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4.

Weathering and Soil Formation (pelapukan dan formasi tanah)


113
Or forms directly from disintegration minerals under conditions of high Ehp!.
"ncreas in the proportion of hematite to goethite ha#e $een found to $e related
tiredder hues in some soils (%igham et al. 1&'().()tau mem$entuk mineral
langsung dari disintegrasi dalam kondisi tinggi Ehp!. Semakin meningkat dalam
proporsi hematit untuk gutit telah ditemukan $erhu$ungan *arna tiredder di
$e$erapa tanah (%igham et al. 1&'().)
GIBBSITE. +his mineral forms and persists under condition of lo* Si
concentration and high hydronium concentration, *ith a$sence or lo*
consentration of $ases. +his may form $y aging of aluminous allophanes or gels.
-i$sit. .ineral ini ter$entuk dan $ertahan dalam kondisi konsentrasi Si rendah
dan konsentrasi hidronium tinggi, dengan tidak adanya atau konsentrasi rendah
dari $asa. !al ini mungkin ter$entuk dengan umur allophanes alumina atau gel.
ALLOPHANE. +his amorphous mineral forms under coditions of medium to high
hydronium concentration in highly moist or *et systems, $y rapid *eathering of
noncrystalline #olcanic ash, or to a limited e/tent $y rapid of feldspars. )lofan.
"ni $entuk mineral amorf di $a*ah coditions medium dengan konsentrasi
hidronium tinggi dalam sistem yang sangat lem$a$ atau $asah, dengan cepat
pelapukan a$u #ulkanik $entuk nonkristalin, atau sampai $atas tertentu dengan
cepat feldspars.
Perspectife. "nthe chapter *e o0ered a de1nition of *eathering and
distinguished $et*een chemical and physical *eathering. 2hemical *eathering
is much more important than physical *eathering in soil formation, $ut
processes associated *ith each *ere listed and $rie3y descri$ed. 4erspectife.
5alam $a$ ini kita mena*arkan de1nisi pelapukan dan di$edakan antara kimia
dan 1sik pelapukan. 6imia pelapukan 7auh le$ih penting daripada 1sik pelapukan
dalam pem$entukan tanah, tetapi proses yang terkait dengan setiap tercatat
dan secara singkat di7elaskan.
4hysical *eathering results from stress *ithin the rocks, temperature changes
due to daytime heating and nighttime cooling, e/pansion of ice in cracks and
7oints in the rocks, pressure from mineral crystals gro*ing in cracks and 7oints,
and the *edging e0ect of plant roots. 4hysical processes can play a signi1cant
role in opening up and fragmenting rocks, there $y making them more
#ulnera$le to chemical *eathering processes. Fisik pelapukan hasil dari stres
dalam $atu, peru$ahan suhu aki$at pemanasan siang hari dan pendinginan
malam hari, perluasan es di celah dan sendi di $e$atuan, tekanan dari kristal
mineral yang tum$uh di celahcelah dan sendi, dan efek menyiangi akar
tanaman. 4roses 1sik dapat memainkan peran penting dalam mem$uka dan
memecah$elah $atu, ada dengan mem$uat mereka le$ih rentan terhadap
proses kimia pelapukan. di7elaskan.
2hemical *eathering processes include hydrolysis, solution, o/idation, o/idation
reduction 3uctuations, and chelation. 6imia proses pelapukan termasuk
hidrolisis, larutan, oksidasi, reduksioksidasi 3uktuasi, dan khelasi.
Su$sets of some of these chemical processes are uni8ue to soil systemssuch as
potassium stripping from interlayers of mica, aluminum transfer from clay
minerals to the interlayer spaces of #ermiculite in hydro/y 9 )l interlayered
#ermiculite, and the shuttling of )l from primary mineral silicate structures to
e/change sites and to free from as mineral disintegration proceeds. !impunan
$agian dari $e$erapa proses kimia yang unik untuk sistemseperti tanah se$agai
kalium pengupasan lapisan dalam dari mika, aluminium transfer dari mineral
tanah liat untuk ruang lapisan dalam dari #ermikulit di hidroksi )l lapisan dalam
#ermikulit, dan $olak )l dari struktur mineral silikat primer untuk $ertukar situs
dan untuk mem$e$askan dari mineral se$agai hasil disintegrasi.
We e/amined the release of iron from primary minerals in the o/idation process
and the formation of gi$$site and hematite. +he formation and resilication of
gi$$site and the a#aila$ility of amorphous froms of silica for claymineral
formation are in contrast to the scant solu$ility of crystalline 8uart:. 6ami
memeriksa pelepasan $esi dari mineral primer dalam proses oksidasi dan
pem$entukan gi$sit dan hematit. 4em$entukan dan resilication dari gi$sit dan
ketersediaan froms amorf dari silika untuk tanah liat pem$entukan mineral ini
$er$eda dengan kelarutan sedikit kuarsa kristal.
Sta$ility 1elds and e8uili$rium diagrams for minerals *ere considered, pointing
out that the lack of su;cient data on reaction kinetics and the comple/ity of soil
systems made use of these concepts as *orking tools impossi$le to di;cult.
!o*e#er, they are useful in soil*eathering studies as a frame of reference and a
predictor of end products of *eathering. Sta$ilitas $idang dan diagram
kesetim$angan untuk mineral dianggap, menun7ukkan $ah*a kurangnya data
yang cukup tentang kinetika reaksi dan kompleksitas sistem tanah
memanfaatkan konsepkonsep ini se$agai alat $eker7a tidak mungkin sulit.
<amun, mereka $erguna di dalam tanahpelapukan studi se$agai kerangka
acuan dan prediktor produk akhir dari pelapukan.
Weathering se8uences for claysi:e minerals and sta$ility series for common soil
minerals *ere presented and discussed. We proposed that the soilclay mineral
hydro/y)l interlayered #ermiculite $e added to the *eathering se8uence as
$eing of persistence e8uel to kaolinite in soil systems. =rutan 4elapukan tanah
liat untuk ukuran mineral dan seri sta$ilitas untuk mineral tanah umum
disampaikan dan di$ahas. 6ami mengusulkan agar mineral tanahtanah liat
hidroksi)l antar $erlapis #ermikulit ditam$ahkan dengan urutan se$agai
pelapukan dari kegigihan sama dengan kaolinit dalam sistem tanah.
pedogenic proses> internal, tanah$angunan proses
urutan mineral pelapukan dan pedochemistry di$ahas pada $a$ se$elumnya
diga$ungkan dengan $er$agai fenomena 1sik untuk mem$entuk prosesproses
pem$entukan tanah. $a$ ini $erkaitan dengan konsep pedogenic mendasar dan
de1nisi singkat dari $anyak hal pedological khusus, $e$erapa di antaranya telah
tumpang tindih makna, seperti yang akan ditun7ukkan le$ah. sekolah yang
$er$eda dari pedologic pikir tempat penekanan pada aspek yang $er$eda dari
mereka yang kompleks dari reaksi dise$ut proses pem$entukan tanah. misalnya,
$e$erapa ilmu*an menganggap tanah silication (#ilenskii 1&?'), dan illu#iation
lain (Sto$$e dan *right 1&?&) dari seskuioksida se$agai 1tur penting dari
pod:oli:ation. tidak ada usaha di$uat di sini untuk mem$edakan antara poin
$ersaing seperti pandang.
sifat umum dari proses pedogenic. proses pem$entukan tanah adalah kompleks
atau urutan ke7adian, termasuk reaksi rumit dan penyusunan ulang yang relatif
sederhana dari materi, yang erat mempengaruhi tanah di mana ia $eroperasi.
$er$agai acara dapat ter7adi $ersamaan atau $erurutan untuk saling
memperkuat atau $ertentangan satu sama lain (pode 1(@AB Simonson 1&?&). For
e/amples, claci1cation and pod:oli:ation (ta$le ?.1) operate concurrently in
certain $oralfs (gray *ooded soils). ) gi#en procces may tend to maintain the
soil in its current condition or it may tend to change the soil. Some processes,
such as crystal gro*th in a #oid in the interior of a large $oulder and mo#ement
of 3uids inside a large tree root or in a hi$ernating rodent in a soil, are remote
from the acti#e part of the soil and hence, e#en though they take place *ithin
the soil, may $e e/cluded from the long list of soilforming processes. On the
other hand, crystal gro*th at the surface of the $uried $oulder, e/change of
3uids $et*een soil and root hairs, and e/change of gases $et*een dormant
rodents and the soil atmosphere are intimate parts of the processes of soil
genesis. -eochemical *eathering of minerals (2hap.4) is a geologic process in
the formation of initial material of soil and continues in the soil pro1le *here it is
considered to $e a process of soil formation, that is, pedochemical *eathering
(2hap.4). 4edogenic processes include gains and losses of materials from a soil
$ody in accordance *ith the degradational, aggradational, or intermediate
geomorphic character of the site as *ell as translocation *ithin a soil $ody.
) soil, like a house, is put together or dismantled $y speci1c processes. "n #ie* of
the more disorderly and in1nitely more complicated course of soil formation, one
might $etter compare soil formation to the collapse and gradual disintegration,
under in3uence of numerous organisms, of a com$ined chemical storehouse and
natural history museum. .ar$ut (1&3?) suggested that no$ody has e#er seen a
mature soil from in toto. Cet *e do o$ser#e some processes in operation such as
the cracking of clayey soils during dry periods and the incorporation of plants
de$ris into soil $y earth*orms and ants.
+he possi$le num$er of pedogenic e#ents and com$inations and interactions
$et*een them in soils is staggering. )lthough la$oratory e/periments can
demonstrate that speci1c processes can produce speci1c soil features, the actual
course of e#ents *ithin undistur$ed soil *ill pro$a$ly ne#er $e fully kno*n. Some
soil features are ephemeral, others enduring. ) relati#ely permanent kroto#ina
may $e produced $y rodent acti#ity and $urro* 1lling $y soil in a single season.
Ses8uio/ide concretions and nodules may last for millennia in soils. On the other
hand, earth*orm casts may $e produced and dispersed in an ) hori:on in a
matter of days or hours.
Work accomplished $y geologic agencies in forming initial materials has
in3uenced their mineralogy and te/ture (Simonson 1&?&). Soils may de#elop
much more rapidly in deep, loose clastic deposits than in solid $edrock. "n each
principal kind of soil, discussed in later chapters, processes of soil formation
occur in uni8ue proportions, intensities, and se8uences. (Dpedologic hal3ifeE). For
e/ample, car$onate concretions are a$undant and lasting in )ridisols (5esert
soils), persist in small num$ers under the clay pan of some al$a8ualfs (4lanosols)
in humid temperate regions, $ut are a$sent in associated of pedogenic processes
that charactheri:e principal ecosystem and particular kind of tesseras (Fenny
1&?(, 1&@1, 1&(G) are kno*n $y pedological terms such as pod:oli:ation and
claci1cation ( 6ellogg 1&3@) (+a$el ?.1). Fundamental pedogenic processes
include $oth generali:ations and speci1c su$di#isions of these.
General Fundamental Pedogenic Processes and Conditions -eneral
fundamental pedogenic processes and conditions (see +a$le ?.1) pro#ide a
frame*ork for later consideration of more speci1c reaction and processes.
+*o o#erlapping trends in soil de#elopment are hori:onation and haploidi:ation.
A
!ori:onation (!ole 1&@1) includes the proanisotropic processes and conditions $y
*hich initial materials are di0erentiated into soil pro1les *ith many hori:ons (as
in 5 pro1les of <orthcote 1&@?). We think of the Spodosol (4od:ol) pro1le (GEA
%hir2) as $eing a hori:onated soil (Fig. ?.1). pronounced hori:onation of some
soils is chie3y mineralogical and may not $e #isi$le to the o$ser#er of a freshly
e/posed pro1le. !aploidi:ation includes proisotropic processes and conditions $y
*hich hori:onation is inhi$ited or decelerated or $y *hich hori:ons are mi/ed or
distur$ed. We think of a Hertisol (-rumusolB %lack 2otton soil) pro1le *ith only )
2 hori:onation as $eing haploid or simple (= soil pro1les of <orthcote 1&@?). )
#ertisol may $e 1G.GGG years old (+horp 1&@?), *hereas a Spodosol may $e no
older than A,A?G years (Fran:meier and Whiteside 1&@3a, 1&@3$). "t may $e
concluded that haploidi:ation is at least as important a general process or
condition as hori:onation.
!elati"el# Speci$c Fundamental Pedogenic Processes 4rocesses of soil
formation include (1) additions of organic and mineral materials to the soil as
solids, li8uids, and gases, (A) losses of these from the soil, (3) translocations of
materials from one point to another *ithin the soil, and (4) transformation of
mineral and organic su$stances *ithin the soil (Simonson 1&?&).
+he list of terms in ta$le ?.1 $egins *ith those that related to item 3, a$o#e.
Evaluation and illuvation (*ords analogous to emigration and immigration) are
phases of translocation distinguished as a se8uence of mo#ement from one part
(usually a hori:on) to another in a soil pro1le. .ore than half of the terms relate
to translocation *ithin a soil $ody. +*o aspect of elu#iation are mo$ili:ation and
translocation. "llu#iation in#ol#es the same translocation processes and their
interruption $y immo$ili:ation of material in a soil hori:on.
Leaching is analogous to elu#iation $y solution $ut connotes remo#al from the
entire solum, although it is common to speak of a leached hori:on. "t is a primary
process, prere8uisite is many soils to translocation of colloids. 2alcium is
prominent in polyno#Is (1&3') list of relati#e mo$ility indices of some soil
constituents, as $ased on analyses of igneous rocks and of dissol#ed loads of
ri#ers > 2l

, 1GGB SO
4
J
, ?'B 2a
KK
, 3.GGB <a
K
, A.4GB .g
KK
, 1.3GB 6
K
, 1.A?B SiO
A
, G.AGB
Fe
A
O
3
, G.G4B )l
A
O
3
, G.GA. On the $asis of 2larkeIs (1&G() geochemical data, these same
units can $e e/pressed as to relati#e a$undance ($y *eight) in the earthIs crust > 2l

, trB
SO
4
J
, trB 2a, 'B <a, ?B .g, AB 6, ?B SiO
A
, 1GGB Fe
A
O
3
, 13B )l
A
O
3
, A?. +rapping of .g and 6
and )l
A
O
3
in nodules, concretions, and ironstone deposits may account in considera$le
part of the lo* mo$ility of these constituents. 5epth of leaching of car$onates in soil
pro1les is of 1rst importance in landscapes originally $lanketed *ith calcareous materials
such as limestone, dolomitic sandstone, loess, and glacial drift.
Enrichment may $e *ith respect to hori:ons $ut is usually taken in the sense of the entire
soil recei#ing material from surrounding pedons as in depressional parts of the landscape
or $y air from remote areas. =nder a humid temperate climate, such soils in areas of
slightly leached initial material are typically enriched in palnt nutrients and car$onate $y
laterally mo#ing *ater from surrounding areas. "n highly leached terrains *ithout
calcareous or fertile initial materials, the depressional soils are typically not eriched, $ut
rather are the most acid and leached of the entire landscape.
Surfcial erosion refers to lateral remo#al of surface layers of soil as $y raindrop splash,
runo0 *aters, *ind, soli3uction, creep, and other processes of mass*asting.
Cumulization (Fr. CumulusB to heap) is o0ered as a term to e/press the accumulation of
mineral material into the surface of the soil $y either air or *ater. "n fact, this may $e
considered a geogenic rather than a pedogenic process. +he e0ects of this process are
most e#ident in depressional areas *here material eroded from soils upslope has
accumulated.
Decalcifcation is speci1cally used for the elu#iation of car$onates *ithin a soil $ody. +he
process may lead to the complete remo#al of car$onates from the entire pro1le, as is
common in more humid areas, or $e accompanied $y claci1cation, *hich is the
accumulation of car$onates commonly o$ser#ed in more arid regions. +he general
reaction in#ol#ed in car$onate mo#ement is as follo*s > 2a2O
3
K !
A
O K 2O
A
L 2a
(!2O
3
)
A
. 5ecalci1cation occurs *hen either 2O
A
or !
A
O is remo#ed from the system and
the reaction mo#es to the left.
Desalinization is most fre8uently used *ith reference to the remo#al $y leaching of
solu$le salts from hori:ons or total soil pro1les that ha#e pre#iously contained enough
solu$le salt so that plant gro*th *as impaired.