> the +entagon set up its new ;.$. Cyber Command (;$CGF&,CC", headed by 8eneral -eith F.
.le(ander, director of the #ational $ecurity .gency (#$., to defend .merican military networks and attack other
countriesD systems. The &; has set up &#!$. (&uropean #etwork and !nformation $ecurity .gency which is headed
by +rof. ;do Belmbrecht and there are now further plans to significantly e(pand &#!$.Ds capabilities. The ;nited
-ingdom has also set up a cyber/security and ?operations centre? based in 8o'ernment Communications
Bead@uarters (8CBM, the Fritish e@ui'alent of the #$.. !n the ;.$. howe'er, Cyber Command is only set up to
protect the military, whereas the go'ernment and corporate infrastructures are primarily the responsibility respecti'ely
of the *epartment of Bomeland $ecurity and pri'ate companies.
!n February 4>2>, top .merican lawmakers warned that the ?threat of a crippling attack on telecommunications and
computer networks was sharply on the rise.?
.ccording to The Iipman ,eport, numerous key sectors of the ;.$.
economy along with that of other nations, are currently at risk, including cyber threats to public and pri'ate facilities,
banking and finance, transportation, manufacturing, medical, education and go'ernment, all of which are now
dependent on computers for daily operations.
!n 4>>=, +resident Cbama stated that ?cyber intruders ha'e probed
our electrical grids.?
(he 'co%omist writes that China has plans of ?winning informationised wars by the mid/42st century?. They note that
other countries are likewise organi0ing for cyberwar, among them ,ussia, !srael and #orth -orea. !ran boasts of ha'ing
the worldDs second/largest cyber/army.
Aames 8osler, a go'ernment cybersecurity specialist, worries that the ;.$.
has a se'ere shortage of computer security specialists, estimating that there are only about 2,>>> @ualified people in
the country today, but needs a force of 4>,>>> to 5>,>>> skilled e(perts.
.t the Auly 4>2> Flack Bat computer
security conference, "ichael Bayden, former deputy director of national intelligence, challenged thousands of
attendees to help de'ise ways to ?reshape the !nternetDs security architecture?, e(plaining, ?Gou guys made the
cyberworld look like the north 8erman plain.?
!n Aanuary 4>24, "ike "cConnell, the former director of national intelligence at the #ational $ecurity .gency under
+resident 8eorge W. Fush told the ,euters news agency that the ;.$. has already launched attacks on computer
networks in other countries.
"cConnell did not name the country that the ;.$. attacked but according to other
sources it may ha'e been !ran.
!n Aune 4>24 the #ew Gork Times reported that +resident Cbama had ordered the
cyber attack on !ranian nuclear enrichment facilities.
!n .ugust 4>2>, the ;.$. for the first time warned publicly about the Chinese militaryDs use of ci'ilian computer e(perts
in clandestine cyber attacks aimed at .merican companies and go'ernment agencies. The +entagon also pointed to
an alleged China/based computer spying network dubbed 8host#et that was re'ealed in a research report last year.
The +entagon stated:
?The +eopleDs Iiberation .rmy is using ?information warfare units? to de'elop 'iruses to attack enemy
computer systems and networks, and those units include ci'ilian computer professionals. Commander Fob
"ehal, will monitor the +I.Ds buildup of its cyberwarfare capabilities and will continue to de'elop capabilities to
counter any potential threat.?
The ;nited $tates *epartment of *efense sees the use of computers and the !nternet to conduct warfare
in cyberspace as a threat to national security.
The ;nited $tates Aoint Forces Command describes some of its
Cyberspace technology is emerging as an ?instrument of power? in societies, and is becoming more a'ailable
to a countryDs opponents, who may use it to attack, degrade, and disrupt communications and the flow of
information. With low barriers to entry, coupled with the anonymous nature of acti'ities in cyberspace, the list of
potential ad'ersaries is broad. Furthermore, the globe/spanning range of cyberspace and its disregard for
national borders will challenge legal systems and complicate a nationDs ability to deter threats and respond to
!n February 4>2>, the ;nited $tates Aoint Forces Command released a study which included a summary of
the threats posed by the internet:
With 'ery little in'estment, and cloaked in a 'eil of anonymity, our ad'ersaries will ine'itably attempt to harm
our national interests. Cyberspace will become a main front in both irregular and traditional conflicts. &nemies
in cyberspace will include both states and non/states and will range from the unsophisticated amateur to highly
trained professional hackers. Through cyberspace, enemies will target industry, academia, go'ernment, as well
as the military in the air, land, maritime, and space domains. !n much the same way that airpower transformed
the battlefield of World War !!, cyberspace has fractured the physical barriers that shield a nation from attacks
on its commerce and communication. !ndeed, ad'ersaries ha'e already taken ad'antage of computer
networks and the power of information technology not only to plan and e(ecute sa'age acts of terrorism, but
also to influence directly the perceptions and will of the ;.$. 8o'ernment and the .merican population.
,merican -Kill switch bill-
Cn 2= Aune 4>2>, ;nited $tates $enator Aoe Iieberman (!/CT introduced a bill called ?+rotecting
Cyberspace as a #ational .sset .ct of 4>2>?,
which he co/wrote with $enator$usan Collins (,/"& and
$enator Thomas Carper (*/*&. !f signed into law, this contro'ersial bill, which the .merican media
dubbed the ?7ill switch bill?, would grant the+resident emergency powers o'er parts of the !nternet.
Bowe'er, all three co/authors of the bill issued a statement that instead, the bill ?1narrowed3 e(isting broad
+residential authority to take o'er telecommunications networks?.
The ;nited $tates has used cyberattacks for tactical ad'antage in .fghanistan.
Cyber counterintelligence
Cyber counter/intelligence are measures to identify, penetrate, or neutrali0e foreign operations that use
cyber means as the primary tradecraft methodology, as well as foreign intelligence ser'ice collection
efforts that use traditional methods to gauge cyber capabilities and intentions.

Cn : .pril 4>>=, The +entagon announced they spent more than P2>> million in the last si( months
responding to and repairing damage from cyber attacks and other computer network problems.

Cn 2 .pril 4>>=, ;.$. lawmakers pushed for the appointment of a White Bouse cyber security ?c0ar?
to dramatically escalate ;.$. defenses against cyber attacks, crafting proposals that would empower
the go'ernment to set and enforce security standards for pri'ate industry for the first time.

Cn = February 4>>=, the White Bouse announced that it will conduct a re'iew of the nationDs cyber
security to ensure that the Federal go'ernment of the ;nited $tates cyber security initiati'es are
appropriately integrated, resourced and coordinated with the ;nited $tates Congress and the pri'ate

!n the wake of the 4>>: cyberwar waged against &stonia, #.TC established the Cooperati'e Cyber
*efence Centre of &(cellence (CC* Co& in Tallinn, &stonia, in order to enhance the organi0ationDs
cyber defence capability. The center was formally established on 26 "ay 4>><, and it recei'ed full
accreditation by #.TC and attained the status of !nternational "ilitary Crgani0ation on 4< Cctober
$ince &stonia has led international efforts to fight cybercrime, the ;nited $tates Federal
Fureau of !n'estigationsays it will permanently base a computer crime e(pert in &stonia in 4>>= to
help fight international threats against computer systems.
Cne of the hardest issues in cyber counterintelligence is the problem of ?.ttribution?. ;nlike con'entional
warfare, figuring out who is behind an attack can be 'ery difficult.
Bowe'er *efense $ecretary Ieon
+anetta has claimed that the ;nited $tates has the capability to trace attacks back to their sources and
hold the attackers ?accountable?.
Contro'ersy o'er terms
There is debate on whether the term ?cyberwarfare? is accurate. !n Cctober 4>22, for instance,
the 8o&r%al of -trategic -t&dies, a leading )ournal in that field, published an article by Thomas ,id, ?Cyber
War Will #ot Take +lace.? .n act of cyber war would ha'e to be potentially lethal, instrumental, and
political. Then not one single cyber offense on record constitutes an act of war on its own. !nstead, all
politically moti'ated cyber attacks, ,id argued, are merely sophisticated 'ersions of three acti'ities that
are as old as warfare itself: sabotage, espionage, and sub'ersion.
Boward $chmidt, an .merican cybersecurity e(pert, argued in "arch 4>2> that ?there is no cyberwar... !
think that is a terrible metaphor and ! think that is a terrible concept. There are no winners in that
en'ironment.? Cther e(perts, howe'er, belie'e that this type of acti'ity already constitutes a war.
warfare analogy is often seen intended to moti'ate a militaristic response when that is not necessarily
appropriate. ,on *eibert, of CanadaDs Citi0en Iab, has warned of a ?militari0ation of cyberspace.?
The &uropean cybersecurity e(pert $andro 8aycken argued for a middle position. Be considers cyberwar
from a legal perspecti'e an unlikely scenario, due to the reasons lined out by ,id (and, before him,
but the situation looks different from a strategic point of 'iew. $tates ha'e to consider
military/led cyber operations an attracti'e acti'ity, within and without war, as they offer a large 'ariety of
cheap and risk/free options to weaken other countries and strengthen their own positions. Considered
from a long/term, geostrategic perspecti'e, cyber offensi'e operations can cripple whole economies,
change political 'iews, agitate conflicts within or among states, reduce their military efficiency and
e@uali0e the capacities of high/tech nations to that of low/tech nations, and use access to their critical
infrastructures to blackmail them.
Cn 42 #o'ember 4>22, it was widely reported in the ;.$. media that a hacker had destroyed a water
pump at the Curran/8ardner Township +ublic Water *istrict in !llinois.
Bowe'er, it later turned out that
this information was not only false, but had been inappropriately leaked from the !llinois $tatewide
Terrorism and !ntelligence Center.

Cn 9 Cctober 4>22, it was announced that Creech .FFDs drone and +redator fleetDs command and
control data stream has been keylogged, resisting all attempts to re'erse the e(ploit, for the past two
The .ir Force issued a statement that the 'irus had ?posed no threat to our operational

!n Auly 4>22, the $outh -orean company $- Communications was hacked, resulting in the theft of the
personal details (including names, phone numbers, home and email addresses and resident
registration numbers of up to 57 million people. . tro)aned software update was used to gain access
to the $- Communications network. Iinks e(ist between this hack and other malicious acti'ity and it
is belie'ed to be part of a broader, concerted hacking effort.

Cperation $hady ,.T is an ongoing series of cyber attacks starting mid/4>>9, reported by !nternet
security company "c.fee in .ugust 4>22. The attacks ha'e hit at least :4 organi0ations including
go'ernments and defense contractors.

Cn 6 *ecember 4>2>, a group calling itself the +akistan Cyber .rmy hacked the website of !ndiaDs
top in'estigating agency, the Central Fureau of !n'estigation (CF!. The#ational !nformatics
Center (#!C has begun an in@uiry.

Cn 49 #o'ember 4>2>, a group calling itself the !ndian Cyber .rmy hacked the websites belonging to
the +akistan .rmy and the others belong to different ministries, including the "inistry of Foreign
.ffairs, "inistry of &ducation, "inistry of Finance, +akistan Computer Fureau, Council of !slamic
!deology, etc. The attack was done as a re'enge for the"umbai terrorist attacks.

!n Cctober 4>2>, !ain Iobban, the director of the 8o'ernment Communications

Bead@uarters (8CBM, said Fritain faces a ?real and credible? threat from cyber attacks by hostile
states and criminals and go'ernment systems are targeted 2,>>> times each month, such attacks
threatened FritainDs economic future, and some countries were already using cyber assaults to put
pressure on other nations.

!n $eptember 4>2>, !ran was attacked by the $tu(net worm, thought to specifically target its #atan0
nuclear enrichment facility. The worm is said to be the most ad'anced piece of malware e'er
disco'ered and significantly increases the profile of cyberwarfare.

!n Auly 4>>=, there were a series of coordinated denial of ser'ice attacks against ma)or go'ernment,
news media, and financial websites in $outh -orea and the ;nited $tates.
While many thought the
attack was directed by #orth -orea, one researcher traced the attacks to the ;nited -ingdom.

,ussian, $outh Cssetian, 8eorgian and .0erbai)ani sites were attacked by hackers during the 4>><
$outh Cssetia War.

!n 4>>: the website of the -yrgy0 Central &lection Commission was defaced during its election. The
message left on the website read ?This site has been hacked by *ream of &stonian organi0ation?.
*uring the election campaigns and riots preceding the election, there were cases of *enial/of/ser'ice
attacks against the -yrgy0 !$+s.

!n $eptember 4>>:, !srael carried out an airstrike on $yria dubbed Cperation Crchard. ;.$. industry
and military sources speculated that the !sraelis may ha'e used cyberwarfare to allow their planes to
pass undetected by radar into $yria.

!n .pril 4>>:, &stonia came under cyber attack in the wake of relocation of the Fron0e $oldier of
The largest part of the attacks were coming from ,ussia and from official ser'ers of the
authorities of ,ussia.
!n the attack, ministries, banks, and media were targeted.

!n the 4>>9 war against Be0bollah, !srael alleges that cyber/warfare was part of the conflict, where
the !srael *efense Forces (!*F intelligence estimates se'eral countries in the "iddle &ast used
,ussian hackers and scientists to operate on their behalf. .s a result, !srael attached growing
importance to cyber/tactics, and became, along with the ;.$., France and a couple of other nations,
in'ol'ed in cyber/war planning. "any international high/tech companies are now locating research
and de'elopment operations in !srael, where local hires are often 'eterans of the !*FDs elite computer
,ichard .. Clarke adds that ?our !sraeli friends ha'e learned a thing or two from the programs
we ha'e been working on for more than two decades.?
&fforts at prohibition
The $hanghai Cooperation Crganisation (members include China and ,ussia defines cyberwar to
include dissemination of information ?harmful to the spiritual, moral and cultural spheres of other states?.
!n $eptember 4>22, these countries proposed to the ;# $ecretary 8eneral a document called
?!nternational code of conduct for information security?.
The approach was not endorsed by western
countries as it entailed too many hints on political censorship of the internet.
!n contrast, the ;nited $tatesD approach focuses on physical and economic damage and in)ury, putting
political concerns under freedom of speech. This difference of opinion has led to reluctance in the West to
pursue global cyber arms control agreements.
Bowe'er, .merican 8eneral -eith F. .le(ander did
endorse talks with ,ussia o'er a proposal to limit military attacks in cyberspace.
!n Aune 4>25, Farack
Cbama and %ladimir +utin agreed to install a secure Cyberwar59otli%e pro'iding ?a direct secure 'oice
communications line between the ;$ cybersecurity coordinator and the ,ussian deputy secretary of the
security council, should there be a need to directly manage a crisis situation arising from an !CT security
incident.? (White Bouse @uote
. ;krainian professor of !nternational Iaw, .le(ander "ere0hko, has de'eloped a pro)ect called the
!nternational Con'ention on +rohibition of Cyberwar in !nternet. .ccording to this pro)ect, cyberwar is
defined as the use of !nternet and related technological means by one state against political, economic,
technological and information so'ereignty and independence of any other state. +rofessor "ere0hkoDs
pro)ect suggests that the !nternet ought to remain free from warfare tactics and be treated as an
international landmark. Be states that the !nternet (cyberspace is a ?common heritage of mankind.?
Backti'ism is a form of cyber warfare that is strictly politically moti'ated. &(amples include Web site
defacements, ;,I redirection, denial/of/ser'ice attacks, information theft and dumping, web site
parodies, typos@uatting, and 'irtual sabotage. *enning e(plains in her book The ethics of cyber conflict.
The Bandbook of !nformation and Computer &thics(4>><
how hackti'ism has spurred the desire for
proper rights and laws in cyberspace.
$ee also
Computer security portal
.ir Force Cyber Command (+ro'isional
Chinese intelligence operations in the ;nited $tates
Computer insecurity
Cyber $hockWa'e
Cyber spying
Cyberwarfare in ,ussia
*enial/of/ser'ice attack
&lectronic warfare
Backer (computer security
!ndustrial espionage
!nformation warfare
!T risk
Iist of cyber attack threat trends
+enetration test
+roacti'e Cyber *efence
$ignals intelligence
;.$. Cyber Command
.ir Force Cyber Command
.rmy Cyber Command
Fleet Cyber Command
"arine Corps Forces Cyberspace Command
Further reading
.ndress, Aason. Winterfeld, $te'e. (4>22. Cyber Warfare+ (ech%i:&es, (actics a%d (ools for -ec&rity
.ractitio%ers. $yngress. !$F# 2/7=:6=/95:/7
Frenner, $. (4>>=. Cyber (hreats+ (he 'mergi%g Fa&lt ;i%es of the $atio% -tate. C(ford ;ni'ersity
+ress. !$F# >/2=/75<7>2/4
Carr, Aeffrey. (4>2>. 3%side Cyber Warfare+ !a//i%g the Cyber 2%derworld. CD,eilly. !$F# =:</>/
Cordesman, .nthony B., Cordesman, Austin 8. Cyber5threats, 3%formatio% Warfare, a%d Critical
3%frastr&ct&re .rotectio%, 8reenwood +ubl. (4>>4
8aycken, $andro. (4>24. Cyberwar < ,as Wettr=ste% hat l>%gst bego%%e%.
8oldmann/,andomhouse. !$F# =:</566427:2>7
8eers, -enneth. (4>22. -trategic Cyber -ec&rity. #.TC Cyber Centre. -trategic Cyber
-ec&rity, !$F# =:</==6=/=>6>/:/7 29= pages
Aanc0ewski, IechK Colarik, .ndrew ". Cyber Warfare and Cyber Terrorism !8! 8lobal (4>><
,id, Thomas (4>22 ?Cyber War Will #ot Take +lace,? 8o&r%al of -trategic
-t&dies, doi:2>.2><>/>26>45=>.4>22.9><=5=
%entre, *. (4>>:. ;a g&erre de l0i%formatio%. Bermes/Ia'oisier. 5>> pages
%entre, *. (4>>=. 3%formatio% Warfare. Wiley H !$T&. !$F# =:</2/<6<42/>=6/5
%entre, *. (&dit. (4>2>. Cyberg&erre et g&erre de l0i%formatio%. -trat?gies, r@gles, e%Ae&B. Bermes/
Ia'oisier. !$F# =:</4/:694/5>>6/>
%entre, *. (4>22. Cyberes/ace et acte&rs d& cyberco%flit. Bermes/Ia'oisier. 4<< pages
%entre, *. (&dit. (4>22. Cyberwar a%d 3%formatio% Warfare. Wiley. 69> pages
%entre, *. (4>22. Cyberatta:&e et Cyberd?fe%se. Bermes/Ia'oisier. 559 pages
%entre, *. (&dit. (4>24. Cyber Co%flict. Com/eti%g $atio%al .ers/ectives. Wiley/!$T&. 55> pages
Woltag, Aohann/Christoph: DCyber WarfareD in 1=diger Wolfr&m ('d.) !aB .la%c* '%cyclo/edia of
.&blic 3%ter%atio%al ;aw ("Bford 2%iversity .ress 2012).
Q Aump up to:

*C* H Cyberspace. * ,etrie'ed < #o'ember 4>22.
.ump up / Cyberspace and the changing nature of warfare. $trategists must be aware that part
of e'ery political and military conflict will take place on the internet, says -enneth 8eers.
.ump up / ?Cyberattacks, Terrorism Top ;.$. $ecurity Threat ,eport.?
Q Aump up to:

?Clarke: "ore defense needed in cyberspace? 9ometow%C%%a/, 46
$eptember 4>2>
.ump up / ?"alware Bits Computeri0ed !ndustrial &@uipment? $ew )or* (imes, 46 $eptember
.ump up / $hiels, "aggie. (= .pril 4>>= FFC: $pies Dinfiltrate ;$ power gridD. FFC #ews.
,etrie'ed < #o'ember 4>22.
.ump up / %ideo. C## (< .pril 4>>=. ,etrie'ed < #o'ember 4>22.
.ump up / ,euters: ;$ concerned power grid 'ulnerable to cyber/attack. ! (= .pril
4>>=. ,etrie'ed < #o'ember 4>22.
.ump up / 8orman, $iobhan. (< .pril 4>>= &lectricity 8rid in ;.$. +enetrated Fy $pies. ,etrie'ed < #o'ember 4>22.
.ump up / #&,C +ublic #otice. (+*F . ,etrie'ed < #o'ember 4>22.
.ump up / Rinhua: China denies intruding into the ;.$. electrical grid. = .pril 4>>=
.ump up / DChina threatD theory re)ected. China *aily (= .pril 4>>=. ,etrie'ed < #o'ember 4>22.
.ump up / .FC #ews: %ideo. (4> .pril 4>>=. ,etrie'ed < #o'ember 4>22.
.ump up / *isconnect electrical grid from !nternet, former terror c0ar Clarke warns. The ,aw
$tory (< .pril 4>>=. ,etrie'ed < #o'ember 4>22.
Q Aump up to:

?White Bouse Cyber C0ar: JThere !s #o CyberwarE? Wired maga0ine, 6 "arch
Q Aump up to:

?Cyber/War #ominee $ees 8aps in Iaw?, $ew )or* (imes, 26 .pril 4>2>
.ump up / Cyber $hockWa'e $hows ;.$. ;nprepared For Cyber Threats.
,etrie'ed < #o'ember 4>22.
.ump up / *rogin, Fob (2: February 4>2>. ?!n a doomsday cyber attack scenario, answers are
unsettling?. (he ;os C%geles (imes.
.ump up / .li, $armad (29 February 4>2>. ?Washington 8roup Tests $ecurity in JCyber
$hockWa'eD?. (he Wall -treet 8o&r%al.
.ump up / Cyber $hockWa'e C##/F+C wargame: was it a failureS H Computerworld Flogs. (2: February 4>2>. ,etrie'ed < #o'ember 4>22.
.ump up / $te'e ,agan ,eport: The Cyber $hockWa'e e'ent and its aftermath. The Tech
Berald. 29 February 4>2>
.ump up / .ndy Iee. D!nternational Cyber Warfare: Iimitations and +ossibilities.D Ae)u +eace
!nstitute. 2 "ay 4>24. http://),2924
Q Aump up to:

?Iatest 'iruses could mean Jend of world as we know it,E says man who
disco'ered Flame?, (he (imes of 3srael, 9 Aune 4>24
.ump up / ?Cyber espionage bug attacking "iddle &ast, but !srael untouched U so far?, (he
(imes of 3srael, 6 Aune 4>25
.ump up / ?8oogle .ttack !s Tip Cf !ceberg?, "c.fee $ecurity !nsights, 25 Aanuary 4>2>
.ump up / 8o'ernment/sponsored cyberattacks on the rise, "c.fee says.
(4= #o'ember 4>>:. ,etrie'ed < #o'ember 4>22.
.ump up / ?;$ embassy cables: China uses access to "icrosoft source code to help plot cyber
warfare, ;$ fears?. (he #&ardia% (Iondon. 6 *ecember 4>2>. ,etrie'ed 52 *ecember 4>2>.
Q Aump up to:

C&lt&re !a%dala+ (he 4&lleti% of the Ce%tre for 'ast5West C&lt&ral a%d
'co%omic -t&dies, Dol. E, 3ss. 1 F"ctober 200EG, Crt. 2. //.6H (4>><.'iewcontent.cgiSarticleT222>Vconte(tTcm (4>><.W
urlT missing title (help. ,etrie'ed Aanuary 4>25.
.ump up / ?China to make mastering cyber warfare . priority (4>22.?. $atio%al .&blic 1adio.
(Iondon. ,etrie'ed Aanuary 4>25.
Q Aump up to:

C&lt&re !a%dala+ (he 4&lleti% of the Ce%tre for 'ast5West C&lt&ral a%d
'co%omic -t&dies, Dol. E, 3ss. 1 F"ctober 200EG, Crt. 2. //.42 (4>><.'iewcontent.cgiSarticleT222>Vconte(tTcm (4>><.W
urlT missing title (help. ,etrie'ed Aanuary 4>25.
.ump up / C&lt&re !a%dala+ (he 4&lleti% of the Ce%tre for 'ast5West C&lt&ral a%d 'co%omic
-t&dies, Dol. E, 3ss. 1 F"ctober 200EG, Crt. 2. //.46 (4>><.'iewcontent.cgiSarticleT222>Vconte(tTcm (4>><.W
urlT missing title (help. ,etrie'ed Aanuary 4>25.
.ump up / ?W.$B!#8TC#, F&!A!#8 !# CGF&,/W., $T.#*CFF (Feb. 24,4>25.?. )ahoo
$ews. ,etrie'ed Aanuary 4>25.
.ump up / ?8ermanyDs 9>/person Computer #etwork Cperation (C#C unit has been practicing
for cyber war for years.?
.ump up / 9ac*ers wa%ted to ma% fro%t li%e i% cyber war, 123, The Iocal, 46 "ar 4>25
.ump up / #erma%y to i%vest 100 millio% e&ros o% i%ter%et s&rveilla%ce+ re/ort, 143, -a0inform,
2< Aune 4>25
Q Aump up to:


?Feware of the bugs: Can cyber attacks on !ndiaDs critical infrastructure be
thwartedS?. 4&si%ess(oday. ,etrie'ed Aanuary 4>25.
.ump up / ?7 lakh cyber warriors to bolster !ndiaDs e/defence?. (imes of 3%dia (!ndia. 29 Cctober
4>24. ,etrie'ed 2< Cctober 4>24.
Q Aump up to:

?$tu(net and the Future of Cyber War?. 8ames .. Farwell a%d 1afal 1ohoIi%s*i.
,etrie'ed Aanuary 4>25.
.ump up / $anger, *a'id &. (2 Aune 4>24. ?Cbama Crder $ped ;p Wa'e of Cyberattacks
.gainst !ran?. The #ew Gork Times. ,etrie'ed 2 Aune 4>24.
Q Aump up to:


?;$ 8eneral: !ranDs Cyber War "achine D. Force To Fe ,eckoned
WithD?.4&si%ess 3%sider. ,etrie'ed Aanuary 4>25.
.ump up / -ile%t War Auly 4>25 %anity Fair
.ump up / Iee, $e Goung. ?$outh -orea raises alert after hackers attack broadcasters, banks?.
Thomson ,euters. ,etrie'ed 9 .pril 4>25.
.ump up / -im, &un/)ung. ?$. -orean military to prepare with ;.$. for cyber warfare scenarios?.
Gonhap #ews .gency. ,etrie'ed 9 .pril 4>25.
.ump up /;$./4>24/>6>5/.l/Maeda/rocked/by/apparent/
.ump up / ?.ttack the City: why the banks are Dwar gamingD?.
.ump up / ?Wall $treet banks learn how to sur'i'e in staged cyber attack?. 1e&ters. 42 Cctober
.ump up / .merican Forces +ress $er'ice: Iynn &(plains ;.$. Cybersecurity $trategy.
*efense.go'. ,etrie'ed < #o'ember 4>22.
.ump up / +entagon to Consider Cyberattacks .cts of War. #ew Gork Times. 52 "ay 4>>9
.ump up / *ilanian, -en. ?Cyber/attacks a bigger threat than .l Maeda, officials say?, ;os
C%geles (imes, 24 "arch 4>25
.ump up / ?!ntelligence Chairman: ;.$. Fighting Cyber War J&'ery *ayE? .8 !edia, Auly 4=, 4>25
Q Aump up to:

Clarke, ,ichard .. Cyber War, BarperCollins (4>2>
Q Aump up to:


?Cyberwar: War in the Fifth *omain? 'co%omist, 2 Auly 4>2>
.ump up / Iynn, William A. !!!. ?*efending a #ew *omain: The +entagonDs
Cyberstrategy?,Foreig% Cffairs, $ept/Cct. 4>2>, pp. =:H2><
Q Aump up to:

The Iipman ,eport, 27 Cctober 4>2>
.ump up / Clarke, ,ichard. ?ChinaDs Cyberassault on .merica?, Wall -treet 8o&r%al, 27 Aune
.ump up / ?Cyberwarrior $hortage Threatens ;.$. $ecurity? $.1, 2= Auly 4>2>
.ump up / ?;.$. military cyberwar: WhatDs off/limitsS? C$'(, 4= Auly 4>2>
Q Aump up to:

,ussia Today, 49 Aanuary 4>24, ?;$ Iaunched Cyber .ttacks on Cther
.ump up / $anger, *a'id &. ?Cbama Crder $ped ;p Wa'e of Cyberattacks .gainst !ran.? $ew
)or* (imes, 2 Aune 4>24.
.ump up / .##;.I ,&+C,T TC CC#8,&$$ "ilitary and $ecurity *e'elopments !n'ol'ing the
+eopleEs ,epublic of China 4>2>. (+*F . ,etrie'ed < #o'ember 4>22.
.ump up / .+: +entagon takes aim at China cyber threat
1dead li%*3
Q Aump up to:

?The Aoint Cperating &n'ironment?, ,eport released, 2< February 4>2>, pp. 56H
.ump up / . Fill. To amend the Bomeland $ecurity .ct of 4>>4 and other laws to enhance the
security and resiliency of the cyber and communications infrastructure of the ;nited $tates..
$enate.go'. 222th Congress 4* $ession
.ump up / $enators $ay Cybersecurity Fill Bas #o D-ill $witchD,, 46 Aune
4>2>. ,etrie'ed 47 Aune 4>2>.
.ump up / $atter, ,aphael. ?;$ general: We hacked the enemy in .fghanistan.? C., 46 .ugust
.ump up / *C* H Cyber Counterintelligence. * ,etrie'ed < #o'ember 4>22.
.ump up / +entagon Fill To Fi( Cyber .ttacks: ,>". CF$ #ews. ,etrie'ed < #o'ember 4>22.
.ump up / $enate Iegislation Would Federali0e Cybersecurity. ,etrie'ed
< #o'ember 4>22.
.ump up / White Bouse &yes Cyber $ecurity +lan. CF$ #ews (2> February 4>>=. ,etrie'ed <
#o'ember 4>22.
.ump up / CC* CC& H Cyber *efence. ,etrie'ed < #o'ember 4>22.
.ump up / +ress, .ssociated. (22 "ay 4>>= FF! to station cybercrime e(pert in &stonia. ,etrie'ed < #o'ember 4>22.
.ump up / ,eed, Aohn. ?!s the Dholy grailD of cyber security within reachS? Foreig% .olicy
!agaIi%e, 9 $eptember 4>24.
.ump up / Carroll, Chris. ?;$ can trace cyberattacks, mount pre/empti'e strikes, +anetta
says.? -tars a%d -tri/es, 22 Cctober 4>24.
.ump up / ,id, Thomas (Cctober 4>22. ?Cyber War Will #ot Take +lace?. 8o&r%al of -trategic
-t&dies. doi:2>.2><>/>26>45=>.4>22.9><=5=. ,etrie'ed 42 Cctober 4>22.
.ump up / *eibert, ,on (4>22. ?Tracking the emerging arms race in cyberspace?. 4&lleti% of the
Ctomic -cie%tists 01 (2. doi:2>.22::/>>=956>42>5=5:>5.
.ump up / $ommer, +eter (Aanuary 4>22. ?,educing $ystemic Cybersecurity ,isk?. "'C,
!&lti5,is/li%ary 3ss&es. ,etrie'ed 42 "ay 4>24.
.ump up / 8aycken, $andro (4>2>. Cyberwar < ,as 3%ter%et als 7riegsscha&/latI.
.ump up / "athew A. $chwart0 (42 #o'ember 4>22. ?Backer .pparently Triggers !llinois Water
+ump Furnout?. !nformation Week.
.ump up / -im Xetter (5> #o'ember 4>22. ?&(clusi'e: Comedy of &rrors Ied to False JWater/
+ump BackE ,eport?. Wired.
.ump up / ;.$. drone and predator fleet is being keylogged accessdateT4>22/2>/>9
.ump up / Bennigan, W.A. ?.ir Force says drone computer 'irus poses Dno threatD.? ;C (imes, 25
Cctober 4>22.
.ump up / ?$- Back by an .d'anced +ersistent Threat?. Command Fi'e +ty Itd. ,etrie'ed 46
$eptember 4>22.
.ump up / Aim Finkle (5 .ugust 4>22. ?$tate actor seen in ?enormous? range of cyber attacks?.
,euters. ,etrie'ed 5 .ugust 4>22.
.ump up / Backed by D+akistan cyber armyD, CF! website still not restored. #dt'.com (6
*ecember 4>2>. ,etrie'ed < #o'ember 4>22.
.ump up / 59 go'ernment sites hacked by J!ndian Cyber .rmyE H The &(press Tribune. ,etrie'ed < #o'ember 4>22.
.ump up / Fritain faces serious cyber threat, spy agency head warns. The 8lobe and "ail (25
Cctober 4>2>. ,etrie'ed < #o'ember 4>22.
.ump up / .F+: $tu(net worm brings cyber warfare out of 'irtual world. (2 Cctober
4>2>. ,etrie'ed < #o'ember 4>22.
.ump up / ,alph Iangner: Cracking $tu(net, a 42st/century cyber weapon W %ideo on.
,etrie'ed < #o'ember 4>22.
.ump up / $udworth, Aohn. (= Auly 4>>= #ew cyberattacks hit $outh -orea. FFC #ews.
,etrie'ed < #o'ember 4>22.
.ump up / Williams, "artin. ;-, #ot #orth -orea, $ource of **C$ .ttacks, ,esearcher $ays.
+C World.
.ump up / *anche', *ancho (22 .ugust 4>><. ?Coordinated ,ussia 's 8eorgia cyberattack?.
X*net. ,etrie'ed 47 #o'ember 4>><.
.ump up / Website of -yrgy0 Central &lection Commission hacked by &stonian hackers,
,egnum, 26 *ecember 4>>:
.ump up / Fulghum, *a'id .. ?Why $yriaDs .ir *efenses Failed to *etect !sraelis?, Cviatio%
Wee* J -/ace (ech%ology, 4>>:/2>/>5. ,etrie'ed 5 Cctober 4>>:.
.ump up / Fulghum, *a'id .. ?!srael used electronic attack in air strike against $yrian mystery
target?, Cviatio% Wee* J -/ace (ech%ology, 4>>:/2>/><. ,etrie'ed < Cctober 4>>:.
.ump up / ?War in the fifth domain. .re the mouse and keyboard the new weapons of
conflictS?.(he 'co%omist. 2 Auly 4>2>. ,etrie'ed 4 Auly 4>2>. ?!mportant thinking about the
tactical and legal concepts of cyber/warfare is taking place in a former $o'iet barracks in &stonia,
now home to #.TCDs ?centre of e(cellence? for cyber/defence. !t was established in response to
what has become known as ?Web War 2?, a concerted denial/of/ser'ice attack on &stonian
go'ernment, media and bank web ser'ers that was precipitated by the decision to mo'e a
$o'iet/era war memorial in central Tallinn in 4>>:.?
.ump up / &stonia accuses ,ussia of Dcyber attackD. (2: "ay 4>>:. ,etrie'ed <
#o'ember 4>22.
.ump up / !an Traynor, D,ussia accused of unleashing cyberwar to disable &stonia?, (he
#&ardia%, 2: "ay 4>>:
.ump up / Foyd, Clark. (2: Aune 4>2> FFC: Cyber/war a growing threat warn e(perts. FFC
#ews. ,etrie'ed < #o'ember 4>22.
.ump up / ?!srael .dds Cyber/.ttack to !*F?, !, 2> February 4>2>
.ump up / ,ussian &mbassy to the ;- 153. ,etrie'ed 47 "ay 4>24.
.ump up / Tom 8)elten (45 $eptember 4>2>. ?$eeing The !nternet .s .n D!nformation
WeaponD?. $atio%al .&blic 1adio. ,etrie'ed 45 $eptember 4>2>.
.ump up / 8orman, $iobhan. (6 Aune 4>2> W$A: ;.$. Facks Talks on Cyber Warfare. ,etrie'ed < #o'ember 4>22.
.ump up / $ean 8allagher, 2-, 1&ssia to i%stall Kcyber5hotli%eL to /reve%t accide%tal cyberwar,
163, .rstechnica, 2< Aune 4>25
.ump up / YZ[\]^_`Zab cd^e[ fghieaj^gkg ld^dmnld^eo H pli_e foqhiZ\ci] H rg^sd^cat g
u\f[dvd^aa a_fgh`ugs\^at Zaqd[sgb^w. ,etrie'ed < #o'ember 4>22.
.ump up / *enning, *. &. (4>><. The ethics of cyber conflict. The Bandbook of !nformation and
Computer &thics. 6>:H64=.
4:> Cyberwarfare related books
Fodmer, -ilger, Carpenter, V Aones (4>24. ,e'erse *eception: Crgani0ed Cyber Threat Counter/
&(ploitation. #ew Gork: "c8raw/Bill Csborne "edia. !$F# >>:2::46==, !$F# =:</>>:2::46=7
?$abotaging the $ystem? 'ideo, ?9> "inutes?, < #o'ember 4>>=, CF$ #ews, 27 minutes
?Cyber $hockWa'e? (simulation of a cyber attack, 29 February 4>2>, 'ideo from the Fipartisan
+olicy Center, < minutes
.FC: Former White Bouse security ad'isor warns of cyber war
Wall $treet Aournal: Fighting Wars in Cyberspace
Will There Fe .n &lectronic +earl Barbor, +C World by !ra Winkler, 2 *ecember 4>>=
Bow to $pot a Corporate $py, Computer World, 9 February 4>>=
;$ China $ecurity and ,e'iew Commission, 4>>= annual report Chapter 4 on ChinaDs acti'ities
impacting ;$ security interests
$enate panel: <> percent of cyberattacks pre'entable, Wired, 2: #o'ember 4>>=
Consumer ,eports Cnline $ecurity 8uide
Fo( #ews: ;pdated Cybersecurity information
Cyberwarfare reference materials
*uncan 8ardham, 49 Aune 4>>=, Backers recruited to fight Dnew cold warD, Telegraph ;-
$tefano "ele, Aun 4>25, Cyber/Weapons: Iegal and $trategic .spects ('ersion 4.>
$tefano "ele, 5> $eptember 4>2>, Cyberwarfare and its damaging effects on citi0ens
Bistory of Cyber Warfare
Cybersecurity: .uthoritati'e ,eports and ,esources, ;$ Congressional ,esearch $er'ice
"ilitary technology
Backing (computer security
!ntelligence (information gathering
"ilitary intelligence collection
Computer security
!nformation sensiti'ity
"ass intelligence/gathering systems
$ecurity engineering
$ocial engineering (computer security
#ational security
Computer security procedures
Computing terminology
Cyber Warfare &en3adi ,ncaman (*R) di &asa *ini dan &asa Depan
C+!#! W 45 $eptember 4>25 W 24:4= *ibaca: 145 -omentar: 6 2
Cyber Warfare memiliki arti perang yang dilakukan didunia maya (cyber $pace dengan menggunakan teknologi
canggih dan )aringan nircabel/wifi. sudah banya tulisan yang membahas tentang Cyber Warfare itu sendiri tetapi
dewasa ini pengetahuan tentang ada Cyber Warfare baru sekedar dianggap sebagai pengetahuan yang baru serta
tidak dianggapi terlalu serius oleh para pengguna )aringan internet (user. dalam tulisan ini penulis akan mencoba
memaparkan bahaya yang aka di hadang oleh negara berkembang termasuk dalam ini !ndonesia dalam menghadapi
Cyber Warfare.
$ebelum membahas Cyber Warfare lebih )auh saya mencoba mebahas terlebih dahulu tentang munculnya internet.
!nternet muncul dan berkembang pada tahun 2=9= melalui +royek .+,.#&T (.d'anced ,esearch +ro)ect .gency
#etwork.yang merupakan proyek dari *epartemen +ertahanan .merika $erika. dengan ber)alannya waktu dirasa
perlu ada suatu )aringan yang dapat menghubungkan antar wilayah satu dengan wilayah lainnya, berawal dari
gagasan ini *epartemen +ertahanan .merika mulai membuka )aringan !nternet untuk dapat dinikmati oleh
publik.*engan dapatnya internet dapat diakses oleh seluruh masyarakat dunia membuat dunia ini seperti tidak ada
sekat yang membatasi wilayah satu dengaan lainnya.
Cyber Warfare sendiri berkembang dari Cyber Crime yang memiliki arti bentuk/bentuk ke)ahatan yang ditimbulkan
karena pemanfaatan teknologi internet. *apat )uga didefinisikan sebagai perbuatan melawan hukum yang dilakukan
dengan menggunakan internet yang berbasis pada kecanggihan teknologi komputer dan telekomunikasi.The
+re'ention of Crime and The Treatment of Cfflenderes di Ba'ana, Cuba pada tahun 2=== dan di Wina, .ustria tahun
4>>>, menyebutkan ada 4 istilah yang dikenal:
Cybercrime dalam arti sempit disebut computer crime, yaitu prilaku ilegal / melanggar yang secara langsung
menyerang sistem keamanan komputer dan data yang diproses oleh komputer.
Cybercrime dalam arti luas disebut computer related crime, yaitu prilaku ilegal/ melanggar yang berkaitan dengan
sistem komputer atau )aringan.
Aenis/Aenis ke)ahata Cyber Crime:
Backing adalah Backing adalah kegiatan menerobos program komputer milik orang/pihak lain. Backer adalah orang
yang gemar ngoprek komputer, memiliki keahlian membuat dan membaca program tertentu, dan terobsesi mengamati
keamanan (security/nya. NBackerO memiliki wa)ah gandaK ada yang budiman ada yang pencoleng. NBackerO budiman
memberi tahu kepada programer yang komputernya diterobos, akan adanya kelemahan/kelemahan pada program
yang dibuat, sehingga bisa NbocorO, agar segera diperbaiki. $edangkan, hacker pencoleng, menerobos program orang
lain untuk merusak dan mencuri datanya.
Cracking adalah hacking untuk tu)uan )ahat. $ebutan untuk NcrackerO adalah NhackerO bertopi hitam (black hat hacker.
Ferbeda dengan NcarderO yang hanya mengintip kartu kredit, NcrackerO mengintip simpanan para nasabah di berbagai
bank atau pusat data sensitif lainnya untuk keuntungan diri sendiri. "eski sama/sama menerobos keamanan komputer
orang lain, NhackerO lebih fokus pada prosesnya. $edangkan NcrackerO lebih fokus untuk menikmati hasilnya.
Cyber $abotage adalah ke)ahatan yang dilakukan dengan membuat gangguan, perusakan atau penghancuran
terhadap suatu data, program komputer atau sistem )aringan komputer yang terhubung dengan internet.
Cyber .ttack adalah semua )enis tindakan yang senga)a dilakukan untuk mengganggu kerahasiaan (confidentiality,
integritas (integrity, dan ketersedian (a'ailability informasi. Tindakan ini bisa ditu)ukan untuk mengganggu secara fisik
maupun dari alur logic sistem informasi
Carding adalah berbelan)a menggunakan nomor dan identitas kartu kredit orang lain, yang diperoleh secara ilegal,
biasanya dengan mencuri data di internet. $ebutan pelakunya adalah NcarderO. $ebutan lain untuk ke)ahatan )enis ini
adalah cyberfroud alias penipuan di dunia maya.
$pyware adalah program yang dapat merekam secara rahasia segala akti'itas online usser, seperti merekam cookies
atau registry. *ata yang sudah terekam akan dikirim atau di)ual kepada perusahaan atau perorangan yang akan
mengirim iklan atau menyebarkan 'irus.
*engan kemudahan yang ada saat ini banyak membuat terlena atau diman)akan para user komputer dengan
kemudahan mengakses berbagai informasi dengan menggunakan )aringan internet. tetapi dibalik kemudahan yang
diberikan oleh internet user harus mewaspadai bahaya yang akan menghadang para user terutama departemen
ketahanan, kenapa departemen ketahanan harus waspadaS)awabannya adalah 2. )aringan yang terhubung antara
komputer yang ada di seluruh dunia dengan menggunakan )aringan internet semua data yang di akses atau di unggah
akan terkirim ke ser'er pusat yaitu di .merika. 4. -emudahan mengakses data melalui )aringan rentan dengan
penyadapan atau crackring dari pengguna )aringan internet yang tidak bertanggung)awab. 5 Aaringan internet saat ini
dan masa depan bukan hanya sebagai sarana untuk mengakses informasi dengan cepat melainkan sebagai sen)ata
dalam perang bisa ambil contoh dalam perang israel dengan iran dimana isralem membobol )aringan keamanan iran
untuk meledakan nuklir yang mengakibatka ledakan luar biasa menewaskan : orang. 6 Aaringan internet digunakan
sebagai mata/mata ($py hal ini dapat dilakukan dengan mengambil data/data di beberapa departemen seperti )umlah
personil tentara yang di upload di linggkungan kementerian pertahanan ssebagai bentuk laporang kepada pusat
melalui )aringan internet masih banyak contoh lain. 7 Aaringan internet sebagai propaganda negara lain dalam
merusak citra negara musuh di mata dunia.
-etika point 5,6, dan 7 seperti yang telah di)elaskan diatas dikuasai negara ketiga keamanan dan ketahanan #-,!
terancam karena semua rahasia negara (off the record dikuasai oleh negara ketiga, negara ketiga tersebut dengan
mudah untuk menyusun strategi untuk melumpuhkan #-,! secara dunia maya maupun secara fisik. hal yang paling
berbahaya dengan dikuasainya kemanan #-,! membuat negara ketiga dapat memanfaatkan indonesia dengan
ancaman menghancurkan !ndonesia tanpa ada perlawanan dari !ndonesia karena posisi !ndonesia saat itu lemah.
Tidak ada )aminan negara adikuasa seperti .merika sebagai pusat ser'er internet akan men)aga baik data/data yang
tersimpan dalam tempat penyimpanan yang ada di .merika dan tidak akan memanfaatkan data/data yang tersimpan
rapih dalam komputer ser'er.
+emaparan diatas men)elaskan bahwa #-,! harus serius dalam mempersiapkan putra/putra terbaiknya untuk
mencegah dampak Cyber Warfare dan mempersiapkan diri untuk menghadapai Cyber Warfare ketika indonesia ikut
dalam perang tersebut. ketika indonesia tidak dapat mempersiapkan diri memprotek diri untuk menghadapi Cyber
Warfare berdampak dikuasainya keamanan nasional indonesia baik di bidang +olitik, -ebudayaan, &konomi dan
-eaamana negara.