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Chapter 1 ISM: Linear Algebra

7.

x + 2y + 3z = 1
x + 3y + 4z = 3
x + 4y + 5z = 4

I
I

x + 2y + 3z = 1
y + z = 2
2y + 2z = 3

2(II)
2(II)

x + z = 3
y + z = 2
0 = 1

This system has no solution.


8.

x + 2y + 3z = 0
4x + 5y + 6z = 0
7x + 8y + 10z = 0

4(I)
7(I)

x + 2y + 3z = 0
3y 6z = 0
6y 11z = 0

(3)

x + 2y + 3z = 0
y + 2z = 0
6y 11z = 0

2(II)
+6(II)

x z = 0
y + 2z = 0
z = 0

+III
2(III)

x = 0
y = 0
z = 0

,
so that (x, y, z) = (0, 0, 0).
9.

x + 2y + 3z = 1
3x + 2y + z = 1
7x + 2y 3z = 1

3(I)
7(I)

x + 2y + 3z = 1
4y 8z = 2
12y 24z = 6

(4)

x + 2y + 3z = 1
y + 2z =
1
2
12y 24z = 6

2(II)
+12(II)

x z = 0
y + 2z =
1
2
0 = 0

This system has innitely many solutions: if we choose z = t, an arbitrary real number,
then we get x = z = t and y =
1
2
2z =
1
2
2t. Therefore, the general solution is
(x, y, z) =

t,
1
2
2t, t

, where t is an arbitrary real number.


10.

x + 2y + 3z = 1
2x + 4y + 7z = 2
3x + 7y + 11z = 8

2(I)
3(I)

x + 2y + 3z = 1
z = 0
y + 2z = 5

Swap :
II III

x + 2y + 3z = 1
y + 2z = 5
z = 0

2(II)

x z = 9
y + 2z = 5
z = 0

+III
2(III)

x = 9
y = 5
z = 0

,
so that (x, y, z) = (9, 5, 0).
11.

x 2y = 2
3x + 5y = 17

3(I)

x 2y = 2
11y = 11

11

x 2y = 2
y = 1

+2(II)

x = 4
y = 1

,
so that (x, y) = (4, 1). See Figure 1.1.
12.

x 2y = 3
2x 4y = 6

2(I)

x 2y = 3
0 = 0

2
ISM: Linear Algebra Section 1.1
Figure 1.1: for Problem 1.1.11.
This system has innitely many solutions: If we choose y = t, an arbitrary real number,
then the equation x 2y = 3 gives us x = 3 +2y = 3 +2t. Therefore the general solution
is (x, y) = (3 + 2t, t), where t is an arbitrary real number. (See Figure 1.2.)
Figure 1.2: for Problem 1.1.12.
13.

x 2y = 3
2x 4y = 8

2(I)

x 2y = 3
0 = 2

, which has no solutions. (See Figure 1.3.)


Figure 1.3: for Problem 1.1.13.
3
Chapter 1 ISM: Linear Algebra
14. The system reduces to

x + 5z = 0
y z = 0
0 = 1

, so that there is no solution; no point in space


belongs to all three planes.
Compare with Figure 2b.
15. The system reduces to

x = 0
y = 0
z = 0

so the unique solution is (x, y, z) = (0, 0, 0). The three


planes intersect at the origin.
16. The system reduces to

x + 5z = 0
y z = 0
0 = 0

, so the solutions are of the form (x, y, z) =


(5t, t, t), where t is an arbitrary number. The three planes intersect in a line; com-
pare with Figure 2a.
17.

x + 2y = a
3x + 5y = b

3(I)

x + 2y = a
y = 3a + b

(1)

x + 2y = a
y = 3a b

2(II)

x = 5a + 2b
y = 3a b

, so that (x, y) = (5a + 2b, 3a b).


18.

x + 2y + 3z = a
x + 3y + 8z = b
x + 2y + 2z = c

I
I

x + 2y + 3z = a
y + 5z = a + b
z = a + c

2(II)

x 7z = 3a 2b
y + 5z = a + b
z = a + c

(1)

x 7z = 3a 2b
y + 5z = a + b
z = a c

+7(III)
5(III)

x = 10a 2b 7c
y = 6a + b + 5c
z = a c

,
so that (x, y, z) = (10a 2b 7c, 6a + b + 5c, a c).
19. a. Note that the demand D
1
for product 1 increases with the increase of price P
2
; likewise
the demand D
2
for product 2 increases with the increase of price P
1
. This indicates
that the two products are competing; some people will switch if one of the products
gets more expensive.
b. Setting D
1
= S
1
and D
2
= S
2
we obtain the system

70 2P
1
+ P
2
= 14 + 3P
1
105 + P
1
P
2
= 7 + 2P
2

,
or

5P
1
+ P
2
= 84
P
1
3P
2
= 112

, which yields the unique solution P


1
= 26 and P
2
= 46.
4
ISM: Linear Algebra Section 1.1
20. The total demand for the product of Industry A is 1000 (the consumer demand) plus 0.1b
(the demand from Industry B). The output a must meet this demand: a = 1000 + 0.1b.
Setting up a similar equation for Industry B we obtain the system

a = 1000 + 0.1b
b = 780 + 0.2a

or

a 0.1b = 1000
0.2a + b = 780

, which yields the unique solution a = 1100 and b = 1000.


21. The total demand for the products of Industry A is 310 (the consumer demand) plus 0.3b
(the demand from Industry B). The output a must meet this demand: a = 310 + 0.3b.
Setting up a similar equation for Industry B we obtain the system

a = 310 + 0.3b
b = 100 + 0.5a

or

a 0.3b = 310
0.5a + b = 100

, which yields the solution a = 400 and b = 300.


22. Since x(t) = a sin(t) + b cos(t) we can compute
dx
dt
= a cos(t) b sin(t) and
d
2
x
dt
2
= a sin(t)b cos(t). Substituting these expressions into the equation
d
2
x
dt
2

dx
dt
x = cos(t)
and simplifying gives (b2a) sin(t)+(a2b) cos(t) = cos(t). Comparing the coecients
of sin(t) and cos(t) on both sides of the equation then yields the system

2a + b = 0
a 2b = 1

,
so that a =
1
5
and b =
2
5
. See Figure 1.4.
Figure 1.4: for Problem 1.1.22.
23. a. Substituting = 5 yields the system

7x y = 5x
6x + 8y = 5y

or

2x y = 0
6x + 3y = 0

or

2x y = 0
0 = 0

.
There are innitely many solutions, of the form (x, y) =

t
2
, t

, where t is an arbitrary
real number.
5
Chapter 1 ISM: Linear Algebra
b. Proceeding as in part (a), we nd (x, y) =

1
3
t, t

.
c. Proceedings as in part (a), we nd only the solution (0, 0).
24. Let v be the speed of the boat relative to the water, and s be the speed of the stream;
then the speed of the boat relative to the land is v + s downstream and v s upstream.
Using the fact that (distance) = (speed)(time), we obtain the system

8 = (v + s)
1
3
8 = (v s)
2
3

downstream
upstream
The solution is v = 18 and s = 6.
25. The system reduces to

x + z = 1
y 2z = 3
0 = k 7

.
a. The system has solutions if k 7 = 0, or k = 7.
b. If k = 7 then the system has innitely many solutions.
c. If k = 7 then we can choose z = t freely and obtain the solutions
(x, y, z) = (1 t, 3 + 2t, t).
26. The system reduces to

x 3z = 1
y + 2z = 1
(k
2
4)z = k 2

This system has a unique solution if k


2
4 = 0, that is, if k = 2.
If k = 2, then the last equation is 0 = 0, and there will be innitely many solutions.
If k = 2, then the last equation is 0 = 4, and there will be no solutions.
27. Let x = the number of male children and y = the number of female children.
Then the statement Emile has twice as many sisters as brothers translates into
y = 2(x 1) and Gertrude has as many brothers as sisters translates into
x = y 1.
6
ISM: Linear Algebra Section 1.1
Solving the system

2x + y = 2
x y = 1

gives x = 3 and y = 4.
There are seven children in this family.
28. The thermal equilibrium condition requires that T
1
=
T2+200+0+0
4
, T
2
=
T1+T3+200+0
4
,
and T
3
=
T2+400+0+0
4
.
We can rewrite this system as

4T
1
+ T
2
= 200
T
1
4T
2
+ T
3
= 200
T
2
4T
3
= 400

The solution is (T
1
, T
2
, T
3
) = (75, 100, 125).
29. To assure that the graph goes through the point (1, 1), we substitute t = 1 and f(t) = 1
into the equation f(t) = a + bt + ct
2
to give 1 = a + b + c.
Proceeding likewise for the two other points, we obtain the system

a + b + c = 1
a + 2b + 4c = 3
a + 3b + 9c = 13

.
The solution is a = 1, b = 5, and c = 3, and the polynomial is f(t) = 1 5t +3t
2
. (See
Figure 1.5.)
Figure 1.5: for Problem 1.1.29.
30. Proceeding as in the previous exercise, we obtain the system

a + b + c = p
a + 2b + 4c = q
a + 3b + 9c = r

.
The unique solution is

a = 3p 3q + r
b = 2.5p + 4q 1.5r
c = 0.5p q + 0.5r

.
Only one polynomial of degree 2 goes through the three given points, namely,
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