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Design of Sewer System


Sewer system plays a vital role in the economic development of a country.
Sewers are must for the drainage of waste water. In order to have an effective
sewage system the sewers should be properly designed and more care should be
taken in finding the invert levels otherwise whole design may get wrong.
Sewers are designed for the drainage of waste water coming from houses,
industries, streets, runoff etc to protect the environment and people from
serious diseases, as more than 50 diseases spread from sewage. So for a good
living, the sewers should be properly designed and the sewage should be
treated properly before discharging it into the river.
Some of the important and relevant terms for sewer system are discussed
It is Liuid !aste or !aste !ater produce as a result of water use.
It is the pipe or conduit for carrying sewage. It is generally closed and flow
takes place undr gravity "#tmospheric $ressure%.
Sewerage is the system of collection of waste water and conveying it to a point
of final disposal with or without treatment.
Sources of waste water
&ollowing are the principal sources of waste water
Storm water
It is the waste water from houses, offices, other buildings, hotels and
It is the liuid waste from the industrial places from their different industrial
processes like dying, paper matting, tanneries, chemical industries, etc.
Storm Water
It includes surface runoff generated from rainfall and the street wash.
Ty"es of Sewer Systems
&ollowing are the types of sewerage
Se"arate System
It is the system in which storm water is carried separately from domestic and
industrial waste water. (his system is preferred when
(here is an immediate need for collection of sanitary sewage but not for
storm water
!hen sanitary sewage needs treatment but the storm water does not
Com#ine System
It is the type of system in which sewer carries both the sanitary and storm
water. )ombined system is favored when
)ombined sewage can be disposed off without treatment
*oth sanitary and storm water need treatment
Streets are narrow and two separate sewers can not be laid.
Ty"es of Sewers
Sanitary Sewers
It carries sanitary sewage i.e. waste water from municipality including
'omestic and Industrial wastewaters.
Storm Sewer
It carries storm sewage including Surface +unoff and Street !ash.
Com#ine Sewer
It carries domestic, industrial and storm sewage.
$ouse Sewer
It is the sewer conveying sewage from plumbing system of building to
common,municipal sewers.
%atera! sewer
(his sewer carries discharge from two or more house sewers.
Su#&Main Sewer
(his sewer carries discharge from two or more laterals.
Main' Trun( Sewer
It receives discharge from two or more sub-mains.
Outfa!! Sewer
It receives discharge from all collecting system and conveys it to the point of
final disposal.
Sewage f!ow
It is flow derived from the sanitary and industrial sewage that is the raw water
from these industries and houses, so it means it has direct relation with the
amount of water consumed.
.enerally /0 to 00 1 of the water consumption is taken as sewage or waste
water flow.
)ariation in sewage f!ow
Like water supply, sewage flow varies from time to time. Since sewers must be
able to accommodate 2a3imum +ate of &low, the variation in the sewage flow
must be studied.
.enerally 4erman &ormula is used to estimate the ratio of 2a3imum to
#verage &low
$ is population in thousands
!#S# Lahore 'esign )onsiders the following relationship for sewer design
#verage Sewage &low "m
,day% $eak &actor
6 7500 8.0
7500 9 5000 5.8
5000 9 :0000 5.:
:0000 9 75000 7.;
75000 9 50000 7.5
50000 9 :00000 7.5
:00000 9 750000 7.:5
750000 9 500000 7.0/
< 500000 7.0
It is amount of water that enters into the sewers through poor =oints, cracked
pipes, walls and covers of manholes.
It is none3istent during dry weather but increases during rainy season.
!ater and Sanitation #gency "!#S#% Lahore uses the following
infiltration rates for the design of sewer system.
Sewer 'iameter Infiltration
775 mm to >00 mm 5 1 of #vg. Sewage &low
< >00 mm :0 1 of #vg. Sewage &low
Design *erio
Sewer System
$eriod of design is indefinite. (he system is designed to take care for the
ma3imum development of the area. *ut we take design period of 70 years for
our sewer system.
Sewer *um"ing Station
'esign period is :0-years.
+ate of &low are average daily, peak and minimum flow including
(he pro=ect is based on the design of $artially combined sewerage system of a
community which is having appro3imately a flat terrain because the difference
in the reduce levels is very small. I have designed the sewage pumping station
along with the hydraulic statement and the reuired drawings plus some e3tra
drawings. I am confident that my design will work successfully and there will
be not any problems. (he Layout of the community is given as under.
Design F!ow
&irst of all calculate the average sewage flow on the basis of water
consumption and the population at the end of the design period. i.e at the full
development of the area. (hen the design flow for sanitary sewer and partially
combined sewers can by calculated by using the following formulae.
&or Sanitary Sewer
@ $eak sewage flow A infiltration
&or partially combined sewer "!#S# )riteria%
@ 73$eak sewage flow A infiltration
Design E-uation
2anningBs Cuation is used for sewers flowing under gravity
D @ Delocity of flow in m,sec
+ @ 4ydraulic mean depth "#,$% @ ',8 when pipe is flowing full or half full
S @ Slope of the sewer
n @ )oefficient of roughness for pipes
Minimum .Se!f C!eansing/ )e!ocity
Sewage should flow at all times with sufficient velocity to prevent the
settlement of solid matter in the sewer. Self )leansing Delocity is the minimum
velocity that ensures non settlement of suspended matter in the sewer.
(he following minimum velocities are generally employed
Sanitary sewer @ 0.> m,sec
Storm sewer @ :.0 m,sec
$artially combined sewer @ 0.; m,sec
Ma0imum 1e!ocity
(he ma3imum velocities in the sewer pipes should not e3ceed more than 7.8
m,sec. (his ma3 velocity in the sewer should not e3ceed this limit of 7.8 m,sec.
It is to avoid the e3cessive sewer abrasion and also to avoid steep slopes.
Minimum Sewer Si2e
775mm is taken as the minimum sewer siEe. (he reason being that, the choking
does not take place even with the bigger siEe particles, which are usually
thrown into the sewer through manholes.
Minimum Co1er of Sewer
:m is taken as the minimum cover over the sewers to avoid damage from live
loads coming on the sewer.
S"acing of Man3o!e .W,S,4 Criteria/
&or "Sewer SiEe% 775mm to 5/0mm spacing not more than :00m
&or "Sewer SiEe% 8>0mm to ;>0mm spacing not more than :70m
&or "Sewer SiEe% greater than ;>0mm spacing not more than :50m
Direction of Sewer %ine
Sewer should flow, as for as possible the Fatural Slope.
Design of Sewer
SiEe of Sewer
Gse the following relation to find the diameter of sewer
@ # 3 D
Slope of Sewer
Select the minimum velocity value and use the 2anningBs formula
In1ert %e1e!
(he lowest inside level at any cross-section of a sewer pipe is known as Invert
Level at that )ross-section.
Invert Level @ F.SL,+oad Level 9 'epth of Sewer 9 (hickness of Sewer 9
'ia. of Sewer
+oints in Sewers
*ell H Spigot Ioint
(ongue H.roove Ioint
(hese are provided for
inspection and
house connection
)hange in Sewer direction
)hange in sewer diameter
)hange in slope
Jne man hole to be provided for 7-8 plots
Fo of $lots @ 7/:
Fo of #partments @ 5
Fo of &lats @ 5
'esign period @ 70 years
$J$GL#(IJF &J+C)#S(
Present (2009) Design (2029)
Persons/plot ; :0
Persons/apartment 800 >00
Persons/flat 700 800
$resent $opulation $p@ :% 7/:K;A800K5A700K5 @ 5;>;
'esign $opulation $d@ 7% 7/:K:0A>00K5A800K5 @ 5/:0
#nnual .rowth +ate @ 7.:1 "&or $akistan, 700/ report%
Design Pop$lation P%
:% $d @ $p 3 ":A7.:,:00%
$d @ 5;>;3":A7.:,:00%
@ 5;00
$d @ 5/:0 " &rom (able%
$er capita water consumption @ 550 A 88@ 508 lpcd "liters per capita per day%
#verage 'esign flow @ $
3 water consumption 3 0./ , :000
"/01 goes to sewers as waste water%
@ "508 3 5/:0 3 0./ % , :000
&a'g ( )*+),+)2 m
$eak factor @ 8 "from !#S# table%
To !.e/0 Infiltration rates
?ma3 @ :8;87.:m
,day @ :0.75; m
$umping capacity
$ @ ?ma3 @ :0.75; m
1inim$m /-/le time
2inimum )ycle time must not be less than 5-minutes
&or smaller pumps t min @ :5 min
Dolume @ D @ L$ 3 t"min%M,8
Cffective Dolume @ " :0.75; 3 :5 % , 8 @ 5/.50 m
Length @ 5.> m
!idth @ 5.>m
4eight @ 5 m
Dolume @ 5.>N5.>N5 @ 5/.//m
P$mp m$st r$n for at least 2 min$tes
)heck the cycle time , should be greater than 7 minutes
t @ D,"$-?min% @ 5/.50 , ":0.75; 9 0.>55/% @ 5.00O@8
So 8 minutes is greater than 7 minutes .." JP%
Cyc!e Time for Minimum an ,1erage F!ow
)Q)LC (I2C @ t @ "D,"$-?%%A"D,?%
&or ?min @ 5/.50 , ":0.75; 9 0.>55/% A 5/.50/,0.>55/ @ >8.50: min < :5min
&or ?avg @ 5/.50 , ":0.75; -:.7;:% A 5/.50,:.7;: @ 58.8/ min < :5min "JP%
(his design is based on partially combined sewerage system thus is
#ll the necessary things are taken from the !#S# tables and 2inimum
velocity is taken as 0.> m,sec which is the self cleansing velocity and velocity
must not be more than 7.8 m,sec.
2inimum diameter of sewer is taken as 775 mm and other diameters are
rounded to the locally available in the market according to !#S# standards.
2inimum rate of sewage flow is taken as 501 of average sewage flow.
2inimum clear cover of :-m is provided above the sewer in order to
avoid from impact of live loading.
&lush tanks are provided where velocity is less than 0.> m,Sec.
'iameters are less then >00mm so Infiltration rate used is 51 of average
sewage flow.
*ell H Spigot =oints have been used as the diameters are less then
Jne 'rop 2anhole is coming at 2:5 as the vertical drop is more than
In Sewers "20-2/, 2/-2::, 2:0-2::, 2:7-2:5, 25-2:/, 270-
27:, 278-27:, 27:-277, 275-27>%, Delocity is less than the self cleansing
velocity So, &lush tanks will be provided here.
2ost of the diameters are of 775mm ensuring the economic side of the
!et well dimensions are 7.5K5.5K8.8.
)ycle time of :5 minutes is satisfied ensuring the adaptability of small
pumps so more economic.
&lush tanks should be flushed once in 78 hours to avoid sediment
If the sewer is to be laid under the water table then crushed stone
bedding should be used.
Sewers should be =oined in a manhole keeping the crowns at the same