Anda di halaman 1dari 16

Environment: The Science Behind the Stories, 4e (Withgott)

Chapter 5 Environmental Systems and Ecosystem Ecology


5.1 Graph and Figure Interpretation Questions
Use Figure 5.1 to answer the following uestions.
1) This graph helps to explain ________.
A) why the open ocean is so productive
) why cultivated lands are a logical choice to replace rain!orests
") why we need to #e concerned with da$age to rain!orests and coral ree!s
%) why tundra has such high net pri$ary productivity o! #io$ass
&) the i$portance o! deserts
Answer' "
%i!!' (
)#*ective' 5.1 &arth+s environ$ental syste$s
1
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
() ,ecall that areas with high net pri$ary productivity not only produce high levels o! #io$ass
rapidly- they also ta.e up large a$ounts o! ")
(
and give o!! large a$ounts o! oxygen. /hat is
the li.ely result o! the increasing a$ounts o! sedi$ents and !ertili0ers in the $a*or rivers
e$ptying into oceans and a!!ecting algal #eds- ree!s- swa$ps- and estuaries1
A) 2roductivity in these areas will increase per$anently- leading to $ore ")
(
upta.e and $ore
oxygen released.
) &utrophication- !ollowed #y hypoxia- is a li.ely result- ulti$ately leading to less ")
(
upta.e
and less oxygen released.
") &utrophication- !ollowed #y hypoxia- is a li.ely result- ulti$ately leading to $ore ")
(
upta.e
and $ore oxygen released.
%) &utrophication- !ollowed #y hypoxia- is a li.ely result- ulti$ately leading to less ")
(
upta.e
and $ore oxygen released.
&) Fisheries will i$prove as the extra nutrients !eed shell!ish and !ish.
Answer'
%i!!' (
)#*ective' 5.3 4u$an i$pacts on syste$s and cycles
3) )verall- it appears that #io$es with $ore availa#le !resh water ________.
A) tend to have less productivity than those without $uch !reshwater
) tend to have a#out the sa$e productivity as those without $uch !reshwater
") tend to have $ore productivity than those without $uch !reshwater
%) don+t di!!erentiate #etween !reshwater as rain!all and !reshwater as ice in glaciers
&) 5o real conclusions can #e drawn.
Answer' "
%i!!' (
)#*ective' 5.( iogeoche$ical cycles
(
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
5.( 6atching Questions
!atch the following.
A) hydrosphere
) ecosyste$
") transpiration
%) water ta#le
&) evaporation
F) #iosphere
G) at$osphere
4) #io$e
I) lithosphere
7) a8ui!er
9) #io$ass
:) precipitation
1) A large ecological unit in!luenced #y te$perature- elevation- precipitation- and latitude
%i!!' 1
)#*ective' 5.1 &arth+s environ$ental syste$s
() 6atter contained in living organis$s
%i!!' 1
)#*ective' 5.1 &arth+s environ$ental syste$s
3) The solid earth #eneath our !eet
%i!!' 1
)#*ective' 5.1 &arth+s environ$ental syste$s
;) The process #y which water $oves !ro$ &arth+s sur!ace <such as in la.es or rivers) to the
at$osphere
%i!!' 1
)#*ective' 5.( iogeoche$ical cycles
5) ,elease o! water vapor #y plants through their leaves
%i!!' 1
)#*ective' 5.( iogeoche$ical cycles
=) >pper li$it o! groundwater in soil or roc.s
%i!!' 1
)#*ective' 5.( iogeoche$ical cycles
?) /ater returns !ro$ the clouds to &arth+s sur!ace as
%i!!' 1
)#*ective' 5.( iogeoche$ical cycles
Answers' 1) 4 () 9 3) I ;) & 5) " =) % ?) :
3
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
5.3 6ultiple@"hoice Questions
1) Any networ. o! relationships a$ong a group o! co$ponents- which interact with and
in!luence one another through exchange o! $atter andAor in!or$ation- is re!erred to as ________.
A) an interchange
) a syste$
") an ecosyste$
%) an environ$ental colla#oration
&) hierarchy
Answer'
%i!!' 1
)#*ective' 5.1 &arth+s environ$ental syste$s
() A syste$ receiving inputs and producing outputs without undergoing any changes in si0e or
!unction is said to #e in ________.
A) static control
) environ$ental #alance
") har$onic resonance
%) nor$al #alance
&) dyna$ic e8uili#riu$
Answer' &
%i!!' 1
)#*ective' 5.1 &arth+s environ$ental syste$s
3) "attle on an open range- in so$e areas- $ay co$pact !ragile soils while gra0ing. This can
da$age plant roots- leading to !ewer- s$aller plants- which $ay in turn cause cattle to gra0e
$ore and wor. harder to o#tain !ood. This is an exa$ple o! a ________.
A) positive !eed#ac. loop
) negative !eed#ac. loop
") ho$eostatic syste$
%) dyna$ic e8uili#riu$
&) !ood we#
Answer' A
%i!!' (
)#*ective' 5.3 4u$an i$pacts on syste$s and cycles
;
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
;) The eutrophication that has ta.en place in the Gul! o! 6exico and other locations appears to
#e due to ________.
A) glo#al war$ing !ro$ hu$an use o! !ossil !uels
) pesticide use along the waterways
") heavy $etals du$ped in the sewage
%) weather alone- #ecause it is only o#vious in the su$$er
&) excess nutrients !ro$ !ertili0ers
Answer' &
%i!!' (
)#*ective' 5.3 4u$an i$pacts on syste$s and cycles
5) The physical- a#iotic co$ponents o! our planet can #e divided into the ________.
A) geosphere and at$osphere
) lithosphere- hydrosphere- and at$osphere
") lithosphere- #iosphere- and at$osphere
%) lithosphere- hydrosphere- #iosphere- and at$osphere
&) centrosphere- geosphere- #iosphere- and at$osphere
Answer'
%i!!' (
)#*ective' 5.1 &arth+s environ$ental syste$s
=) A natural ecosyste$- unda$aged #y hu$an activity- is ________.
A) a closed syste$ o! organic $aterials and energyB everything is recycled
) an open syste$ o! organic $aterials and energy
") an open syste$ o! organic and inorganic $aterials and energy
%) a closed syste$ o! organic and inorganic $aterials and energyB everything is recycled
&) an open syste$ o! inorganic $aterials and energy
Answer' "
%i!!' (
)#*ective' 5.1 &arth+s environ$ental syste$s
?) The swa$plands o! extre$e southern :ouisiana- which contain ele$ents o! #oth the !orests
and coastal $arshes- could #e called ________.
A) a super#io$e
) an ecotone
") a dead 0one
%) a closed ecosyste$
&) an a#iotic syste$
Answer'
%i!!' (
)#*ective' 5.1 &arth+s environ$ental syste$s
5
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
C) A s$all section o! prairie grasses- over a year- produces enough #io$ass to !eed insects- $ice-
ra##its- #irds- deer- antelope- and a host o! deco$posers. The a$ount o! !ood potentially
availa#le to the her#ivores is the ________.
A) net pri$ary production
) gross pri$ary production
") secondary production
%) respiration
&) !ood chain
Answer' A
%i!!' (
)#*ective' 5.1 &arth+s environ$ental syste$s
D) The rate at which #io$ass #eco$es availa#le to consu$ers is ter$ed ________.
A) gross pri$ary production
) ecosyste$ productivity
") grossulosity !actor
%) net density
&) net pri$ary productivity
Answer' &
%i!!' (
)#*ective' 5.1 &arth+s environ$ental syste$s
1E) The #iosphere consists o! the ________.
A) water- saltwater- and !reshwater in sur!ace #odies and the at$osphere
) solid earth #eneath our !eet
") su$ o! all the planet+s living organis$s and the a#iotic portions o! the environ$ent
%) air surrounding our planet
&) a#iotic portions o! the environ$ent
Answer' "
%i!!' 1
)#*ective' 5.1 &arth+s environ$ental syste$s
11) &cotones are the ________.
A) sounds that ani$al co$$unities $a.e in ecosyste$s
) interactive #ehaviors leading to co$$unication
") areas #etween territories o! organis$s
%) studies o! speci!ic #io$es #y ecologists
&) transitional 0ones #etween ecosyste$s
Answer' &
%i!!' 1
)#*ective' 5.1 &arth+s environ$ental syste$s
=
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
1() &xa$ining areas !ro$ the landscape scale- ter$ed landscape ecology, is use!ul #ecause
________.
A) hu$ans have not yet caused alterations to landscapes
) the dyna$ics o! ani$als result in locali0ed pro#le$s
") the role o! ecosyste$s is o!ten overstated
%) $ultiple ecosyste$s $ay exist in a single area with $any transitional 0ones
&) it helps to de!ine the entire closed syste$
Answer' %
%i!!' (
)#*ective' 5.1 &arth+s environ$ental syste$s
13) 6acronutrients ________.
A) are large $olecules necessary !or $a.ing $acro$olecules
) are re8uired in large a$ounts !or organis$s to survive
") are the only nutrients that can #e trac.ed in nutrient cycles
%) can only #e ta.en up #y plants !ro$ roc. cycles
&) are what large predators eat
Answer'
%i!!' 1
)#*ective' 5.1 &arth+s environ$ental syste$s
1;) &xperi$ents done in coastal regions o! oceans throughout the world have de$onstrated that
________.
A) the sa$e !ew $icronutrients li$it growth everywhere
) only one $icronutrient- nitrogen- li$its growth everywhere
") only one $icronutrient- phosphorus- li$its growth everywhere
%) di!!erent $icronutrients appear to li$it growth in di!!erent places
&) the only $icronutrient that is i$portant is car#on
Answer' A
%i!!' (
)#*ective' 5.1 &arth+s environ$ental syste$s
15) The largest pools o! car#on in the car#on cycle are ________.
A) !reshwater syste$s and oceans
) plants and ani$als
") sedi$entary roc. and !ossil !uels
%) at$osphere
&) hydrosphere
Answer' "
%i!!' (
)#*ective' 5.( iogeoche$ical cycles
?
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
1=) The origin o! all phosphorus in #iological tissues is ________.
A) volcanic activities
) at$ospheric phosphorus gas
") phosphorus weathered !ro$ roc.
%) phosphorus dissolved in the ocean and ta.en up #y shell!ish
&) phosphorus in ani$al #ones
Answer' "
%i!!' (
)#*ective' 5.( iogeoche$ical cycles
1?) The origin o! all nitrogen in #iological tissues is ________.
A) earth8ua.e activities
) at$ospheric 5
(
gas
") nitrogen weathered !ro$ roc.
%) lightning
&) volcanoes
Answer'
%i!!' (
)#*ective' 5.( iogeoche$ical cycles
1C) 5itrogen !ixation is a process that $a.es nitrogen availa#le to plants and is carried out #y
________.
A) photosynthesis
) volcanic eruptions
") parasitic #acteria
%) nitrogen gas dissolving in !reshwater and in the ocean
&) $utualistic and !ree-living #acteria
Answer' &
%i!!' (
)#*ective' 5.( iogeoche$ical cycles
1D) 4u$ans have dra$atically altered the rate o! nitrogen !ixation into !or$s usa#le #y
autotrophs ________.
A) due to the #urning o! !ossil !uels to $eet our energy needs
) #ecause o! the erosion o! !ar$lands through poor agricultural practices
") as we produce synthetic !ertili0ers and apply the$ to crops- lawns- and par.s
%) #y using anti#iotics to reduce the nu$#ers o! denitri!ying #acteria
&) #y selectively re$oving legu$inous plants
Answer' "
%i!!' 3
)#*ective' 5.3 4u$an i$pacts on syste$s and cycles
C
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
(E) A8ui!ers are ________.
A) natural ponds and la.es
) recharge la.es at water 8uality !acilities
") underground water reservoirs
%) the result o! transpiration
&) oceans
Answer' "
%i!!' (
)#*ective' 5.( iogeoche$ical cycles
(1) y da$$ing rivers and using $ethods such as !lood irrigation- we are ________.
A) increasing evaporation
) increasing the water ta#le
") decreasing the water ta#le
%) decreasing transpiration
&) increasing transportation
Answer' A
%i!!' 3
)#*ective' 5.3 4u$an i$pacts on syste$s and cycles
(() 4u$an #eings have dra$atically altered the !lux rate o! nitrogen !ro$ ________.
A) the at$osphere to various pools on the earth+s sur!ace
) !ro$ soils to the at$osphere
") proteins to inorganic ions in soils
%) oceans to soils
&) producers to consu$ers through increased wild!ires
Answer' A
%i!!' (
)#*ective' 5.( iogeoche$ical cycles
(3) &cological $odeling ________.
A) is a !or$ o! ecosyste$ restoration
) is #ased on natural ecosyste$s and helps us design sustaina#le $anage$ent strategies
") has so !ar proven useless in predicting ecological events
%) re8uires the dis$antling and dissecting o! a !unctioning ecosyste$
&) is used #y evolutionary #iologist to predict !uture evolutionary events
Answer'
%i!!' (
)#*ective' 5.1 &arth+s environ$ental syste$s
D
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
(;) &cological $odelling can help us ________ ecosyste$ services.
A) control the growth o!
) create $any new
") understand the syste$ !unctions o! and sustaina#ly use
%) decrease the cost o! $aintaining
&) replace destroyed
Answer' "
%i!!' (
)#*ective' 5.3 4u$an i$pacts on syste$s and cycles
(5) In an eutrophic a8uatic ecosyste$ dissolved oxygen ________ and dissolved $acronutrients
________.
A) increasesAdecease
) increasesAincrease
") decreasesAdecrease
%) decreasesAincrease
&) re$ains sta#leAincreases
Answer' %
%i!!' (
)#*ective' 5.3 4u$an i$pacts on syste$s and cycles
5.; &ssay Questions
1) "o$pare and contrast positive and negative !eed#ac. loops. Give an exa$ple o! each and how
co$$on each is in natural syste$s.
Answer' A syste$+s output can serve as input to that sa$e syste$- a circular process descri#ed
as a !eed#ac. loop. In a negative !eed#ac. loop- output pushing the syste$ in one direction acts
as input that $oves the syste$ in another direction. The output and input essentially neutrali0e
one another- sta#ili0ing the syste$. An exa$ple would #e the regulation o! our #ody
te$perature. 5egative !eed#ac. loops are relatively co$$on in nature. In a positive !eed#ac.
loop- inputs don+t sta#ili0e a syste$ #ut drive the$ !urther toward one extre$e or another. An
exa$ple o! this process in natural syste$s is erosion. These are relatively rare in nature #ut are
co$$on in natural syste$s altered #y hu$an actions.
%i!!' (
)#*ective' 5.1 &arth+s environ$ental syste$s
1E
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
() %i!!erentiate #etween an open and a closed syste$. I! possi#le- give a speci!ic and so$ewhat
detailed exa$ple o! each. %o #oth exist in nature1 /hy or why not1
Answer' A closed syste$ is one that is isolated and sel!@contained. It is hypothetical and allows
scientists to grapple with co$plex syste$s. An open syste$ is one that exchanges energy- $atter-
and in!or$ation with another syste$. The 6ississippi ,iver is an open syste$ that interacts with
all a8uatic syste$s- terrestrial syste$s- and at$ospheric syste$s !ro$ its origin to the Gul! o!
6exico. It is a!!ected #y all sources o! pollution- !ertili0er- te$perature change- and other hu$an
i$pacts that can access its waters. "losed syste$s do not exist in nature. &ven a syste$ as closed
as a des.top co$puter #eco$es an open syste$ when plugged into the wall soc.et that is in
contact with the electricity that runs through an entire local co$$unity. 6atter $ay recycle
through a syste$- #ut energy $ust #e constantly input !ro$ an external source- such as the sun.
%i!!' 3
)#*ective' 5.1 &arth+s environ$ental syste$s
3) Give a #rie! overview o! the car#on cycle. Include the source o! car#on that enters
ecosyste$s- how it $oves through ecosyste$s- what it is used !or- and where it is ulti$ately
deposited. /hat part o! this cycle is #elieved to contri#ute to glo#al war$ing1
Answer' 2lants ta.e up ")
(
!ro$ the at$osphere and then incorporate the car#on into their
tissue. Ani$als then eat plants and gain car#on. "ar#on is used !or all the tissues and $olecules
o! living organis$s- such as car#ohydrates- !ats- and proteins- and as an essential ingredient in
%5A. /hen ani$als and plants die- their tissues are $eta#oli0ed #y deco$posers and $uch
partially degraded #io$ass <especially !ro$ plants) is then deposited into soils. At each stage
along the way- so$e car#on is released #ac. to the at$osphere as car#on dioxide. The use o!
!ossil !uels <previously undeco$posed organic $aterials) causes stored ")
(
to #e released to the
at$osphere. This is occurring at very high rates and is contri#uting to glo#al war$ing.
%i!!' 3
)#*ective' 5.( iogeoche$ical cycles
;) 4u$an activity has a!!ected every aspect o! the nitrogen cycle. :ist the ways that hu$ans
have altered nitrogen content starting with how nitrogen #eco$es availa#le to producers- where
it goes- and what i$pacts it has. /hat are the concerns !or the !uture1
Answer' 4u$ans have spent a great deal o! $oney on producing and distri#uting nitrogen and
have dou#led the a$ount o! nitrogen availa#le !or use #y plants. The 4a#er@osch process
allows us to !ix nitrogen into usa#le $olecules. /e have increased the a$ount o! nitrogen that
$a.es its way into waterways- $ostly as runo!! !ro$ !ertili0er. This has caused alterations in
terrestrial co$$unity co$position and eutrophication in water syste$s. /e have also increased
the distri#ution o! nitrogen through at$ospheric pollution- pri$arily !ro$ nitrogen oxides
resulting !ro$ #urning !ossil !uels- that then co$es down as acid rain. "oncerns !or the !uture
include cli$ate change through increased concentrations o! nitrous oxide- a greenhouse gas-
depleted nutrients !ro$ soils- and acidi!ied sur!ace water and soils.
%i!!' 3
)#*ective' 5.3 4u$an i$pacts on syste$s and cycles
11
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
5) 4u$an activity has a!!ected every aspect o! the water cycle. :ist !our ways that hu$ans have
altered the water cycle. /hat are the $a*or concerns !or the !uture1
Answer' First- hu$ans have da$$ed rivers to create reservoirs- resulting in increased
evaporation and in!iltration o! sur!ace water into a8ui!ers. Fecond- we have re$oved vegetation
!ro$ $any areas so in!iltration into the soil- transpiration- and return o! water to the at$osphere
have all slowed- increasing runo!! and erosion. Third- our agricultural $ethods- such as !lood
irrigation- have resulted in the depletion o! sur!ace waters. Finally- we e$it pollutants into the
at$osphere that su#se8uently co$e down in rainwater.
The greatest concern !or the !uture will #e shortages o! pota#le water. Fhortages in speci!ic areas
o! $any countries are already evident. Groundwater is #eing re$oved at high rates due to
agriculture and $anu!acturing in this country. /ater ta#les in previously plenti!ul a8ui!ers are
dropping at rapid rates and $ay ulti$ately li$it agricultural production and $anu!acturing- as
well as the availa#ility o! clean- !resh water supplies !or people worldwide.
%i!!' 3
)#*ective' 5.3 4u$an i$pacts on syste$s and cycles
=) %escri#e the hypotheses and the results o#tained in the FA"& <Free Air "ar#on %ioxide
&nrich$ent pro*ect.
Answer' This a$#itious pro*ect was designed to deter$ine whether !orests could #e a possi#le
!actor in re$oving and se8uestering ")( in a !uture challenged #y glo#al cli$ate change. To test
this hypothesis- !orests in several >F and international locations were dosed with huge a$ounts
o! ")( which si$ulated a 5EG rise in a$#ient levels. Fo$e o! the things learned so !ar are that
elevated ")( levels increase photosynthesis and tree growth #ut that the rates o! growth
eventually slow and level o!!. The increased #io$ass still !alls to the !orest !loor where it is
$eta#oli0ed #y deco$posers- releasing the !ixed car#on #ac. into the at$osphere as ")(. Also-
the elevated ")( levels $ay delay lea! death- resulting in higher tree $ortality !ro$ !rost
da$age in winter. Finally- in so$e cases the insect pests o! !orest trees tended to increase under
experi$ental conditions.
%i!!' (
)#*ective' 5.3 4u$an i$pacts on syste$s and cycles
?) /hat !actors contri#ute to the Hdead 0oneH in the waters o!! the Gul! o! 6exico1
Answer' There has #een a rapid acceleration o! anthropogenic !ixing o! at$ospheric nitrogen
and releasing it into the lithosphere. This is $ani!ested through !ertili0er runo!! into the
6ississippi watershed and thence into the Gul! o! 6exico. There excess nitrogen and
phosphorus- co$#ined with $ore nutrient loading !ro$ sewage discharge- has contri#uted to
algal #loo$s with a su#se8uent rise in plant #io$ass. This the excess #io$ass is partly eaten #y
consu$ers #ut a large a$ount sedi$ents out as dead $aterial and is $eta#oli0ed #y #enthic
deco$posers. All this increased aero#ic $eta#olis$ depletes the Gul! waters o! essential
dissolved oxygen- leading to a hypoxic dead 0one.
%i!!' (
)#*ective' 5.3 4u$an i$pacts on syste$s and cycles
1(
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
C) %e!ine the ter$ emergent properties and give an exa$ple !ro$ a natural syste$.
Answer' &$ergent properties are characteristics that are not evident in the syste$+s co$ponents
<the whole is greater than the su$ o! its parts). The co$ponent parts o! a tree <leaves- #ranches-
roots- #ole) do not lead to the whole tree+s e$ergent properties as a source o! shade !or
understory vegetation- a ho$e !or #irds and insects- a rich resource !illed with nectar and pollen
during !lowering season- andAor a source o! !ood !or $any organis$s in the !or$ o! !ruits or
nuts.
%i!!' (
)#*ective' 5.1 &arth+s environ$ental syste$s
D) /hat are the anthropogenic sources o! phosphorus- and why are they a pro#le$1
Answer' The $a*or anthropogenic source o! phosphorus is e!!luent !ro$ sewage treat$ents-
which tends to #e phosphate rich. Fertili0ers also provide large a$ounts o! anthropogenic
phosphorus- and $any detergents play a part as well. Introduction o! phosphates !ro$ all o! these
sources into sur!ace waters causes eutrophication and algal growth- leading to $ur.ier waters
and changes in the structure and !unction o! ecosyste$s.
%i!!' (
)#*ective' 5.3 4u$an i$pacts on syste$s and cycles
1E) 4ow and !or what is GIF so!tware used1
Answer' GIF <geographic in!or$ation syste$) so!tware is used #y landscape ecologists to
analy0e and visuali0e how geographic ele$ents o! a landscape are arrayed spatially. The
ele$ents can #e arranged as layers to !or$ a co$posite $ap- use!ul !or $apping niches o!
various species and esta#lishing $anage$ent strategies !or any landscape- natural or ur#an.
%i!!' (
)#*ective' 5.1 &arth+s environ$ental syste$s
13
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
5.5 Fcenario@ased Questions
"ead the following scenario and answer the uestions #elow.
In the early years o! the (Eth century there were lush stands o! tall grasses in the valley on the
east side o! the "hiricahua 6ountains in Ari0ona- stretching to 6exico on the south and 5ew
6exico on the east. %ra$atic su$$er rainstor$s du$ped huge a$ounts o! water- very 8uic.ly-
on the roc.y upper slopes. The water ran down the slopes and into the grasslands- where it
8uic.ly soa.ed into the so!t- porous soil. "attle ranching was in !ull swing- utili0ing the rich
grasses- #ut the ranchers did not appreciate the $ultitudes o! prairie dogs that lived in the
grasslands. "attle would stu$#le in the holes- #rea. legs- and die o! starvation. In addition- $any
ranchers were convinced that the prairie dogs would destroy the grasses #ecause they directly
co$peted with the cattle !or !ood. The ranchers had already done away with $ost predators that
$ight possi#ly a!!ect cattle- and now they turned their attention to the prairie dogs. The ranchers
#eco$e a part o! a new !ederally sponsored $ove$ent to poison the grassland prairie dogs. This
$ove$ent too. root and spread through the 1D(Es and 1D3Es.
1) 2rairie dogs constantly dig through the soil- $a.ing new #urrows. They eat the grasses- roots
and all. This pro#a#ly contri#utes to ________.
A) the grassroots #eing su#*ect to diseases
) the soil #eing loose and to little nutrient cycling- causing grasses to !all over
") the soil hardening during rains and to little nutrient cycling- causing grasses to die
%) the soils eroding and losing nutrients over ti$e- causing the grasses to die
&) the soil #eing loose and to nutrient cycling- allowing new grass roots to grow and prosper
Answer' &
%i!!' (
)#*ective' 5.1 &arth+s environ$ental syste$s
() /hen the rains ca$e down on the roc.y $ountainsides- the water ran down into the
grasslands where the prairie dogs were active and ________.
A) 8uic.ly ran o!! the loose soil- eroding the soil
) 8uic.ly evaporated- drying the loose soil
") 8uic.ly soa.ed into the loose soil- watering the grasses
%) gathered atop the loose soil- !or$ing large $uddy spots
&) !or$ed ponds
Answer' "
%i!!' 3
)#*ective' 5.( iogeoche$ical cycles
1;
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
3) In the late 1CEEs and early 1DEEs !ar$ers and ranchers slaughtered coyotes- #o#cats- wolves-
$ountain lions- eagles- and rattlesna.es- trying to protect their cattle. )ne direct result $ay have
#een ________.
A) a decrease in soil 8uality
) an increase in predation
") an increase in soil 8uality
%) an increase in the prairie dog population
&) a decrease in the prairie dog population
Answer' %
%i!!' (
)#*ective' 5.3 4u$an i$pacts on syste$s and cycles
;) )nce the prairie dogs were poisoned and no longer a part o! the ecosyste$- which o! the
!ollowing pro#a#ly occurred1
A) Foils slowly #eca$e looser #ecause o! the cattle- so soil $oisture increased.
) Foils slowly co$pacted #ecause o! the cattle- so soil $oisture decreased.
") Foils slowly #eca$e looser #ecause o! the cattle- so !ewer nutrients were recycled.
%) Foils slowly co$pacted #ecause o! the cattle- so soil $oisture increased.
&) Foils slowly #eca$e looser #ecause o! the cattle- so soil $oisture decreased.
Answer'
%i!!' (
)#*ective' 5.( iogeoche$ical cycles
5) The ranchers now wanted to #ring #ac. the prairie dogs #ecause they reali0ed that ________.
A) the prairie dogs .ept the soil loose- so rain san. in and grasses grew
) the prairie dogs didn+t eat grass
") the predators depended on the prairie dogs
%) the cattle also ate the prairie dogs when grass was scarce
&) the prairie dogs were part o! the net secondary productivity
Answer' A
%i!!' 3
)#*ective' 5.1 &arth+s environ$ental syste$s
15
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
=) In a previous chapter you read a#out H.eystone species.H 4ow do the prairie dogs in this story
$eet the de!inition o! a .eystone species1
A) They don+t $eet the de!inition o! a .eystone speciesB the syste$ did !ine without the$. The
predators turned to cattle- and the grasses did #etter in the co$pact soil.
) Their #urrows loosened the soil and served as ho$es !or other speciesB they helped with
nutrient recycling. They helped water sin. into the soil and .ept soil loose !or grassroots. /hen
they were re$oved- the syste$ deteriorated.
") The availa#ility o! prairie dogs .ept the predators in chec.B when they were re$oved- the
predator populations grew dra$atically. They .ept the soil aerated and co$pact.
%) /hen the prairie dogs were re$oved- the cattle declinedB this $eets the de!inition o! a
.eystone species.
&) Their #urrows caused cattle to #rea. their legs and die. This $ade the$ directly responsi#le
!or the wel!are o! another species- which $eets the de!inition o! a .eystone species.
Answer'
%i!!' 3
)#*ective' 5.1 &arth+s environ$ental syste$s
?) Fo$e o! the conclusions that can #e drawn !ro$ this scenario include that ________.
A) "attle i$proved the soils- contri#uting to this ecosyste$.
) 2redators were uni$portant co$ponents o! this ecosyste$B their re$oval caused no
su#se8uent pro#le$s.
") 2rairie dogs were uni$portant co$ponents o! this ecosyste$B their re$oval caused no
su#se8uent pro#le$s.
%) )nce hu$ans change one thing in an ecosyste$- they $ay !ind unexpected results occurring
elsewhere in the ecosyste$.
&) 2rairie dogs were part o! a negative !eed#ac. loop once they were re$oved.
Answer' %
%i!!' 3
)#*ective' 5.3 4u$an i$pacts on syste$s and cycles
1=
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.