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# Electrical Interview questions Part 14

Electrical interview question:How do you select a cable size (Cu & Al) for a particular
Answer:At first calculate the electrical current of the load, after that derate the electrical
current considering derating factor(depending on site condition and laying of cable) after
choose the cable size from cable catalog considering derating electrical currentAfter
that measure the length of cable re!uired from supply point of load to load poin
Calculate the "oltage drop which will ma# \$% (resistance and reactance of cable found
from cable catalog of selecting cable) if "oltage drop&\$%
then choose ne#t higher size of cable
Electrical interview question:'hat are H(C fuses and where it is used?
Answer:H(C stand for )high rupturing capacity) fuse and it is used in distribution
system for electrical transformers
Electrical interview question:'hich power plant has high load factor?
power plants to supply the base load,we can reduce the cost of generationHydel power
plants ha"e a higher efficiency than thermal & nuclear power plants
Electrical interview question:+ention the methods for starting an induction motor?
Answer:,he different methods of starting an induction motor
-./:direct online starter
0tar delta starter
Auto transformer starter
(esistance starter
0eries reactor starter
Electrical interview question:'hat is the difference between earth resistance and
earth electrode resistance?
Answer:.nly one of the terminals is e"ident in the earth resistance *n order to find the
second terminal we should recourse to its definition: 1arth (esistance is the resistance
e#isting between the electrically accessible part of a buried electrode and another point
of the earth, which is far away
,he resistance of the electrode has the following components:
(A) the resistance of the metal and that of the connection to it
(2) the contact resistance of the surrounding earth to the electrode
Electrical interview question:'hat is use of loc3out relay in ht "oltage?
Answer:A loc34out relay is generally placed in line before or after the e4stop switch so
the power can be shut off at one central location ,his relay is powered by the same
electrical source as the control power and is operated by a 3ey loc3 switch ,he relay
itself may ha"e up to 56 contact points within the unit itself ,his allows the control
power for multiple machines to be loc3ed out by the turn of a single 3ey switch
Electrical interview question:'hat is the power factor of an alternator at no load?
Answer:At no load 0ynchronous *mpedance of the alternator is responsible for creating
angle difference 0o it should be zero lagging li3e inductor
What is electromagnetic induction?
It is the phenomenon where an electromotive force is produced by introducing a changing
magnetic field to a conductor or by moving a conductor in a magnetic field
How does a diode work?
Diodes are two-terminal semiconductors that allow energy flow in one direction only.
What are the semiconductors used transistors?
Germanium silicon silicon carbide gallium arsenide
What is !"#\$? What are its advantages?
!"#\$ is !omplementary "etal #%ide \$emiconductor. Its advantages are increased
noise immunity decreased power consumption less heat wastages.
Do you have product design e%perience?
&his is a general 'uestion for most engineers where the interviewer tries to find some
spots in your answer to 'uestion you back. It is to evaluate your knowledge in the design
work done by you.
What is "eissner effect?
It is the phenomenon of a magnetic field being e%pelled from a superconductor.
(%plain superconductivity with e%amples.
\$uperconductivity is a phenomenon where the conducting material shows )ero resistivity
and e%hibits meissner effect. \$uperconductivity is observed at very low temperatures. &he
temperature below which a material e%hibits superconductivity is called the critical
temperature. !uprate superconductors have found to show the property up to *+,.
"ercury based cuprate superconductors show the property up to -./,.
How many 0oules is - electronvolt?
- e1 is -.2/+-3245-/6--*7 0oules
How is a megawatt electrical different from a thermal megawatt?
"egawatt electrical 5"We7 indicates the electrical power generated whereas thermal
megawatt 5"Wt7 indicates the thermal power generated.
What is a vacuum circuit breaker?
8 vacuum circuit breaker is an automated switch that is used in protecting a circuit in
case of overload. It interrupts current by using a vacuum container to create an arc and
breaking it as a result of increase in dielectric strength.
What is power factor?
9ower factor is the ratio of working power to apparent power.
What s renewable energy? :ist some renewable energy sources.
;enewable energy is the energy generated by using naturally restorable resources. \$ome
renewable energy sources include solar wind tidal and geothermal energy. <iofuels
produced from biomass is also classified as a renewable energy source.
(%plain the functioning of a solar cell.
8 solar cell converts energy from sunlight to electrical energy. &he underlying principle is
the photovoltaic effect. \$olar cells are made using silicon crystals or silicon thin film
wafers.
&eam leading or team playing e%perience is a ma0or re'uirement in power generation
plants. 9eople as a part of a team in a power plant get ma0or opportunities to learn in
detail the operation and maintenance procedures. 8 team e%perience is a positive factor
for recruiters.
Electrical job Questions:Thermal Power Plant (Set 1)
What are the main circuits in the Thermal Power Plant?
Answer:,hermal 7ower plant consists of four main circuits, they are:
8eed water and steam flow circuit
Coal and ash circuit
Air and gas circuit
Cooling water circuit
Steam power plant works on which cycle?
Answer: 0team power plant wor3s on the principle of (an3ine Cycle
What is the Thermal efficiency of steam power plant?
Answer: ,hermal efficiency of steam power plant is defined as the ratio of heat
e!ui"alent of mechanical energy transmitted to the turbine shaft to the heat of
combustion 9enerally ,hermal efficiency of the steam power plant will be in the range
of \$:4\$;%
What is the overall efficiency of the Thermal Power Plant or Steam Power Plant?
Answer: ."erall efficiency of the system is defined as the ratio of heat e!ui"alent of
electrical output to the heat of combustion 9enerally ."erall efficiency of the steam
plant will always be less than the thermal efficiency of the steam plant, it will be of the
order of 5<4\$\$%
."erall efficiency of steam plant is determined by multiplying the thermal efficiency of
the plant with efficiency of the generator (electrical efficiency)
Why the Thermal efficiency of the steam power plant is quite low?
Answer: *n 0team power station, more than ;:% of the total heat of combustion is lost
as heat re=ected to the condenser and the loss is una"oidable as the heat energy
cannot be con"erted in to mechanical energy with out a drop in temperature 0team in
the condenser is at lowest temperature ,his is the reason that the thermal efficiency of
the power plant is !uite low
On what factors efficiency (thermal) of the steam plant epens?
Answer: 1fficiency of the thermal plant depends on three factors, they are
> pressure of steam entering the turbine
5 temperature of the steam entering the turbine
\$ pressure in the condenser
,hermal efficiency increases with increase in temperature and pressure of the steam
entering the turbine 8or this reason high temperature and pressure are used ,hermal
efficiency is effecti"ely increased by decreasing the pressure in the condenser, so
pressure in the condenser is 3ept as low as possible
,hermal efficiency also increases by reheating the steam between turbine stages
Wh !eneration "olta#e in Power Plant is \$ow (11%" to &&%") '
*n 1lectrical 9eneration plants, the generation "oltage will be in the range between >>3?
and \$\$3? 9enerator designers wishes to generate the electricity at high "oltages as
possible to limit the stator current re!uired to achie"e the desired output 2ut certain
technical and economical problems will arise which results in designing the generator
for particular "oltage and current ratings
/ow "oltage generation for particular power le"el (say ;::+') re!uires large
size of the stator conductors as huge currents flow through the stator because of
low "oltage ( Any current carrying conductor size is decided by the amount of
current flowing through the conductors) ,hereby increase in the cost and size of
the machine ta3es place
.n the other hand, increase of the machine "oltage significantly beyond the
minimum necessary "alue results in more insulation re!uired on the generator
stator windings, thus increasing its size and cost
,herefore an optimum "alue of ?oltage and Current "alues are attained for designing
the generator considering the cost and size factors of the generator
E"ample!
@@: +' generation plant usually operate at 5\$; 3? with line currents of about >< ::: A
at :A; power factor
Interview questions for electrical maintenance?
Describe the electrical systems you have worked on and how did you get your training?
+. What is your e%perience with electrical schematics?
=. Describe the malfunctions you have e%perienced with 9:! hardware?
>. Describe a tough electrical troubleshooting problem you have e%perienced and briefly e%plain
the steps you used to solve the problem.
2. What is the difference between a digital signal and an analog signal?
3. How often do you use a personal computer in a typical day? What do you do with it?
?. Describe a process problem you have e%perienced and how did you solve it?
*. Give an e%ample of a tough loop you had to tune. What were the problems? 8nd how did you
solve them?
-/. What brands of 1@DAs are you familiar with.
--. Describe some of the malfunctions associated with 1@DAs and give an e%ample of a tough
1@D problem you had to solve.
-+a. Bsing :adder logic write a program that will \$&8;& and \$&#9 a motor with momentary
\$&8;& and \$&#9 push buttons. 59rovide a sheet of paper7
-+b. 8dd ladder logic that will turn the motor #@@ after running for two minutes.
-.. Describe the steps you take to troubleshoot a . phase =?/ volt motor that continually trips
the heaters.
-=a. Why is the earth pin in a .-pin plug the longest and the thickest?
-=b. (%plain the purpose of grounding.
->. Describe a control panel you wired designed or modified. What was the purpose of the
panel and state each component you used.
-2. Describe the difference between a sourcing input and a sinking input.
-3. Why do you want this 0ob?
Electrical En#ineerin# Interview Questions (Power Sstem)
Electrical (esi#n En#ineerin#) *+ro Power) Thermal Power Station Questions)
Switchar+ ,,-%". 4--%". /01 %") Substation Questions
12 *T3 Interview: (as tol+ b 4S)
-. 9reparation of D9; How dimension are made for generator.
+. @avorite <#9 item.
.. ;ing C <us topography in \$!8D8
=. \$!; and its value ?
>. What to specify in Generator &ransformer tender ?
2. &ransformer :osses 9enalty ?
3. \$pecifications 5=-> \$witchgear7
?. What u did in different pro0ects?
-/. How work is done 5\$pecial &eam or 9ro0ect wise7 in your company ?
--. (%pected 9ackage ?
-+. Why H&!?
-.. How u come to know us?
-=. Why in short span of time you post your cv on website?
->. 8bout tender floating process ?
-2. What was your involvement during pre-bid meeting etc.
,2 "oith (Tele5honic Interview as tol+ b 4S)
-. &ell me about vector group Dnd-- what itEs technical mean ?
+. 9rotection of G& ? Differential and ;(@.
.. ;atio of ;(@ !& ?
=. Why single phase transformer is used ?
&2 6lstom (6s tol+ b 4S) 7P)
-. \$:D F 8ny Hydro (lectric 9lant.
+. \$chemes of <as bars F !<I9 G "ain and &ransfer << (%planation
.. \$\$ ('uipments
=. :8 ;ating Why less than rated 1 ? G @ault level =/ k8 !urrent rating
>. <reaker G &ypes and ratings H !<I9
2. Disconnector \$witch C Isolator
3. 9ost Insulator
?. !ivil
- \$tructures
- @oundations
- \$tool
*. !learances for different 1oltages
- -.+C++/C=//k1
- \$ectional
- ('uipment
- (arth
-. :ayout of switchyard
+. 8uto-&ransformerG @unction and why used ?
.. &ransformer specification C Datasheet
- &%. 9rotection
- W&I
- #&I
- <uckohles
- &ransformer #il @unctions G !ooling Insulation between Windings
Tea 8rea% (75to this 1hr)
-. What u have doneI&ell.
+. (arthing G \$tart I((-?/ I\$ ./=. !<I9.
- <y flow chart of I((( ?/
- ;g J- ohm
- !onductor spacing
- &ouch 1 step v
- (arthing rod G dia length
- #ptimise the worst condition by these various standards.
.. <us <ar &ypesG
- ;igit and @le%ible
- 8!\$;
- 88!
- 8l 9ipe
=. \$:D @ull 9rotection from Gen. &ransformer :ine << G @ull \$:D of H99.
- ! K ; 9anel
- ;elaying \$cheme G Diffential 9rotection Distance 9rotection ;elay \$etting 5#! (@ &rip
!kt Healthy #1 B17
- ;(@ settings
>. :ightning 5;I:;angit7
- "ast or \$hield Wires
- "ethods G "ousa and ;i)vig "ethod
- 9rotection 8rea 5!one7 9rotection 8ngles G !<I9
- ;olling s'uare "ethod
2. \$oftwares Bsed
- (tap (arthing
- 1<LL
- "obile \$oftware
3. !apacitor 9anel
- 9f Improvement
- @unction
- ;eactive 9ower in0ection
?. <attery !alculation
- I(((?=>
*. !& !ode
- !ore
- !lass 9\$ /.> /.+
- 18 <urden
-/. 9& !ode
- I1&
- !1&
- Dry
- @use
- --k1
--. \$ynchronising
- DG sets
- \$ystem
-+. Ganttary
-.. &ower Height F !<I9
- =// k1 5-3L?7
- ++/k1
-=. @actor affecting at High (levation
- 8ir dielectric strength becomes less so &emperature will reduces so the pressure and
dielectric strength.
- 9ower f withstand and dynamic rating will changes
->. !orona :oss
- Will be less in 9ipe conductor
-2. !ables
- --k1
- ++/k1
- @;:8
- !able testingG H1 test I; test and outer areaCsheath of cable stretch
- 8 .m piece of cable is put in fire for testing @;:\$.
Technical 9inish2 Then *4 an+ other +iscussion
Teachin#) 6n wor% +one in \$i:e with :ull enthusiasm2
42 3P4I) 8an#alore (6s tol+ b 4S)
M-. H1D! \$tudied?
M+. Do u know about 9ower (vacuation?
M.. If we have -/>/ "W to transmit from - substation to another. What electrical parameters
you will think.
M=. If we have a ==/ k1 line of =//km. what will be its characteristics impedance?
M=. If we have a =//k1 of =// km ? if line a another end is not connected to grid then what will
be the voltage level there and it is less then how much ? what to do to remove that effect ? which
element we connect in line and where ?
MG <#9 Work (%perience ?
MG Difference in &endering and D( ?
MG "aster in which field of :ayout C \$ystem (ngineering ?
MG Which :ayour Dou "ake ? F Bpto ++/k1 Double <us.
MG How e'uipments are arranged in substation ?
MG :ist of ('uipments in \$witchyard ?
MG 9ower &ransformer 9arameters ?
"18 1p 1s !ooling 1ector Diagram &emperature Insulation \$witching voltage
MG ->C -? or ?C-/ or *C-/ "18 &ransformer. What are these two ratings ? and which is best ?
8ns. Generally we take +/ N difference in two ratings. so ?C-/ is best.
MG Difference between #O8O and #O8@.
MG =..1 why this voltage ?
MG Winding &emperature of &ransformer ?
MG #il &emrperature of transformer ?
MG 1ector diagram which you used G
F DDn-- step up
F Dnd-- \$tepdown
MG N impedance of &ransformer 1alue ? I\$-+/+2
MG (arthing What we !8lsulate ?
- ; J-./ ohm
MG @ault !urrent for -.+k1 ++/k1 =//k1 ?
- ++/k1 =/k8
- -.+k1 .-.> k1
MG Why for ++/k1 system :8 used is of less rating ?
MG @or ++/ k1 which conductor is used ?
- "oose C Pebra
MG !able \$i)ing 9arameters ?
- 1oltage !urrent &emp. &ype of arrangement 1 drop :ength of !able "in. cross-section
MG 1 Drop @ormula for !able ?
"otor delta-star areG
D#: G 2 times
\$tar-DeltaG . times
MG @ull @orm of 8!\$; and 88!
MG Ootice 9eriod
12 8;P) 688 (6s tol+ b 6S)
MG <#9 Work (%perience ?
MG Difference in &endering and D( ?
MG "aster in which field of :ayout C \$ystem (ngineering ?
MG Which :ayour Dou "ake ? F Bpto ++/k1 Double <us.
MG How e'uipments are arranged in substation ?
MG :ist of ('uipments in \$witchyard ?
MG 9ower &ransformer 9arameters ?
"18 1p 1s !ooling 1ector Diagram &emperature Insulation \$witching voltage
MG ->C -? or ?C-/ or *C-/ "18 &ransformer. What are these two ratings ? and which is best ?
8ns. Generally we take +/ N difference in two ratings. so ?C-/ is best.
MG Difference between #O8O and #O8@.
MG =..1 why this voltage ?
MG Winding &emperature of &ransformer ?
MG #il &emrperature of transformer ?
MG 1ector diagram which you used G
F DDn-- step up
F Dnd-- \$tepdown
MG N impedance of &ransformer 1alue ? I\$-+/+2
MG (arthing What we !8lsulate ?
- ; J-./ ohm
MG @ault !urrent for -.+k1 ++/k1 =//k1 ?
- ++/k1 =/k8
- -.+k1 .-.> k1
MG Why for ++/k1 system :8 used is of less rating ?
MG @or ++/ k1 which conductor is used ?
- "oose C Pebra
MG !able \$i)ing 9arameters ?
- 1oltage !urrent &emp. &ype of arrangement 1 drop :ength of !able "in. cross-section
MG 1 Drop @ormula for !able ?
"otor delta-star areG
D#: G 2 times
\$tar-DeltaG . times
MG @ull @orm of 8!\$; and 88!
MG Ootice 9eriod
02 Electrical (esi#n (6s tol+ b *T)
M-. What is fault current ?
M+. (arthing Design steps ?
M.. &ouch K \$tep 1oltages Definations ?
M=. \$witchyard \$:D
M>. @ault "odel F !alculations ?
M2. !8ble \$i)ing and !alculations ?
M3. N P in &ransformer - (%plain ?
M?. Define \$ynchroni)ing ?
M*. @aults 9h-9h 9h-G 9h-( ?
M-/. \$ectionsal !learances ?
M--. !< G&9 ?
M-+. G&9 "ain 9arameters 5Qer !<7
M-.. &wo Generators are connected to common bus then a common transforemer having all
necessary details. If fault occurs at bus what will be fault current ?
/2 Electrical (esi#n *+ro (6s tol+ b 4S)
M-. @irm 9ower
M+. 9ower @ormula in Hydro ?
M.. Hrdels in Hydro 9ower 9lant ?
M=. How capacity is decided for Hydro 9ower 9lant ?
M>. 9ower 9otential \$tudy