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Anthony Collins

Chapter 2: Discussion 2
Chapter 2 Summary
Chapter 2 discusses the writing process. These are steps taken to break down a paper
into small easy to manage steps. This process allows anyone, willing to take the time, to be able
to write a successful paper.
1. Planning:
You must think about the purpose of your writing and the audience you are writing for.
Determine the nature and scope of your topic.
2. Managing your time:
Establish and record the due date for your project.
Decide on what kind of research you need to do and establish a time frame for that
Plan ahead. Dont wait until the last minute.
3. Finding a Topic:
If not assigned by and instructor you must choose a topic.
Narrow down the topic to a specific area within a field.
4. Thinking about Purpose and Audience:
What is the purpose for writing?
Think about why you are writing!
Write for your intended audience.
5. Ways to Generating Ideas:
Free Writing: Jotting down what comes to mind
Looping: A more directed form of free writing by which you revise and narrow down
your free writing in successive loops.
Keeping Lists: Writing down lists of detailed facts about your topic.
Brainstorming: A form of listing where you write down words and ideas in one sitting.
Clustering: A process by which you write down the main idea in the center of the page
and branch out by writing new ideas around the main idea and connecting with lines
while keeping like topics grouped together.
Ask Who, What, When, Where, Why, and How: Ask yourself each of these questions
about your topic and make notes of the detailed answers to these questions.
Keep a Journal: Keep a detailed personal journal to draw ideas from.
6. Organizing and Drafting:
Starting Point: State your thesis clearly near the beginning of your writing project.
Make an Outline: List your main idea and sub-topics in a logical order.

7. Using the Basic Methods of Development: Once you have gathered enough material and
ideas you must choose one or more of the following methods to develop your story.
Narration: Tell a story.
Description: Use specific details that appeal to your senses.
Examples: Use specific examples to explain how replicate a process.
Process Analysis: Break the process down into easy to follow steps
Comparison and Contrast: Define similarities and differences about two or more
Classification: Subdivide the subject into categories.
Definition: Explain what something is.
Cause and Effect: Show how one event is directly related to another.
Argument: Make a claim and give evidence to support your claim.

8. Parts of an Essay: There are three basic parts.
i. Start with a question
ii. Start with a quotation or dialogue
iii. Place your subject in a historical context
iv. Open with and anecdote
v. Shock or provoke the reader
The Body Paragraphs: Supports or develops your thesis statement by using the
following. Your topic will define how much evidence is enough.
i. Specific examples
ii. Facts and figures
iii. Personal experience
The Conclusion: This is your last chance to drive home your point by using the
following methods.
i. Restate your main point
ii. End with recommendations
iii. Show the broader significance of your argument
9. Developing Paragraphs:
You develop paragraphs with the same methods you use to develop your entire
essay by using narration, description, examples, and classification.
You need to tell the reader clearly and directly what your paragraph is going to be
about. This is the purpose of the topic sentence.
10. Writing Topic Sentences:
Topic sentences should be supported by every other sentence in the paragraph.
A topic sentence should tell the reader the topic of the paragraph and it should
make a clear statement about that topic.

11. Linking Ideas Together:
Each paragraph should logically lead into the next.
12. Using Visuals:
Visuals should never be for decoration.
Use graphs, charts, and other visual that support you thesis.
13. Revising:
A process of looking at your draft and making necessary changes in content,
organization, or emphasis.
Revising often requires adding new evidence, narrowing a thesis, cutting out
paragraph or entire sections, and rewriting the beginning to appeal better to your
Revising is not the time to focus on words or sentences.
Wait a few hours to a few days before doing a revision so you can look at it with
fresh eyes.
14. Reading a Draft with a Critical Eye:
Read your draft and also have others read your draft as well.
Be sure your draft contains the following elements.
i. An effective title
ii. A clear focus
iii. Sufficient information for your audience
iv. Adequate support for the thesis
v. Organization
vi. Methods of development
vii. Sources
viii. Paragraphs
ix. Sentence length and variety
x. Visuals: As needed
15. Getting Response before Revising:
Ask someone to read your essay and give constructive feedback
16. Revising a Second Draft:
Set your draft aside for a few days
Return to your draft with fresh eyes and do a second revision on the draft
17. Editing and Proofreading: Fix grammar, sentence structure, punctuation, and word choices
using the following methods.
Tips for Editing Sentences:
i. Check to be sure that each sentence expresses a complete thought.
ii. Check capitalization and end punctuation.
iii. Look for sentences that begin with it or there.
iv. Check for parallelism.

Tips for Editing Punctuation:
i. Check for commas after introductory elements in a sentence.
ii. Check for commas before and, but, or, nor, so, or yet in compound
iii. When you quote other peoples words, be sure to put quotation marks at the
beginning and end of the quotation.
iv. Check to be sure that youve put commas and periods inside quotation
v. Check your use of apostrophes with possessives.

18. Proofreading and Final Formatting:
The only stage of the writing process that you are not concerned with meaning.
Slow down as you proofread.
Follow any instructions given by your instructor.
Check the following for formatting issues.
i. Heading and title
ii. Spacing
iii. Margins
iv. Paragraph indentation
v. Page Numbers.