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Magnetic Effect of Electric Current
Electromagnetic Effect
Similar to other effects; electric current also produces
magnetic effect. The magnetic effect of electric current is
known as electromagnetic effect.
It is observed that when a compass is brought near a
current carrying conductor the needle of compass gets
deflected because of flow of electricity. This shows that
electric current produces a magnetic effect.
Properties of magnet:
A free suspended magnet always point towards
north and south direction.
The pole of a magnet which points toward north
direction is called north pole or north seeking.
The pole of a magnet which points toward south
direction is called south pole or south seeking.
Like poles of magnets repel each other while
unlike poles of magnets attract each other.
Magnetic field and Field Lines
The influence of force surrounding a magnet is called
magnetic field. In the magnetic field, the force eerted by
a magnet can be detected using a compass or any other
magnet.
The imaginary lines of magnetic field around a magnet are
called field line or field line of magnet. !hen iron fillings
are allowed to settle around a bar magnet, they get
arranged in a pattern which mimicks the magnetic field
lines. "ield line of a magnet can also be detected using a
compass. #agnetic field is a vector $uantity, i.e. it has
both direction and magnitude.
%irection of "ield Line&' (utside the magnet, the direction
of magnetic field line is taken from north pole to South
)ole. Inside the magnet, the direction of magnetic field
line is taken from south pole to north pole.
Strength of magnetic field& The closeness of field lines
shows the relative strength of magnetic field, i.e. closer
lines show stronger magnetic field and vice'versa.
*rowded field lines near the poles of magnet show more
strength.
Magnetic field Due to a Current Carrying Conductor:
Magnetic field due to current through a straight
conductor:-
A current carrying straight conductor has magnetic field in
the form of concentric circles; around it. #agnetic field of
current carrying straight conductor can be shown by
magnetic field lines.
The direction of magnetic field through a current carrying
conductor depends upon the direction of flow of electric
current. The direction of magnetic field gets reversed in
case of a change in the direction of electric current.
Let a current carrying conductor be suspended vertically
and the electric current is flowing from south to north. In
this case, the direction of magnetic field will be
anticlockwise. If the current is flowing from north to
south, the direction of magnetic field will be clockwise.
Right Hand Thum Rule: The direction of magnetic
field; in relation to direction of electric current through a
straight conductor can be depicted by using the +ight
,and Thumb +ule. It is also known as Ma!"ell#s
Cor$scre" Rule%
If a current carrying conductor is held by right hand;
keeping the thumb straight and if the direction of electric
current is in the direction of thumb, then the direction of
wrapping of other fingers will show the direction of
magnetic field.
As per #awell-s corkscrew rule, if the direction of
forward movement of screw shows the direction of
current, then the direction of rotation of screw shows the
direction of magnetic field.
)roperties of #agnetic "ield&
The magnitude; of magnetic field increases with increase
in electric current and decreases with decrease in electric
current.
The magnitude of magnetic field; produced by electric
current; decreases with increase in distance and vice'versa.
The si.e of concentric circles of magnetic field lines
increases with distance from the conductor, which shows
that magnetic field decreases with distance.
#agnetic field lines are always parallel to each other.
/o two field lines cross each other.
#agnetic field due to current through a circular loop&
In case of a circular current carrying conductor, the
magnetic field is produced in the same manner as it is in
case of a straight current carrying conductor.
In case of a circular current carrying conductor, the
magnetic field lines would be in the form of concentric
circles around every part of the periphery of the conductor.
Since, magnetic field lines tend to remain closer when
near the conductor, so the magnetic field would be
stronger near the periphery of the loop. (n the other hand,
the magnetic field lines would be distant from each other
when we move towards the centre of the current carrying
loop. "inally; at the centre, the arcs of big circles would
appear as a straight lines.
The direction of magnetic field can be identified using
+ight ,and Thumb-s +ule. Let us assume that the current
is moving in anti'clockwise direction in the loop. In that
case, the magnetic field would be in clockwise direction;
at the top of the loop. #oreover, it would be in
anticlockwise direction at the bottom of the loop.
*lock "ace +ule& A current carrying loop works like a disc
magnet. The polarity of this magnet can be easily
understood with the help of clock face rule. If the current
is flowing in anti'clockwise direction, then the face of the
loop shows north pole. (n the other hand, if the current is
flowing in clockwise direction, then the face of the loop
shows south pole.
G_10_General Science
Page 1
&ame: ''''''''''''''''' Class ( )u: '''''''''''''''Date: '''''' Remar$: '''''''
PR*CT+CE *))+,&ME&T
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#agnetic field and number of turns of coil&
#agnitude of magnetic field gets summed up with
increase in the number of turns of coil. If there are 0n-
turns of coil, magnitude of magnetic field will be 0n- times
of magnetic field in case of a single turn of coil.
#agnetic "ield due to a current in a Solenoid&
Solenoid is the coil with many circular turns of insulated
copper wire wrapped closely in the shape of cylinder.
A current carrying solenoid produces similar pattern of
magnetic field as a bar magnet. (ne end of solenoid
behaves as the north pole and another end behaves as the
south pole. #agnetic field lines are parallel inside the
solenoid; similar to a bar magnet; which shows that
magnetic field is same at all points inside the solenoid.
1y producing a strong magnetic field inside the solenoid,
magnetic materials can be magneti.ed. #agnet formed by
producing magnetic field inside a solenoid is called
electromagnet.
Force on a current carrying conductor in a magnetic
field:
A current carrying conductor eerts a force when a magnet
is placed in its vicinity. Similarly, a magnet also eerts
e$ual and opposite force on the current carrying
conductor. This was suggested by #arie Ampere, a "rench
)hysicist and considered as founder of science of
electromagnetism.
The direction of force over the conductor gets reversed
with the change in direction of flow of electric current. It
is observed that the magnitude of force is highest when the
direction of current is at right angles to the magnetic field.
Fleming#s Left Hand Rule:-
If direction of electric current is perpendicular to the
magnetic field, the direction of force is also perpendicular
to both of them. The "leming-s Left ,and +ule states that
if the left hand is stretched in a way that the inde finger,
the middle finger and the thumb are in mutually
perpendicular directions; then the inde finger and middle
finger of a stretched left hand show the direction of
magnetic field and direction of electric current
respectively and the thumb shows the direction of motion
or force acting on the conductor. The directions of electric
current, magnetic field and force are similar to three
mutually perpendicular aes, i.e. , y and . aes.
#any devices, such as electric motor, electric generator,
loudspeaker, etc. works on the "leming-s left ,and +ule.
Electric Motor:-
2lectrical energy is converted into mechanical energy by
using an electric motor. 2lectric motor works on the basis
of rule suggested by #arie Ampere and "leming-s Left
,and +ule.
In an electric motor, a rectangular coil is suspended
between the two poles of a magnetic field. The electric
supply to the coil is connected with a commutator.
*ommutator is a device which reverses the direction of
flow of electric current through a circuit.
!hen electric current is supplied to the coil of electric
motor, it gets deflected because of magnetic field. As it
reaches the half way, the split ring which acts as
commutator reverses the direction of flow of electric
current. +eversal of direction of current reverses the
direction of forces acting on the coil. The change in
direction of force pushes the coil; and it moves another
half turn. Thus, the coil completes one rotation around the
ale. *ontinuation of this process keeps the motor in
rotation.
In commercial motor, electromagnet; instead of permanent
magnet; and armature is used. Armature is a soft iron core
with large number of conducting wire turns over it. Large
number of turns of conducting wire enhances the magnetic
field produced by armature.
2lectromagnetic Induction
#ichael "araday, an 2nglish )hysicist is supposed to have
studied the generation of electric current using magnetic
field and a conductor.
!hen a conductor is set to move inside a magnetic field or
a magnetic field is set to be changing around a conductor,
electric current is induced in the conductor. This is 3ust
opposite to the eertion of force by a current carrying
conductor inside a magnetic field. In other words, when a
conductor is brought in relative motion vis'4'vis a
magnetic field, a potential difference is induced in it. This
is known as electromagnetic induction.
2lectromagnetic induction can be eplained with the help
of "leming-s +ight ,and +ule. If the right hand is
stretched in a way that the inde finger, middle finger and
thumb are in mutually perpendicular directions, then the
thumb shows the direction of movement of the conductor,
inde finger shows the direction of magnetic field and the
middle finger shows the direction of induced current in the
conductor. The directions of movement of conductor,
magnetic field and induced current can be compared to
three mutually perpendicular aes, i.e. , y and . aes.
The mutually perpendicular directions also point to an
important fact that the when the magnetic field and
movement of conductor are perpendicular, the magnitude
of induced current would be maimum.
2lectromagnetic induction is used in the conversion of
kinetic energy into electrical energy.
2lectric generator&
The structure of electric generator is similar to that of an
electric motor. In case of an electric generator a
rectangular armature is placed within the magnetic field of
a permanent magnet. The armature is attached to wire and
is positioned in way that it can move around an ale.
!hen the armature moves within the magnetic field an
electric current is induced. The direction of induced
current changes, when the armature crosses the halfway
mark of its rotation. Thus, the direction of current changes
once in every rotation. %ue to this, the electric generator
usually produces alternate current, i.e. A*. To convert an
A* generator into a %* generator, a split ring commutator
is used. This helps in producing direct current.
A* and %* current&
A* 5 Alternate current&' *urrent in which direction is
changed periodically is called Alternate *urrent. In India,
most of the power stations generate alternate current. The
direction of current changes after every 67688 second in
India, i.e. the fre$uency of A* in India is 98 ,.. A* is
transmitted upto a long distance without much loss of
energy is advantage of A* over %*.
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%* 5 %irect current&' *urrent that flows in one direction
only is called %irect current. 2lectrochemical cells
produce direct current.
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NCERT Solutions
)olution of +n Te!t -uestions - part - .
:uestion& 6 ' !hy does a compass needle get deflected when
brought near a bar magnet;
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:uestion& = ' %raw magnetic field lines around a bar magnet.
:uestion& > &' List the properties of magnetic lines of force.
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:uestion& ? &' !hy don-t two magnetic lines of force intersect
each other;
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:uestion& 9 &' *onsider a circular loop of wire lying in the plane
of the table. Let the current pass through the loop clockwise.
Apply the right hand rule to find out the direction of the
magnetic field inside and outside the loop.
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:uestion& @ &' The magnetic field in a given region is uniform.
%raw a diagram to represent it.
:uestion& A &' *hoose the correct option.
The magnetic field inside a long straight solenoid'carrying
current
a. Is .ero.
b. %ecreases as we move towards its end.
c. Increases as we move towards its end.
d. Is the same at all points.
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:uestion& B &' !hich of the following property of a proton can
change while it moves freely in a magnetic field; CThere may be
more than one correct answerD
a. #ass
b. Speed
c. Eelocity
d. #omentum
2plain your answer&
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:uestion& F ' In Activity 6>.Aof the tet book, how do we think
the displacement of rod A1 will be affected if CiD current in rod
A1 is increased; CiiD a stronger horse'shoe magnet is used; and
CiiiD length of the rod A1 is increased;
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:uestion& 68 ' A positively'charged particle Calpha'particleD
pro3ected towards west is deflected towards north by a magnetic
field. The direction of magnetic field is
a. Towards south
b. Towards east
c. %ownward
d. Gpward
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:uestion& 66 &' State "leming-s Left ,and +ule.
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:uestion& 6= &' !hat is the principle of an electric motor;
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:uestion& 6> &' !hat is the role of a split ring in an electric
motor;
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:uestion& 6? ' 2plain different ways to induce current in a coil.
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:uestion& 69 ' State the principle of an electric generator.
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:uestion& 6@ ' /ame some sources of direct current.
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:uestion& 6A ' !hich sources produce alternating current;
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:uestion& 6B ' *hoose the correct option.
A rectangular coil of copper wires is rotated in a magnetic field.
The direction of the induced current changes once in each
a. two revolutions
b. one revolution
c. half revolution
d. one'fourth revolution
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:uestion& 6F ' /ame two safety measures commonly used in
electric circuits and appliances.
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:uestion& =8 ' An electric oven of = k! is operated in a domestic
electric circuit C==8 ED that has a current rating of 9 A. !hat
results do you epect; 2plain.
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:uestion& =6 ' !hat precaution should be taken to avoid the
overloading of domestic electric circuits;
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:uestion& 6&' !hich of the following correctly describes the
magnetic field near a long straight wire;
a. The field consists of straight lines perpendicular to the
wire.
b. The field consists of straight lines parallel to the wire.
c. The field consists of radial lines originating from the
wire.
d. The field consists of concentric circles centred on the
wire.
:uestion& = &' The phenomenon of electromagnetic induction is
a. The process of charging a body.
b. The process of generating magnetic field due to a
current passing through a coil.
c. )roducing induced current in a coil due to relative
motion between a magnet and the coil.
d. The process of rotating a coil of an electric motor.
:uestion& > &' The device used for producing electric current is
called a
a. Henerator.
b. Halvanometer.
c. Ammeter.
d. #otor.
:uestion& ? &' The essential difference between an A* generator
and a %* generator is that
a. A* generator has an electromagnet while a %*
generator has permanent magnet.
b. %* generator will generate a higher voltage.
c. A* generator will generate a higher voltage.
d. A* generator has slip rings while the %* generator has
a commutator.
:uestion& 9 &' At the time of short circuit, the current in the
circuit
a. +educes substantially.
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b. %oes not change.
c. Increases heavily.
d. Eary continuously.
:uestion& @ ' State whether the following statements are true or
false.
a. An electric motor converts mechanical energy into
electrical energy.
b. An electric generator works on the principle of
electromagnetic induction.
c. The field at the centre of a long circular coil carrying
current will be parallel straight lines.
d. A wire with a green insulation is usually the live wire
of an electric supply.
:uestion& A ' List three methods of producing magnetic fields.
:uestion& B ' ,ow does a solenoid behave like a magnet; *an
you determine the north and south poles of a current5carrying
solenoid with the help of a bar magnet; 2plain.
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:uestion& F ' !hen is the force eperienced by a current5
carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field largest;
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:uestion& 68 ' Imagine that you are sitting in a chamber with
your back to one wall. An electron beam, moving hori.ontally
from back wall towards the front wall, is deflected by a strong
magnetic field to your right side. !hat is the direction of
magnetic field;
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:uestion& 66 ' %raw a labelled diagram of an electric motor.
2plain its principle and working. !hat is the function of a split
ring in an electric motor;
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:uestion& 6= &' /ame some devices in which electric motors are
used.
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:uestion& 6> &' A coil of insulated copper wire is connected to a
galvanometer. !hat will happen if a bar magnet is CiD pushed
into the coil, CiiD withdrawn from inside the coil, CiiiD held
stationary inside the coil;
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:uestion& 6? &' Two circular coils A and 1 are placed close to
each other. If the current in the coil A is changed, will some
current be induced in the coil 1; Hive reason.
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:uestion& 69 &' State the rule to determine the direction of a CiD
magnetic field produced around a straight conductor'carrying
current, CiiD force eperienced by a current'carrying straight
conductor placed in a magnetic field which is perpendicular to it,
and CiiiD current induced in a coil due to its rotation in a magnetic
field.
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:uestion& 6@ ' 2plain the underlying principle and working of
an electric generator by drawing a labelled diagram. !hat is the
function of brushes;
Answer&
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:uestion& 6A ' !hen does an electric short circuit occur;
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:uestion& 6B ' !hat is the function of an earth wire; !hy is it
necessary to earth metallic appliances;
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:uestion& 6 &' *hoose the incorrect statement from the following
regarding magnetic lines of field
a. The direction of magnetic field at a point is taken to be
the direction in which the north pole of a magnetic
compass needle points
b. #agnetic field lines are closed curves
c. If magnetic field lines are parallel and e$uidistant, they
represent .ero field strength
d. +elative strength of magnetic field is shown by the
degree of closeness of the field lines
:uestion& = &' If the key in the arrangement C"igure 6>.6D is taken
out Cthe circuit is made openD and magnetic field lines are drawn
over the hori.ontal plane A1*%, the lines are
a. *oncentric circles
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b. 2lliptical in shape
c. Straight lines parallel to each other
d. *oncentric circles near the point ( but of elliptical
shapes as we go away from it
:uestion& > ' A circular loop placed in a plane perpendicular to
the plane of paper carries a current when the key is (/. The
current as seen from points A and 1 Cin the plane of paper and on
the ais of the coilD is anti clockwise and clockwise respectively.
The magnetic field lines point from 1 to A. The /'pole of the
resultant magnet is on the face close to
a. A
b. 1
c. A if the current is small, and 1 if the current is large
d. 1 if the current is small and A if the current is large
:uestion& ? ' "or a current in a long straight solenoid /' and S'
poles are created at the two ends. Among the following
statements, the incorrect statement is
a. The field lines inside the solenoid are in the form of
straight lines which indicates that the magnetic field is
the same at all points inside the solenoid
b. The strong magnetic field produced inside the solenoid
can be used to magnetise a piece of magnetic material
like soft iron, when placed inside the coil
c. The pattern of the magnetic field associated with the
solenoid is different from the pattern of the magnetic
field around a bar magnet
d. The /' and S'poles echange position when the
direction of current through the solenoid is reversed
2plain your answer
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:uestion& 9 &' *ommercial electric motors do not use
a. An electromagnet to rotate the armature
b. 2ffectively large number of turns of conducting wire in
the current carrying coil
c. A permanent magnet to rotate the armature
d. A soft iron core on which the coil is wound
:uestion& @ &' A uniform magnetic field eists in the plane of
paper pointing from left to right as shown in "igure 6>.>. In the
field an electron and a proton move as shown. The electron and
the proton eperience
a. "orces both pointing into the plane of paper
b. "orces both pointing out of the plane of paper
c. "orces pointing into the plane of paper and out of the
plane of paper, respectively
d. "orce pointing opposite and along the direction of the
uniform magnetic field respectively
:uestion& A &' In the arrangement shown in "igure 6>.? there are
two coils wound on a non'conducting cylindrical rod. Initially
the key is not inserted. Then the key is inserted and later
removed. Then
a. The deflection in the galvanometer remains .ero
throughout
b. There is a momentary deflection in the galvanometer
but it dies out shortly and there is no effect when the
key is removed
c. There are momentary galvanometer deflections that die
out shortly; the deflections are in the same direction
d. There are momentary galvanometer deflections that die
out shortly; the deflections are in opposite directions
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:uestion& B' *hoose the incorrect statement
a. "leming-s right'hand rule is a simple rule to know the
direction of induced current
b. The right'hand thumb rule is used to find the direction
of magnetic fields due to current carrying conductors
c. The difference between the direct and alternating
currents is that the direct current always flows in one
direction, whereas the alternating current reverses its
direction periodically
d. In India, the A* changes direction after every 6798
second
:uestion& F ' A constant current flows in a hori.ontal wire in the
plane of the paper from east to west as shown in "igure 6>.9. The
direction of magnetic field at a point will be /orth to South
a. %irectly above the wire
b. %irectly below the wire
c. At a point located in the plane of the paper, on the
north side of the wire
d. At a point located in the plane of the paper, on the
south side of the wire
:uestion& 68' The strength of magnetic field inside a long
current carrying straight solenoid is
a. #ore at the ends than at the centre
b. #inimum in the middle
c. Same at all points
d. "ound to increase from one end to the other
:uestion& 66 ' To convert an A* generator into %* generator
a. Split'ring type commutator must be used
b. Slip rings and brushes must be used
c. A stronger magnetic field has to be used
d. A rectangular wire loop has to be used
:uestion& 6=' The most important safety method used for
protecting home appliances from short circuiting or overloading
is
a. 2arthing
b. Gse of fuse
c. Gse of stabili.ers
d. Gse of electric meter
:uestion& 6> &' A magnetic compass needle is placed in the plane
of paper near point A as shown in "igure 6>.@. In which plane
should a straight current carrying conductor be placed so that it
passes through A and there is no change in the deflection of the
compass; Gnder what condition is the deflection maimum and
why;
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:uestion& 6?&' Gnder what conditions permanent electromagnet
is obtained if a current carrying solenoid is used; Support your
answer with the help of a labelled circuit diagram.
Answer&'
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:uestion& 69 &' A1 is a current carrying conductor in the plane of
the paper as shown in "igure 6>.A. !hat are the directions of
magnetic fields produced by it at points ) and :; Hiven r6 I r=,
where will the strength of the magnetic field be larger;
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:uestion& 6@ &' A magnetic compass shows a deflection when
placed near a current carrying wire. ,ow will the deflection of
the compass get affected if the current in the wire is increased;
Support your answer with a reason.
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:uestion& 6A ' It is established that an electric current through a
metallic conductor produces a magnetic field around it. Is there a
similar magnetic field produced around a thin beam of moving
CiD alpha particles, CiiD neutrons; Justify your answer.
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:uestion& 6B' !hat does the direction of thumb indicate in the
right'hand thumb rule. In what way this rule is different from
"leming-s left'hand rule;
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:uestion& 6F ' #eena draws magnetic field lines of field close to
the ais of a current carrying circular loop. As she moves away
from the centre of the circular loop she observes that the lines
keep on diverging. ,ow will you eplain her observation;
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:uestion& =8 ' !hat does the divergence of magnetic field lines
near the ends of a current carrying straight solenoid indicate;
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:uestion& =6 ' /ame four appliances wherein an electric motor, a
rotating device that converts electrical energy to mechanical
energy, is used as an important component. In what respect
motors are different from generators;
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:uestion& == ' !hat is the role of the two conducting stationary
brushes in a simple electric motor;
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:uestion& => ' !hat is the difference between a direct current
and an alternating current; ,ow many times does A* used in
India change direction in one second;
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:uestion& =? ' !hat is the role of fuse, used in series with any
electrical appliance; !hy should a fuse with defined rating not
be replaced by one with a larger rating;
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:uestion& =9&' !hy does a magnetic compass needle pointing
/orth and South in the absence of a nearby magnet get deflected
when a bar magnet or a current carrying loop is brought near it.
%escribe some salient features of magnetic lines of field concept.
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:uestion& =@ &' !ith the help of a labelled circuit diagram
illustrate the pattern of field lines of the magnetic field around a
current carrying straight long conducting wire. ,ow is the right
hand thumb rule useful to find direction of magnetic field
associated with a current carrying conductor;
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:uestion& =A &' 2plain with the help of a labelled diagram the
distribution of magnetic field due to a current through a circular
loop. !hy is it that if a current carrying coil has n turns the field
produced at any point is n times as large as that produced by a
single turn;
Answer& #agnetic "ield %ue to *ircular Loop *urrent'*arrying
*onductor& In case of a circular current carrying conductor, the
magnetic field lines would be in the form of concentric circles
around every part of the periphery of the conductor. Since,
magnetic field lines tend to remain closer when near the
conductor, so the magnetic field would be stronger near the
periphery of the loop. (n the other hand, the magnetic field lines
would be distant from each other when we move towards the
centre of the current carrying loop. "inally; at the centre, the arcs
of big circles would appear as a straight lines.
#agnetic field and number of turns of coil& #agnitude of
magnetic field gets summed up with increase in the number of
turns of coil. If there are 0n- turns of coil, magnitude of magnetic
field will be 0n- times of magnetic field in case of a single turn of
coil.
:uestion& =B &' %escribe the activity that shows that a current'
carrying conductor eperiences a force perpendicular to its
length and the eternal magnetic field. ,ow does "leming-s left'
hand rule help us to find the direction of the force acting on the
current carrying conductor;
Answer& Activity& To show the effect of magnetic field on
current'carrying conductor
#aterials +e$uired& "or this, we need to take a small aluminium
rod, a horse'shoe magnet, battery, plug key, wires and a stand.
)rocedure&
The aluminium rod is suspended hori.ontally from the
stand and tied to two wires at its ends. The wires are
attached to rheostat, battery and a plug key to make the
circuit.
The horse'shoe magnet is positioned in a way that the
aluminium rod lies between the two poles of the
magnet.
Let us assume that the south pole is above the
aluminium rod and the north pole is below it. The plug
key is inserted to initiate current supply to the rod.
It is observed that the aluminium rod deflects towards
left.
!hen the direction of the current is reversed the
aluminium rod deflects towards right.
1ased on above observations, it can be said that when a current
carrying conductor is placed within a magnetic field; the
conductor eperiences deflection. "leming-s Left ,and +ule
eplains the direction of displacement in this case. Let us assume
that the current is moving in anti'clockwise direction in the loop.
In that case, the magnetic field would be in clockwise direction;
at the top of the loop. #oreover, it would be in anticlockwise
direction at the bottom of the loop.
:uestion& =F ' %raw a labelled circuit diagram of a simple
electric motor and eplain its working. In what way these simple
electric motors are diffferent from commercial motors;
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Answer& !orking of 2lectric #otor&'
2lectrical energy is converted into mechanical energy by using
an electric motor. 2lectric motor works on the basis of rule
suggested by #arie Ampere and "leming-s Left ,and +ule.
In an electric motor, a rectangular coil is suspended between the
two poles of a magnetic field. The electric supply to the coil is
connected with a commutator. *ommutator is a device which
reverses the direction of flow of electric current through a circuit.
!hen electric current is supplied to the coil of electric motor, it
gets deflected because of magnetic field. As it reaches the half
way, the split ring which acts as commutator reverses the
direction of flow of electric current. +eversal of direction of
current reverses the direction of forces acting on the coil. The
change in direction of force pushes the coil; and it moves another
half turn. Thus, the coil completes one rotation around the ale.
*ontinuation of this process keeps the motor in rotation.
In commercial motor, electromagnet; instead of permanent
magnet; and armature is used. Armature is a soft iron core with
large number of conducting wire turns over it. Large number of
turns of conducting wire enhances the magnetic field produced
by armature.
:uestion& >8 &' 2plain the phenomenon of electromagnetic
induction. %escribe an eperiment to show that a current is set up
in a closed loop when an eternal magnetic field passing through
the loop increases or decreases.
Answer& 2lectromagnetic Induction& !hen a conductor is set to
move inside a magnetic field or a magnetic field is set to be
changing around a conductor, electric current is induced in the
conductor. This is 3ust opposite to the eertion of force by a
current carrying conductor inside a magnetic field. In other
words, when a conductor is brought in relative motion vis'4'vis a
magnetic field, a potential difference is induced in it. This is
known as electromagnetic induction.
Activity&' %emonstrating electromagnetic induction
#aterials +e$uired& "or this, take a galvanometer, coil, bar
magnet and some wires.
)rocedure&'
The coil is inserted over a hollow tube of cardboard.
!ith the help of wires, the two ends of the coil are
attached to the galvanometer.
The north pole of the bar magnet is moved towards the
end 01- of the coil.
It is observed that the galvanometer needle shows
deflection to right.
!hen the magnet is moved away from the coil, the
galvanometer needle shows deflection towards left.
!hen the magnet is in static position, no deflection is
seen in galvanometer needle.
Induction of electric current in the coil is the cause of
deflection in galvanometer needle.
If the magnet is kept stationary and coil is moved; then
also the galvanometer needle shows deflection.
It can be concluded that when the coil and the bar magnet are in
relative motion, a current is induced in the coil.
:uestion& >6 ' %escribe the working of an A* generator with the
help of a labeled circuit diagram. !hat changes must be made in
the arrangement to convert it to a %* generator;
Answer&
The structure of electric generator is similar to that of an electric
motor. In case of an electric generator a rectangular armature is
placed within the magnetic field of a permanent magnet. The
armature is attached to wire and is positioned in way that it can
move around an ale. !hen the armature moves within the
magnetic field an electric current is induced.
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The direction of induced current changes, when the armature
crosses the halfway mark of its rotation. Thus, the direction of
current changes once in every rotation. %ue to this, the electric
generator usually produces alternate current, i.e. A*.
To convert an A* generator into a %* generator, a split ring
commutator is used. This helps in producing direct current.
:uestion& >= ' %raw an appropriate schematic diagram showing
common domestic circuits and discuss the importance of fuse.
!hy is it that a burnt out fuse should be replaced by another fuse
of identical rating;
Answer&
Importance of "use& The electric fuse is an important device in
household wiring and also in many electrical appliances. 1y
melting, the fuse wire breaks the circuit and thus helps in saving
the wiring or the appliance from damage.
A fuse wire works because of its lower melting point which is
possible because of its respective rating. If a fuse with larger
rating is used with an appliance, the fuse wire shall not melt and
hence would fail to serve the re$uired purpose. %ue to this, a
fuse with defined rating should not be replaced by one with a
larger rating.
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